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Sample records for maize grain yield

  1. Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield

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    Živanovi? Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that occurs in inbreds during inbreeding. The highest average value of heterosis for gain yield was detected in the hybrid ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 (123.0% and 178.1% in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The estimation of combining abilities was done on the basis of diallel hybrids after the method established by Griffing, 1956 (method II, mathematical model I. The analysis of variance of combining ability for grain yield indicated highly significant values of GCA and SCA for the observed trait in both study years. Grain yield inheritance was more affected by non-additive genes (dominance and epistasis as indicated by the GCA to SCA ratio that was smaller than unity. The inbreds ZPLB401 and ZPLB406 had high GCA effects, while the hybrid combinations ZPLB40Î x ZPLB402, ZPLB401 x ZPLB403, ZPLB401 x ZPLB405, ZPLB402 x ZPLB406, ZPLB403 x ZPLB406, ZPLB404 x ZPLB406, ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 had high SCA effects in both study years. These hybrid combinations include one parent with high GCA effects and other with low GCA effects. Furthermore, there are combinations ZPLB402 x ZPLB405, ZPLB403 x ZPLB405 and ZPLB404 x ZPLB405 with significant SCA effects that include parents with low GCA effects. This is probably the result of the additive type (additive x additive of interaction between parents.

  2. Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Muhammad Bashir Alvi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between grain yield and its components were determined by genotypic correlation and path co-efficient analysis in eighteen maize lines/hybrids. The results indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with all parameters studied. The results also showed that number of kernels row?1 has maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1. Ear height had negative direct effect on grain yield. It was concluded that number of kernels row?1, 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1 were the main yield components.

  3. DISTRIBUITION AND POPULATION OF PLANTS AND MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

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    DURVAL DOURADO NETO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the effect of plant population (30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha-1, under two width rows (0.40 and 0.80 m, on the grain yield of three maize genotypes with open (AG 1051, semi-erect (AG 7575 and erect (DKB 911 leaf architecture, a field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil between November 20th, 2000 and April 10th, 2001. According to the results: a in high population (90,000 plants ha-1, the reduction of width row (from 0.80 m to 0.40 m increases grain yield on the open-leaf-architecture genotype, and b, until 60,000 plants ha-1, regardless of genotype, the grain yield is crescent with an increase in plant population. With the plant population increasing from 60,000 to 90,000 plants ha-1, the grain yield: a increases in the erect-leaf-architecture genotype, b stabilizes on the semi-erect-leaf-architecture genotype, c stabilizes under reduced spacing (0.40 m, and decreases under spacing of 0.80 m in the open-leaf-architecture genotype.

  4. RESPONSIVENESS OF OBAATANPA MAIZE GRAIN YIELD AND BIOMASS TO SOIL, WEATHER AND CROP GENETIC VARIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Atakora K.; Fosu Mathias; Yeboah, Safo E.; Henry, Tuffour O.; Francis, Tetteh M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT) are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES) -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development ...

  5. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  6. Grain yield stability of single cross maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids over three different environments

    OpenAIRE

    S. Arulselvi and B. Selvi

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the grain yield performance of seventy two single cross maize hybrids, theirnine parents and one commercial check across three seasons (Summer, Kharif and Rabi) of the year 2006 at the Departmentof Millets, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The design lay out was a randomized blocks design with threereplications. The additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis indicated that the grain yieldperformance of maize...

  7. Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

  8. Correlation study for Protein Content, Grain yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi V. Mural*, Chikkalingaiah And Shailaja Hittalmani

    2012-01-01

    Seventy Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.) hybrids were grown in duplicate randomized complete block design forcharacter association study to assess the relationship among total grain protein content, grain yield and its components. Totalgrain protein showed significant correlation with plant height and ear height. Character association analysis revealed strongpositive association of Grain yield per plant with plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per cob, ker...

  9. RESPONSIVENESS OF OBAATANPA MAIZE GRAIN YIELD AND BIOMASS TO SOIL, WEATHER AND CROP GENETIC VARIATIONS

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    Atakora K. Williams

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development as well as data on soil and weather was collected from field on-station experiment conducted during the 2010 growing season at Kpalesawgu, Tamale-Ghana. Twenty on-farm experiments were also conducted in the Tolon-Kunbungu and Tamale Metropolitan districts in Northern Ghana to determine the responsiveness of maize grain yield and biomass to soil, weather and crop genetic variations. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. Data on phenology, grain yield and biomass from the field experiment were used for model validation and simulations. Validation results showed good agreement between predicted and measured yields with a Normalized Random Square mean Error (NRSME value of 0.181. Results of these sensitivity analysis results showed that the DSSAT model is highly sensitive to changes in weather variables such as daily maximum and minimum temperatures as well as solar radiation, however, the model was found to be least sensitive to rainfall.  The model also found to be sensitive to crop genetic and soil variations. Model predictions of the responsiveness of the yield and biomass to changes in soil, weather and crop genetic coefficients were found to be good with an r2 values between 0.95 to 0.99 except when predicting maize grain yield using changes in minimum temperature with an r2 value of 0.8577.

  10. Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates

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    Darko Grbeša

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L. grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002 maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400. Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May and delayed (about two weeks later sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

  11. EFFECT OF GRAY LEAF SPOT ON SECOND-SEASON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD IN SÃO PAULO STATE

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    GISÈLE MARIA FANTIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot is an important maize disease in São Paulo State. Due to its relevance, the effect of this disease on maize grain yield was studied during the 2004 to 2008 autumn-winter seasons. Experiments were carried out to evaluate corn cultivars, comprising 44 to 60 simple and triple hybrids, being 19 trials in 2004, 15 in 2005, 16 in 2006, 16 in 2007 and 15 in 2008. The evaluations of disease severity were done at the kernel dough stage, ascribing notes 1 to 9 (for 0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and more than 75% affected leaf area, respectively. Significant negative correlation between gray leaf spot severity and grain yield was detected in 16 of the 35 trials where the disease occurred. In order to quantify the effect of gray leaf spot on yield of these 16 trials, attempting to minimize the dispersion caused by differences of yield potential, cultivars tolerance to the disease and other factors, cultivars were grouped into categories of disease intensity based on the Scott-Knott test at 5%, and means for severity and yield were calculated for each category. The adjustment of linear equations to these data allowed to estimate the yield reduction as a function of disease severity, for the intervals studied in each trial, that was on average 238 kg ha-1 (4% with note 2, 634 kg ha-1 (11% with note 3, 1006 kg ha-1 (17% with note 4 and 1574 kg ha-1 with note 5, in relation to the groups with greatest gray leaf spot resistance which showed mean note 1.4 and mean grain yield 5655 kg ha-1. These results indicate that even with low disease severity a significant maize yield loss can be observed, demonstrating the importance of the use of genetic resistance in the control of gray leaf spot and to reduce losses in maize grain yield.

  12. Recurrent Selection for Maydis Leaf Blight Resistance and Grain Yield Improvement in Maize

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    S. Salim Shah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L., caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. and Miyake, is one of the major factors limiting maize production in the plain areas of Pakistan, particularly in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP. The objectives of this study were to estimate selection differential, expected and observed response to selection and heritability for maydis leaf blight resistance and grain yield and to determine progress from selection in a maize population. Two cycles of S1 recurrent selection were conducted in broad based maize population, Sarhad White (SW. One hundred S1 lines were compared with their respective original population (C0 as a check. The experimental material was evaluated under artificial epiphytotics during 2003 and 2004, at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Selection differentials, expected responses and heritability estimates were determined from the replicated S1 lines performance of the first cycle. The observed progress was estimated from the replicated S1 lines of the second cycle that were generated after recombination of selected S1 lines of the first cycle. Highly significant variations between the cycles were observed for MLB and grain yield. Moderate and high heritability estimates, desirable selection differentials and close correspondence of expected and observed response were manifested for MLB and grain yield. The positive percent deviation of inoculated from uninoculated trials in both cycles (C1 = 71% and C2 = 41% for leaf blight indicated successful development of blight disease after artificial inoculation, while the negative percent deviation of inoculated form uninoculated trials (C1 = -21 and C2 = -6% for grain yield indicated the impact of blight disease on grain yield. Blight disease was significantly reduced from 2.9 to 2.3, whereas, grain yield was significantly increased from 2041 kg ha-1 cycle-1 to 2527 kg ha-1 cycle-1 or 19% cycle-1. This yield improvement in SW was probably the result of concomitant reduction in the blight disease severity by -26%. These findings suggested that S1 recurrent selection was quite effective in improving disease resistance and grain yield. Nevertheless, some additional cycles of selection may be required to further improving grain yield and resistance level to maydis leaf blight in SW maize population.

  13. TILLERING AND PROLIFICACyAS STABILIZING TRAITS TO MAIZE GRAIN yIELD AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES

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    LUÍS SANGOI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that increase the number of ears produced per plant can minimize losses in maize grain yield caused by low plant populations. This study was carried out aiming to evaluate if tillering and prolificacy are effective traits to stabilize maize grain yield at different plant populations. The trial was set in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, during the growing season of 2007/08. Four plant densities (2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 pl m-2 and three maize hybrids (P30F53 - tillering; AG9020 - prolific; AS1570, scarce tillering and low prolificacy were tested. The leaf area index of hybrids at flowering increased linearly from 2.6 to 6.9 with the increase in plant population. Grain yield ranged from 10,750 to 13,740 kg ha-1 and increased quadratically with the increment in plant population. P30F53 was more productive than AG9020 at the density of 5.0 pl m-2. There was no difference on hybrids grain yield at the other plant populations. The higher tillering ability of P30F53 and prolificacy of AG9020 did not provide them yield advantages, in comparison to AS1570, when maize was grown at the lowest plant population. The regular distribution of pluvial precipitation and the favorable soil and management conditions attenuated yield losses caused by low plant populations, reducingthe importance of tillering and prolificacy as productivity stabilizing traits at sub-optimal stands.

  14. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

    OpenAIRE

    Amir José Klein Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves Ferreira; Ronald José Barth Pinto; Claudete Aparecida Mangolin; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were i...

  15. EVALUATION OF SEVERITY OF GRAY LEAF SPOT AND GRAIN YIELD IN COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS

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    ANDRÉ HUMBERTO DE BRITO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the severity of Gray Leaf Spot and grain yield in commercial maize hybrids and determining the best time to evaluate the disease, two experiments were carried out in two sowing seasons (two planted on 11/11/2005, and other two planted on 12/23/2005 at Lavras Federal University - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Eight evaluations of disease severity based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-days intervals from the 60th day after maize emergence (DAE, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and grain yield per plot was also obtained and so the correlation between severity of the disease in each evaluation season and the estimates of the AUDPC were supported by the data. Considering the data of the AUDPC, it was observed that the most resistant hybrids to Cercospora zeae-maydis were P 30K75, P 30F87, AG 7000, and DKB 350, while the most susceptible were AG 9020, DKB 214, and P 30F44. The most susceptible hybrids to Gray Leaf Spot are not necessarily those with lowest grain yield. The disease severity evaluation between 88 and 109 DAE is efficient to discriminate the level of resistance of the hybrids and the results are similar to those obtained by the AUDPC.

  16. Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

  17. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

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    Božinovi? Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  18. Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions

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    Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-dominance type of gene action for protein content, osmotic potential, stomata size and grain yield per plant under normal condition also remained unchanged under water stress whereas additive type of gene action for stomatal frequency under normal changed to over-dominance type of gene action under water stress.

  19. Transgenic alteration of ethylene biosynthesis increases grain yield in maize under field drought-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habben, Jeffrey E; Bao, Xiaoming; Bate, Nicholas J; DeBruin, Jason L; Dolan, Dennis; Hasegawa, Darren; Helentjaris, Timothy G; Lafitte, Renee H; Lovan, Nina; Mo, Hua; Reimann, Kellie; Schussler, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    A transgenic gene-silencing approach was used to modulate the levels of ethylene biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) and determine its effect on grain yield under drought stress in a comprehensive set of field trials. Commercially relevant transgenic events were created with down-regulated ACC synthases (ACSs), enzymes that catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. These events had ethylene emission levels reduced approximately 50% compared with nontransgenic nulls. Multiple, independent transgenic hybrids and controls were tested in field trials at managed drought-stress and rain-fed locations throughout the US. Analysis of yield data indicated that transgenic events had significantly increased grain yield over the null comparators, with the best event having a 0.58 Mg/ha (9.3 bushel/acre) increase after a flowering period drought stress. A (genotype × transgene) × environment interaction existed among the events, highlighting the need to better understand the context in which the down-regulation of ACSs functions in maize. Analysis of secondary traits showed that there was a consistent decrease in the anthesis-silking interval and a concomitant increase in kernel number/ear in transgene-positive events versus nulls. Selected events were also field tested under a low-nitrogen treatment, and the best event was found to have a significant 0.44 Mg/ha (7.1 bushel/acre) yield increase. This set of extensive field evaluations demonstrated that down-regulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway can improve the grain yield of maize under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:24618117

  20. The Genetic Architecture of Grain Yield and Related Traits in Zea maize L. Revealed by Comparing Intermated and Conventional Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yung-fen; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Vale?rie; Ky, Chin Long; Coubriche, Denis; Jamin, Philippe; Jouanne, Sophie; Dumas, Fabrice; Bouty, Ellen; Bertin, Pascal; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F3 population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F3 population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. The confidence interval aro...

  1. The Effects of Weeding Regimes and Maize Planting Density on Quantity of Management and Grain Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of four weeding regimes: weed free, herbicide use, two times hand cultivation at week three and eight after emergency and any two planting densities: Low planting density of 10 plants per m2, high planting density of 21 plants per m2 were evaluated on maize H511. A 4x2 factorial blocked design was used. Thinning done at 112 DAP interaction effect was not significant; weeding regime was significant while planting density was highly significant. Herbicide use regime had highest mean dry matter yield of thinnings of 13.82 t/ha. High planting density showed the highest mean dry matter yield of thinning of 15.2 t/ha while low planting density showed the lowest of 8.7 t/ha. The treatment interaction on stover dry matter was not significant, while planting density and weeding regimes were significant. Two times hand cultivation gave the highest stover dry matter forage yield of 19.4 t/ha while weedy regime gave the least yield of 10.2t/ha. Low planting density which gave 11.1 t/ha. Hand cultivation-2 times had the highest grain dry matter yield of 5.03t/ha, while weedy regime had the least of 1.93t/ha. Low planting density had the highest grain dry matter yield of 4.9t/ha, while high planting density had the least yield of 2.4t/ha

  2. VARIATION ON MAIZE GREEN EARS AND GRAIN YIELD IN RESPONSE TO WEED COMPETITION

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    PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify whether maize cultivars behave differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars AG 405, AG 2060, BA 8517, BA 9513, DKB 435 and EX 6005, applied to the plots, underwent the following treatments: without weeding and two weedings (22 and 41 days after planting. Only ten weed species were found in the experiment, many of which were gramineae. There was no difference among cultivars in relation to the number of weeds m-2. The number of weeds in the weeded plots (70.0 m-2 was superior to the one of the no-weeded plots (32.8 m-2. The cultivars only differed in grain yield when the weeds were controlled, with BA 8517 cultivar standing out as being superior. Therefore, the cultivars presented different reductions in grain yield with the presence of weeds suggesting that some (AG 405, BA 9513 and EX 6005 are more competitive than others against weeds. The weeds reduced green ears yield, in addition to 16 of the 26 evaluated characteristics, including some traits of the stalk, leaves, tassel, ear and grain.

  3. Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources on The Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

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    M. Ayub

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different NP sources viz., urea + single super phosphate (SSP, Ammonium nitrate (AN + SSP, ammonium sulphate (AS + SSP, Urea + Triple super phosphate (TSP, AN + TSP and AS + TSP on the growth and grain yield of maize was studied in the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. A quadruplicated experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design measuring a net plot size of 3m x 8m. The combination of ammonium sulphate and single super phosphate produced significantly higher plant height, leaf area plant-1 and grain yield (5.41 t ha-1 than all other combinations. The increased yield was mainly associated with higher 1000-grain weight. Number of cobs plant-1 and number of grain rows cob-1 were statistically sigmilar in all combinations of NP sources. The combination of AS + SSP sems to be the most suitable one for obtaining higher grain yield of maize in Faisalabad conditions.

  4. Genetics of ear traits and grain yield in quality protein maize (Zea mays L.

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    V.K. Agrawal*, R.M. Singh, J.P. Shahi and R.K. Agrawal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hayman’s component analysis was employed to ascertain the gene actions conditioning the ear related traits viz., ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per ear, kernels per row and grain yield per plant in quality protein maize. Eight yellow seeded quality protein maize (QPM inbred lines were crossed in diallel mating design, including reciprocals. The inbreds and their 56 crosses were evaluated in randomized block design with 3 replications across the three environments. Significant differences among genotypes observed for all the traits over the environments. Influence of epistasis found for all the traits in one or more seasons except ear length. Ear length exhibited importance of additive gene effects across the seasons. Over-dominance showed in all the characters. The range of narrow sense heritability was low over the environments for most of the traits i.e. for ear length (15.1-19.3%, ear diameter (12.1-17.7%, kernels per row (23.6-30.5% and grain yield per plant (13.6-19.5% whereas kernel rows per ear exhibited moderate narrow sense heritability ranging from 44.3-66.5% over the environments. In general, narrow sense heritability estimates were higher in rabi environment as compared to kharif environment

  5. Grain yield stability of single cross maize (Zea mays L. hybrids over three different environments

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    S. Arulselvi and B. Selvi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to determine the grain yield performance of seventy two single cross maize hybrids, theirnine parents and one commercial check across three seasons (Summer, Kharif and Rabi of the year 2006 at the Departmentof Millets, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The design lay out was a randomized blocks design with threereplications. The additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI analysis indicated that the grain yieldperformance of maize genotypes were mainly due to genotypes and environmental interaction. The first two principalcomponent axis (IPCA I and IPCA II were significant (p<0.01 and cumulatively contributed to entire degrees of freedomavailable for interaction component. The biplot 1 and 2 were constructed using genotype and environmental mean andscores. Among parents, UMI 432 was found to be higher yielder and stable across environments. The single crosses namelyUMI 79 x UMI 176, UMI 79 x UMI 57, UMI 79 x UMI 936 (w, UMI 79 x UMI 285, UMI 176 x UMI 102, UMI 176 x UMI936 (w, UMI 432 x UMI 176, UMI 467 x UMI 57 and UMI 57 x UMI 102 were identified as stable yielder acrossenvironments in addition to higher yield. These hybrids can be recommended for all the three seasons for cultivation.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Correlation for Grain Yield and Quality Traits in Local Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Sali ALIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity and correlation analysis among yield and quality traits in 20 local maize populations. The study of variation included the quantity of grain yield, and quality traits such as protein, oil and starch content in grain. Results showed that there were significant differences among the populations. The mean grain yield of all populations was 79.33 g plant-1 and the highest in ?GBK-7? (105.13 g plant-1. Protein and oil contents ranged between 11.02 to 13.02% and 2.56 to 5.57%, respectively and starch content varied from 68.58 to 70.92%. First two canonical discriminant functions were significant and the relevance of the first two discriminant functions justifying 95.80% variability among populations. There were also big differences regarding phenotypic correlations. Study suggests that the quality traits are phenotypically and genotypically highly variable and therefore very useful for breeding program.

  7. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

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    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  8. Growth Indices and Grain Yield Attributes in Six Maize Cultivars Representing Two Era of Maize Breeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folusho Anuoluwapo Adebo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth parameters such as seedling germination attributes, crop growth rate (CGR, relative growth rate (RGR,net assimilation rate (NAR and leaf area ratio (LAR as well as yield parameters were investigated in six maizecultivars representing two era of maize breeding in Nigeria during the 2005 late and 2006 early cropping seasons.Differences between maize breeding era were significant for seedling emergence (E % and emergence index (EIwhile genotypes within a particular breeding era (G/E differed significantly for E% and emergence rate index(ERI. Seasonal (S variation in seedling parameters was also significant for E % and ERI with a 15% higherseedling emergence in 2006 early season. CGR in the genotypes in breeding era 1 was higher by seven percent(7% during vegetative growth phase but lower by 14% at flowering phase compared to genotypes in breedingera 2. NAR on the other hand was consistently higher in varieties developed in 1970’s by 15.2 and 13.8%compared to varieties developed in 1990’s. Regardless of the breeding era, varieties with higher values for LARat flowering (except var. TZPB-SR were higher yielding than those with lower LAR. Overall, varietiesdeveloped in era 2 were superior to those developed in era 1 for E% and also had six percent (6% higher valuesfor LAR at vegetative growth phase than those developed in era 1 but decreased by two percent (2% atflowering phase. E% in the genotypes ranged from 48.56 in ACR 9943 DMRSR to 79.33 in ACR99TZLCOMP4 DMRSR, while EI and ERI ranged from 0.86 and 0.010 in TZB-SR to 0.96 and 0.014 in ACR 97 TZLCOMP1-W. Grain yield was significantly higher in 2006 early cropping season by 0.3t/ha-1 translating to14.78% than in late season and it ranged from 1.64t/ha-1 in TZPB-SR (era 1 to 2.94t/ha-1 inACR99TZLCOMP4DMRSR (era 2. Var. ACR99TZL COMP4DMRSR with the lowest values for CGR, RGRand NAR at vegetative phase had the highest grain yield (2.94t/ha-1 indicating that genotypic superiority forgrain yield is not particularly related to differences in any of these traits but rather dependent on the inherentgenetic potential of the varieties themselves.

  9. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir José Klein Werle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

  10. The genetics of environmental variation of dry matter grain yield in maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2012-01-01

    Dry matter grain yield per plot from three genetically homogeneous single-cross maize hybrids were analysed to investigate whether environmental variance depends on genotype. Three genotypes were tested at 20 locations in 3 years. The data were analysed using a non-parametric approach and fully parametric Bayesian models. Both analyses reveal effects of genotype on environmental variation. The Bayesian analyses indicate that genotype by location-year interactions are the most important effects acting at the level of the mean. The best-fitting Bayesian model is one postulating genotype by location-year interactions acting on the mean and main effects of genotype and of location-year on the variance. Despite the detection of genotypic effects acting on the variance, location-year effects constitute the biggest relative source of variance heterogeneity

  11. Effects of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Time of Tasselling, Time of Silking and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays

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    Enujeke, E. C. and Ojeifo, I. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from August to December in 2005 and repeated between March and July, 2006 to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays to liquid organic fertilizer. The study was conducted using a split plot fitted into randomized complete block design. Liquid organic fertilizer was diluted at the rate of 60 ml of the product to 15 litres of water and applied to maize foliage, topsoil, foliage and topsoil at the rates of 5l/ha, 10l/ha, 151/ha, l8l/ha, 201/ha and 251/ha. The result obtained indicated a positive influence of liquid organic fertilizer on time of tasselling, time of silking and grain yield of maize. Liquid organic fertilizer significantly reduced the times of tasselling and silking, and increased grain yield of maize. Based on this study, it is recommended that 151/ha of liquid organic fertilizer which produced 5.6tha’ in 2005 and 6.1tha’ of dry grain yield 2006 be applied on the topsoil of maize plant with a view to maximally exploit the great economic potentials of the crop.

  12. Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids

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    F. Nzuve

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maize is an important staple crop for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa. The crop grows in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study was performed to analyze the genotype-by-environment (G×E interaction for grain yield of fourty two single cross hybrids grown in three environments located at different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. The maize genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2006 and 2007. Grain yield data of the single cross hybrids was analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and GGE biplot methods. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI analysis of variance (additive main effects showed significant effects for genotypes, environment and the genotype by environment interaction. The total proportion contributed by environment and G x E interaction accounted for 78% and 10% of the total variation. The results also showed that 64.5% of the total variation was contributed by the environment while the genotype and interaction was associated with 20.7% and 10.3% of the total variation, respectively. The most stable genotype in the high yielding group in this study was CML312/TZMI 711 (X20, followed by genotypes TZMI 102/CML384 (designated as X33, and CML312/TZMI 712 (X21. The genotype CML312/TZMI 711 (designated as X20 could be used for broad selection since it was found to be the most ideal genotypes with both high mean yield and high stability. In the biplot analysis, X20 was also close to the origin, had the shortest vector from the ATC and with large PC1 scores (high mean yield and small (absolute PC2 scores (high stability implying it had the least contribution to genotype by environment interaction (GEI. Through the stability analysis, the superior genotypes identified could also be used as references for genotype evaluation and also included in further testing in both early and later stages of selection.

  13. Evaluation of Interrelationship of Growth Indices and Grain Yield of Five Maize Hybrids under Two Irrigation Regimes in Isfahan

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    P. Ehsanzadeh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining interrelationship of growth analysis factors and yield of crop plants is important in the field crop production practices. This research was aimed at studying growth factors and grain yield of five maize hybrids, consisting of S.C.704, S.C.700, S.C.647, S.C.604, and S.C.301, using two 4-replicate RCBD experiments in Isfahan, in Summer 2004. While one experiment was irrigated normally, the other one was conducted under delayed irrigation conditions. Maize plants were seeded at 95000 plants/ha in 8-row plots, with rows spaced 0.70m apart and 0.15m distance between plants on each row. Delayed irrigation led to a significant decrease in LAImax, LAD, LADLinear and LADs-m, but a significant increase in days to silking. While CGRLinear significantly correlated with LAImax, LAD, LADLinear and LADs-m, a significant correlation was observed between total biomass and grain yield. CGRLinear, LAImax, and LADs-m significantly correlated with total biomass, and grain yield significantly correlated with yield components, harvest index, CGRLinear and LAImax. In conclusion, an increase in LAImax resulted in a higher CGRLinear and in turn a greater total biomass. But, considering no significant correlation between total biomass and harvest index, it appears that with the genotypes and under conditions of the present study, allocation of dry matter to grain production did not correlate with the leaf area attributes of corn.

  14. Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nosratti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that received nicosulfuron had significantly higher maize grain yield than other two SU herbicides. At Double Row (DR planting pattern, all the treatments controlled weeds more effectively than at Single Row (SR planting pattern and increased maize grain yield by mean of 1.0 t haG1. At both planting patterns herbicidal mixture of atrazine and alachlor was the best treatment in controlling weeds. The hoe weeded control and all herbicidal treatments had lower weed dry matter than the untreated control at crop harvest period. In addition the lowest weed dry matter was obtained from the hoe weeded control. Results of this study revealed that nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron were the best and the weakest SU herbicide at both planting patterns, respectively.

  15. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

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    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  16. Genetic Variation for Grain Yield of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Sole and Maize/Bean Intercropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu Balcha

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown in both sole and maize/bean intercrop systems in Ethiopia. Increasing bean yield partly requires developing cultivars that are adapted to both cropping systems. An experiment was carried out using 20 common bean genotypes in sole and maize/bean intercrop during 2012 main cropping season in Dilla, Ethiopia, to investigate genetic variances and broad-sense heritabilities and to estimate correlation coefficients for grain yield and yield related trait...

  17. Effect of Plant Density on Some Growth Indexes, Radiation Interception and Grain Yield in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mehdi Dehdashti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of different row spacing and density of corn on Radiation Interception (RI, Total Day Weight (TDW, Leaf Area Index (LAI, Next Assimilation Rate (NAR, Crop Growth Rate (CGR and grain yield. The experiment was conducted in the field at research station of Isfahan, Iran on loamy clay to compare row spacing and to determine optimum plant density for maize hybrid K704. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Plot treatments were row spacing (60, 75 and 90 cm. Split-plot treatments were within-row spacing (12, 14, 16 and 18 cm. An increase of PP from 10.5 to 13.9 plants m2 increased LAI, TDW, CGR, RI and grain yield on average by 0.205 m, 48.4 g m1, 1.14 g m2 day1, 0.89% and 222.7 kg ha1 for each 1 plant per m2 added .but decreased NAR by 0.205 g m2 day1 for each 1 plant per m2 added. Moreover, when row spacing was reduced, RI, TDW, LAI, CGR and grain yield increased. But by reducing row spacing, NAR was decreased. The results show that the row spacing 60 cm, within-row spacing 12 cm and density 11.9 plant m2 for conditions of Isfahan is suitable for maize hybrid K704.

  18. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMUNDO NONATO CARVALHO ROCHA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010 and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S; 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 4th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 8th leaf stage and 20% at S, 40% at 4th leaf stage and 40% at 8th leaf stage. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with four replications in split-plot design, being maize hybrids the plot and portioning of nitrogen fertilization the split. Determinations of the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index, evaluated with the chlorophyll meter, leaf nitrogen content, and grain yield were done. The chlorophyll meter readings were efficient to provide early diagnose of nitrogen content at the fourth tally expanded leaf of maize cultivars AG9010 (super-early cycle and P32R21 (early cycle. Concerning the hybrid DKB333B (normal cycle there was no correlation between chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD index and nitrogen content on the fourth fully expanded leaf.

  19. Influence of undersowing perennial forages in maize on grain, fodder yield and soil properties in the sub-humid region of western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen, Abubeker; Gizachew, L.; Rethman, N.F.G.; Van Niekerk, Willem A.

    2007-01-01

    In the densely populated mixed farming areas of western Ethiopia, the integration of forages with food crops may be crucial to the achievement of sustainable crop and livestock production. This study investigated the effects of pure grass (Chloris gayana), legumes (Stylosanthes hamata, Desmodium intortum and Macrotyloma axillare) and grass/legume mixtures of the same species undersown in maize, on maize grain yields, fodder yields and soil parameters. The forages were undersown six weeks afte...

  20. Combining ability analysis in quality protein maize (Zea mays L. for grain yield and its component traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V. Mural and Chikkalingaiah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to estimate combining ability effects in maize for different characters in a line × tester programme comprising 70 hybrids produced by crossing 14 lines and 5 testers. The interaction of line × tester was highly significant for twelve traits studied except for protein content. Significant general and specific combining ability variance were observed for all characters except protein content. The variance due to SCA was higher than GCA indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of GCA:SCA variance was lower than unity for all characters indicating predominance of non -additive gene action over additive gene action. Among the lines, genotype QPM 3 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for most yield contributing traits followed by QPM 1 and QPM 187. Among the testers, T 323-8 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yield contributing traits followed by T 209 and T 295 genotypes. Among the crosses, QPM 35 × T 295 was superior with positive significant SCA effects and better mean performance for grain yield and plant height. Similar superior positive significant SCA effects with better mean performance were also observed in QPM 6 × T 295 (ear length, test weight and grain yield per plant and QPM 43 × T 193-2 (ear length and grain yield per plant.

  1. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of grain -protein, -starch and -oil among the years was from 9.61 to 11.84%, from 68.51% to 70.93% and from 3.50% to 4.17%, respectively. The C2 separated by the higher grain protein contents (10.93% from the remaining three genotypes (average 9.96%. The genotype effects on starch and oil contents were from 69.83% (C4 to 70.58% (C1 and from 3.56% (C3 to 4.09% (C1, respectively.

  2. Effect of presowing gamma irradiation of seeds on the growth, development and yield of maize grain and green mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out during the 1982-1983 period with maize hybrids Px-20, Kn-611 and H-708 irradiated with 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 R. Gamma irradiation of the seeds had no unidirectional effect on the germinative power, laboratory and field germinating ability, volume of the root system (up to day 20 after germination), height of plants and cobbing, structural elements of the cobs and plants. Presowing seed germination with the three hybrids did not increase the grain yield neither that of the green mass and the dry matter. Under 500 R irradiation of the H-708 hybrid a reliable difference in the green mass yield was obtained only in 1982. 2 tabs., 8 refs

  3. Timing of azoxystrobin + propiconazole application on maize to control Northern Corn Leaf Blight and maximize grain yield.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of foliar fungicides on field maize has increased greatly over the past ten years. There has also been an increasing interest in foliar fungicide applications on maize, because quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, in addition to providing disease control, have been shown to induce physiological benefits for plants in studies conducted under controlled conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the timing of fungicide applications on maximizing grain yiel...

  4. Grain Yield and Yield Components of Quality Protein Maize Genotypes as Influenced by Irrigation and Plant Population in the Nigerian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Sani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the yield and yield components of QPM genotypes to plant population under irrigated conditions in a semi arid ecology of Northern Nigeria. Field trials were conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa (11° 39'N, 08° 20'E and 500 m above sea level during dry seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of (Zea mays L. genotypes (TZE-W Pop X 1368, EV-DT W99 STR and DMR-ESRW, four plant population (33333, 44444, 55555 and 66666 plants ha-1 and three irrigation scheduling (40, 60 and 80 centibars soil moisture tension on the growth and yield of quality protein maize. A split plot design was used with combinations of genotypes and irrigation regimes assigned to the main plot and plant population assigned to the sub-plot. The treatments were replicated three times. The study revealed that genotype EV-DT W99 STR had significantly higher weight of ears per plant, cob length, cob diameter, number of rows per cob, 100 grain weight, grain yield, shelling percentage and harvest index than the other two genotypes used in the trial. Irrigating at 40 and 60 centibars significantly increased weight of ears per plant, while delayed irrigation significantly depressed total dry matter production. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the use of genotype EV-DT W99 STR, at 60 centibars irrigation scheduling and population of 55,555 plants ha-1 had resulted in good agro-physiological characters of QPM at Kadawa.

  5. Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm2. Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency (15NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ?) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

  6. Effects of Bean-Maize Intercropping,Phosphorus and Manure Additions on N2 fixation and Grain Yield of Phaseolus Vulgaris in the Central Kenya Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole bean and intercropped bean crops were studied for four seasons from 1996-1998. Addition of organic P at the recommended rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased bean standing biomass and grain yields during the first season. Cattle manure applied at the rate of 12 t ha-1 (25% moisture content), had a negative effect on bean yield during the first season, possibly due to short-term nutrient immobilisation induced by the high C:N ratio of manure. In subsequent seasons, manure additions resulted in higher grain yields compared to inorganic P. Intercropping bean with maize lowered grain yields by 10-100%. N2 fixed on beans on average from 55 to 69%. Intercropping thus provides a strategy for a better N resource use where the maize competes efficiently for available soil mineral N and the legume replenishes part of the extracted N via atmospheric N2 fixation. However, the amounts of N2 fixed appear not to be enough to replenish whole systems N in grain crops and so additional N2 are needed. Thus more attention needs to be given to manure management and its long-term impact on soil fertility

  7. YIELD OF ENERGY AND PROTEIN FROM GRAIN MAIZE HYBRIDS USING AGROTECHNICAL SYSTEM, OPTIMAL FOR THE CONDITIONS IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANYA DELIBALTOVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The yields of metabolizable energy for ducks and protein, so as the multiplication effect by different varieties of maize have been investigated. For the conditions in the Plovdiv region the hybrid PR35P12 had the highest yield of crude protein - 1368 kg/ha, and metabolizable energy – AME- 171,5 GJ/ha and TME – 181,3 GJ/ha. The highest multiplication effect (protein yield/crude protein applied by seed material – showed hybrid PR35P12 - +403.3.

  8. Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test–cross populations of maize

    OpenAIRE

    Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Bocanski, J.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.; Jockovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU(1) population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS testcrosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. ...

  9. Combining ability of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress / Capacidade de combinação da produtividade de milho em ambientes com diferentes intensidades de estresses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Vagno de, Souza; Glauco Vieira, Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso, Galvão; Lauro José Moreira, Guimarães; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos.

    1297-13-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o germoplasma de milho e comparar a capacidade de combinação da produtividade do milho em ambientes com diferentes graus de estresse. Um dialelo foi realizado entre cultivares de milho tropical com ampla adaptabilidade, cujas combinações híbridas foram aval [...] iadas em duas épocas de plantio, em dois anos. A significância do efeito ambiental mostrou que os ambientes foram contrastantes. Com base na produtividade, os ambientes foram classificados como: favorável (8.331 kg ha-1); com baixo estresse (6.637 kg ha-1); com alto estresse (5.495 kg ha-1); e com intenso estresse (2.443 kg ha-1). Nenhum dos efeitos genéticos foi significativo nos ambientes classificados como favorável e com intenso estresse, o que indica haver baixa variabilidade para as combinações genéticas nesses ambientes. Em baixo e alto estresse, os efeitos da capacidade de combinação específica foram significativos, o que mostra que os efeitos genéticos não aditivos foram os mais importantes, e que é possível selecionar pares de genitores com potencial para melhoramento. A capacidade geral de combinação e a produtividade de grãos apresentaram correlações significativas somente entre os ambientes mais próximos como favorável/baixo estresse e alto/intenso estresse. O controle genético da produtividade de grãos difere em ambientes contrastantes quanto ao estresse para os quais as cultivares de milho com ampla adaptabilidade não são adequadas. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to caracterize the tropical maize germplasm and to compare the combining abilities of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress. A diallel was performed among tropical maize cultivars with wide adaptability, whose hybrid combinations were evalu [...] ated in two sowing dates, in two years. The significance of the environmental effect emphasized the environmental contrasts. Based on grain yield, the environments were classified as favorable (8,331 kg ha-1), low stress (6,637 kg ha-1), high stress (5,495 kg ha-1), and intense stress (2,443 kg ha-1). None of the genetic effects were significant in favorable and intense stress environments, indicating that there was low germplasm variability under these conditions. In low and high stresses, the specific combining ability effects (SCA) were significant, showing that the nonadditive genetic effects were the most important, and that it is possible to select parent pairs with breeding potential. SCA and grain yield showed significant correlations only between the closer environment pairs like favorable/low stress and high/intense stress. The genetic control of grain yield differed under contrasting stress environments for which maize cultivars with wide adaptability are not adequate.

  10. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-01-01

    Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grai...

  11. Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha-1) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day-1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day-1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t50) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha-1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha-1) compared with 2167 kg ha-1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulat C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

  12. Rendimiento de variedades precoces de maíz grano amarillo para valles altos de México / Grain yield of maize varieties with yellow endosperm and earliness for Mexican highlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Espinosa-Calderón; Margarita, Tadeo-Robledo; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Mauro, Sierra-Macías; Noel, Gómez-Montiel; Benjamín, Zamudio-González.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estableció como objetivo determinar la capacidad productiva de variedades de grano amarillo desarrolladas en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM) y en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas [...] y Pecuaria (INIFAP). Fueron establecidos, dos experimentos uniformes, uno en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX), en Santa Lucía de Prías y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM), en comparación con un testigo comercial de grano blanco y dos testigos de grano amarillo; ambos se sembraron en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010. Se evaluaron trece variedades, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. El mayor rendimiento medio se obtuvo en CEVAMEX (5887 kg/ha), el cual fue superior al obtenido en FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). En el grupo de mayor rendimiento de grano se ubicaron las variedades ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) y V-54 A (5405 kg/ha). Abstract in english The objective in this work was to evaluate the grain yield capacity of yellow grain maize varieties developed in The Cuautitlan Faculty of Superior Studies, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (FESC-UNAM), and the National Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Research (INI [...] FAP). Two experiments were planted in two locations; one in the CEVAMEX, in Saint Lucia of Prias and another at the FESC-UNAM, compared to white grain and yellow commercial control groups; both were planted mid June, 2010. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated in each experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of CEVAMEX had the best grain yielding, 5887 kg/ha, and was superior (p ? 0.05) to the experiment of FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). The best grain yielding varieties were ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) and A V-54 (5405 kg/ha).

  13. Influencia de la precipitación sobre el rendimiento del maíz: caso híbridos blancos / Influence of the precipitation on maize yield: case white grain hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Monasterio; Pedro, García; Gleenys, Alejos; Alberto, Pérez; Jacinto, Tablante; Waner, Maturet; Luís, Rodríguez.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron los valores de rendimiento de grano de maíz Zea mays L., (kg ha-1) obtenido en ensayos regionales uniformes de híbridos blanco (ERUsHMB), con datos de 7 años de evaluación, en el Campo Experimental de la Estación Local Yaritagua del INIA Yaracuy, en El Rodeo municipio Peña del estado Y [...] aracuy, ubicado a 10º 04’ N, 69º 70’ W, y 308 m.s.n.m.; y los registros de Precipitación (P) y Evapotranspiración (ETP) de la estación antes señalada, con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de la distribución de la precipitación sobre los rendimientos de los cultivares de maíz inscritos en los ERUsHMB, durante los ciclos de siembra 2000 al 2006. Se calculó la lámina de agua en el suelo a 20 cm de profundidad y la ETP se obtuvo por la fórmula de Hargreaves y Samani. El año con el rendimiento promedio más bajo (5 900 kg ha-1) fue 2005, quien recibió 174,2 mm de lluvia en el período crítico y 521,6 en todo el ciclo del cultivo, mientras que el 2004 resultó el año que mostró los mejores rendimientos (8 300 kg ha-1), con 315,2 mm de lluvia en el período crítico y 866,9 mm en todo el ciclo. Los años con mayores productividades correspondieron a aquellos donde hubo mayor precipitación durante las etapas de prefloración, floración y llenado de grano (período crítico) y viceversa. El año que mostró el mayor nivel de productividad también presentó una mejor distribución de lluvia durante todo el ciclo del cultivo. Los resultados sugieren que la cantidad de lluvia caída durante la etapa de prefloración ha llenado de grano, determinan los rendimientos de maíz en la zona de estudio. Abstract in english Regional uniform tests with white maize, Zea mays L., hybrids (URTsWMH) were evaluated during seven years in the field of the Local Experimental Station of Yaritagua, INIA Yaracuy, located in El Rodeo municipio Peña, of Yaracuy state, at 10º 04’ N, 69º 70’W, and 325 mosl. Maize grain yield (kg ha-1) [...] of these test, Precipitation (P) and Evapotranspiración (ETP) registered in the location formally described, were used to determine the influence of the rain distribution on the yields of the maize cultivars evaluated in the URTsWMH during the period 2000-2006. Soil water level at 20 cm depth was calculated and the ETP was obtained with the Hargreaves y Samani (1985) formula. The year with the lowest mean yield (5.900 kg ha-1) was 2005, with a rainfall of 174,2 mm in the critical period and 521,6 mm during the total period of the crop, meanwhile the year 2004 showed the highest yields (8.300 kg ha-1), with 315,2 mm of rain in its critical period and 866,9 mm during the total period of the crop. The years with highest productivity, corresponded to those who received higher P during preblooming, blooming and grain full (critical period) and viceversa. The year that showed the highest level of productivity also presented a better rainfall distribution during the total crop cycle. These results suggest that the maize yield obtained in this study depended on the amount of rain that occurs during preblooming to grain full period.

  14. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  15. Desenvolvimento e produtividade de grãos de milho submetido a níveis de desfolha / Grain development and yield in maize subjected to defoliation levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wender Santos, Rezende; Césio Humberto de, Brito; Afonso Maria, Brandão; Cláudio José Faria, Franco; Maurício Viana, Ferreira; Adão de Siqueira, Ferreira.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da desfolha do milho no desenvolvimento e na produtividade de grãos. Seis ensaios foram conduzidos em diferentes safras e locais e em dois níveis de produtividade. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com sete repetições. A desfolha foi re [...] alizada no estádio vegetativo V4 do milho (quatro folhas expandidas), e os tratamentos foram: remoção das duas folhas basais, remoção das quatro folhas expandidas, remoção total das folhas (secção da parte aérea) e testemunha (sem desfolha). Foram avaliados: duração do período vegetativo; e, em pré-colheita, altura de planta, altura de espiga, percentagem de plantas acamadas, força de quebramento de colmo, força de arranquio da planta e produtividade. A remoção das quatro folhas e a remoção total aumentaram a duração do período vegetativo e reduziram a altura de planta, a altura de espiga e a resistência do colmo ao quebramento. Esses níveis de desfolha também reduziram a produtividade, principalmente com a remoção total das folhas. A força de arranquio da planta não foi influenciada pela desfolha. A retirada de quatro folhas e do total das folhas reduz a produtividade de grãos, respectivamente, em 6,25 a 14,05% nos híbridos avaliados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of defoliation of maize on grain development and yield. Six trials were conducted in different growing seasons and locations and at two yield levels. A randomized complete block design was used, with seven replicates. Defoliation was made at t [...] he V4 vegetative stage of maize (four expanded leaves), and treatments consisted of: removal of the two basal leaves, removal of the four expanded leaves, total removal of leaves (aerial plant section), and a control (without defoliation). The following were evaluated: length of the vegetative period; and, at pre-harvest, plant height, ear insertion height, plant lodging percentage, stalk-breaking strength, force required to pull the plant, and yield. The removal of four leaves and the total removal of leaves increased the length of the vegetative period and reduced plant height, ear insertion height, and stalk strength against breaking. These defoliation levels also reduced yield, mainly with the total removal of leaves. The force required to pull the plant was not influenced by defoliation. Removal of four leaves and of all leaves reduces grain yield, respectively, in 6.25 to 14,05 in the evaluated hybrids.

  16. Crescimento inicial de milho e sua relação com o rendimento de grãos Initial growth of maize hybrids and its relation with grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz de Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando identificar características morfo-fisiológicas de milho que se correlacionam com seu crescimento inicial, para determinar sua importância no rendimento de grãos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Lages, SC, nos anos agrícolas de 1998/99 e 1999/00. Em 1998/99 avaliaram-se os híbridos C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 e AS 32 e em 1999/00 os híbridos C909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 e AS 32. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado através de seis coletas semanais, da emergência até o estádio de dez folhas expandidas. Em cada coleta, determinou-se a área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF, acúmulo de massa seca, taxa de crescimento celular (TCC e taxa de expansão celular (TEC. O híbrido AS 3601 apresentou maior área foliar, IAF e TEC do que os demais híbridos em 1998/99. No segundo ano agrícola, o híbrido AS 3466 destacou-se dos demais em acúmulo de massa seca e TCC. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no rendimento de grãos dos híbridos testados nas duas estações de crescimento. Houve baixa correlação entre os parâmetros de crescimento inicial e o rendimento de grãos da cultura do milho. Já as variáveis utilizadas para estimar o crescimento inicial (MS, área foliar, TEC, IAF e TCC se correlacionaram positivamente.This study was conducted aiming to identify morphological and physiological traits associated with the initial growth speed and to determine the importance of a vigorous early growth to set high grain yields. The study was conducted in Lages, SC, during 1998/99 and 1999/00 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design was used. Hybrids C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 and AS 32 were avaluated in 1998/99, whereas in 1999/00 the studied hybrids were C 909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 and AS 32. Maize initial growth was evaluated through six samplings. Samples were taken weekly from plant emergence the ten fully expanded leaves stage. Leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, cellular growth rate (CGR and cellular expansion rate (CER were estimated. Hybrid AS 3601 presented larger values of leaf area, IAF and CER than the other genotypes in 1998/99. In the second growing season, Hybrid AS 3466 had the highest values for dry mass and CGR. There was no significant difference among hybrids for grain yield. Low correlation values between initial growth parameters and maize grain yield were found. Otherwise, leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, CGR and CER showed high correlation.

  17. Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

  18. Rendimiento de grano y sus componentes en maíces nativos de Tamaulipas evaluados en ambientes contrastantes / Grain yield and yield components of native maize populations from Tamaulipas state evaluated under contrasting environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Agapito, Pecina Martínez; Ma. del Carmen, Mendoza Castillo; J. Alberto, López Santillán; Fernando, Castillo González; Moisés, Mendoza Rodríguez; Joaquín, Ortiz Cereceres.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre las poblaciones nativas de maíz (Zea mays L.) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México, algunas destacan por su alto potencial de rendimiento de grano, pero se han aprovechado en grado limitado. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes en 29 poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tama [...] ulipas (colectadas durante los años 2001 al 2004), más seis variedades mejoradas, en tres ambientes contrastantes en altitud y temperatura. El objetivo fue identificar poblaciones sobresalientes que pudieran ser utilizadas en programas de fitomejoramiento. Los ambientes de evaluación fueron Trópico Seco (TS), Transición (TRN) y Valles Altos (VA), a altitudes de 200, 1950 y 2250 m, respectivamente. Con base en el origen geográfico de las poblaciones nativas se formaron cuatro grupos (Grupos 1 a 4), y dos grupos de variedades mejoradas (Grupos 5 y 6), uno de zona tropical y el segundo de zonas templadas. Entre ambientes hubo diferencias (P ? 0.05) en rendimiento de grano, con la tendencia de dar mayor rendimiento a mayor altura y menor temperatura; entre TRN y VA las diferencias no fueron significativas para los componentes del rendimiento. Las poblaciones nativas de la zona montañosa de Tamaulipas (Grupo 4), de altitud intermedia, fueron las de mayor rendimiento en TRN y VA, entre las que destaca la C-4031 con 8.3 t ha-1, estadísticamente igual a las variedades mejoradas de los Valles Altos Centrales de México. Las poblaciones nativas de Tamaulipas mostraron mazorcas largas con alto número de granos por hilera, olotes delgados, buen rendimiento de grano y alto índice de desgrane, lo que pone de manifiesto que estas poblaciones nativas aportarán diversidad genética y caracteres agronómicos sobresalientes que pueden ser aprovechados en la mejora de la producción de este grano. Abstract in english Among native maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the State of Tamaulipas, México, some stand out in grain yield; however their utilization in breeding programs has been limited. With the aim to identify outstanding populations for potential use in maize breeding programs, 29 native populations of Tam [...] aulipas (collected from 2001 to 2004), plus six improved varieties, were evaluated for grain yield and yield components under three environments contrasting in altitude and temperature. Environments were: Dry Tropical (DT), Transition (TRN) and High Valleys (HV), located at altitudes of 200, 1950 and 2250 m, respectively. Based on their geographic origin, four groups were defined (Groups 1 to 4) for native populations; two groups of improved varieties were added (Groups 5 and 6), one for the tropical region and the other for the temperate zones. There were differences among environments (P ? 0.05) for grain yield, so that grain yield tended to be higher at higher altitude and lower temperature; no statistical differences were detected for grain yield components between TRN and HV. Among native maize populations from Tamaulipas, the ones collected from the mountain region (Group 4), located at intermediate altitude, showed higher yield in the TRN and HV; locations, population C-4031 showed the highest yield (8.3 t ha-1), statistically similar to that of improved varieties used in the central Valleys of México. Native populations from Tamaulipas developed longer ears with high number of kernels per row, thin cobs, good yield and high proportion of grain per ear. There results show that these native populations may contribute to broadening genetic diversity and could enhance for enhancing agronomic traits in of maize breeding.

  19. Effects of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Time of Tasselling, Time of Silking and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Enujeke, E. C. and Ojeifo, I. M.; G.U. Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from August to December in 2005 and repeated between March and July, 2006 to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays) to liquid organic fertilizer. The study was conducted using a split plot fitted into randomized complete block design. Liquid organic fertilizer was diluted at the rate of 60 ml of the product to 15 litres of water and applied to maize foliage, topsoil, foliage and topsoil at the...

  20. Stability of yield and yield components in maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?varkovi? Radomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year grain yield and 1000-grains mass data of 24 maize hybrids of FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600, 700 were analyzed. Investigations were performed at the two environments in two years. Nonparametric methods of the Kubinger and the van der Laan-de Kroon showed genotype x environment interaction for both investigated features, and method of Hildebrand showed interaction for 1000-grains mass. Maize hybrids stability was estimated with stability parameters: Si(1- the mean of the absolute rank differences over environments, Si(2- the common variance of the ranks, Si(3.and Si(6: the sum of the absolute deviations and sum of squares of rank for each genotype relative to the mean of ranks, respectively. On the basis of the stability parametar values, the most stable and the most unstable hybrids were estimated for each FAO maturity group, for both investigated features. Correlation coefficients between both investigated features and stability parameters and for all pairs of stability parameters were computed. In spite of the positive correlations estimated between all four stability parameters, we can make two groups: the first group formed: Si(1- the mean of the absolute rank differences over environments and Si(2- the common variance of the ranks and the second group formed: Si(3 and Si(6- the sum of the absolute deviations and sum of squares of rank for each genotype relative to the mean of ranks respectively.

  1. Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

  2. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amir José Klein, Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves, Ferreira; Ronald José Barth, Pinto; Claudete Aparecida, Mangolin; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo, Gonçalves.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

  3. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  4. Grain Yield and Yield Components of Quality Protein Maize Genotypes as Influenced by Irrigation and Plant Population in the Nigerian Savannah

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Sani; I. U. Abubakar; A. M. Falaki; H. Mani; M.M. Jaliya

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the yield and yield components of QPM genotypes to plant population under irrigated conditions in a semi arid ecology of Northern Nigeria. Field trials were conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa (11° 39'N, 08° 20'E) and 500 m above sea level) during dry seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of (Zea mays L.) genotypes (TZE-W Pop X 1368, EV-DT W99 STR and DMR-ESRW), four plant population (33333...

  5. Contribution of Some Maize Production Factors Towards Grain Yield and Economic Return under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Bashir Ahmed; Khizar Hayat; Qamar Zaman; Nazeer Hussain Malik

    2001-01-01

    Contribution of different factors responsible for the increase of Maize production viz: weeds control, insect/pest control and fertilizer were determined in Kharif, 1996 and 1 997 under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The investigations measured the average maximum yield gap between the improved practices and that of farmer`s practices as 2443 kg/ha, showing an increase of 193.88 % over that of farmer`s practices. The highest share contributed by improved fertilize...

  6. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos de genótipos de milho em diferentes sistemas de manejo / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize genotypes in different management systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noel Alves, Ribeiro; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Amauri, Bogo; Luis, Sangoi; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Leonardo Almeida, Wille.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A monocultura do milho é uma prática comum em algumas regiões do Brasil, sendo responsável pelo incremento dos danos causados pelas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de produção de milho contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo sobre a incidência de [...] podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos. Foram testados quatro sistemas: S1 (baixo nível de manejo), S2 (médio), S3 (alto) e S4 (proposto para maximizar o produtividade). Os níveis de manejo diferiram quanto à densidade de semeadura, espaçamento entre linhas, quantidade de fertilizantes e uso da irrigação. Em cada sistema, foram utilizadas três genótipos de milho: BRS Planalto (variedade de polinização aberta), Traktor (híbrido duplo) e P32R21 (híbrido simples). Os experimentos foram conduzidos nas safras 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de plantio direto e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta de aveia preta+ervilhaca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Nas duas safras agrícolas, a variedade Planalto apresentou maior incidência de podridões do colmo do que os híbridos em todos os sistemas de manejo. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o principal patógeno associado às podridões do colmo. A produtividade de grãos oscilou entre 3.986 a 13.489kg ha-1 em 2003 e entre 1.787 a 13.849kg ha-1 em 2004, variando conforme o genótipo e o sistema de produção. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas em S4 com a utilização do híbrido simples P32R21. A incidência de grãos ardidos nas duas safras foi baixa, não atingindo em nenhum tratamento o valor de 6% considerado no desconto. O fungo Fusarium verticillioides foi o principal patógeno associado aos grãos ardidos. Por outro lado, C. graminicola não foi detectado nos grãos ardidos, demonstrando que sua alta incidência nos colmos não significa sua presença nos grãos. Não foi possível identificar um sistema de manejo que reduzisse a incidência de podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos na cultura do milho. Abstract in english Maize monoculture is an usual practice in some regions of Brazil, being responsible for the growing damage caused by diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different maize production systems, contrasting in management investments, on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains [...] and grain yield. Four production systems were tested: S1 (low management level), S2 (medium), S3 (high) e S4 (designed to maximize the grain yield). The production systems differed in relation to plant density, row spacing, amount of fertilizer and irrigation use. Three genotypes were used for each production system: BRS Planalto (open-pollinated variety), Traktor (double-cross hybrid) and P32R21 (single-cross hybrid). The experiments were carried out during 2002/03 and 2003/04 grown seasons, in no-till system and a monoculture area, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experiments was a split-plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with four replications. In both grown seasons, regardless management system, open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto showed higher stalk rot than the hybrids. Colletotrichum graminicola was the main pathogen associated with stalk rot. Grain yield ranged from 3,986 to 13.489kg ha-1 in 2003 and from 1,787 to 13.849kg ha-1 in 2004, depending on genotype and crop management system. The highest values of grain yield were obtained in S4 with the single-cross hybrid. The incidence of rot grain was low (below 6%) during the whole experimental period. Fusarium verticillioides was the main pathogen associated with rot grain. There was no association between incidence and causal agent of stalk rot and rot grain. It was not possible to identify a crop management system that was more efficient to reduce incidence of stalk rot and rot grain.

  7. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.L. Silva; K.M.B. Silva; P.I.B. Silva; Oliveira, V R; J.L.B. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and M...

  8. Rendimiento en granos y eficiencia de una asociación maíz (zea mays y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan con o sin fertilización Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system with and without fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Quiroz

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar el rendimiento en granos y la eficiencia de una asociación maíz (CENIAP PB8 y quinchoncho (var. ICPL 87119 se estableció un experimento aditivo con 62.500 plantas/ha del cereal y 50.000 p/ha de la leguminosa, con siembra escalonada y dos niveles de fertilización. El maíz no fue afectado por la competencia con la leguminosa a pesar del retardo de 20 días en su siembra y produjo 6938 y 7665 kg/ha en parcelas de monocultivo no fertilizadas y fertilizadas, respectivamente, mientras que en las asociadas los valores correspondientes fueron 7030 y 7507 kg/ha. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en el rendimiento de la leguminosa asociada, aunque el ciclo en este último caso se prolongó por 18 días. El quinchoncho rindió 3437 y 3464 kg/ha en monocultivo no fertilizado y fertilizado, respectivamente, en tanto que en las parcelas asociadas los valores fueron 3064 y 3277 kg/ha. No se detectó efecto significativo por la aplicación del fertilizante. La eficiencia de uso de los recursos por la asociación se estimó mediante los índices de relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET, relación de equivalencia de área y tiempo (REAT y la relación de equivalencia de área y cosecha (REAC, que evidenciaron ventajas significativas de las parcelas asociadas respecto a los monocultivos de referencia.Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system were compared in an additive experiment with 62.500 plants/ha sole cropped maize (CENIAP PB8, 50.000 plants/ha sole cropped pigeonpea (ICPL 87119 and 112.500 plants/ha in intercropping plots. Two fertilization levels were applied. Maize was planted 20 days after pigeonpea. Grain yields of maize were 6938 and 7665 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized monoculture plots, and 7030 and 7507 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pigeonpea, with grain yields of 3437 and 3464 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized sole cropped plots, and 3064 and 3277 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots. Efficiency indexes land equivalent ratio (LER, area-time equivalency ratio (ATER and area-harvest equivalency ratio (AHER showed advantages of intercropping in relation to monocultures.

  9. Levels of nutrients and grain yield of maize intercropped with signalgrass (Brachiaria) in different arrangements of plants / Teores de nutrientes e produção de grãos do milho consorciado com a Braquiaria em diferentes arranjos de plantas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A.M., FREITAS; D.V., VALADÃO SILVA; M.F., SOUZA; A.A., SILVA; D.T., SARAIVA; M.M., FREITAS; P.R., CECON; L.R., FERREIRA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A competição entre o milho e a braquiaria pode inviabilizar economicamente o consórcio devido à redução na produção de grãos do milho e de matéria seca da forrageira. Na busca por definir arranjos de plantas que permitam tornar esse sistema mais eficiente, realizou-se esta pesquisa com o objetivo de [...] avaliar os efeitos da interferência de densidades de braquiária (Urochloa brizantha) na nutrição e produção de grãos do milho. Foram realizados dois experimentos de campo, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados de modo semelhante nos dois experimentos, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, sendo o primeiro fator a dose aplicada do herbicida Nicosulfuron (0 e 8 g ha-1) e o segundo as densidades de semeadura da forrageira (0, 2, 4 e 6 kg de sementes por hectare). A interferência da braquiária reduziu os teores foliares de nitrogênio, potássio e fósforo nas plantas de milho consorciadas com a forrageira. Maiores valores de produção de grãos foram verificados com a redução do espaçamento e a aplicação da subdose recomendada do herbicida (8 g ha-1). Concluiu-se que, independentemente da densidade de semeadura de Urochloa brizantha, a redução do espaçamento entre linhas do milho, aliada à aplicação da subdose do Nicosulfuron, causou efeito positivo por reduzir o crescimento inicial da forrageira, resultando em menor interferência de Urochloa brizantha no acúmulo de nutrientes pelas plantas de milho e na produtividade de grãos da cultura. Abstract in english Competition between maize and signalgrass can economically cripple the intercropping by the reduced yield of maize and dry matter content of the forage. In seeking to define plant arrangements which make this system more efficient, this research was held with the objective of assessing the effects o [...] f interference of densities of signalgrass (Urochloa Brizantha) on nutrition and on maize grain yield. Two field experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were arranged similarly in both experiments, in a 2 x 4 factorial design, the first factor being the dose of Nicosulfuron herbicide applied (0 and 8 g ha-1) and the second factor being the forage seeding rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 kg of seeds per hectare). The interference of signalgrass reduced foliar nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content in maize plants intercropped with the forage. Higher values of grain yield were observed with the reduction of the spacing and the application of the recommended herbicide underdose (8 g ha-1). It was concluded that, regardless of the seeding density of U. Brizantha, reducing the maize seeding inter-rows spacing, combined with the application of an underdose of Nicosulfuron, caused a positive effect by reducing the initial forage growth, resulting in less interference of Urochloa brizantha on nutrient uptake by the maize plants and grain yield of the crop.

  10. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?anski Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis requires the study of combining abilities of potential parents. In view of this, the objective of this paper was to study combining abilities and determine the mode of inheritance and gene effects for the main agronomic character, grain yield, and its components, kernel row number and kernel number per row. Six inbred lines were used in the study, three of which originated in the U.S., while the other three were developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Kernel row number was inherited by superdominance, partial dominance, complete dominance and intermediacy. The mode of inheritance of kernel number per row and grain yield was superdominance. Additive gene action had the greatest influence on the expression of kernel row number, while the other two traits were influenced the most by nonadditive gene.

  11. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dahmardeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L. c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1 and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1 were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

  12. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  13. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  14. A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura / Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Amauri, Schmitt; Jefferson, Vieira; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Daniélle, Girardi; Sérgio Roberto, Zoldan.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em [...] duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro. Abstract in english Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experime [...] nt was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

  15. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura. Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas, Leguminosas (Fabáceas, Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas.

  16. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.S.L., Silva; K.M.B., Silva; P.I.B., Silva; V.R., Oliveira; J.L.B., Ferreira.

    Full Text Available A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plan [...] tas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura). Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas), Leguminosas (Fabáceas), Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas. Abstract in english The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in co [...] mpetition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing) in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae), Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.

  17. Maize growth and yield in Peshawar under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is consequence of accumulating greenhouse gases (Carbon) at lower atmosphere which might affects crops growth and yield. Maize is an important summer cereals, grown on considerable area in Pakistan every year. We, therefore, study the delay sowing response with changing climate on maize. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design. Sowing was done from June 8 to July 24, 2010 with ten days intervals. Mazie (cv. Azam) was planted in rows at 0.75 m distance in NS orientations. Crop was raised under the uniform recommended cultural practices. Data regarding days to emergence, tasseling and maturity showed a consecutive decrease when so wing was delayed form June 08 onwards. However, the crop life cycle (i.e. vegetative and reproductive durations) initially remained uniform but expanded for late sowing dates (July). Delay sowing showed an increase in the leaf area index with an abrupt decline for the late sown crop. Nonetheless, plant stand at harvest remained static during the growth for all sowing dates. A stable to moderate reduction was noticed in ear length (cm) when sowings was delayed from Jun 08 onwards. Grain rows cob/-1 did not influence by the delay sowing in the season. Moreover, delay sowing did not show any significant (P<0.05) change for the grain number. However, thousand grains weight was initially remained stable but declined (P<0.05) by dremained stable but declined (P<0.05) by delay in sowing. Biological yield, dry matter and grains yield (g m/sup -2/) revealed almost a similar decreasing trend when sowing was delayed. Dry matter to grain yield relationship was linear (r/sup 2/ = 0.95) and revealed a mean loss of 1.65 g m/sup 2/ when sowing delayed from June 08 to July 24 in the season. Radiation use efficiency (RUE), the growth function, was also declined by the delay in sowing. We inferred that losses in leaf area indices, ear length and grain weights were basis of the grain yield reduction by changing climate of the growing season which brought a significant disturbance in the vegetative and reproductive phases of the crop life cycle that resulted losses (P<0.05) in grain yield by the late sown crop in the season. (author)

  18. Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nosratti; Hassan Muhammad Alizade; Taymour Makmasoumi

    2007-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU) herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that recei...

  19. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  20. Effect of Plastic Film Mulching on the Grain Filling and Hormonal Changes of Maize under Different Irrigation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Didi; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Yongping; Liao, Yuncheng; Wen, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) is widely utilized for maize production in China. However, the effect of PM on the grain yield of crops has not been established, and the biochemical mechanism underlying the increase or decrease in grain yield under PM is not yet understood. Grain filling markedly affects the grain yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PM on maize grain filling under different irrigation levels and the relationship of such effects with hormonal changes. In the present study, PM was compared with traditional nonmulching management (TN) under 220 mm, 270 mm and 320 mm irrigation amount, and the grain filling characters of the grains located in various parts of the ear and the hormonal changes in the grains were measured. The results indicated that at 220 mm irrigation, PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the middle and basal grains and decreased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. At 270 mm irrigation, the PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the all grains. At 320 mm irrigation, the PM only significantly increased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. The IAA, Z+ZR and ABA content in the grains was positively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates; however, the ETH evolution rate of the grains was negatively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates. These results show that the effect of PM on maize grain filling is related to the irrigation amount and that the grain position on the ear and the grain filling of the upper grains was more sensitive to PM and irrigation than were the other grains. In addition, the PM and irrigation regulated the balance of hormones rather than the content of individual hormones to affect the maize grain filling. PMID:25867028

  1. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no desenvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura.

  2. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Maize Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Panqing; Peng, Qian; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The grain filling rate is closely associated with final grain yield of maize during the period of maize grain filling. To identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA-dependent gene regulation networks of grain filling in maize, a deep-sequencing technique was used to research the dynamic expression patternsof miRNAs at four distinct developmental grain filling stages in Zhengdan 958, which is an elite hybrid and cultivated widely in China. The sequencing result showed that the expression amount of almost all miRNAs was changing with the development of the grain filling and formed in seven groups. After normalization, 77 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs were co-detected in these four samples. Eighty-one out of 162 targets of the conserved miRNAs belonged to transcriptional regulation (81, 50%), followed by oxidoreductase activity (18, 11%), signal transduction (16, 10%) and development (15, 9%). The result showed that miRNA 156, 393, 396 and 397, with their respective targets, might play key roles in the grain filling rate by regulating maize growth, development and environment stress response. The result also offered novel insights into the dynamic change of miRNAs during the developing process of maize kernels and assistedin the understanding of how miRNAs are functioning about the grain filling rate. PMID:25951054

  3. YIELD PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE HYBRIDS IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL HIDROMORFIC SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILDA PEREIRA PORTO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural diversification in RS lowlands aims to qualify the productive system historically based on rice/cattle raising binomial. Maize is one of the grain crop alternatives to these areas; benefiting the system of rotation and amplifying the maize supply in RS state. The maize hybrids grain yield is influenced by environmental factors, which can interact with plant genotype. A study was carried out with the objective of identifying stable and/or responsive maize hybrids to grain yield in RS hidromorfic soils. It was used yield data (t ha-1 of a group of maize trials developed in fifteen environments in the agricultural period from 1995/96 to 2000/01. The stability was analyzed by an unbalanced discontinuous bi-segmented model (Storck, 1998. Each hybrid was classified by the comparison of its yield average with the average of all hybrids, in a function of parameters from discontinuous bi-segmented equation (b1 and b2 and in a function of adjustment quality (R2. AG 6018, P 30F33, P 30K75, DKB 215 and DKB 344 hybrids were indicated for intermediate environments; AGN 2012, AGN 3150, BRS 3060, and P 30R07 hybrids, for higher than intermediate environments, and AG 5011, G 800 and P 3063 hybrids were indicated for all environments, indicating that these are responsive hybrids. The other hybrids were not indicated due to low stability or low grain yield (below hybrids average, 5.704 t ha-1.

  4. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N, que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1 no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  5. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão / Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Alves da, Silva; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Elias, Suhre; Gilber, Argenta; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Lisandro, Rambo.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N), que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comu [...] m (Vicia sativa) e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus), visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1) no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca. Abstract in english The black oats use (Avena strigosa) as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N), that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa) and b [...] rassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus) is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N) disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  6. Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Akhilesh Mishra

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L.) based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) sole, pea (Pisum sativum L.) sole, lin...

  7. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previ(lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation improved the N economy of the cropping system and enhances crop productivity. (author)

  8. Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

  9. The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kisi?

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

  10. Densidad de población y fertilización nitrogenada en la clorofila, materia seca y rendimiento de maíz normal y QPM / Population density and nitrogen fertilization on chlorophyll, dry matter accumulation and grain yield in normal and QPM maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariano, Mendoza-Elos; Carlos, Mosqueda-Villagómez; José Antonio, Rangel-Lucio; Alfonso, López-Benítez; Sergio Alfredo, Rodríguez-Herrera; Luis, Latournerie-Moreno; Ernesto, Moreno-Martinez.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar el efecto de la densidad de población y de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre el contenido de clorofila, acumulación de materia seca y el rendimiento de grano de maíces normales y con alta calidad de proteína. El experimento se estableció en Ro [...] que, Celaya, Guanajuato, México, en el ciclo primavera-verano 2003, bajo un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial en dos fechas de siembra. La parcela grande se asignó a las seis variedades, la parcela media a las densidades de plantas (60 000, 70 000 y 80 000 plantas/ha) y la parcela chica a la fertilización nitrogenada (0, 100 y 200 kg ha-1 de N); la unidad experimental fue de 11.25 m². La concentración de clorofila y la materia seca se evaluaron en cuatro fechas durante el ciclo vegetativo; la primera se determinó con el medidor de clorofila Spad 502, y la segunda al determinar el peso seco de dos plantas por unidad experimental. El rendimiento se estimó cuando el grano alcanzó la madurez fisiológica. Los niveles más altos de clorofila se obtuvieron con 100 y 200 kg ha-1 de N en los maíces de alta calidad proteínica y normal. Las plantas en densidades de 70 000 y 80 000 plantas/ha expresaron la mayor concentración de clorofila a los 90 días, con registros de 65 y 63 unidades Spad, respectivamente. Entre dosis de N, la mayor producción de materia seca se obtuvo con 100 kg ha-1 de N, con V2 QPM (237 g/planta); entre densidades, esta misma variedad con 80 000 plantas/ha produjo la mayor cantidad de biomasa (251.17 g/planta). El rendimiento medio de grano obtenido con la aplicación de 200 y 100 kg ha-1 de N en los maíces de alta calidad proteínica fue de 10.2 y 8.8 t ha-1 respectivamente, a diferencia de 11.8 y 10.9 t ha-1 obtenidos con V1 (maíz blanco normal) con las mismas dosis. El rendimiento de la variedad de alta calidad proteínica CMSQ993027 fue comparable con el del mejor testigo de grano normal. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the effect of plant stand and nitrogen fertilization on chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation and grain yield of high quality protein and normal maize. The trial was established in two planting dates, during the spring-summer season of 2003 at C [...] elaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, using a factorial, split-split-plot, experimental design. Cultivars were assigned to large plots, plant stands to medium plots and the small plots were assigned to nitrogen fertilization rates on experimental units of 11.25 m². Chlorophyll content and plant dry matter were sampled four times during the crop cycle. Chlorophyll and dry matter determinations were made by using the chlorophyll meter Spad-502 and dry matter by taking two individual plants from each plot. Grain yield was estimated at harvest maturity. Highest chlorophyll levels in both high quality protein and normal maize were obtained with 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of N. Plant stands of 70 000 and 80 000 plants/ha showed the highest chlorophyll values at 90 days after planting with 65 and 63 Spad units, respectively. ForN rates, QPM V2 showed the greatest production of dry matter (237 g/plant) with 100 kg ha-1 of N. For plant stands this QPM V2 maize cultivar also produced the greatest amount of dry matter (251.17 g/plant) when planted at 80 000 plants/ha. Average yield of high quality protein maize varieties with 200 and 100 kg ha-1 of N was 10.2 and 8.8 t ha-1, respectively, in comparison with 11.8 and 10.9 obtained with V1 -white seeded normal maize- at the same N rates. The grain yield of high protein quality CMSQ993027 was similar to the best normal seeded check.

  11. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sérgio L e, Silva; Paulo Igor B e, Silva; Ana Karenina F de, Sousa; Kamila M, Gurgel; Israel A, Pereira Filho.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O minimilho (MM) é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produ [...] ção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga) e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG 1051 foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repetições (52 plantas por parcela): colheita de MM; colheita das espigas verdes (grãos com teor de umidade de 60 a 70%); colheita das espigas maduras; colheita de MM e colheita das outras espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes comercializáveis e de grãos, produzidos sem a remoção da primeira inflorescência, foram superiores aos rendimentos respectivos produzidos após a remoção da primeira inflorescência, colhida como minimilho. Colhendo-se somente a primeira espiga como minimilho e as demais espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras obtiveram-se menores rendimentos de minimilho que o obtido colhendo-se todas as espigas como minimilho. Economicamente, as melhores receitas líquidas seriam obtidas explorando-se a cultura para a produção de espigas verdes, espigas verdes + minimilho, minimilho, minimilho + grãos e grãos, nesta ordem. Abstract in english Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to pr [...] oduce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot): BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%); mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.

  12. Differences in maize physiological characteristics, nitrogen accumulation, and yield under different cropping patterns and nitrogen levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xiangqian, Zhang; Guoqin, Huang; Qiguo, Zhao.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping and N fertilization play an important role in increasing crop yield. In order to further understand the advantage mechanism of intercropping and the effect of increasing N application on the advantage effect of intercropped crop, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effe [...] cts of different cropping patterns (i.e. M, maize monoculture; I1, maize-cotton intercrop; I2, maize-soybean intercrop) and N fertilization levels (N1, 100 kg ha-1; N2, 200 kg ha-1; N3, 300 kg ha-1; N4, 400 kg ha-1) on maize (Zea mays L.) Results showed that intercropping and increasing N application could enhance green leaf area per maize plant and chlorophyll content, and differences in green leaf area per plant and chlorophyll content between intercropping and monoculture under N1 were significant. Intercropping and increasing N application could improve maize photosynthetic characters, but their effects would be decreased with increasing N fertilization level. Root bleeding sap rate and root DM of maize were also obviously affected by intercropping and N fertilization, and the differences in root bleeding sap rate and root DM between I2 and M under N1 and N2 were significant. Compared to M, under N1, N2, N3, and N4, I2 increased grain N content by 12.8%, 6.3%, 2.7%, 1.5%, respectively. Intercropping and increasing N application could increase maize yield, and the difference in yield between I2 and M under N1 was significant. All the findings suggest that intercropping and increasing N application can improve maize physiological characters and increase maize root DM, N accumulation and yield, but their effects will be decreased with increasing N fertilization level.

  13. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect of previous crop but not by results of tillage, because an unknown factor reduced growth in the no-tillage system. The hypothesis was supported at maturity by increased biomass allocation to grain relative to total shoot weight in treatments with greater shoot-P concentration at early stages.

  14. Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plantha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

  15. Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

  16. In vitro digestibility of phenolics in grain of maize hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Grbeša; Goran Kiš; Kristina Kljak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the quantity of phenolic compounds in the grain of maize hybrids and their in vitro release in pig small intestine. Six maize hybrids belonging to the FAO maturity groups 200-600 were produced under the same agroclimate conditions. Phenolics were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method as gallic acid equivalents. The enzymatic digestion of phenolics was carried out using in vitro procedure for pigs mimicking digestion in stomach and small...

  17. Effect of Tillage Intensity and Herbicide Application On Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different tillage intensities in combination with herbicide application or interculture on growth and yield of maize was investigated at Student Farm, Department. of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 1997. Maximum grain yield (4.92 t h -1 along with highest net benefit (Rs. 38660/= per hectare was obtained for the crop raised with tilling the soil twice followed by herbicide application against the lowest grain yield (2.72 t ha -1 and net benefit (Rs. 20890/= per hectare for the crop grown at zero tillage followed by interculture.

  18. Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeveson da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

  19. Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho / The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaeveson da, Silva; Paulo S., Lima e Silva; Maurício de, Oliveira; Kathia M., Barbosa e Silva.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1) sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012). O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN), de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema [...] de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex. Abstract in english The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1) on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012). The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprink [...] ler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

  20. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento. Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos.The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowding. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding. Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

  1. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Amauri, Bogo; Luís, Sangoi.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o ren [...] dimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento) e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento). Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos. Abstract in english The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowdin [...] g. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding) and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding). Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

  2. Identifying driving climate factors of wheat and maize yields inter-annual variability in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Lecerf, Remi; Dentener, Frank J.

    2015-04-01

    A canonical powered Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) approach is here used to estimate the relationship between meteorological variables and crop (durum wheat and grain maize) yield time series over France. This method combines the advantages of both the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and the PLSR. The latter is mainly based on the extraction of a subset of latent variables (having the best predictive power) from the full set of predictors. The method is applied to detrended (by using a LOESS approach) time series of crop yields and monthly mean temperature, cumulated precipitation and global solar radiation during the growing seasons from 1990 to 2011. Results show that, overall, temperature has a substantial influence on winter wheat yields in south-western and eastern France, while rainfall plays an important role in the northern and southern parts of the country. Finally, radiation is more important over the southern part of France. Concerning grain maize, the inferred statistical models show relatively low skill over the northern part of France, where inter-annual yield variability is low. Overall, results show that temperature is the most important variable influencing grain maize yields over the southern and eastern parts of France, while rainfall is more important in the central and northern parts of the country. Finally, global radiation is the main meteorological factor over the westernmost part of France.

  3. Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

  4. Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

  5. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MURAWSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

  6. Effect of tillage system on soil properties and yield of Oba 98 maize variety in Zaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namakka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria loses significant amount of soil, organic matter and plant nutrients to the continuous tilling of soil for various crop production. This leads to declining and stagnation of crop yields. Three year field trials were conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons at the experimental farm of Institute for Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Lat. 11° 11' N: Long 7° 38' E: 686 m above sea level to investigate the effect of tillage system on soil chemical properties, physical properties and grain yield of Oba 98 maize variety. The treatments consisted of six tillage systems laid out in Complete Randomize Block Design and replicated five times. The parameters measured included soil chemical properties such as ions concentrations and Cation Exchange Capacity, soil textural class, soil bulk density and grain yield of the maize under test. The results obtained indicated that GPx (Glyphosate followed by Primextra Gold and PPx (Paraquat followed by Primextra Gold tillage systems enhanced soil nutrients with higher Cation Exchange Capacity, highest cations and anions concentrations due to organic matter accumulation in the soil, improved soil structure that resulted to better grain yield of maize. The two types of tillage systems will therefore help in reducing the effect of soil degradation through frequent tilling and also improved soil aggregate and fertility as a result of organic matter accumulation on the soil surface.

  7. Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B irradiance on maize yield formation and structure: a field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zheng, Youfei; Slusser, James R.; He, Yuhong; Zhang, Ronggang

    2003-11-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion and enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance may have adverse impacts on the productivity of agricultural crops. Though only a small portion of the total solar electromagnetic spectrum, UV-B irradiance has a disproportionately large photobiological effect, largely because it is readily absorbed by important macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that the effect of UV-B enhancements on plants includes a reduction in grain yield, alteration in species competition, susceptibility to disease, and changes in plant structure and pigmentation. Many experiments examining UV-B radiation effects on plants were conducted in growth chambers or greenhouses. It has been questioned if the effect of UV-B radiation on plants can be extrapolated to field responses from indoor studies because of the unnaturally high ratios of UV-B/UV-A and UV-B/PAR in many indoor studies. Field studies on UV-B radiation effect on plants have been recommended in order to use the UV and PAR irradiance provided by natural light. This study found the maize yield formation and yield structural elements responded to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions. Enhanced UV-B radiation caused a significant reduction of the dry matter accumulation and the maize grain yield in turn was affected. Analysis of yield structure indicates that the maize yield decreased with increased UV-B radiation and was evidently related to the decreased kernel weight and kernel number per ear.

  8. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  9. Mulch Induced Eco-physiological Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Awal, M. A.; Khan, M. A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on growth, dry matter partitioning, earliness, yield attributes and yield of maize were studied. All mulches except sawdust significantly influenced the SLA, CGR, NAR and DM partitioning, but with no apparent effect on RGR. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches hastened the tasseling, silking and maturity time by 6, 8 and 8 days respectively and produced double the amount of biological and economic yield as compared to the contro...

  10. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  11. The Effects of Intercropping Sowing Systems with Dry Bean and Maize on Yield and Some Yield Components

    OpenAIRE

    Vahdettin Ciftci; Necat Togay; Yesim Togay; Yusuf Dogan

    2006-01-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is traditionally intercropped with maize by small-scale farmers in the Turkey. In this study, dry bean was sown with different mixed ratio (bean and maize sole crop and 2 lines maize+1 line bean, 2 lines bean+1 line maize and 2 lines maize+2 lines bean) with field maize for two years. There were significant differences between cropping systems for pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield (kg ha-1) and grai...

  12. Influence of Post Emergence Application of Glyphosate on Weed Control Efficiency and Yield of Transgenic Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Ravisankar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the weed control efficiency and yield potential of glyphosate resistant transgenic maize. Treatments consisted of two transgenic maize hybrids named Hishell and 900 M gold with application of glyphosate as post emergence at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/hathese were compared with non-transgenic counterpart maize hybrids with application of atrazine as pre-emergence at 0.5 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 40 Days After Sowing along with need based insect control practices. Post emergence application of glyphosate at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic maize hybrids was recorded with lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency compared to other treatments. Higher grain yield was recorded with post emergence application of glyphosate at 1800 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid 900 M Gold and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid Hishell during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 seasons, respectively.

  13. Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kyamuhangire

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain using the biomass dryer delayed insect infestation by three months and significantly (p?0.05 reduced mould and aflatoxin contamination during storage for 6 months. Maize dried using the biomass dryer was only infested with Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella while that dried on bare ground was infested by both the moth and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais implying that the biomass dryer controlled the most important storage insect pest of maize in Uganda. Drying maize using the biomass dryer had no effect on the germination potential of the grain. Thus, drying maize grain with the biomass dryer reduces drying time and greatly improves the quality of the grain during storage. However, the subsequent storage quality of the grain highly depends on the storage form (shelled or unshelled, time and environment.

  14. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  15. Estimation of weed dry biomass and grain yield as a function of growth and yield traits under allelopathic weed management in maize / Estimativa de biomassa seca de plantas daninhas e rendimento de grãos como uma função de características de crescimento e produção sob o manejo de plantas daninhas alelopáticas na cultura do milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., MAHMOOD; A., KHALIQ; M.Z., IHSAN; M., NAEEM; I., DAUR; A., MATLOOB; F.S., EL-NAKHLAWY.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As crescentes preocupações sobre toxicidade e desenvolvimento de resistência a herbicidas sintéticos exigiram a busca por abordagens alternativas no manejo de plantas daninhas. Alelopatia obteve apoio e potencial suficientes para o manejo sustentável de plantas daninhas. Extratos aquosos de seis esp [...] écies vegetais (girassol, arroz, amora, milho, colza ou couve-nabiça e sorgo) em diferentes combinações, isoladamente ou em mistura com 75% de redução da dose de herbicidas, foram avaliados por dois anos consecutivos em condições de campo. Uma verificação de plantas daninhas e S-metolachlor com atrazina (pré-emergência) e apenas atrazina (pós-emergência) nas doses recomendadas foi incluída para comparação. Dinâmica de plantas daninhas, índices de crescimento do milho e estimativa de rendimento foram realizados seguindo procedimentos padrão. Todas as combinações de extrato vegetal aquoso suprimiram crescimento e biomassa de ervas daninhas. Além disso, o efeito supressor foi mais pronunciado quando extractos de plantas aquosas foram suplementados com doses reduzidas de herbicidas. A combinação de colza ou couve-nabiça-girassol-sorgo suprimiu plantas daninhas em 74 - 80%, 78 - 70%, 65 - 68% durante os dois anos de estudo que foram semelhantes com S-metolachlor juntamente com meia dose de atrazina e uma dose completa apenas de atrazine. A taxa de crescimento da cultura e o acúmulo de matéria seca atingiram valores máximos de 32.68 e 1.502 g m-2 d-1 para a combinação de colza ou couve-nabiça-girassol-sorgo em 60 e 75 dias após a semeadura. Regressão de ajuste de curva para as características de crescimento e produção previu uma forte correlação positiva com o rendimento dos grãos e uma correlação negativa para biomassa seca de plantas daninhas em manejo alelopático de plantas daninhas na cultura de milho. Abstract in english Growing concerns about toxicity and development of resistance against synthetic herbicides have demanded looking for alternative weed management approaches. Allelopathy has gained sufficient support and potential for sustainable weed management. Aqueous extracts of six plant species (sunflower, rice [...] , mulberry, maize, brassica and sorghum) in different combinations alone or in mixture with 75% reduced dose of herbicides were evaluated for two consecutive years under field conditions. A weedy check and S-metolachlor with atrazine (pre emergence) and atrazine alone (post emergence) at recommended rates was included for comparison. Weed dynamics, maize growth indices and yield estimation were done by following standard procedures. All aqueous plant extract combinations suppressed weed growth and biomass. Moreover, the suppressive effect was more pronounced when aqueous plant extracts were supplemented with reduced doses of herbicides. Brassica-sunflower-sorghum combination suppressed weeds by 74-80, 78-70, 65-68% during both years of study that was similar with S-metolachlor along half dose of atrazine and full dose of atrazine alone. Crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation attained peak values of 32.68 and 1,502 g m-2 d-1 for brassica-sunflower-sorghum combination at 60 and 75 days after sowing. Curve fitting regression for growth and yield traits predicted strong positive correlation to grain yield and negative correlation to weed dry biomass under allelopathic weed management in maize crop.

  16. Yield and quality of maize following the foliar application of a fertilizer based on the byproduct “shale water”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Messias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The water extracted from the shale rock (shale water through the pyrolysis process to obtain fuel oil and other products shows a composition based on organic compounds and a wide range of minerals and trace elements with an important role in plant nutrition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer. Thus, the influence of foliar application of shale water (SW, with or without the micronutrients zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, boro (B and molybdenum (Mo, was evaluated regarding yield and quality of maize grains. The yield, the total antioxidant activity, and the content of starch, phenolic compounds and carotenoids were improved in maize grains following the application of three doses of 7 L/ha of SW, which indicates that SW may influence the primary and secondary metabolisms. The application of SW with micronutrients resulted in the increase of grain yield; however, did not result in the improvement of grain quality. The foliar fertilizer formulations also had an influence in the content of minerals and aminoacids of the grain. The results indicate that SW has potential to be used in agriculture to improve yield and quality of maize.

  17. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.; Osiru, DSO.

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

  18. Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B irradiance on maize yield and its seed qualities: a field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zheng, Youfei; Slusser, James R.; Heisler, Gordon M.; He, Douliang; Xu, Jianqiang

    2003-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused an increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth"s surface. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that the effect of UV-B enhancements on plants includes reduction in grain yield, alteration in species competition, susceptibility to disease, and changes in plant structure and pigmentation. Many experiments examining UV-B radiation effects on plants were conducted in growth chambers or greenhouses. It has been questioned if the effect of UV-B radiation on plants can be extrapolated to field responses from indoor studies because of the unnaturally high ratios of UV-B/UV-A and UV-B/PAR in many indoor studies. Field studies on UV-B radiation effect on plants has been recommended in order to use the UV and PAR irradiance provided by natural light. This study reported the growth and yield responses of a maize crop exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation and the UV-B effects on maize seed qualities under field conditions. Enhanced UV-B radiation caused a significant reduction of the dry matter accumulation, and the maize yield in turn was affected. With increased UV-B radiation the flavonoid accumulation in maize leaves increased, and the contents of chlorophyll a, b, and (a+b) of maize leaves were reduced. The levels of protein, sugar, and starch of maize seed decreased with enhanced UV-B radiation, while the level of lysine increased with enhanced UV-B radiation.

  19. Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Okogun; Sanginga, N.; Abaidoo, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha-1 from i...

  20. Effect of Pakistan lignitic derived humic acids on the agriculture growth part II: studies on the effect of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein content of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various minute concentrations of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein contents of maize were studied. The results revealed that the humic acid application in small doses produce higher grain yield, more protein content and better developed plants and roots compared to control. There was a positive correlation between the grain yield, protein contents and plant growth of maize to different levels of humic acid application. (author)

  1. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in diallel cross of maize (zea maysl.) in f/sub 2/ generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis was carried out for six maize cultivars and their 30 F/sub 2/ crosses under agro-climatic conditions at Agricultural Research Institute of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among parents and their F/sub 2/ progeny for all the parameters. The genetic analysis revealed that the characters Viz ; kernels/ear, kernels rows/ear, kernels/row, ear length, 1000 grain weight and grain yield have shown additive type gene action. According to regression analysis, the non-significant deviation of the regression line from unit slope indicated the absence of non-allelic interaction, which was presented in all the characters. (author)

  2. The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM) applied every second year on maize grown for grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Nogalska; Matgorzata, Skwierawska; Zenon, Nogalski; Monika, Kaszuba.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (M [...] BM) is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L.) grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year), and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years). Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

  3. Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Dai, T.; De Boer, W.; Qi, J.; Cao, W

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping w...

  4. The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van?etovi? Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

  5. [Extraction and use of pigments from maize grains (Zea mays L) as colorants in yogur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Moreno, Yolanda; Rubio Hernández, David; Díaz Velázquez, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the potential use of anthocyanins from maize grains as colorants in yogurt. Pigments were extracted from four native maize varieties (Arrocillo, Peruano, Purepecha and Cónico), which possess a high anthocyanin concentration in the pericarp. Pericarp and aleurone layer were mechanicallly removed from grain using a Strong-Scott barley pearled. Yields of pericarp and aleurone layer fraction (PALF) were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content in this fraction was determined by a conventional spectrophotometric method and the anthocyanin profile was obtained by HPLC. One mg of anthocyanin extracts from the PALF was added to 100 g of a commercial plain yogurt. Yogurt samples were kept under refrigerated conditions and color and pH were monitored every 5 days interval, during three weeks. The yields of PALF were 48.4%, 55.1%, 40.2%, and 40.0% for Arrocillo, Peruano, Cónico and Purepecha varieties, respectivelly. The highest total anthocyanin content (259.4 mg of anthocyanins/100 g sample) was observed in Peruano PALF. The color of yogurts dyed with each of the four extracts was different. Yogurts dyed with Peruano and Arrocillo extracts showed a more intense reddish tone than those dyed with Cónico and Purepecha. After 5 to 10 days under refrigerated storage, the color of all yogurt samples changed to a slight yellowish tone according to the Hue values, Nevertheless, these changes were not visually evident. PMID:16454056

  6. Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E was highly significant and genotypes (G and genotype x environment interaction (GEI were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

  7. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  8. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1 m × 2 m × 1.2 m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240 kg Nha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240 kg Nha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120 kg Nha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240 kg ha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4 kg NO?(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, 180 kg Nha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837 kg ha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0 kg NO?(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China. PMID:25681775

  9. Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Viruel; L. E, Erazzú; L, Martínez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Siñeriz.

    Full Text Available Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumán, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

  10. Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Viruel; L. E, Erazzú; L, Martínez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Siñeriz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumán, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

  11. Identification of teosinte, maize, and Tripsacum in Mesoamerica by using pollen, starch grains, and phytoliths

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Irene; Moreno, J. Enrique; Piperno, Dolores R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined pollen grains and starch granules from a large number of modern populations of teosinte (wild Zea spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and closely related grasses in the genus Tripsacum to assess their strengths and weaknesses in studying the origins and early dispersals of maize in its Mesoamerican cradle of origin. We report new diagnostic criteria and question the accuracy of others used previously by investigators to identify ancient maize where its wild ancestor, teosinte, is native. ...

  12. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kashta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 period, with the objective of estimating the associations between yield and yield-related traits and to identify direct effects of characters for durum wheat grain yield improvement. The experimental material consisted of 20 durum wheat genotypes, which are randomly taken from the germoplasm collection. Significant genotypic differences (P<0.01 were observed for all the traits studied, indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. Grain yield had strong positive correlations (P<0.01 with plant height, number of kernels spike-1, grain yield plant-1, biological yield and thousand-kernel weight. On the other hand, grain yield had strong negative correlation (p< 0.01 with days to heading, suggesting the usefulness of selecting early heading genotypes with long grain filling period in improving grain yield. The remaining traits recorded moderate to low phenotypic and genotypic estimates. The maximum positive direct effect on grain yield was exerted by biological yield (0.99 followed by days to maturity (0.89 and harvest index (0.73. While, maximum negative direct effects were exerted by days to heading (-0.81 and grain filling period (-0.68. Therefore, days to heading, biological yield and harvest index could be used as an indirect selection criterion for better grain yield. Thus, selecting early heading genotypes having high biological yield and harvest index could improve grain yield.

  13. Actual prestigious properties of maize inbred lines: A good initial basis for the efficient development of new and yielding maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenovi? ?edomir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conforms our hypothesis that there are elite maize inbred lines, which can be considered actual and prestigious as they have not only a property of the water status and a greater grain dry down rate during the maturation period, but also a property of the efficient photosynthetic-fluorescence model that is successfully used in the contemporary processes of breeding, and thereby in the development of new and yielding maize hybrids. Presented results obtained on the dynamics of grain dry down during the maturation period and on photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters (temperature dependence of the chlorophyll delayed fluorescence intensity, the Arrhenius plot for the determination of critical temperatures, i.e. phase transition temperatures and the activation energy show that properties of the observed inbreeds are based on effects and nature of conformational and functional changes occurring in their thylakoid membranes and other chemical structures of grain tissues. Summarized results of studies on actual and prestigious properties of maize inbreeds will contribute to more exact, rational and expeditious proceedings of contemporary processes of breeding.

  14. Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

  15. Growth and Yield Performance of Cassava/Maize Intercrop Under Different Plant Population Density of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniyan, O. N.; Aluko, O. A.; Olanipekun, S. O.; Olasoji, J. O.; Aduramigba-modupe, V. O.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments involving cassava/maize intercrops under different plant population densities of maize were conducted during 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons on the research farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training situated at Ilora, Nigeria (7o 22? N, 3o 52? E). Results obtained in 2002 and 2003 consistently showed that increases in plant population density of maize in maize/cassava intercrop directly increased maize plant height at tasselling, plant height at harvest and ...

  16. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  17. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  18. Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karoline Guedes, Araújo; Severino Delmar Junqueira, Villela; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Patrícia Monteiro, Costa; Leonardo de Oliveira, Fernandes; Wagner Pessanha, Tamy; Vinícius Raimundi, Andrade.

    1539-15-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear [...] insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha). There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

  19. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new crops are grown. In recent years, leaf diseases have caused production problems over several seasons. Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play a role but have not yet been clearly verified as major diseases in Scandinavia.

  20. Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

  1. The Effects of Rate and Placement of Boma Manure on Maize Yield in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six session study on the response of maize to boma manure was conducted on farmer's field in Wamuyu, Machakos District in the Eastern province of Kenya to; a) determine the yield response of maize to application of boma manure in the 0-100 t ha-1 range, b)evaluate the benefits of banding of boma manure as compared with broadcasting, c)determine the residual response to boma manure application; d)compare the response of boma manure with that of inorganic fertiliser. The soil on the experimental site was a well drained ,dark red, loamy sand with an average of 16.64 mg kg-1 extractable P and 0.065 % total N in the 0-1 cm depth. Maize grain yield and total dry matter markedly increased with increasing rates of boma manure while placement method and interaction between placement and rate of application effect. A combined analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in grain yield above the rate of 40 t ha -1 of manure. Using inorganic fertiliser at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 + 20 kg P ha-1 was found to be the best option in terms of economic benefits. The residual effects of the manure were, however, still very evident in the last season, indicating that more benefits would have been obtained from manure over a number of succeeding seasons, especially from the high rates (60-100 t ha-1)

  2. THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry De-Graft Acquah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

  3. Pattern in interaction in the maize yield trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babi? Vojka B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In making decisions on the development of varieties and the identification of certain growing regions, the effects of genotype (G and genotype by environment (GxE are very important. Although the main genotype effect and the interaction effect should be partitioned, there is still a need for their integration in the yield, as both simultaneously affect a ranking of the particular genotype within a certain environment. The AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction analysis, as a hybrid model, provides appropriate partitioning. The AMMI2 model, capturing 98.4% of the treatment sum of squares, was used, and 12 observed environments were classified into three target environments. Hence, out of 15 commercial maize hybrids, used in the trial, the hybrids ZP-677, ZP-570 and ZP-732 were selected as carriers of maximum yields in three target environments. In this way, it was shown that even in a relatively small region a narrow adaptation of genotypes can be exploited.

  4. Genetics and statistical association between lethal alleles and quantitative yield factors in maize (Zea mays l.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Salerno; Mariana, Kandus; R., Boggio Ronceros; O., Sorarrain; Cecilia, González; David, Almorza.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los procesos genéticos relacionados con el vigor híbrido (heterosis) y la identificación de QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) en el maíz. Para obtener los resultados, se construyó un modelo biométrico usando los formalismos relacionados a las cadenas absorbentes [...] discretas de Markov en forma canónica, con el fin de analizar la evolución de segmentos cromosómicos, con genes recesivos letales ligados con factores de rendimiento en grano a través de las sucesivas generaciones. El rendimiento en grano obtenido de una línea de maíz regulada por un sistema de letales balanceados y otras líneas sin este sistema como testigo, se evaluó durante 5 generaciones de endocría. El uso de la teoría de las cadenas de Markov con el fin de estudiar la evolución durante estas generaciones fue una aproximación diferente a los métodos matemáticos clásicos. Abstract in english The objective of this work is to study the genetic process related to the hybrid vigour (heterosis) and the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in maize. A biometric model was built using the mathematical formalism relating to the discrete absorbent Markov chain in canonical form, in ord [...] er to analyse the evolution of chromosome segments, with recessive lethal genes linked with grain yield factors through generations. The grain yield obtained from an inbred maize line regulated by a balanced lethal system, and other lines without this system as control, were evaluated during five inbreeding generations. The use of the Markov chain theory for the study of evolution during these generations was a different approach of the classical mathematical ones.

  5. Improving yield and nitrogen nutrition of maize (zea mays, L) through azotobacterization and sulphur fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was conducted in plastic pots each, containing 20 kg soil to study the effect of sulphur (20, 40, 60 kg S/ha) and azotobacter inoculation alone and in combination on the yield and nutrition of maize (cv. Azam). A basal dose of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and potash (K/sub 2/O) at 40, 80, 40 kg/ha was applied to each pot. The results revealed that increasing rates of sulphur application significantly improved the total biomass yield by 31.4 to 34.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 61.0 to 65.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. The effect of sulphur application in improving the total biomass and biomass N yield of maize was statistically at par with that of azotobacter inoculation alone. Application to sulphur at all the applied levels along with azotobacter inoculation further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 66.0 to 70.0 percent and total biomass N yield by 99.0 to 104.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. Azotobacterization of maize in the presence of sulphur fertilization further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 24.1 to 29.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 13.0 to 17.0 percent as compared to control receiving azotobacter alone. Inoculation of maize with azotobacter alone or in combination with sulphur markedly stimulated the azotobacter population in the root rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (fic soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil sulphur alone had no effect in stimulating the azotobacter population in the rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil of maize plant. Azotobacterization of maize alone or in the presence of sulphur fertilization significantly improved the maize height. (author)

  6. Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

  7. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Courtman; J.B.J., van Ryssen; A., Oelofse.

    Full Text Available A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contai [...] ned below 50 µg selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals and humans. The geographical distribution of Se values of maize grain is consistent with that of previous studies on the Se status of herbivores in South Africa, suggesting that plants growing in most of the maize-producing areas of the country contain low concentrations of Se. However, these findings contradict those of the soil Se status in the country as reported by the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, which states that the eastern part of the maize-producing areas of the country tends to have adequate to high soil Se levels and the western areas to have low levels. These contradictory results can be explained to a large extent by the varying soil pH throughout the country. Soil pH plays a primary role in the availability of selenium to plants. Although the eastern parts of the country tend to have high Se concentration in the soil, it is not available to the maize plant owing to a low soil pH, while in the western parts of the country, where soil pH may be suitable for Se uptake by plants, there seems to be an inadequate concentration of available Se in the soil.

  8. Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of maize in loess plateau of northwest china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China. (author)

  9. Gene Action for Yield and Morpho-Physiological Traits in Maize (Zea mays L. Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sandeep Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of 28 hybrids generated by crossing 8 diverse and new maize inbred lines in a half diallel fashion. The estimated value of average degree of dominance (H1/D0.5 revealed that non-additive genetic effects was more pronounced in the inheritance of days to 50 per cent maturity, anthesis-silking interval and grain yield per plant. On contrary, additive genetic effects was evident for days to 50 per cent tasseling and days to 50 per cent silking. The distribution of positive and negative genes were not too distant  for the traits viz., days to 50 per cent tasseling, days to 50 per cent  silking and grain yield per plant. Dominance to recessive genes ratio [4DH1]0.5 + F / [4DH1]0.5- F ranged from one to two, indicating that excess of dominant genes against one recessive genes were not much higher. The results indicated that most traits were under the genetic control of non-additive (over dominance type of gene action, therefore the material can easily be exploited for heterotic effect.

  10. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    OpenAIRE

    Piens Kathleen; Ståhlberg Jerry; Sandgren Mats; Eriksson Anna; Passoth Volkmar; Schnürer Johan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared...

  11. Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses on maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Urrego-Pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Cavero Campo, José

    2013-01-01

    Daytime sprinkler irrigation with a solid-set system can result in higher water losses, lower uniformity, and lower maize (Zea mays L.) yield compared with nighttime irrigation. We studied the relevance of irrigation time (daytime or nighttime) and water losses (compensating them or not in the irrigation applied) for the growth and yield of maize during 2 yr. The seasonal average sprinkler water losses compensated ranged from 14 to 19% for daytime irrigation and from 5 to 11% for nighttime ir...

  12. Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

  13. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  14. Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Idziak; Zenon, Woznica.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effe [...] ctive weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1) and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1) with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) and ammonium nitrate (AMN) adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1) and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively).

  15. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo De Carli; Bruna Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña; Irineu Lorini; Adriano Brandelli

    2010-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no sig...

  16. YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L. AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Babaji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1 to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil from 2006 experiment more fertile than for the first year, hence produced 21% more grain yield. All the applied NPK rates in 2005 and except 40:20:20 ha1 in 2006 had resulted in early maize crop as compared to control. Husked and de-husked cob and 100-grain weights and grain yield/ha were higher at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1. Maize grown in plot supplied with 15 t FYM ha1 the previous year matured earlier. Cobs and 100-grain weights and grain yield were highest in plot supplied with 10 t FYM ha1. The 10t FYM ha-1 had 69% and 68% more grain yield than the control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Highest maize yield was obtained at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 or 10t FYM ha-1. All the parameters measured significantly and positively related to each other when the two years data were combined.

  17. Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize and sorghum grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Crosby; G.D., Mendoza; I., Bonola; F.X., Plata; H., Sandoval; L.M., Melgoza.

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release a-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibil [...] ity of sorghum and maize grain was measured after 6 and 12 hours of fermentation with or without exogenous a-amylase in powder form or dispersed in a matrix system for slow release by a diffusional mechanism. Tablets were used as the drug release matrix system, and were formulated with barium sulphate and ethylcellulose as the core of the final tablet. Treatments consisted of incubation of sorghum or maize grains with four doses of enzyme, using a-amylase in powder or in the press-coated tablet (16 treatments). The results showed that with a higher dose of exogenous enzyme, the digestibility of the grains was improved. Sorghum and maize digestion with tablets were improved compared with a-amylase in powder form. Releasing a-amylase from matrix tablets represents a potential technology to improve grain digestion in ruminants.

  18. Effect of Sowing Methods and Seed Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Pak-81

    OpenAIRE

    Hayatullah Khan; Muhammad Ayaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain; Muhamad Zaman Khan; Masood Khan Khattak

    2000-01-01

    The results revealed that sowing method greatly affected the number of fertile tillers, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index value whereas grain spike-1 and 1000-grain weight were non significant. Among the method pora method supersede broadcast method. Similarly seed rates also highly significantly affected the grain yield and yield components except 1000- grain weight. Seed rate of 175 kg ha-1 produced grain yield of 5325. 13 kg ha-1 and proved to be the most economical seed rate...

  19. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

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    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  20. Rendimiento y calidad de elote en poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tehuacán, Puebla / Yield and quality of tender maize from native maize populations of Tehuacán, Puebla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Ortiz-Torres; Pedro Antonio, López; Abel, Gil-Muñoz; Juan de Dios, Guerrero-Rodríguez; Higinio, López-Sánchez; Oswaldo R., Taboada-Gaytán; J. Arahón, Hernández-Guzmán; Mario, Valadez-Ramírez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el estado de Puebla, la región más importante en producción de maíz (Zea mays L.) para elote es Tehuacán. Las variedades usadas son principalmente poblaciones nativas, de las cuales se desconoce su potencial para la producción de elote y la calidad del mismo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue [...] evaluar agronómicamente un conjunto de poblaciones nativas de maíz colectadas en Tehuacán, para determinar su variación en rendimiento y calidad de elote. En 2009 se evaluaron 100 variedades en tres localidades bajo condiciones de riego, de las cuales 95 fueron colectadas en el área de Tehuacán. Las cinco restantes fueron dos variedades mejoradas y tres testigos raciales de Bolita, Celaya y Pepitilla. Se midieron 20 variables de planta y elote. Los resultados del análisis de varianza combinado mostraron en todas las variables evaluadas, excepto en una, diferencias altamente significativas (P ? 0.01) entre variedades, lo que indica la presencia de diversidad para tales características entre los maíces nativos estudiados. En rendimiento de elote, un grupo de 16 poblaciones nativas resultó sobresaliente (P ? 0.05). La variedad local TEH77 obtuvo el mayor número de características deseables para rendimiento y calidad de elote: rendimiento promedio de 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11.3 °Brix, 13.7 cm de longitud de mazorca, 5.5 cm de ancho de mazorca y 30.7 granos por hilera. Esta variedad superó al mejor híbrido comercial 'AS900' en 52, 23, 30, 33 y 47 % en rendimiento (kg·ha-1), contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), longitud y diámetro de mazorca (cm), número de hileras y granos por hilera, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the state of Puebla, Tehuacán is the most important region in the production of tender maize (Zea mays L.) sold on the cob. The varieties used are mainly native populations, whose potential for production and quality are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate agronomically a set of native [...] maize populations collected in Tehuacán to determine their variation in tender maize yield and quality. In 2009, 100 irrigated varieties were evaluated in three locations; of these 95 were collected in the Tehuacán area. The remaining five were two improved varieties and three control races: Bolita, Celaya and Pepitilla. Twenty variables were measured on plant and ear. The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ? 0.01) among varieties, except one, indicating presence of diversity for the characteristics measured among the native maize under study. In tender maize yield, the group of 16 native populations was outstanding (P ? 0.05). The local variety TEH77 had the highest number of desirable traits for yield and quality of tender maize ears: average yield 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11,3 °Brix, 13.7 cm ear length, 5.5 cm ear width and 39.7 grains per row. This variety surpassed the best commercial hybrid 'AS900' by 52, 23, 30, 33 and 47 % in yield kg·ha-1, total soluble solids content (°Brix), ear length and diameter (cm), number of rows and grains per row, respectively.

  1. High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dragana, Ignjatovic-Micic; Marija, Kostadinovic; Sofija, Bozinovic; Violeta, Andjelkovic; Jelena, Vancetovic.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collecti [...] on, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p

  2. Improvement in the grain yield capacity by mutagenesis in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two barley varieties, Kaya and Quantum, were treated with gamma rays to increase the grain yield capacity without changing the other agronomic and malting characteristics of the varieties. All the visible mutants were selected in the M2 generation; the base populations were constructed by randomly selecting normal looking plants. Repeated positive selection for grain yield was exercised from the M2 to the M5 in the mutant and the control populations. Selection pressure applied for grain yield has eliminated the visually selected mutants. Although it is difficult to detect polygenic mutations, it may be possible to improved the grain yield capacity by employing a micromutation technique, especially in the case of a good responding variety such as Kaya and a suitable dose such as 15 krad. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Can integration of legume trees increase yield stability in rain-fed maize cropping systems in Southern Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Sileshi, G.; Debusho, Legesse Kassa; Festus K. Akinnifesi

    2012-01-01

    Growing maize (Zea mays) in association with legume tree in agroforestry arrangements has been shown to increase yields in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the stability of crop yields has not been critically analyzed in the various cropping systems that integrate leguminous trees. The objective of this analysis was to compare yield stability in improved cropping systems, namely maize-Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) intercropping and fertilized monoculture maize, wi...

  4. Simultaneous Selection for Fodder and Grain Yield in Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, B. K.; M. Hasanuzzaman; F. El Taj; Alam, M. S.(State University of New York, 12222, Albany, New York, USA); Amin, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 31 selection indices were constructed on five characters in 33 diversed genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). High heretability couple with high genetic advance expected in the next generation and association of characters were the basis for choosing of the characters for discriminant function analysis. Green fodder yield and grain yield have to be simultaneously improved through selection. Amongst the single character selection indices, grains/panicle offered maximum genetic ...

  5. Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Nezarat, S.; Gholami, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In seco...

  6. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. ( approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongman M, Khare KB* and Khonga EB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55% and barley grains (3.46, 14 days, 13 days and 55.24% in terms of mycelium growth vigor, colonization time, spawn running time of the substrate and yield  of the oyster mushroom. Hot water treatment and steaming of substrate significantly reduced substrate contamination and improved mushroom yield as compared to the untreated control. Mushrooms grown on steamed substrates had significantly higher yield (BE: 69.4% than those grown on substrates treated with hot water (BE: 53.3%.

  8. Chemical Composition of Lignitic Humic Acid and Evaluating its Positive impacts on Nutrient Uptake, Growth and Yield of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignite derived humic acid (HA, obtained from Thar coal mines were extracted by 0.5 N KOH; characterized and used to evaluate its impact on maize yield and soil health. Having highest HA recovery (20% black coal derived HA were applied in different level [(@ no HA (HA0, 25 (HA1 and 50 (HA2 mg kg-1 soil] in conjoint with different nitrogen (N levels [no N application (N0 (150 (N1 and 300 (N2 mg kg-1]. Results showed that plant fresh biomass increased by 23% and 44% with application of HA at HA1 and HA2 respectively, about 23% increase was observed in dry plant biomass at both the HA levels. Cob weight and grain weight increased significantly (29% and 40% with HA at 25 and 50 mg kg -1 respectively vis as vis control (no HA applied, with N at 150 and 300 mg kg-1 the increase was 51% and 103%. The grain weight increased by 12% and 41% with HA1 and HA2 whereas, 31 % and 43 % with N application (N1 and N2 over the control. The HA application increased plant N contents by 20% and 26 %, P by 14% and 20% and K by 15% and 10% in HA1 and in HA2, respectively. Nutrient uptake also enhanced with both N and HA application. From the results it can be concluded that HA application along with N help improved growth, yield and nutrient uptake by maize.

  9. Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations

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    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min, and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM], calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM, iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM, zinc (>29.05 mg kg-1 DM and copper (>8.67 mg kg-1 DM concentrations, and their dietary use is therefore recommended. Cal-96 line presents higher Z index for grain yield and for the most of the minerals, and its use is recommended for crosses for the development of superior lines.

  10. Produtividade de milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde / Yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael de Lima, Lázaro; Antonio Carlos Torres da, Costa; Keoma de Freitas da, Silva; Marcos Vinicius Mansano, Sarto; José Barbosa, Duarte Júnior.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies antecessoras ao milho, capazes de fornecer nitrogênio pela fixação simbiótica ou reciclagem de nutrientes, é importante para a manutenção da produtividade. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produtividade do milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde. O delineamento experim [...] ental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: milho cultivado sobre a palhada de aveia preta, aveia preta + nabo forrageiro, aveia preta + tremoço branco, tremoço branco, crambe, vegetação espontânea e vegetação espontânea + adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, para a produtividade de grãos. O milho cultivado com a utilização de palhada de aveia preta + tremoço branco foi o mais produtivo (10.817 kg ha-1), apresentando rendimento superior e diferindo do milho cultivado sobre palhada de aveia preta, crambe e vegetação espontânea. O uso de tremoço branco, aveia preta + tremoço branco e aveia preta + nabo forrageiro é uma alternativa viável para se obter maior rendimento de grãos de milho, dispensando a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Abstract in english The use of previous crops which have the capacity of supplying nitrogen to maize by symbiotic fixation or nutrient recycling is important to yield maintenance. This study aimed at evaluating the yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization. A completely randomized blocks design was used [...] with four replications and the following treatments: maize grown on black oat, black oat + oilseed radish, black oat + white lupin, white lupin, crambe, spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) and spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) + topdressing nitrogen fertilization. Concerning grain yield, significant differences were observed among treatments. The maize grown on black oat + white lupin straw reached the highest yield (10,817 kg ha-1), resulting in a higher income and differing from the one grown on black oat and crambe straw and spontaneous vegetation. The use of white lupin, black oat + white lupin and black oat + oilseed radish showed to be a viable alternative for a higher grain yield, making the topdressing nitrogen fertilization unnecessary.

  11. Análise econômica da produtividade de grãos de milho consorciado com forrageiras dos gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum em sistema plantio direto / Economic analysis of grain yield of maize intercropped with forage plants of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in no-tillage system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cássia Maria de Paula, Garcia; Marcelo, Andreotti; Maria Aparecida Anselmo, Tarsitano; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto, Teixeira Filho; Ana Elisa da Silva, Lima; Salatiér, Buzetti.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) é uma alternativa de recuperação e renovação de pastagens degradadas, contudo, é importante mostrar sua viabilidade econômica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho [...] com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na ILP, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2009/2010, em Selvíria-MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com as forrageiras Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e cv. Mombaça. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de cultivo não reduziram a produtividade de grãos em relação ao milho cultivado sem consórcio, e o consórcio mais recomendado é o milho cultivado com B. ruziziensis, principalmente em semeadura simultânea, pois além de ter sido um dos mais produtivos, o preço dessa semente é o mais acessível, vindo alcançar maior Índice de Lucratividade que os demais tratamentos. Em geral, os cultivos simultâneos foram os mais produtivos, vindo a apresentar maior Receita Bruta, Custo Operacional Total (devido à aplicação do herbicida Sanson), menor Lucro Operacional (com exceção do MBS) e maior Índice de Lucratividade. Abstract in english The integrated crop-livestock (ILP) is an alternative recovery and renewal of degraded pastures; however, it is important to show its economic viability. The objective of this research was to analyse the yields and economic outcomes of modalities of growing corn with fodder of the genera Brachiaria [...] and Panicum in the ILP under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2009/2010 in Selvíria - MS, Brazil, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four repetitions and the treatments consisted of eight methods of cultivation of maize intercropped with Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania, Panicum maximum jacq cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst.) Stapf cv. MG-5, or Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, sown simultaneously or at side dressing nitrogen fertilization, besides single grown corn. The operating cost analysis was based on prices of inputs and operations, and gross revenue in the average selling price of corn in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The cropping systems didn't reduce the grain yield for maize comparatively to single grown, and the consotium more recommended is corn with B. ruziziensis, especially in simultaneously sowing, because besides being one of the most productive, the price of this seed is the most affordable, obtaining larger Profitability Index than the other treatments. In general, the simultaneous crops were the most productive, having a higher Gross Income, Total Operating Cost (due to herbicide application Sanson), lower Operating Profit (excluding MBS) and higher Profitability Index.

  12. Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Khorramabad, Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghalavand

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to use organic fertilizers and decrease chemical fertilizers consumption to reach sustainable agriculture. Thus, to study the effects of manure incorporation methods, and integrated effects of poultry manure with chemical fertilizers on the grain yield and yield components of maize, an experiment was conducted in 2004 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Lorestan Weather Department, 30 kms northeast of Khorramabad. The treatments were arranged in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of incorporation of fertilizer with soil by furrower or disk. The subplots included T0: control (no consumption of fertilizer and poultry manure; T1: 200, 100, and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively; T2: 80% of T1+ 4 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T3: 60% of T1+ 8 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T4: 40% of T1+ 12 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T5: 20% of T1+ 16 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; and T6: 20 ton ha-1 of poultry manure. The results showed that incorporation of fertilizer by furrower, compared with disk, led to significant increase in plant height, 1000 seed weight and grain and biological yields. However, there were not significant differences in the number of seed per ear and harvest index between the two fertilizer incorporation methods. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increase of the treats mentioned except for the harvest index. The interaction effects were not significant for any traits. T5 treatment produced the highest grain yield, and was significantly different from T0, T1, T3 and T6 treatments. The differences between T1 (chemical nutrition system and T6 (organic nutrition system were not significant either. Effectiveness of integrated poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on maize yield components was higher than either poultry manure or chemical fertilizer. The results of this experiment indicated that incorporation of 16 ton poultry manure + 40, 20 and 20 kg ha-1 N, P and K with furrower might be appropriate for maize prodution under conditions similar to this experiment.

  13. EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eche N. Mary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a “balanced” fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

  14. Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes

    OpenAIRE

    Brou Kouakou; Gbogouri Albarin; Ocho Anin Louise; Dede Theodore, Djeni N.; Kone Youssouf; Gnakri Dago

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeabi...

  15. Crescimento e produtividade de milho em função da cultura antecessora / Maize growth and yield according to the previous crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila de, Oliveira; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; João, Kluthcouski; Tomás de Aquino, Portes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas de cobertura, no sistema plantio direto, pode proporcionar melhores condições para o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, com reflexos positivos na produtividade de grãos. Mediante a técnica de análise de crescimento, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar o desempenho agronômic [...] o de milho cultivado sobre palhada de feijão comum, Brachiaria brizantha e milheto. O Experimento foi conduzido em solo de Cerrado, em Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com três tratamentos (palhadas de cobertura) e cinco repetições. A velocidade de decomposição da palhada de feijão comum foi maior que a de B. brizantha e milheto. Os maiores valores de acúmulo de matéria seca das folhas, colmos, espigas e total, bem como do índice de área foliar e produtividade de grãos de milho, foram obtidos quando o cultivo ocorreu sobre palhada de feijão comum. Abstract in english The use of cover crops in the no-tillage system can provide better conditions for the development of maize plants, with positive effects on grain yield. By using the growth analysis technique, this study aimed at characterizing the agronomic performance of maize on common bean, Brachiaria brizantha [...] and millet straw. The experiment was carried out in a Brazilian Savannah soil, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three treatments (cover crops) and five replications. The common bean straw decomposition rate was higher than the B. Brizantha and millet ones. The highest values for the dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, cobs and total, as well as leaf area index and maize grain yield, were observed when cultivated on common bean straw.

  16. The technology and properties of beer produced from unmalted sorghum or maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugboaja, F C; Bednarski, W; Babuchowski, A

    1991-03-01

    Three basic samples of beers were produced: A, B and C. The grit of A and B contained as unmalted adjuncts 15% (plus 10% of saccharose) and 25% of sorghum grains or maize grits, respectively. The reference beer C was produced with barley malt only. The study of the effects of the unmalted adjuncts on the brewing and the quality of beer revealed that: (a) the use of 15 to 20% of maize or 25% of sorghum increased the content of iso-compounds in wort; (b) the combination of maize grit and saccharose improved the colour of the wort and beer; (c) the addition of 25% sorghum extended saccharification time, slowed down both wort and beer filtration and also produced wort of a darker colour and beer with a slightly bitter aftertaste. PMID:24424936

  17. Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

  18. The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleti? Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

  19. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly MØller

    The maize area in northern Europe has increased dramatically during the last 20 years, in Denmark from 19,000 ha in 1990 to 172,000 ha in 2010. Knowledge about nitrogen (N) leaching from maize under temperate coastal climate conditions is sparse. In 2009 an N leaching study was started in a field trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize, each previous long-term treatment with soil tillage and cover crop was sub-divided into two, one with perennial ryegrass as cover crop and one without cover crop. The maize was sown in 2009 and 2010 and fertilized with 140 kg N ha-1. The objectives were to determine the effects on leaching of i) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn due to strong competition from the maize crop. The experiment shows that it is difficult for the perennial ryegrass variety used as cover crop to survive until harvest of grain maize and to reduce leaching substantially.

  20. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1 applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1. With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41 and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

  1. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos / Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Solange, França; João, Mielniczuk; Luís M. G., Rosa; Homero, Bergamaschi; João I., Bergonci.

    1143-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N) disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF), a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após [...] a emergência (DAE) em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M), aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C) e ervilhaca/milho (E/M) e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1) aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M) e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C). Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1). Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE), o maior IAF (4,41) e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%), enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE) e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE). O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N) to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI), shoot dry matter (SDM) production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with [...] three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata) and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1) applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1). The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1). With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41) and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

  2. Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Itala Paula de C. Almeida; Paulo Sérgio L. e Silva; Maria Z. de Negreiros; Zenaide Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 and DKB 747) were evaluated in the yield of baby corn, green ears and dry grains. Two experiments...

  3. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel; Shwu-En Chen

    2012-01-01

    During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions fo...

  4. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Ia?i contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

  5. Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

  6. Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient for maize grains ( Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa, Crestani; Rafael, Nornberg; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quali [...] ty.

  8. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  9. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Deitos; Emmanuel Arnhold; Freddy Mora; Glauco Vieira Miranda

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051) in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield...

  10. Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Tabu; R.K. Obura; Bationo, A; L. Nakhone

    2005-01-01

    Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols) were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and Mollic gleyso...

  11. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed HU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS. The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought.

  12. The fractal dimension of agricultural parcels considering maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, JR; Silva, LL; Sousa, AMO

    2012-01-01

    Before making any decisions, all farm managers would like to have some indication about the effectiveness of a particular investment, especially when investing in precision agriculture technologies. Usually, the best indicator should be associated with the yield geometric complexity and its spatial and temporal dynamics. The fractal dimension of corn yield in a given year was calculated for six studied parcels, considering the fractal dimension of yield buffer zones above and b...

  13. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual maize yields in Shandong, Henan, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia increased by 98.4, 90.4, 98.7, and 121.5 kg hm-2 yr-1 over the past 30 years, respectively. Correspondingly, the maize yields affected by technological advancement increased by 113.7, 97.9, 111.5, and 124.8 kg hm-2 yr-1, respectively. On the contrary, maize yields reduced markedly under climate change, with an average reduction of -9.0 kg hm-2 yr-1. Our findings highlight that agronomic technological advancement has contributed dominantly to maize yield increases in China in the past three decades.

  14. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

  15. Effect of Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Population Density on the Yield and Yield Attributes of Maize (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahbubul Alam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during the period from April to July 2001 to find out effect of 3 levels of plant population (53000, 66000, 80000 plants ha-1 and 4 levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 140, 180 and 220 kg ha-1 in silty clay loam soil. The results showed that the yield and yield attributes characters varied significantly due to the variation in population densities and nitrogen rates. The lower plant population (53000 plants ha-1 produced higher cobs plant-1, cob length, grains cob-1 and 1000-grain weight, but the higher plant population (66000 and 80000 plants ha-1 resulted significantly higher grain yield than lowest plant population. The increasing level of nitrogen improve the yield and yield attributes. Maximum values of yield attributes and that of grain yield were with the 2nd highest level of nitrogen (180 kg N ha-1. The highest grain yield (5.03 t ha-1 was recorded from 80000 plants ha-1 with 180 kg N ha-1.

  16. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tan?i?

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  17. Effect of Bt maize and soil insecticides on yield, injury, and rootworm survival: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Meinke, Lance J; Gray, Michael E; Estes, Ronald E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-10-01

    A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the effects on Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an insecticidal seed treatment (Poncho 1250, (AI)/clothianidin) and a granular insecticide (Aztec 2.1G, (AI)/tebupirimphos and cyfluthrin) alone and in combination with maize producing the insectidical toxin Cry3Bb1 derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Yields for Bt maize plots were significantly greater than for non-Bt maize; however, insecticides did not significantly affect yield. Insecticides significantly decreased root injury in non-Bt maize plots, but there were no significant differences in root injury between Bt maize with or without either insecticide. Maize producing the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 and the soil-applied insecticide Aztec significantly decreased survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), while only Bt maize significantly decreased survival of the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence). For both species, Bt maize and each of the insecticides delayed emergence. In the absence of density-dependent mortality, Bt maize imposed 71 and 80% reduction in survival on the western corn rootworm and the northern corn rootworm, respectively. The data from this study do not support combining insecticide with Bt maize because the addition of insecticide did not increase yield or reduce root injury for Bt maize, and the level of rootworm mortality achieved with conventional insecticide was likely too low to delay the evolution of Bt resistance. In addition, delays in emergence from Bt maize combined with insecticides could promote assortative mating among Bt-selected individuals, which may hasten resistance evolution. PMID:24224233

  18. Grain iron and zinc density in pearl millet: combining ability, heterosis and association with grain yield and grain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatti, Anand; Rai, Kedar N; Radhika, Kommineni; Govindaraj, Mahalingam; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Rao, Aluri S

    2014-01-01

    Genetics of micronutrients and their relationships with grain yield and other traits have a direct bearing on devising effective strategies for breeding biofortified crop cultivars. A line?×?tester study of 196 hybrids and their 28 parental lines of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.) showed large genetic variability for Fe and Zn densities with predominantly additive gene action and no better-parent heterosis. Hybrids with high levels of Fe and Zn densities, involved both parental lines having significant positive general combining ability (GCA), and there were highly significant and high positive correlations between performance per se of parental lines and their GCAs. There was highly significant and high positive correlation between the Fe and Zn densities, both for performance per se and GCA. Fe and Zn densities had highly significant and negative, albeit weak, correlations with grain yield and highly significant and moderate positive correlation with grain weight in hybrids. These correlations, however, were non-significant in the parental lines. Thus, to breed hybrids with high Fe and Zn densities would require incorporating these micronutrients in both parental lines. Also, simultaneous selection for Fe and Zn densities based on performance per se would be highly effective in selecting for GCA. Breeding for high Fe and Zn densities with large grain size will be highly effective. However, combining high levels of these micronutrients with high grain yield would require growing larger breeding populations and progenies than breeding for grain yield alone, to make effective selection for desirable recombinants. PMID:25674488

  19. Grain yield and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat and pea in a high yielding environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Sandaña; D, Pinochet.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of grain yield, phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE, g yield g-1 P available) and related root traits of wheat and pea to different P availabilities in a high yielding environment (e.g.: yield higher than 10 Mg ha-1 for wheat). Two experiments [...] were conducted in southern Chile. Treatments consisted of the combination of (i) two crops (spring-bred wheat and pea) and (ii) three rates of P fertilization (0 (P0), 100 (P1) and 250 (P2) kg P ha-1). Grain yield of wheat was more sensitive to P deficiency than pea. Wheat showed consistently higher (P

  20. Effect of time of sowing and system Brachiaria brizantha intercropped with maize on yield components and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edleusa Pereira Seidel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4; sown in two seasons and two seeding systems in space between two rows, and to evaluate the effect of intercropping on maize yield, as well as evaluating the physical properties of the soil after the consortium. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2010, the Municipality of Quatro Pontes/PR. The experimental design was randomized blocks as a factorial 2x2, and an additional treatment that was corn cultivation single, with four replications. The treatments consisted two intercropping systems: corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in the row, and corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in space between two rows, and two times of sowing Brachiaria brizantha: simultaneously corn, and twenty-five days after sowing corn. The seed was planted mechanically in no-tillage system, with spacing between the lines of 0,70 m. The ears were harvested by hand and in the laboratory were evaluated: yield components and productivity. Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4 was sown and harvested manually. We evaluated the production of fresh and dry mass and yield components. For soil analyzes the soil was sampled at 0-0.10 and 0,10-0,20 m. Were determined the total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. The results demonstrated that the production components of Brachiaria brizantha were lower when it was sown twenty-five days after sowing corn, and between sowing systems when Brachiaria brizantha was sown in line. There was no reduction in grain yield of maize intercropped with Brachiaria system independent and sowing date. The consortium of pasture with corn increased the total porosity, and reduced soil bulk density.

  1. Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

  2. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vrani?

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  3. Application of a New Mathematical Model for Estimating Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Karadavut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out International Agricultural Research Institute’s experimental areas in Konya province in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. In the research, three corn cultivars (P 3394, DK 585 and NS 640 were tested in randomized complete block design with four replications. The interelation between the productivity of Zea mays and the increasing of it’s generative organs during the phenological phase ‘tasseling-milky ripeness’, as far as the dependence of this relation on some factors influencing crop grow, provide a basis for a quantity analysis left to this work. The potantial yield of the used hybrid was the only parametric index from the stock of the growth limiting factors, which take part in the analysis. Environmental factors, especially sum of effective temperatures, precipitation and nitorgen supply, were strongly effected yield formation. The interrelation between these factors gave us a real possibility to determine the function of the growth and yield.

  4. Determinantes de la oferta de maíz grano en México / Supply determinants of grain maize in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugenio, Guzmán-Soria; María Teresa, de la Garza-Carranza; José Alberto, García-Salazar; Juvencio, Hernández-Martínez; Samuel, Rebollar-Rebollar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y analizar los factores que afectan la oferta de maíz grano en México. Se usó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto por dos de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad; durante el periodo de 1980 a 2010. La oferta de m [...] aíz grano en México, con base en los resultados, responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y temporal, con elasticidades precio-propias de 0,3025 y 0,2282; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta total de maíz son los registrados en el precio del plaguicida con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,4108; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactaron fueron los registrados en el sorgo, con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,2898, si es producido bajo riego y de -0,1531 en temporal. El precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal en México es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0,64 y 0,62% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el de mayoreo a niveles de 0,31 y 0,24% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en estos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine and analyze the factors that affect maize grain supply in Mexico. An econometric model of simultaneous equations composed of two supply equations, three transmission prices and one identity; during the period from 1980 to 2010. Based on the results of the [...] model, the supply of maize grain in Mexico responds inelastically to changes in the price of maize produced under irrigation and temporary, with elasticities own-price of 0,3025 and 0,2282, changes in input prices that more affect the total offer are pesticide prices, with a cross-price elasticity of -0,4108; changes in the competitive product that more impacted maize supply was sorghum, with a crossprice elasticity of -0,2898, if produced under irrigation and -0,1531 if produced in temporary. The price to the producer of maize grown under irrigation and temporary in Mexico is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0,64 and 0,62% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence the wholesale price at levels of 0,31 and 0,24% for every unit percentage change in them.

  5. Maize Growth and Yield under Daytime and Nighttime Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavero Campo, José; Jiménez, Laura; Puig Basa, Miriam; Faci González, José María; Martínez-Cob, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Nighttime sprinkler irrigation usually results in lower wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) and better irrigation uniformity compared with daytime irrigation. However, daytime sprinkler irrigation modifies the microclimatic conditions within the crop canopy which could result in improved crop growth. We studied the effect of daytime and nighttime irrigation on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) irrigated with a solid-set sprinkler system. Two irrigation treatments were tested: ...

  6. Modeling Future Land Use, Regional Climate, and Maize Yields in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N.; Pijanowski, B.; Lofgren, B.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Climate-Land Interactions Project -CLIP-- is studying regional climate dynamics coupled to land cover/land use change (LCLUC) in East Africa. Projections of LCLUC in East Africa reflect dramatic shifts in population, socioeconomic drivers, and distributions of agriculture and pastoralism. These shifts in LCLUC in turn are expected to strongly perturb phenology and vegetation cover. Such large-scale trends can influence crop cultivation and maize yields. In addition to LCLUC, climate change due to greenhouse gas concentrations is also expected to influence the growing season and the yields of maize cultivation in the region. Here we present an integrated projection of East Africa's crop-climate system under a future climate state via CCSM and a future land use state via the Land Transformation Model. We join a regional climate model (the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS) with the DSSAT-CERES-maize crop model to assess changes in maize yield. The projections are made at current (2000-2009) and future (2050-2059) states, with land use change projections based on estimates of future shifts in demographics and current land use trends. We present differences in temperature and precipitation between current and future states along with associated projections of annual crop yield. These comparisons between the current conditions (Case 1), greenhouse gas effects only (Case 2), LCLUC effects only (Case 3), and the synergistic combined effects (Case 4) will illustrate potential relative impacts of LCLUC versus greenhouse climate change and identify regions of particular sensitivity to these coming changes. We also examine different impacts on the highlands and coasts as well as unexpected results of LCLUC on climate - e.g. does inland moisture transport decline due to increased coastal agriculture?

  7. Effects of storage temperature on the fungal and chemical spoilage of maize grains and flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and fungal spoilage of maize grains and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow varieties in relation to time temperature (10 C, 15 C, 20 C and room (30-56 C) storage period at 8-12 months was studied. The results showed that total fungal counts and percent infestation markedly increased with advanced storage and increased temperature. Percentage germination generally decreased during extended storage. Peroxide values of both the grain and flour increased with increasing temperature and storage time. At the end of one year storage the total fungal counts in the grain and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 13.6x10/sup 12/ - 20.0x10/sup 13/ and Yellow ranged 17.1x10/sup 13/ - 22.1x10/sup 14/ respectively. germination and infestation percentage of the grains of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 76-78% and 96-99%. The peroxide value ranged 6.6-7.0 and 6.4-6.8 meg/Kg in the grain and flour of Sarhad White respectively after one year storage. There was more fungal infestation, fungal counts and peroxidation in the grain and flour Sarhad Yellow than that of Sarhad White. (author)

  8. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Maize Yield Water Constraints under Climate Change in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent “hot-spots” in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity. PMID:24878747

  9. Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailovi? Vojislav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

  10. Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nezarat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area. The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

  11. Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significanest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

  12. Effect of Bio-phosphate and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizer Accompanied with Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Yield, Quality and Phosphorus and Zinc Concentration of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Galavi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran during 2008-2009 to evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizer, phosphorus and foliar application of micronutrients on dry matter accumulation, yield, and phosphorus and zinc concentration of maize (Zea mays L.. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four replications was followed in the study. The micronutrients foliar application in two levels (foliar application and non foliar application were the main plots, and four levels of phosphate (T1: 0 (no fertilizer, T2: 100 kg ha-1 P2O5, T3: 100g bio-phosphate, T4: 100g bio-phosphate with 50 kg ha-1 P2O5 as the sub plots. Results showed that micronutrients foliar application and biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers had a significant influence on dry matter accumulation. The maximum dry matter accumulation was obtained by applying 50 kg/ha P2O5 plus bio-fertilizer. Grain yield, 1000-seed weight and protein content of grain were significantly affected by micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers treatments. Micronutrients foliar application and phosphorus fertilizers interaction had no significantly effect on grain yield, 1000-seed weight and grain protein content. Grain phosphorus and zinc concentration where significantly increased by application of micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers.

  13. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Phosphorus Fertilizer Use Efficiency, Mycorrhizal Dependence and Maize Yield under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorchiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency, mycorrhizal dependence and grain yield and dry matter yield of maize under water deficit conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments in this experiment were included as follows: irrigation (normal irrigation and water deficit stress based on evaporation from class A pan evaporation; combined different seed inoculations with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment of chemical phosphate fertilizer (non- consumption of phosphate fertilizer, consumption of 50 percent of triple superphosphate fertilizer needed, and consumption of rock phosphate, based on the quantity of consumed phosphorus of triple superphosphate source. The results showed that effects of irrigation, seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens biological phosphate fertilizer and chemical phosphate fertilizer were significant on yield and yield components, dry matter yield, relative agronomic efficiency and root colonization. Mild stress significantly reduced grain yield, relative agronomic efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency compared to optimum irrigation. Results showed that grain and dry matter yield are highly correlated with root colonization under mild stress condition. Maximum mycorrhizal dependence was obtained in mild stress condition. Maximum relative agronomic efficiency, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, yield and yield components was related to seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of triple superphosphate fertilizer were increased grain yield in comparison with rock phosphate along with inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. However, maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal dependence was achieved in non- consumption treatment of phosphate fertilizer.

  14. Physical-chemical characterization and wet milling yield of four maize hybrids / Caracterização físico-química e rendimento da moagem úmida de quatro híbridos de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata C., Mussolini; José F., Lopes Filho; Aildson P., Duarte.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a influência da aparência e as características físico-químicas do grão de milho e da concentração de ácido lático durante a maceração nos rendimentos de subprodutos da moagem úmida convencional, quatro híbridos de milho foram caracterizados e macerados em duas concentrações de ácido l [...] ático (0,55% e 1,00%). Para a caracterização físico-química dos grãos, foram determinadas suas dimensões (comprimento, espessura e largura), massa de cem grãos, porcentagem de grãos boiantes, massa volumétrica e análise da composição centesimal. Diferenciaram-se estatisticamente entre os grãos a porcentagem de grãos boiantes (2,33% a 24,67%), massa volumétrica (0,810 kg L-1 a 0,850 kg L-1), massa de cem grãos (0,033 kg a 0,037 kg), teor de água (11,86% a 12,20%), proteínas (8,21% a 9,06%), lipídeos (3,00% a 4,77%) e cinzas (1,07% a 1,26%). Verificou-se que não há relação entre a aparência ou a composição química dos grãos com seus rendimentos de subprodutos na moagem úmida. A adição de 1,00% de ácido lático não proporcionou, estatisticamente, melhores rendimentos de subprodutos, entretanto facilitou a separação dos componentes do grão. Abstract in english The influence of physical-chemical characteristics of maize grains and lactic acid concentrations on byproduct yields, generated by conventional wet milling, was studied during steeping, for four maize hybrids and two lactic acid concentrations (0.55 and 1.00%). For physical-chemical characterizatio [...] n, grain dimensions (length, thickness, and width) were determined, as well as mass of 100 grains, percentage of floating grains, volumetric mass, and centesimal composition. Statistical differences were found for percentage of floating grains (2.33 to 24.67%), volumetric mass (0.814 to 0.850 kg.L-1), mass of 100 grains (0.033 to 0.037 kg), water content (11.86 to 12.20%), proteins (8.21 to 9.06%), lipids (3.00 to 4.77%), and ashes (1.07 to 1.26%). There were no relationships of wet milling yields with maize appearance and physical-chemical characteristics. The addition of 1.00% lactic acid did not statistically improve byproduct yields; however, it favored separation of the grain components.

  15. Efficacy of Different Herbicides on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Azim Khan; Khan Bahadar Marwat; Naeem Khan; Ijaz Ahmad Khan

    2003-01-01

    The research work was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize hybrid P-3203. The treatments were pre-emergence application of dual gold (S-metolachlor) at 1.92, primextra (atrazine + metolachlor) at 2.25, treflan (trifluralin) at 1.5, stomp (pendimethalin) at 0.75 and jinong (atrazine) at 0.90 kg a.i. ha-1 and post-emergence application of 2,4-D at 0.80 and banvel (dicamba) at 0.84 kg a.i. ha-1. The treatments increased plant height (cm), cob lengt...

  16. Effect of Various Doses of Nitrogen on the Growth, Yield and Protein Content of two Maize (Zea mays L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ali

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 1996, standard variety Golden out yielded EV-6089 due to more number of grains and 1000-grain weight. Highest grain yield of 6.28 t ha -1 and maximum grain protein content of 10.07% were obtained by applying 230 kg N ha -1.

  17. Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

  18. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  19. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure irrespective of topsoil removal, compared to NPK + urea which was only effective without topsoil removal. Therefore, poultry manure was a better soil ameliorant than NPK + urea after topsoil removal. (author)

  20. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. EKUNWE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  1. Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 aultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

  2. Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Priya A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY and susceptibilityindex (S were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY was significantly positivelycorrelated with number of leaves, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of primary branches per panicle,number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, number of chaffs per panicle and boot leaf breadthwhen evaluated under controlled irrigation condition. But none of the above traits had significant positive correlation withSPY in upland condition. In the path analysis, it was found out that number of productive tillers per plant has a high positivedirect effect and most of other traits showed negligible or low direct effect in lowland condition, but in upland conditionnone of the factors are having high direct effects towards SPY. From the S and RY, it was found that the local land racesand drought tolerant varieties MDU 5, TKM11 etc., performed well under upland condition

  3. An Approach for Identifying of Fusarium Infected Maize Grains by Spectral Analysis in the Visible and Near Infrared Region, SIMCA Models, Parametric and Neural Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetelina Draganova; Plamen Daskalov; Rusin Tsonev

    2010-01-01

    An approach for identifying of Fusarium infected single maize grains based on diffuse reflectance in visible and near infrared region is proposed in the paper. Spectral characteristics were collected in the range 400-2500 nm in steps of 2 nm. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) is used for data processing. Maize grains classification is based on SIMCA classifier and Probabilistic neural network (PNN). Recognition accuracy which is achieved for both classes of grains is respecti...

  4. Rendimiento de las generaciones F1 y F2 de híbridos trilineales de maíz en los valles altos de México / Grain yield of the F1 and F2 generations of three-way maize hybrids in the high valleys of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Espinosa-Calderón; M, Tadeo-Robledo; I, Arteaga-Escamilla; A, Turrent-Fernández; M, Sierra-Macías; N, Gómez-Montiel; A, Palafox-Caballero; R, Valdivia-Bernal; V, Trejo-Pastor; E, Canales-Islas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En México se usa 25% de semilla mejorada de maíz y 75% de semillas criollas ó variedades mejoradas acriolladas (generaciones avanzadas de híbridos). El precio de la semilla híbrida F1, es el más alto del mundo, esto limita un mayor uso, por lo que se emplea semilla obtenida de la propia parcela de h [...] íbridos, dado que en los Valles Altos los híbridos que se siembran en mayor superficie son H-50 y H-48, en este trabajo se estableció como objetivo definir la productividad de las generaciones F1 y F2 de los híbridos H-48, H-50, H-153, H-50 AE y H-47 AE, los cuales se evaluaron en el ciclo primavera-verano 2007 en dos experimentos; en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) de la UNAM y en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del INIFAP. El análisis estadístico combinado detectó para rendimiento diferencias altamente significativas para localidades, genotipos, generaciones F1 F2, así como para la interacción genotipos x generaciones F1 F2. La media de rendimiento fue 8 560 kg ha-¹ y el coeficiente de variación fue 18.8%. En CEVAMEX la media de rendimiento fue 10 053 kg ha-¹ diferente estadísticamente a la FESC donde la media fue 7 069 kg ha ¹. La generación F1 en promedio rindió 9 985 kg ha-¹ que representó 139.9% con respecto a la generación F2 que produjo 7 137 kg ha-¹. Los resultados obtenidos ratifican que no es conveniente el uso de semilla de la generación F2, por el decremento en productividad ya que la diferencia en rendimiento justifica la adquisición de semilla nueva cada ciclo. Abstract in english In Mexico, 25% of improved maize seed and 75% of native seed or improved native varieties (advanced generations of hybrids) are used. The price of the F1 hybrid seed is the highest in the world, limiting its greater use, for which reason farmers use seeds from their own plots of hybrid seeds. In the [...] high valleys of Mexico, the maize hybrids most planted are the H-50 and H-48. The purpose of this study was to determine the productivity of the F1 and F2 generations of the hybrids H-48, H-50, H-153 H-50 AE and H-47 AE. They were evaluated during the 2007 Spring-Summer season in two experiments carried out at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) of the UNAM and the experimental station Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) of the INIFAP. With respect to yield, the combined statistical analysis detected highly significant differences for localities, genotypes and F1 F2 generations, as well as for the interaction genotypes x F1 F2 generations. Mean yield was 8 560 kg ha-¹ and the coefficient of variation was 18.8%. The mean yield obtained at the CEVAMEX was 10 053 kg ha¹. This was statistically different from that recorded in the FESC where a mean of 7 069 kg ha-¹ was logged. The F1 generation yielded 9 985 kg ha-¹ on average, which represented 139.9% with respect to the F2 generation that produced 7 137 kg ha¹. The results indicate that the use of F2 generation seeds is not convenient due to a decrease in productivity, and that the difference in yield justifies acquiring new seeds every season.

  5. Yield of Silage Maize as Affected by Compaction Treatments at the Planting Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ebubekir Altuntas; Faruk Taser, O.; Kara, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effects of the different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and plant properties and dry matter yield of second crop silage maize were investigated. Soil compaction was applied in the forms of the following treatments; Compaction on Furrow Surface (CFS), Compaction on Furrow Bottom (CFB), Compaction on Inter Rows (CIR) and non-compaction as a Control (C). The tire-soil contact pressures were selected as 0.025, 0.051 and 0.076 MPa control t...

  6. Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Nematode Densities and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a yard waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and forage yield of maize (Zea mays) were determined over three seasons in two sites in north Florida. In each test, the experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replications and three treatments: 269 mt/ha of a yard waste compost C:N ratio = 35:1 to 46:1) applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Of the nematodes found in ...

  7. Compositional equivalence of grain from multi-trait drought-tolerant maize hybrids to a conventional comparator: univariate and multivariate assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Goodacre, Royston; Harrigan, George G

    2014-10-01

    MON 87460 (D1) maize contains a gene that expresses the cold shock protein B (CSPB) from Bacillus subtilis to confer a yield advantage when yield is limited by water availability. This study evaluated the composition of grain from the D1-containing combined-trait maize hybrids D1 × NK603, D1 × MON 89034 × NK603, and D1 × MON 89034 × MON 88017. These stacks offer a combination of insect protection and herbicide tolerance traits. These hybrids were grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions at three replicated field sites across Chile during the 2006-2007 growing season. Compositional analyses included measurement of proximates, fibers, total amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, raffinose, phytic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The statistical analyses included an evaluation of the applicability of multiblock principal component analysis (MB-PCA) and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) to studies when more than one experimental factor will contribute to compositional variability. Results from these multivariate procedures highlighted that water treatment was the greatest contributor to compositional variability and, as expected, confirmed that the grain of combined-trait drought-tolerant hybrids was compositionally equivalent to that of conventional comparators as established by traditional statistical significance testing. PMID:25175069

  8. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Kamaluddin; Rishi M., Singh; Lal C., Prasad; Malik Z., Abdin; Arun K., Joshi.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) parents (n = 11) and their F1 (n = 55) and F2 (n = 55) offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD), GFD for growing degree days (GDD), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of varianc [...] e for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low). The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  9. Thirteen week rodent feeding study with grain from molecular stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran protected (DP-ØØ4114-3) maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Bryan; Karaman, Sule; Roper, Jason; Hoban, Denise; Sykes, Greg; Mukerji, Pushkor; Frame, Steven R

    2013-03-01

    The results from a subchronic feeding study conducted in Sprague–Dawley rats fed with diets containing grain from 4114 (OECD unique identifier: DP-ØØ4114-3) maize that was untreated (4114) or sprayed in field with glufosinate ammonium (4114GLU) in a design similar to previous studies are reported. The test material, 4114 maize, is a hybrid maize produced by transformation with a DNA construct encoding 4 different transgenic proteins for resistance to lepidopteran pests, coleopteran pests, and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate ammonium. There were a total of 144 rats divided into 12 groups of 12 rats/sex/group. All experimental diets were formulated by Purina Mills, LLC (St. Louis, MO) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet® Certified Rodent LabDiet® 5002. The incorporation rate of maize grain in all diets was 32% (wt/wt). No biologically significant, treatment related differences in body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, or organ weight) were observed in rats consuming the diets containing 4114 maize grain compared with rats fed conventional maize diets. A number of histologic observations were noted in this study but were background lesions and representative of what would be expected for rats of this age and strain. An independent panel of experts determined certain observations to be spontaneous and not related to the test diet. Accordingly, these results support the conclusion that 4114 maize grain is as safe and nutritious as conventional maize grain. PMID:23261672

  10. Genetic variability for carotenoid content of grains in a composite maize population

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Volmir, Kist; Vanessa Stainbach, Albino; Marcelo, Maraschin; Juliana Bernardi, Ogliari.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local maize (Zea mays L.) varieties are cultivated by small-scale farmers in western Santa Catarina (SC) State, in southern Brazil. These small areas frequently present many problems related to biotic and non-biotic stresses, which have limited the economic output and income of the farmers. Producti [...] on from local varieties for human consumption would be an alternative way of improving income and stimulating on farm conservation. The genetic variability of the total carotenoid content (TCC) of kernels in a local maize population was evaluated for their economic exploitation potential as biofortified food. Two independent samples of 96 half-sib families (HSF) plus four checks were evaluated in two groups of experiments in western SC and each one was carried out in two environments. They were set out in a 10 × 10 partially balanced lattice with three replications per location; plots consisted of one row, 5.0 m long with 1.0 m between rows. TCC ranged from 11 to 23 µg g-1, averaging ?16 µg g-1 in the pooled analysis over the two sets. The local composite population exhibited genetic variability in order to increase the TCC of grains in the second cycle of selection by the convergent-divergent scheme.

  11. Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye, MT.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage period, all granaries were artificially infested with 7 pairs Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais. No damage, losses or live insects were observed during 7 months of storage when maize cobs were placed between layers of H. spicigera. Compared with the control, incorporation of insecticidal plants within the granary bottom had no significant effect on the damage and loss level irrespective of the storage mode. Non-winnowed maize always suffered less damage and losses than the winnowed variant. In all granaries depredation, insect abundance and moisture content were highest toward the end of storage period between June and July.

  12. PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Mandal; Banerjee, M; H BANERJEE; A ALIPATRA; G C MALIK

    2014-01-01

    A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2) INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUN...

  13. Effect of Legume Intercrops and Nitrogen Levels on the Yield Performance of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim Hussain; Imran Haider Shamsi; Sherin Khan; Habib Akbar; Wajid Ali Shah

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the beneficial effect of legumes and inorganic quantities of N on maize crop. Different levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 were used. Besides maize alone, intercrops were; maize+mungbean, maize+pigeon pea and maize+janter. Maize @ 40, mungbean 20, pigeon pea 50 and janter at 25 kg ha-1 were used respectively. Maximum seedlings emerged m?2 (40.20) was obtained at 120 kg N ha-1 in maize alone. Maximum days (61.7) to earing were taken by ma...

  14. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo De, Carli; Bruna, Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata, Noreña; Irineu, Lorini; Adriano, Brandelli.

    1469-14-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dia [...] s a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2. Abstract in english The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concen [...] trations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.

  15. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

  16. Biochemical constraints that determine protein quality and grain yield in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most cereal grain proteins are nutritionally poor because of the high proportion of prolamin, which is deficient in lysine. Improved protein quality mutants in maize, barley and sorghum have a lower proportion of prolamin and a higher albumin content. Protein accumulation in high-lysine mutants of maize and sorghum is more rapid during the early stages of grain development than in normal grains. Higher protein concentration during early grain development in high-lysine mutants was associated with increased levels of soluble amino nitrogen, glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate-oxaloacetate amino transferase activity. Regulatory control of mRNA synthesis for prolamin is important in determining protein quality. Post-translational modification of proteins may account for the loss of protein lysine during later stages of maturity. Starch synthesis studies indicate a decreased rate of starch accumulation during the later stages of grain development in high-lysine maize. Regulatory controls on starch synthesis in high-lysine mutants are discussed. (author)

  17. Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium B.P. maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Ranere, Anthony J.; Holst, Irene; Iriarte, Jose; Dickau, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Questions that still surround the origin and early dispersals of maize (Zea mays L.) result in large part from the absence of information on its early history from the Balsas River Valley of tropical southwestern Mexico, where its wild ancestor is native. We report starch grain and phytolith data from the Xihuatoxtla shelter, located in the Central Balsas Valley, that indicate that maize was present by 8,700 calendrical years ago (cal. B.P.). Phytolith data also indicate an early preceramic p...

  18. The impact of Ni, Co and Mo supplementation on methane yield from anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evranos, Beyza; Demirel, Burak

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to demonstrate the impact of trace metal supplementation, namely nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo), on the methane yields obtained from batch mesophilic anaerobic digestion of maize silage as mono-substrate. The maize silage used in this experimental work initially lacked Ni and Co. Trace metal concentration selected was 0.1 and 0.5?mg/L for Ni and Co, respectively, while it was 0.05 and 0.25?mg/L for Mo. The supplementation by Ni, Co and Mo, individually or in combination at different doses, seemed to improve the methane yields for mono-digestion of maize silage and particularly, the highest methane yield of 0.429?L CH4/g VSadded was obtained, when Ni, Co and Mo were supplemented together at concentrations of 0.5, 0.5 and 0.25?mg/L, respectively. PMID:25495753

  19. Relationships between Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat under Different Water Availability (Dryland and Supplemental Irrigation Conditions)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kazem SHEFAZADEH; Rahmatollah KARIMIZADEH; Peyman SHARIFI; MOHAMMADI2, Mohtasham

    2012-01-01

    Path and correlation analysis were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during two years (2009-2011) under supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions. Field experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield showed positive correlation with plant height and test weight under supplemental irrigation condition. The similar results we...

  20. Factor Analysis for Quantitative Traits and Path Analysis for Grain Yield in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Saeidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available   In this study, factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors which contributed to the variation of quantitative traits and path analysis was performed to find the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in bread wheat. A doubled haploid population of 157 lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was evaluated for agronomic and morphological traits, using a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2003 and 2004. The results of factor analysis based on maximum likelihood indicated five factors explaining 80.4% and 73.9% of total variation in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The first factor in 2003 had 30.5% contribution to the total variation, strongly influenced by the traits of pollination date, heading date, flag leaf length and days to maturity. This factor also indicated the negative relationship among the yield components and the importance of relationship between grain yield and some morphological traits. The first factor in 2004 was more affected by grain weight/spike, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, thus it was named as grain yield factor. The second and third factors in 2003 were considered as plant height and grain yield and in 2004 as maturity and plant height, respectively. The results of path analysis showed that grains/spike had the most direct and positive effects on grain yield in 2003 (1.33 and 2004 (0.87. Because of the negative and high indirect effects of grains/spike via fertile spikes/m2 and 1000-grains weight on grain yield, the correlation coefficient between grain yield and grains/spike was very low. There was not much difference between the phenotypic and genetic direct effects of spike/m2 on grain yield, indicating that their relationship was less affected by environmental conditions. In general, the results showed that grains/spike and spikes/m2 can be more efficient compared to 1000- grains weight for increasing grain yield and can be used as selection indices in breeding programs. Also, according to the results of factor analysis, selection based on the fourth factor including biological yield, spike/m2 and grain yield as selection index can be effective to improve grain yield in breeding programs.

  1. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawsoil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  2. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sa soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  3. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling. Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuva de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos.

  4. How model and input uncertainty impact maize yield simulations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter; Wang, Enli

    2015-02-01

    Crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in studies on food security and global change. Various uncertainties however exist, not only in the model design and model parameters, but also and maybe even more important in soil, climate and management input data. We analyze the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM and the global scale crop model LPJmL with different climate and soil conditions under different agricultural management in the low-input maize-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. We test the models’ response to different levels of input information from little to detailed information on soil, climate (1961–2000) and agricultural management and compare the models’ ability to represent the observed spatial (between locations) and temporal variability (between years) in crop yields. We found that the resolution of different soil, climate and management information influences the simulated crop yields in both models. However, the difference between models is larger than between input data and larger between simulations with different climate and management information than between simulations with different soil information. The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models even with little information on soils and management but APSIM simulates a higher variation between single locations than LPJmL. The agreement of simulated and observed temporal variability is lower due to non-climatic factors e.g. investment in agricultural research and development between 1987 and 1991 in Burkina Faso which resulted in a doubling of maize yields. The findings of our study highlight the importance of scale and model choice and show that the most detailed input data does not necessarily improve model performance.

  5. Comparative evaluation of modified neem leaf, neem leaf and woodash extracts on soil fertility improvement, growth and yields of maize (Zea mays L. and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Sole and Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Akure (7oN, 5o101E in the rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2006 and 2007 to determine the effectiveness of neem leaf, woodash and modified neem leaf extracts as fertilizer sources in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus sole and intercrop. There were six treatments namely, poultry manure, neem leaf extract (sole, woodash extract, modified neem leaf (neem leaf + woodash, NPK 15-15-15 and a control (no fertilizer nor extract, replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB. The extracts (neem leaf, wood ash and modified neem leaf were applied at 1200 litres per hectare each, NPK 15-15-15 at 300 kg/ha and poultry was applied at 6t/ha. The results showed that there were significant increases (P < 0.05 in the maize growth and yield parameters (leaf area, plant height stem girth grain yield, cob weight and % shelling percentage as well as in watermelon (vine length, stem girth, number of branches, fruits weight, population and fruit diameter under sole and intercrop compared to the control treatment. Generally, the growth and yield parameters values were slightly higher under the sole crop than the intercrop. The modified neem leaf extract increased the plant height and stem girth of maize (sole by 11.78% and 27.43% respectively compared to that of neem leaf extract and the same trend of increase was experienced in maize (intercrop where modified neem leaf extract increased plant height and stem girth by 11.5% and 24.48% compared to neem leaf. Poultry manure also increased the maize leaf area (sole and intercrop compared to the extracts and NPK 15-15-15. For instance, under maize (sole, the poultry manure increased the leaf area by 8.74% compared to NPK 15-15-15. For yield parameters of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop, modified neem leaf increased most all values of yield parameters compared to neem leaf and woodash extract. For example, modified neem leaf increased the values of sole maize grain yield, cob weight by 65.63% and 57.58% respectively compared to neem leaf extract. The LER value for maize and watermelon (intercrop and sole was 2.61 while relative yield is 1.575 or 157.5%. For soil fertility improvement after harvesting, modified neem leaf extract and poultry manure had the highest values of soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N compared to NPK 15-15-15 and neem leaf extract. For instance, modified neem leaf extract increased soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N by 12.4%, 32.8%, 25%, 23.7%, 19.32%, 17.24% and 20% respectively compared to neem leaf extract under intercrop plot. The high soil K/Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios in the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer treatment led to an imbalance in the supply of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients to maize and watermelon crops. The least values for growth, yield and soil parameters were recorded under the control treatment. In these experiments, modified neem leaf extract (woodash + neem leaf extracts applied at 1200 litres/ha was the most effective in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop and could substitute for 6 tons per hectare of poultry manure and 300kg/ha of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer.

  6. Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo R., Matiello; Maria Teresa G., Lopes; Kátia R., Brunelli; Luis Eduardo A., Camargo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatmen [...] ts arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf and tasseling stage). Internal lesion length, adjusted yield, and yield components (length, diameter and ear weight) were evaluated 120 days after emergence. Significant differences in yield and ear weight were detected in the susceptible hybrid inoculated at the earliest stage: yield was reduced by 16.1 and 20.2% in the first and second experiment, respectively. Although lesion length in the susceptible hybrid was approximately three times greater than in the resistant, there were no significant differences in lesion length among treatments for each hybrid. However, there were differences in the number of dead plants and ear weight. It is suggested that damage caused by early infection with C. graminicola results mainly from plant death and reduction in ear weigh rather than from the extent of colonization of the stalk.

  7. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  8. Potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole grain sorghum and maize lager brewing and bioethanol production through grain genetic modification and phytase treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Johanita; Oelofse, Andre; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, J. R. N.

    2012-01-01

    Brewing and bioethanol production with raw grain and exogenous enzymes produces wort with satisfactory hot water extract (HWE). However, the free amino nitrogen (FAN) and mineral content can be too low, owing to low protein digestibility (PD) and phytate–mineral chelation, respectively. This study evaluated the potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole sorghum and maize brewing and bioethanol production by genetic modification (GM) of sorghum to improve PD and reduce phytate...

  9. Simulating maize yield in sub?tropical conditions of southern Brazil using Glam model / Simulação do rendimento de milho em condições subtropicais do Sul do Brasil por meio do modelo Glam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Homero, Bergamaschi; Simone Marilene Sievert da, Costa; Timothy Robert, Wheeler; Andrew Juan, Challinor.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade de se estimar a produção de milho numa região subtropical do Sul do Brasil por meio do "general large area model" (Glam). Foi utilizada uma série de 16 anos de dados meteorológicos diários. O modelo foi ajustado e testado como alternativa para simu [...] lar rendimentos de milho em pequena e grande escala espacial. Os rendimentos de milho simulados e observados estiveram altamente correlacionados (R acima de 0,8; p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of simulating maize yield in a sub?tropical region of southern Brazil using the general large area model (Glam). A 16?year time series of daily weather data were used. The model was adjusted and tested as an alternative for simulating maize [...] yield at small and large spatial scales. Simulated and observed grain yields were highly correlated (r above 0.8; p

  10. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudari?

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wiand S2GxY indicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  11. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological zones and two varieties of white maize grains (Local and DMR-ESRW) produced in the same environmental conditions were compared. These grains were used in four balanced diets for unsexed broiler chickens (Re Bro) from 8 to 49 days of age. Per kg of dry matter (DM), a difference of about 0.396 MJ of metabolisable energy and 27 g of crude protein content were found between varieties of maize. Crude protein content was identical in both soybean grains, while a difference of 16 g/kg DM was found between them in crude fibre content. In spite of these differences in chemical components, there was no significant effect (P>0.05) of the grains' origin or variety on the growth performance of chickens. The daily feed intake, thedaily weight gain, the feed conversion ratio and the final body weight of chickens at 28 and 49 days of age were similar between diets. In addition, the partial substitution of maize by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding.

  12. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  13. Manuring Effect on the Potential Grain Yield of Wheat in the Light of The Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined application of chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure increased the ears m -2 and grains per ear than alone application of organic or inorganic fertilizer to wheat variety Ghaznavi under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan however both parameters i.e. ears per emerged seedling and grains per ear remained lower than the predicted yield in Ayah No. 261 of Surah Al-Baqrah of The Holy Quran. This variety produced the grain yield of 5.5 t ha -1 when fertilized with 20 t ha -1 FYM + 138 kg P2O5 t ha -1. Unfortunately this grain yield is far below than the grain yield (Y=axb predicted in The Holy Quran which comes about 70 t ha -1. Therefore, it is suggested for the agricultural intellectuals to evolve varieties and agronomic techniques to achieve the grain yield predicted in The Holy Quran.

  14. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  15. Distribuição hídrica no período crítico do milho e produção de grãos Water supply in the critical period of maize and the grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho pode sofrer reduções na produção de grãos quando há déficit hídrico no período crítico do ciclo da cultura, que ocorre desde o pendoamento até o início de enchimento de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer relações entre o suprimento de água durante o período crítico do milho e a produção de grãos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em Eldorado do Sul, RS (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, nas safras 1998/1999 e 2002/2003, anos em que ocorreram os fenômenos La Niña e El Niño, respectivamente. Os dados de rendimento de grãos e seus componentes foram obtidos em experimentos de campo, sob diferentes volumes de aplicação de água via irrigação. A produtividade de grãos foi inversa à média geral do Estado, nos dois anos analisados. Em 1998/1999, durante uma estiagem longa, 46,8 mm de chuva no período crítico garantiram rendimento próximo de 8.000 kg ha-1 sem irrigação. Em 2002/2003 uma curta estiagem no período crítico reduziu a produtividade para menos de 2.000 kg ha-1 no mesmo tratamento, afetando o número de espigas por planta e o número de grãos por espiga. Portanto, em anos de El Niño, mesmo que as previsões climáticas apontem para uma distribuição favorável de chuvas, há risco na produção esperada de milho, se o suprimento de água no período crítico da cultura não for adequado.Maize crops may experience reductions of grain yields when submitted to water deficit during the critical period of crop cycle, from tasseling stage to beginning of grain filling. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the importance of the water supply during the critical period on the grain production of maize. Experiments were conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, during the crop seasons of 1998/1999 and 2002/2003, characterized by La Niña and El Niño phenomenon, respectively. Data of grain yield and its components were obtained in field experiments, using different volumes of water applied through irrigation. The grain yields showed an opposite tendency when compared to the regional estimated average. In 1998/1999, during a long drought period, 46.8 mm of rain on the critical period allowed a grain yield of about 8 t ha-1 without irrigation. In contrast, in 2002/2003 a short drought during the critical period reduced the grain yield to less than 2 t ha-1, affecting the number of ear per plant and the number of kernel per ear. Therefore, risks in the expected maize production are probable, although having climatic forecasting of favorable rain distribution in the region, such as by El Niño phenomenon.

  16. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION WITH FERMENTED BIOSLUDGE ON THE YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF ABOVEGROUND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. PHYTOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Haná?ková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Yield and nutritional value of maize for silage in dependance on type, rate and application of organic manures were investigated in a field semi-operational experiment established near the biogas station in the location of Kolí?any in the years 2004 and 2005. The trial results confirmed a statistically high significant effect of weather conditions on the maize aboveground phytomass yield. Under the infavourable weather conditions of the year 2004 a lower yield (28.01 t.ha-1 was achieved in comparison with the year 2005 (48.33 t.ha-1. When 50 t.ha-1 of biosludge was applied in autumn, the highest yield as well as the highest energy value of aboveground maize phytomass expressed in terms of net energy of lactation (NEL = 6.45 MJ.kg-1 DM and net energy of fattening (NEF = 6.47 MJ.kg-1 DM were achieved. Spring application of biosludge decreased the content of dry matter in maize by 20.7 %, and increased the content of crude protein by 13.7 %, crude fibre by 5.5 % and ash by 26.3 % compared to the values achieved at autumn biosludge application. The value of protein truly digested in the small intestine was the highest in treatment fertilized with farm - yard manure with the rate of 40 t. ha-1 (PDIN = 52.33 g.kg-1 DM, PDIE = 77.37 g.kg-1 DM.

  17. Crop yield and quality parameters of 4 annual fibre crops (Hemp, Kenaf, Maize and Sorghum) in the North of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amaducci, S.; Amaducci, M.T.; Benati, R.; Venturi, G.

    2000-01-01

    Four fibre crops (hemp, kenaf, maize and sorghum) considered amongst the most suitable for the conditions of Northern Italy were compared in 1995 and 1997, over two irrigation regimes (rainfed conditions and restoration of 100?Tp) and in two locations (Bologna and Milano). Three harvests were carried out on each crop at different development stages. At each harvest time data on yield and yield components were collected. Sub-samples of stems of each crop and at each harvest time were analysed ...

  18. Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

  19. Potencial de rendimiento de poblaciones criollas de maíz de Coahuila, México / Yield potential of maize landraces from Coahuila, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A., Nájera Calvo; Froylán, Rincón Sánchez; Norma A., Ruiz Torres; Fernando, Castillo González.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones y tipos de maíces (Zea mays L.) adaptados a condiciones de temporal o secano poseen atributos que pueden ser útiles en el mejoramiento genético. En el Estado de Coahuila, México, se ha identificado la presencia de siete grupos raciales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar ag [...] ronómicamente y determinar el potencial de rendimiento de grano de 90 poblaciones de maíces criollos recolectadas en el Estado de Coahuila. La evaluación agronómica se hizo en 2008 y 2009, en dos localidades: El Mezquite, Galeana, Nuevo León (1890 m) y General Cepeda, Coahuila (1350 m). La combinación de años y localidades fue considerada como cuatro ambientes (MEZ08, MEZ09, GC08 y GC09). Las poblaciones fueron agrupadas de acuerdo con la altitud de procedencia en: bajas (0 a 1000 m), intermedias (1001 a 1800 m), transición (1801 a 2000 m) y de altura (más de 2000 m). Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P ? 0.01) entre grupos y en la interacción grupos × ambientes, para floración masculina y rendimiento de grano; también se encontraron diferencias (P ? 0.01) entre poblaciones dentro de grupos y en poblaciones dentro de grupo × ambientes. El análisis de la interacción poblaciones × ambientes permitió identificar tres grupos según su adaptación a las localidades: el primero, con adaptación a El Mezquite (33.3 %), el segundo a General Cepeda (42.2 %), y el tercer grupo (24.4 %) con estabilidad a través de ambientes. Las poblaciones 19, 22, 34 y 61 tuvieron adaptación a El Mezquite; las poblaciones 74,76 y 88 a General Cepeda; y las poblaciones 35, 37, 38, 64, 66 y 81 mostraron estabilidad a través de ambientes. Los grupos raciales con mayor potencial de rendimiento fueron Tuxpeño, Tuxpeño Norteño y Ratón. Abstract in english Types and populations of maize (Zea mays L.) adapted to rain fed conditions might have attributes useful for plant breeding. Seven racial groups have been identified in the State of Coahuila, México. The objective of this research was to evaluate agronomic traits and grain yield potential of 90 maiz [...] e populations collected in the State of Coahuila. The evaluation was performed at two locations: El Mezquite, Galeana, Nuevo León (1890 m) and General Cepeda, Coahuila (1350 m). The locations × years combination was considered as four environments (MEZ08, MEZ09, GC08, GC09). Populations were grouped according to provenance altitude: low (0 to 1000 m), intermediate (1001 to 1800 m), transition (1801 a 2000 m) and high (higher than 2000 m). Results showed differences (P ? 0.01) among groups and among groups × Environments interaction, for male flowering and grain yield; differences (P ? 0.01) between populations were also found within groups and populations within group × environments. The populations × environments interaction analysis allowed the identification of three groups according to adaptation to localities: the first one was adapted to El Mezquite (33.3 %), the second one to General Cepeda (42.2 %), and the third group (24.4 %) had stability across environments. Populations 19, 22, 34 and 61 were adapted to El Mezquite; populations 74, 76 and 88 to General Cepeda; and populations 35, 37, 38, 64, 66 and 81 had stability across environments. The racial groups with highest yield potential were Tuxpeño, Tuxpeño Norteño and Raton.

  20. Avaliação do método químico de controle de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea) sobre a produtividade do milho / Chemical control evaluation of alexander grass (Brachiaria plantaginea) on maize (Zea mays) yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Galon; Siumar Pedro, Tironi; Evander Alves, Ferreira; Ignácio, Aspiazu; Jesus Juares Oliveira, Pinto.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea, com herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, e a influência destes na produtividade do milho híbrido Pioneer 3063. O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007, no município de Capão do Leão (RS). [...] Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em sistema de cultivo convencional, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo herbicida s-metolachlor (1.620 g ha-1) e pela mistura em tanque de atrazine + nicosulfuron (1.250 + 28 g ha-1), aplicados em pré e pós-emergência da cultura do milho, respectivamente, mais testemunha capinada e infestada. A população B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. As variáveis avaliadas foram o controle de B. plantaginea e os componentes do rendimento, bem como a produtividade de grãos de milho. O tratamento herbicida que proporcionou melhor controle da planta daninha foi a mistura de atrazine + nicosulfuron, aplicada em pós-emergência da cultura, mantendo-se o controle do início ao fim do ciclo da cultura. O herbicida s-metolachlor mostrou eficiência no controle inicial de plantas daninhas, até os 20 dias após a emergência da cultura. O não controle de B. plantaginea causou interferência em todas as variáveis avaliadas, apresentando limitação de produtividade de grãos de até 98%. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the Brachiaria plantaginea control with pre and post-emergence herbicides and their effects on the hybrid Pioneer 3063 maize yield. The trial was conducted from October 2006 to February 2007, in Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by using a co [...] mplete randomized blocks design, with four replications, under the conventional sowing system. The treatments consisted of the herbicide s-metolachlor (1,620 g ha-1) and the mixture in tank of atrazine + nicosulfuron (1,250 + 28 g ha-1), applied in pre and early post-emergence of the culture, respectively, plus one infested and one weed-free control. The plants of B. plantaginea were obtained from the soil seed bank, with average population of 312 plants m-2. The evaluated variables were control of B. plantaginea by the herbicides and maize grain yield components, as well as grain yield. Among the herbicides, the one that provided better control of B. plantaginea was the mixture atrazine plus nicosulfuron, applied in post-emergence of the crop, maintaining the field free of B. plantaginea, from the beginning to the end of the cycle. The herbicide s-metolachlor showed to be an alternative for the initial control of weeds in maize, up to 20 days after emergence. The absence of B. plantaginea control caused interference in all grain yield components of maize, being observed up to 98% of grain yield losses.

  1. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ? Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ? More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ? Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ? New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

  2. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 160C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 250C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 250C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 160C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions

  3. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Deitos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051 in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield in these regions by capitalizing on the genotype x environment interaction, by selecting and recombiningcultivars for each site. Among the cultivars and their hybrid combinations, AG1051 and AG4051 x AL30, respectively,performed best in the mean of the three locations. The most indicated combinations for each site were: AG4051 X AL30 andAL30 X D270 in Viçosa, AG4051 X AL25 and AL30 X D170 in Florestal and, D170 x AG4051 and AL25 x D270 inCapinópolis.

  4. An Approach for Identifying of Fusarium Infected Maize Grains by Spectral Analysis in the Visible and Near Infrared Region, SIMCA Models, Parametric and Neural Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Draganova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach for identifying of Fusarium infected single maize grains based on diffuse reflectance in visible and near infrared region is proposed in the paper. Spectral characteristics were collected in the range 400-2500 nm in steps of 2 nm. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA is used for data processing. Maize grains classification is based on SIMCA classifier and Probabilistic neural network (PNN. Recognition accuracy which is achieved for both classes of grains is respectively 99.89% for healthy, and 93.7% for infected.

  5. Winter Cover Crops Affect Monoculture Maize Yield and Nitrogen Leaching under Irrigated Mediterranean Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Salmero?n Cortasa, Montserrat; Cavero Campo, Jose?; Qui?lez Sa?ez Viteri, Dolores; Isla Climente, Ramo?n

    2010-01-01

    Under semiarid Mediterranean conditions irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) has been associated with nitrate pollution of surface water and groundwater. Cover crops grown during the intercrop period of maize could reduce N leaching. A 2-yr experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters with three cover crops: barley (Hordeum vulgare L), winter rape (Brassica rapa L.), or common vetch (Vicia sativa L.). Bare soil was used as control treatment. Maize was fertilized with 300 kg ha?1 N in the contro...

  6. Foliage applied boron improves the panicle fertility, yield and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Rehman; M, Farooq; Z, Ata Cheema; A, Nawaz; A, Wahid.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B) deficiency in rice field is becoming a common problem in South Asia. Correcting B deficiency in rice has potential to improve the rice productivity. Foliage application of B is an easy and effective way to resolve this problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of foliage [...] applied (0.16, 0.24, 0.32, 0.40 and 0.48 M) B on leaf elongation, tillering, water relations, yield and B grain enrichment of rice cultivars Super Basmati and Shaheen Basmati. Foliage applied B improved leaf elongation, tillering, leaf chlorophyll contents, water relations, grain yield, yield-related traits and B grain contents with simultaneous decrease in panicle sterility. However, foliage application of 0.32 M B was the most effective in this regard. An increase in leaf and grain B contents was observed with increase in B concentration in the foliar spray. There was no difference between the cultivars for grain yield; however, Shaheen Basmati had more grain weight, and grain and leaf B contents than Super Basmati. Boron foliage application (0.32 M B) proved an effective way to correct B deficiency in rice. Improvement in grain yield by B application was attributed to increase in grain size and decrease in panicle sterility.

  7. Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam A. PARRAY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain length:breadth (L:B ratio and panicle density. High heritability accompanied by high to moderate genetic advance for panicle density, days to 50% flowering, plant height, grain number indicated the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters. Grain yield was found to be positively and significantly correlated with number of tiller per plant, panicle density m-2 and number of grain per panicle at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating the importance of these characters for yield improvement in this material. The results of genotypic path analysis revealed that panicle density had the highest positive direct effect followed by plant height and days to flower. The overall results indicated that selection favouring higher panicle density, test weight and panicle weight and medium plant height with a reasonable balance for moderate grain number would help to achieve higher grain yield in this population of red rice ecotypes.

  8. Growth, Grain Yield and Components of Three Durum Wheat Genotypes with Different Plant Densities in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ehsanzadeh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, not much information exists on growth and productivity of durum wheat in Iran and Isfahan. In order to evaluate growth, grain yield, and attributes in three durum wheat genotypes, Osta/Gata, Dipper-6, and PI40100, with five planting densities of 200, 275, 350, 425 and 500 seeds/m2, a four-replicate RCBD field study with a spilt-plot layout was carried out in winter 2000 to spring 2001 at Lavark Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Genotypes were the main-plots and planting densities, the sub-plots. Each plot contained six rows, spaced 25cm apart, each 6m in length. While Osta/Gata produced a greater spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight and grain yield, PI40100 indicated a greater height, leaf area index (LAI and biological yield, and Dipper-6 produced a larger number of grains per spike and harvest index, compared to the other two genotypes. Increasing plant density led to an increase in LAI, spikes/m2, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index but a decrease in grains/spike and 1000-grain weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with spikes/m2, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, despite negative correlations with LAI and plant height. It may be concluded that with environmental conditions such as those encountered in Isfahan in 2000-2001, Osta/Gata can be planted at approximately 425 seeds/m2, if an acceptable grain yield is to be achieved.

  9. Rice grain resistance to brown spot and yield are increased by silicon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro J., Dallagnol; Fabricio A., Rodrigues; Mateus V. B., Mielli; Jian F., Ma.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases of rice and can cause a reduction in yield and grain quality. The effect of silicon (Si) on the resistance of rice grains to brown spot was investigated. Plants from cv. Oochikara and its mutant, defective in the Lsi1 tran [...] sporter (lsi1 mutant), were grown in hydroponic culture either with Si (+Si; 2 mM) or without Si (-Si). Panicle inoculation with B. oryzae was carried out at the beginning of the milk-grain stage. Panicles were harvested at physiological grain maturity. The supply of Si significantly increased Si concentration in husks compared to -Si plants. Si concentration in husks from cv. Oochikara was up to three times greater than the lsi1 mutant. In the presence of Si, brown spot severity was reduced by 88% in grains from cv. Oochikara and by 53% in grains from lsi1 mutant. Brown spot severity was 77% lower for grains of cv. Oochikara than for the lsi1 mutant, both plant types were grown in the presence of Si. Panicle inoculation reduced significantly the following yield components: number of grains per panicle, the weight of 1000 grains and the percentage of filled grains. Si significantly increased these yield components, especially for inoculated panicles. Considering kernel quality, the panicle inoculation with B. oryzae significantly reduced the yield of husked kernel, yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, especially for grains from -Si plants. For panicles from +Si plants, the kernel quality was improved under inoculation, compared to -Si plants. Results from this study show that Si improved rice yield and kernel quality in panicles inoculated with B. oryzae. Furthermore the functional Lsi1 gene contributed significantly for increasing the yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, possibly due to the increasing Si concentration in husks.

  10. EFFECT OF DROUGHT CONDITION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF UPLAND RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought condition on growth, yield and grain quality of two varieties in upland rice: Nangdam and Lebnok. The experiment was performed at the King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2010. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. This results showed that Nangdam and Labnok varieties were got 12.40-97.10 mm of average monthly rainfall in the vegetative, reproductive and grain formation to ripening stages. Nangdam and Lebnok had days to booting of 72 and 68 Days After Germination (DAG, respectively, days to 50% flowering of 93 and 90 DAG, respectively, which were higher than the normal average of 2 to 6 days. The two tested varieties had low grain yields of 29.12 and 26.20 kg/ha, respectively, when they were grown at the low level rainfall. All varieties had higher number of empty grain of 48 and 33 grain per panicle, respectively, number of low perfect grains of 53 and 57 grain per panicle, respectively, number of imperfect grains of 35 and 30 grain per panicle, respectively, chalky grains of 17.50 and 15.20%, respectively and breaking grains of 0.75 and 2.50%, respectively. However, there were no significant different among those traits between the two varieties. The two varieties of upland rice had smaller grain which was lower than the standard.

  11. Maize Production and Marketing in Trans Nzoia District Under a Liberalised Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers have for along time been known to reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no systematic study had been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate loss of stem borers in maize production in most transitional maize zone in western Kenya, a major maize-production zone, an experiment was superimposed on six farmers' field each in the six sites in western Kenya. One plot was treated with bulldock, an insecticide and the other was the control. Direct measurement and comparison of the grain yields in the plots indicated that in all sites, the control plots had 10-15% yield increase over the non-treated plots. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 8000.00 or about 10 bags per hectare, an equivalent of annul maize grain requirements for five adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers

  12. Crescimento e desenvolvimento de milho: acúmulo de massa seca do grão Growth and development of maize: accumulation of grain dry matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Dirceu Didonet

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de diferentes épocas de plantio na taxa e na duração do período de enchimento dos grãos, e de que modo esses fatores determinam o peso final dos grãos de híbridos do milho (Zea mays L.. Três experimentos foram instalados no campo, nos anos de 1994-1995 a 1996-1997, com os híbridos comerciais C-901, XL-560 e XL-678, em 1994/95, e os híbridos C-901, XL-212 e XL-370, nos outros anos. Os tratamentos consistiram em diferentes datas de plantio de setembro a dezembro, em 1994/95, e de agosto a dezembro, em 1995/96 e 1996/97. A taxa efetiva do enchimento dos grãos foi diretamente dependente da temperatura média do ar, tendo sido maior nos plantios mais precoces, e resultando em grãos mais pesados do que os obtidos em plantios mais tardios. Nos plantios mais tardios, a menor temperatura do ar durante o período efetivo do enchimento dos grãos propiciou menor taxa de enchimento dos grãos, tornando-os mais leves. Conclui-se que o principal fator limitante do rendimento de grãos nesses plantios é a fonte produtora de fotoassimilados, e não a capacidade dos grãos em acumulá-los.The objective of this work was to study the effect of different sowing dates on the rate and duration of the grain filling and how such factors determine the final grain weight of a number of maize (Zea mays L. hybrids. Three experiments were carried out under field conditions in the years 1994/95 to 1996/97, using the commercial hybrids C-901, XL-560, and XL-678 in 1994/95 and the hybrids C-901, XL-212, and XL-370 in the remaining years. The treatments consisted of sowing dates from September to December, in 1994/95, and from August to December, in 1995/96 and 1996/97. The effective grain filling rate depended directly on the mean air temperature and it was higher in earlier plantings, resulting in heavier grains, as compared to the grains obtained in the later sowings. In the later sowing dates a lower air temperature during the effective grain filling period favors a lower grain filling rate, resulting in lighter grains. In such sowing dates it is concluded that the main factor limiting yield seems to be the source of assimilate supply instead of the grain accumulation capacity.

  13. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fast neutrons from a 252Cf source in the fluence range 105–108 n/cm2 on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2×106 n/cm2 increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5–1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na+ in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ decreased. - Highlights: • Irradiation of wheat grains with neutrons (low fluence ?102 n/cm2) considerably increases the grain yield throughout three subsequent generations. • The irradiation also remarkably increases total chlorophyll concentration in the higher plant, which results in higher concentrations of sugars and crude protein. • The irradiation also increases salt tolerance of the plants

  14. Assessment of growth and yield losses in two Zea mays L. cultivars (quality protein maize and nonquality protein maize) under projected levels of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-02-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic developments have increased the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget since preindustrial times, and presently, it is supposed to be a major threat to crop productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.), a C4 plant is the third most important staple crop at global level with a great deal of economic importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two maize cultivars [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)] and [DHM117: nonquality protein maize (NQPM)] to variable O3 doses. Experimental setup included filtered chambers, nonfiltered chambers (NFC), and two elevated doses of O3 viz. NFC+15 ppb O3 (NFC+15) and NFC+30 ppb O3 (NFC+30). During initial growth period, both QPM and NQPM plants showed hormetic effect that is beneficial due to exposure of low doses of a toxicant (NFC and NFC+15 ppb O3), but at later stages, growth attributes were negatively affected by O3. Growth indices showed the variable pattern of photosynthate translocation under O3 stress. Foliar injury in the form of interveinal chlorosis and reddening of leaves due to increased production of anthocyanin pigments was observed at higher concentrations of O3. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of leaves taken from NFC+30 showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins, and differential response was observed between the two test cultivars. Decline in the number of male flowers at elevated O3 doses suggested damaging effect of O3 on reproductive structures which might be a cause of productivity losses. Variable carbon allocation pattern particularly to husk leaves, foliar injury, and damage of photosynthetic proteins led to significant reductions in economic yield at higher O3 doses. PCA showed that both the cultivars responded more or less similarly to O3 stress in their respective groupings of growth and yield parameters, but magnitude of their response was variable. It is further supported by difference in the significance of correlations between variables of yield and AOT40. Cultivar response reflects that QPM performed better than NQPM against elevated O3. PMID:24114383

  15. GRAIN AND OIL YIELD OF SINGLE-CROSS AND THREE-WAY CROSS OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Miji?

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower breeding program at the Agricultural Institute Osijek is aimed at creating hybrids with high genetic potential for grain and oil yield and with improved agronomical traits. Achieved grain and oil yields of 30 new (single-cross and three-way cross OS hybrids in comparison with standard hybrids (Apolon and Šokac, during 2006 and 2007 at location Osijek (Croatia are presented in this paper. The experiments were set up in randomized complete block design (RCBD and analyzed traits were grain and oil yield. The highest grain yield (for both years of the research was achieved with hybrids OS-H-271 S and OS-H-35 T (above 5 t ha-1, and oil yield with hybrids OS-H-35 T, OS-H-K3 T and OS-H-271 S (above 2 t ha-1. On the average, three-way cross hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to single-cross hybrids. Experimental hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to registered OS sunflower hybrids, indicating a genetic advance in domestic sunflower hybrids breeding.

  16. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of 15N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha-1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery nd soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha-1, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha-1, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  17. YIELD, KERNEL APPEARANCE, DENSITY AND BREAKAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN MAIZE HYBRIDS GROWN OFF-SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AILDSON PEREIRA DUARTE

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Kernel appearance is the physical quality parameter in Brazilian marketing instead of the quality standard tests. The cultivars with dent and semi-dent kernels are dismissed because their kernels are considered more susceptible to breakage. The aim of this study was to verify whether the appearance could be used to evaluate the kernel hardness and to determine relationship among kernel density parameters and breakage susceptibility in maize hybrids grown off-season. Three trials were performed in Assis, Cruzália and Votuporanga (SP in 2003, using a complete randomized block design with 42 single and three-way crosses and three replications. Yield, kernel hardness appearance, kernel weight, percentage of kernel floaters in sodium nitrate standard solution, test weight and kernel breakage susceptibility were evaluated. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance by the F test and treatments were compared by Duncan test (P < 0.05. Pearson correlations among the parameters were calculated using SAS program. The evaluation of kernel hardness appearance was not efficient to screen cultivars regarding the kernel density and breakage susceptibility. There was no correlation between yield and kernel physical quality. Most of the hybrids had high kernel density, showing high average of test weight (825 g L-1 and very low percentage of kernel floaters. The kernel floaters were higher in the cultivars DAS 2C577 (82%, DKB 390 (33% and DAS 2C522 (18%. All cultivars had low breakage susceptibility and with the following standing out negatively: Fort, A 4450, Exceler, XB 7011, A 2560 and 30F98 (2,7 a 4,5% of weight. In general, the breakage susceptibility was not correlated to kernel density. Only the kernel floaters were significantly associated to breakage susceptibility, but the correlation was very low (0,10.

  18. Análise de componentes principais de atributos químicos e físicos do solo limitantes à produtividade de grãos / Principal component analysis of soil chemical and physical attributes limiting grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Luis, Santi; Telmo Jorge Carneiro, Amado; Maurício Roberto, Cherubin; Thomas Newton, Martin; João Leonardo, Pires; Lisandra Pinto Della, Flora; Claudir José, Basso.

    1346-13-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio da análise dos componentes principais, a redução na dimensionalidade de atributos químicos e físicos do solo para a compreensão da variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas de grãos. A área experimental, de 54 ha, é manejada em agr [...] icultura de precisão há oito anos. Com base em seis mapas de colheita (soja - safra 2000/2001; milho - 2001/2002; soja - 2002/2003; trigo - 2003; soja - 2003/2004; e milho - 2004/2005), a área foi dividida em três zonas de produtividade de grãos (alta, média e baixa). Foram definidos 15 pontos georreferenciados representativos, para determinação de atributos químicos e físicos do solo, o que totalizou 63 variáveis analisadas. Entre os atributos químicos, o elevado teor de K no solo é o que melhor explica a variabilidade espacial da produtividade das culturas de grãos, provavelmente em razão do desbalanço das relações Ca:K e Mg:K. A zona de baixa produtividade apresentou baixa qualidade física do solo. Neste caso, a infiltração de água no solo, isoladamente, é a variável que melhor explica o desempenho das culturas de grãos. A análise dos componentes principais dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é estratégia eficiente para explicar a variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas de grãos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate, through principal component analysis, the reduction in the dimensionality of soil chemical and physical attributes in order to understand the spatial and temporal variability of grain crop yield. The experimental area of 54 ha has been managed under precis [...] ion agriculture for eight years. Based on six grain yield maps (soybean - 2000/2001 harvest season; maize - 2001/2002; soybean - 2002/2003; wheat - 2003; soybean - 2003/2004; and maize - 2004/2005), the area was split in three grain yield zones (high, medium, and low). Fifteen representative geo?referentiated points were defined in order to determine soil chemical and physical attributes, totaling 63 analyzed variables. Among chemical attributes, the high K content in soil is the variable that best explains the spatial variability of grain crop yield, probably due to the imbalance of the Ca:K and Mg:K relations. The low?yield zone had low soil physical quality. In this case, soil water infiltration, solely, is the variable that best explains the performance of the grain crops. Principal components analysis of soil chemical and physical attributes is an efficient strategy to explain the spatial and temporal variability of grain crop yield.

  19. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?en, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 60, ?. 5 (2014), s. 221-227. ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.113, year: 2013

  20. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Jain and P. R. Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of nine parents and one standard check GJ-39 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. Both additive and non additive genetic effects were present in the material under study. However the ratio of ?2gca/ ?2sca suggested that the preponderance of non additive gene action in expression of all the characters under study. Out of the nine parents GJ-39, GFS-5, CSV-15, SSV 84 and SPV 2113 identified as good general combiner for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant and other agronomical traits. The hybrid SPV 2110 x GFS 5 and GFS 5 x GJ 39 for grain yield/plant and hybrid CSV 15 x SSV 84, SPV 2113 x SPV 1616 and SPV 2110 x GFS 5 for dry fodder yield/plant exhibited higher magnitude of positive significant specific combining ability effect with highest standard heterosis and per se performance. These hybrids were also found suitable for two or three yield contributing traits. In general, close association between specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis was observed among the best hybrids identified on the basis of specific combining ability effects for grain and dry fodder yield.

  1. Produtividade do milho irrigado em sucessão a espécies invernais para produção de palha e grãos Productivity of irrigated maize in succession to winter crops for straw and grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade do milho irrigado, em sucessão a espécies invernais, quanto à cobertura de solo e produção de grãos, cultivado em diferentes doses de nitrogênio em cobertura. O trabalho foi realizado nas safras 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, em Eldorado do Sul, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de cultivo do milho, em sucessão a cinco espécies invernais: aveia-preta, ervilhaca-comum e nabo forrageiro (produção de palha; aveia-branca e trigo (produção de grãos e palha; e de um tratamento-testemunha em que a vegetação espontânea foi controlada por aplicações periódicas de dessecante. Quando se aplicou nitrogênio em cobertura, a produtividade do milho superou 8 Mg ha-1 e não foi afetada pela espécie invernal antecessora. Em ausência de cobertura nitrogenada, a produtividade do milho foi maior, quando este sucedeu ao nabo forrageiro. A aveia-branca e o trigo adicionaram quantidades de palha superiores a 3 Mg ha-1 e produziram mais do que 1,5 Mg ha-1 de grãos. Com uso de irrigação e aplicação de N em cobertura obtém-se elevada produtividade de grãos de milho cultivado em sucessão, independentemente da cobertura do solo no inverno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of irrigated maize, grown using several rates of nitrogen sidedress, in succession to different winter crops. The experiment was carried out in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Southern Brazil, during the 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 growing seasons. Maize was sown in succession to five winter crops: black oat, common vetch, wild radish (straw production, white oat and wheat (grain and straw production, and to a control treatment, where the spontaneous vegetation was controlled by successive desiccant application. Maize grain yield was higher than 8 Mg ha-1 and was not affected by the specie of preceding winter crop, when nitrogen sidedress was applied. Maize grain yield was higher, when it succeeded wild radish and in the treatment without N in side-dressing. White oat and wheat added more than 3 Mg ha-1 of straw and produced more than 1.5 Mg ha-1 of grain. With supplementary irrigation and side-dress nitrogen application, it is possible to obtain high grain yield, when corn is cultivated as a sequential crop, independently of winter cover species.

  2. Produtividade do milho irrigado em sucessão a espécies invernais para produção de palha e grãos / Productivity of irrigated maize in succession to winter crops for straw and grain production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Alves da, Silva; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Luis, Sangoi; Alexandre Tadeu, Piana; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Douglas Batista, Jandrey; Paulo César, Endrigo.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade do milho irrigado, em sucessão a espécies invernais, quanto à cobertura de solo e produção de grãos, cultivado em diferentes doses de nitrogênio em cobertura. O trabalho foi realizado nas safras 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, em Eldorado do Su [...] l, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de cultivo do milho, em sucessão a cinco espécies invernais: aveia-preta, ervilhaca-comum e nabo forrageiro (produção de palha); aveia-branca e trigo (produção de grãos e palha); e de um tratamento-testemunha em que a vegetação espontânea foi controlada por aplicações periódicas de dessecante. Quando se aplicou nitrogênio em cobertura, a produtividade do milho superou 8 Mg ha-1 e não foi afetada pela espécie invernal antecessora. Em ausência de cobertura nitrogenada, a produtividade do milho foi maior, quando este sucedeu ao nabo forrageiro. A aveia-branca e o trigo adicionaram quantidades de palha superiores a 3 Mg ha-1 e produziram mais do que 1,5 Mg ha-1 de grãos. Com uso de irrigação e aplicação de N em cobertura obtém-se elevada produtividade de grãos de milho cultivado em sucessão, independentemente da cobertura do solo no inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of irrigated maize, grown using several rates of nitrogen sidedress, in succession to different winter crops. The experiment was carried out in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Southern Brazil, during the 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 growing seas [...] ons. Maize was sown in succession to five winter crops: black oat, common vetch, wild radish (straw production), white oat and wheat (grain and straw production), and to a control treatment, where the spontaneous vegetation was controlled by successive desiccant application. Maize grain yield was higher than 8 Mg ha-1 and was not affected by the specie of preceding winter crop, when nitrogen sidedress was applied. Maize grain yield was higher, when it succeeded wild radish and in the treatment without N in side-dressing. White oat and wheat added more than 3 Mg ha-1 of straw and produced more than 1.5 Mg ha-1 of grain. With supplementary irrigation and side-dress nitrogen application, it is possible to obtain high grain yield, when corn is cultivated as a sequential crop, independently of winter cover species.

  3. Simulating maize yield in sub?tropical conditions of southern Brazil using Glam model Simulação do rendimento de milho em condições subtropicais do Sul do Brasil por meio do modelo Glam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of simulating maize yield in a sub?tropical region of southern Brazil using the general large area model (Glam. A 16?year time series of daily weather data were used. The model was adjusted and tested as an alternative for simulating maize yield at small and large spatial scales. Simulated and observed grain yields were highly correlated (r above 0.8; pO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade de se estimar a produção de milho numa região subtropical do Sul do Brasil por meio do "general large area model" (Glam. Foi utilizada uma série de 16 anos de dados meteorológicos diários. O modelo foi ajustado e testado como alternativa para simular rendimentos de milho em pequena e grande escala espacial. Os rendimentos de milho simulados e observados estiveram altamente correlacionados (R acima de 0,8; p<0,01 em grande escala (mais de 100.000 km², e apresentaram correlações variáveis e geralmente inferiores (R de 0,65 a 0,87; p<0,1 em pequena escala (menos de 10.000 km². Modelos de grande escala podem contribuir para monitorar ou predizer padrões de variabilidade na produção de milho na região, o que fornece uma base para tomadas de decisão, e o Glam?Maize é uma alternativa.

  4. Economic Analysis of Maize Stalk Borer Control in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers significantly reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no farm level systematic study has been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate the loss of stem borers in maize production, experiments were carried out with the objectives of: estimating the economic value of maize losses due to stem borers; estimating the functional relationship between maize yield losses and stem borer damage estimators; and also obtain farmer perceptions on maize stem borers. The trials were superimposed on farmers' fields with one plot measuring 100M2 treated with Bulldock pesticide and the other one not. The experiment covered all the 7 maize agro-climatic zones in Kenya. Direct measurement of the Grain yields in the plots indicated that the average percentage yield loss was between, 3.5% - 15.7% in all sites. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 6 billion or about 6 million bugs/90 kg , an equivalent of annual maize grain requirements for 3 million adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers in order to meet household and national food security and income generation

  5. Performance of Intercropping of Maize with Groundnut in Saline Area under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shalim Uddin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intercropping of groundnut with maize in saline area under rainfed condition was studied. The highest groundnut seed yield and maize grain yield were obtained from their respective sole crop. The highest groundnut equivalent yield of maize (2485 kg ha?1 obtained from T4. The highest land equivalent ratio (1.37 and groundnut yield was reduced from 18.4 to 41.46% depending on treatment. Grain yield of maize reduced from 26.67 to 54.28% depending on treatment. The highest marginal rate of return (779.15% was obtained from T5= groundnut (30×15 cm2 + maize (200×25 cm2.

  6. Genetic Association between Grain Yield of Bread Wheat and Carbon Isotope Discrimination under Drought in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of the wheat plant to discriminate against the carbon-13 isotope during photosynthesis, in favor of the lighter carbon-12 isotope, has been found to correlate with grain yield in many studies. This hypothesis was tested under four contrasting environments in Morocco during 2003-2006 using three sets of elite wheat genotypes. Significant positive correlations were found between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, ?13C or ?) and grain yield, and were higher under more water stressed environments at Douyet and Jemaa Sahim, indicating that high ? is associated with high yield under drought stress. Selection based on yield appeared to have indirectly acted on ? as well, since the correlation was significant and remained relatively unchanged across years of selection. This indicates a possible genetic linkage between yield and ?. Also, transgressive segregation occurred for most agronomic and physiological traits, including ?, offering a potential genetic variation for selection. At the molecular level, CID was found to be linked to a molecular marker at the gwm095 region of chromosome 2A, and to a thousand kernel weight marker at the gwm071 region, distant by 20-30 cent Morgan (cM). A poor QTL associated with grain yield was detected at chromosome 5A, similar to the one detected at CIMMYT in Obregon (Mexico) and northern Australia. From these results, it can be concluded that CID may be used as a new selection criterion to enhance wheat grain on criterion to enhance wheat grain yield potential under drought in Morocco. (author)

  7. INTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK-BIOGAS AND THE EFFECT OF DRIED SLUDGE MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE ON ULTISOL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyo Soelaeman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Tamanbogo Experimental Farm consists of 3 activities, namely 1. To evaluate the kind and amount of feed consumed by 20 heads of cattle and the amount of manure produced, 2. To evaluate the amount of biogas, sludge and slurry produced by digester, and 3. To study the application of manure, dried sludge manure, and NPK fertilization on the growth and yield of hybrid maize of Pioneer 27 (P27. The research results showed that the total weight of feed consumed in the rainy season and in the dry season has already achieved to the recommendation of 10% of the body weight of cattle. The average production of manure and urine were 11.25 kg head-1 day-1 with the biogas production of 3 m3 day-1 was sufficient for cooking and lighting for 5 members of family daily. The by-product of biogas production was 8 kg day-1 of sludge and 127 L day-1 of slurry. The grain yield of P27 with application of dried sludge accompanied with 50 % of NPK fertilizer recommendation dose gave the highest yield of P27 (4.45 t ha-1 with a profit Rp. 3,466,000 ha-1 and B/C of 1.5

  8. Effect of Maize Stover Application as Soil Mulch on Yield of Arabica coffee (Coffee arabica L., Rubiaceae at Western Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Bekeko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during the dry seasons in western Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia at the Haramaya University Chiro Campus to determine the effect of maize stover as soil mulch on yield of Arabica coffee. Five levels of maize stover as soil mulch at a rate of: 0t/ha, 2t/ha, 4t/ha, 6t/ha and 8t/ha were applied in randomized complete block design with four replications from 2008 to 2011. Yield data was recorded during specific phenological stage of the plant. Result from the analysis of variance from the application of maize stover as soil mulch over years showed the presence of significant difference among treatments on bean yield of Arabica coffee. The highest bean yield (1070 kg/ha and the lowest bean yield (520 kg/ha were noted at 8 tons/ha and 0 ton/ha, respectively. Similarly, the pooled analysis of variance over seasons corroborated that the effect of maize stover as a soil mulch at a rate of 6t/ha and 8t/ha showed the presence of no significant difference on bean yield of coffee (p<0.05. The result of the present study also elucidated that, the unmulched control plots had the lowest coffee bean yield. While application of 8 tons/ha of maize stover as a soil mulch significantly increased coffee yield both in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. Therefore, on the basis of these results, it can be concluded that applying maize stover as soil mulch during the dry seasons at west Hararghe can help to sustain Arabica coffee production. Thus, it is recommended that application of 8tons/ha maize stover as soil mulch can significantly increase the yield of Arabica coffee and sustains its productivity over years.

  9. Effect of incorporation of 32P labelled green manure (Sesbania aculeata) on the yield ans P uptake by maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of applied inorganic P and 32P labelled Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) as green manure on the yield and P utilization by maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of two long term experiments was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Significant increase in the drymatter yield and total P uptake was obtained with increasing level of applied sesbania and P fertilizer. The relationship between total P uptake and total P added as organic plus inorganic fertilizer was significant. The Sesbania application significantly increased per cent P derived from added plant material by the maize crop. It also enhanced P uptake and its utilization from fertilizer source. The addition of Sesbania in the absence and presence of inorganic P fertilizer improved P use efficiency. The direct beneficial effect of added organic P was significant only in its application on soils with lower level of residual P. The utilization of P by maize after addition of sesbania varied from 5 to 9 per cent. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liu, Qi-Hua; Wu, Xiu; Li, Tian; Ma, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Biao.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effec [...] t worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  11. Targeting Hormone-Related Pathways to Improve Grain Yield in Rice: A Chemical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hiroaki; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M.; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Sink/source relationships, regulating the mobilization of stored carbohydrates from the vegetative tissues to the grains, are of key importance for grain filling and grain yield. We used different inhibitors of plant hormone action to assess their effects on grain yield and on the expression of hormone-associated genes. Among the tested chemicals, 2-indol-3-yl-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (PEO-IAA; antagonist of auxin receptor), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor), and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor) improved grain yield in a concentration dependent manner. These effects were also dependent on the plant developmental stage. NDGA and AIB treatments induced an increase in photosynthesis in flag leaves concomitant to the increments of starch content in flag leaves and grains. NDGA inhibited the expression of ABA-responsive gene, but did not significantly decrease ABA content. Instead, NDGA significantly decreased jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine. Our results support the notion that the specific inhibition of jasmonic acid and ethylene biosynthesis resulted in grain yield increase in rice. PMID:26098557

  12. Severidade de doenças foliares e produtividade de genótipos de milho em resposta à adubação nitrogenada / Severity of foliar diseases and genotype maize yield in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gil Rodrigues dos, Santos; Francismar Rodrigues, Gama; Clebson Gomes, Gonçalves; Artenisa Cerqueira, Rodrigues; Evelynne Urzedo, Leão; Carlos Henrique, Cardon; Aurenivia, Bonifacio.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças foliares, principalmente, helmintosporiose (Bipolaris spp.), antracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) e ferrugem (Puccinia spp.), podem ocasionar redução do rendimento da cultura do milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e severidade de helmintosporiose, antracnose e fe [...] rrugem, bem como a produtividade de genótipos de milho, em resposta a doses crescentes de nitrogênio. Avaliou-se a severidade das doenças, utilizando-se escala de notas, em nove genótipos de milho (AG9040, AG7088, 30F35, 3F624, 1F583, 1F632, 1F557, 1F640 e ID219), submetidos a quatro doses de nitrogênio (67; 112; 157; e 202 kg ha-1), em duas safras (2009/2010 e 2010/2011). Para determinar a produtividade, utilizou-se a massa dos grãos coletados. Os graus de severidade da helmintosporiose, da antracnose e da ferrugem variaram em resposta às doses de nitrogênio e, entre os genótipos de milho avaliados durante as duas safras, entretanto, não houve relação clara entre as doses de nitrogênio aplicadas e a ocorrência das doenças nas duas safras. A ferrugem foi detectada apenas durante a safra I. Apesar da severidade das doenças foliares, elas, de modo geral, não afetaram significativamente a produtividade dos genótipos de milho avaliados. Desses, o genótipo de milho AG7088 pode ser considerado o mais produtivo e o mais resistente às doenças avaliadas. Abstract in english Leaf diseases, mainly, helmintosporiosis (Bipolaris spp.), anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) and rust (Puccinia spp.), may cause reduction in maize yield. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of helmintosporiosis, anthracnose and rust, as well as productivity of different [...] genotypes of maize in response to increasing doses of nitrogen. Disease severity was evaluated using a score scale in nine maize genotypes (AG9040, AG7088, 30F35, 3F624, 1F583, 1F632, 1F557, 1F640 and ID219) subjected to four different nitrogen levels (67; 112; 157; and 202 kg ha-1) in two cropping years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). To determine the productivity, it was used the weight of collected grains. It was observe that the severity of helmintosporiosis, anthracnose and rust varied in response to nitrogen levels and between the genotypes evaluated during two cropping years, although there was no clear relationship between the nitrogen levels applied and disease incidence in two cropping years. Rust was detect only during the cropping year I. Although the severity of foliar diseases, in general, these did not significantly affect the productivity of the maize genotypes evaluated. Of the evaluated genotypes, genotype AG7088 can be consider the most productive and the most resistant to the diseases evaluated.

  13. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ? We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ? The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ? Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ? Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical composition. ? Silage quality parameters may be used as criteria for indirect selection of MFY.

  14. Production, decomposition of residues and yield of maize and soybeans grown on cover crops / Produção, decomposição de resíduos e rendimento de milho e soja cultivados sobre coberturas de solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luiz Rodrigues, Torres; Marcos Gervasio, Pereira; Dilson José, Rodrigues Junior; Arcângelo, Loss.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os resíduos das plantas de cobertura e das culturas comerciais deixados sobre a superfície do solo podem influenciar a decomposição, ciclagem de nutrientes e a produtividade das culturas subsequentes. Neste estudo objetivouse avaliar a produção de fitomassa seca (FS), taxa de decomposição dos [...] resíduos e o rendimento de milho e soja, cultivados sobre diferentes coberturas de solo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados no esquema em faixas, com quatro coberturas: braquiária, crotalária, milheto e pousio no período outono/inverno, com milho e soja em sucessão na primavera/verão. Avaliou-se FS, a decomposição através das sacolas de decomposição e o rendimento de milho e soja. Milheto e crotalária foram às coberturas que apresentaram maior produção de fitomassa seca no período outono/inverno; a produção de fitomassa seca de milho e soja não foi influenciada pelas coberturas de solo avaliadas; a taxa de decomposição dos resíduos vegetais de milho e soja é lenta no período seco e acelerada no chuvoso; o rendimento do milho foi superior quando cultivado sobre crotalária e braquiária nos anos avaliados, enquanto que para soja não ocorreram diferenças sobre qualquer cobertura avaliada; Milho e soja apresentam rendimentos de grãos superiores à média regional quando cultivados sobre as diferentes coberturas do solo. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The residues of cover plants and crops left on the soil surface can influence decomposition, nutrient cycling and follow crop yield. The objective was to evaluate the production of dry biomass (BD), of residues decomposition rate and yield of maize and soybean grown on different soil covers [...] . The experimental design was a randomized block scheme banded, with four covers: Brachiaria, sun hemp, pearl millet and fallow period in autumn/winter, with maize and soybean crop in the spring/summer. We evaluated BD, decomposition through bags of decomposition and yield of maize and soybeans. Pearl millet and sunhemp were the covers which produced more of BD in the fall/winter period. the rate of decomposition of plant residues in maize and soybeans is slow in the dry period and accelerated in the rainy period; maize yield was higher when grown on sunhemp and brachiaria in the years evaluated, while for soybeans there were no differences on any measured coverage; maize and soybeans have grain yields higher than the regional average when grown on different soil covers.

  15. Determinantes del peso de grano en cultivares nativos e híbridos de maíz / Determinants of grain weight in native cultivars and hybrids of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esmeralda, Corona-Mendoza; Carlos Gustavo, Martínez-Rueda; Gaspar, Estrada-Campuzano.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los parámetros fisiológicos que explican las variaciones en el peso individual de grano entre cultivares nativos e híbridos y analizar el avance genético en el rendimiento de grano de maíz de valles altos. Se evaluaron dos cultivares nativos (Ixtlahuaca [...] y Jiquipilco), dos híbridos antiguos (H-30 y H-32) y dos modernos (Z-60 y H-40), en cuatro ambientes contrastantes, variando la fecha de siembra (FO: óptima 2/04/09 y FT: tardía 30/04/09) y sistemas de producción (SA: antiguo 5 plantas m-2, 80N-40P-00K y SM: moderno 8 plantas m-2, 180N-90P-60K), durante 2009 en Toluca, México. Existieron diferencias significativas entre genotipos y ambientes para el peso máximo de grano (PMG), rendimiento de grano (RG) y sus principales componentes, sin que se presentaran efectos de interacción GxA. Las variaciones en el PMG se explicaron principalmente por cambios en la tasa de llenado de grano (TLLG). En la FO, los cultivares nativos mostraron mayor PMG y contenido máximo de agua en el grano (CMAG) debido a una mayor TLLG. La capacidad potencial de demanda (CPD) fue mayor en los híbridos modernos, y estuvo directamente relacionada (R²= 0.89, p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the physiological parameters that explain variations in individual grain weight among native cultivars and hybrids and analyze the genetic advance in grain yield of highland maize. There were evaluated two native cultivars (Ixtlahuaca and Jiquipilco), two anci [...] ent hybrid (H-30 and H-32) and two modern (Z-60 and H-40), in four contrasting environments, varying planting date (OD: optimal 2/4/09 and LD: late 30/04/09) and production systems (AS: ancient 5 plants m-2, 80N-40P-00K and MS: modern 8 plants m-2, 180N-90P-60K), in 2009 in Toluca, Mexico. There were significant differences between genotypes and environments for maximum grain weight (MGW), grain yield (GY) and its maj or components, without GxA interaction effects. Variations in the MGW were mainly explained by changes in the grain filling rate (GFR). In the OD, native cultivars showed higher MGW and maximum water content in the grain (MWCG) due to increased RGF. The potential capacity ofdemand (PCD) was higher in modern hybrids, and was directly related (R²= 0.89, p

  16. Contribution of Irrigations to Grain Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. At Critical Crop Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz A. Wahed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A wheat genotype V-85205 grown for three years under different cultural practices differing in soil moisture status under slightly different climatic conditions. A pre-fixed moisture deficit irrigation schedule was maintained with application of two fertilizer levels. Multiple regression analysis was done for grain yield and the contribution of each irrigation towards total linear variation in wheat grain yield was worked out through backward elimination method. The average contribution of each irrigation to total variation in grain yield were 50-54, 10, 1-0, 4 -5 % at the two fertilizer levels at tillering, booting, flowering and grain filling stages respectively. At low fertilizer inputs there was more irrigation contribution to grain yield. The contribution of irrigations at earlier stages was 94 and 90% of the total irrigation contribution - saving 50 % irrigation water losing only 6-11% grain yield at the two fertilizer levels respectively. The irrigation productivity factor (YicF was generally more under low fertilizer inputs and irrigation application at earlier crop stages.

  17. Sowing Date and Genotype Effects on Barley Growth and Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?Ahmad Sobati

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth and grain yield of irrigated barley cultivars (Valfajr, Binam and Raihaneh was investigated at 4 sowing dates (6, 22 Oct. and 14, 20 Nov. in Karaj region. The effect of sowing date, genotype and their interaction on grain yield were statistically significant. Early and late sowing enhanced cold damage. However, the damage was more in late sowings. It was estimated that the optimum sowing date would be about 50 days (600 GDD prior to freeze-up and maximum cold damage would occur when sowing was delayed until some 22 days (230 GDD before freeze-up but any more delay in sowing would cause less damage. Highest grain yield was obtained from Raihaneh at 22 Oct. sowing. Binam showed good yield stability and relatively high yield, especially in unfavorable sowing dates. In the relatively favorable sowing dates (6 and 22 Oct., grain weight showed positive correlation with linear grain filling rate, storage and translocation of reserves. LAI, LAR, RGR, CGR and LAD of each cultivar were higher in the second sowing date compared to the first one. The “ratio of post anthesis growth to maximum TDM” showed a high correlation with the harvest index. Raihaneh was the highest cultivar in resistance to lodging, harvest index, storage and retranslocation of assimilates, and linear grain filling rate. It is suggested that at favorable sowing dates, Valfajr and Binam had source limitation or disturbed translocation and Raihaneh had sink limitation.

  18. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2008-04-01

    The antifungal activity of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Pëumus boldus Mol (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora Benth (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum L. (clove), and Lippia turbinate var. integrifolia (griseb) (poleo) essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated in sterile maize grain under different water activity (a(w)) condition (0.982, 0.955, and 0.90). The effect of EOs added to maize grains on growth rate, lag phase, and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation of Aspergillus section Flavi were evaluated at different water activity conditions. The five EOs analyzed have been shown to influence lag phase and growth rate. Their efficacy depended mainly on the essential oil concentrations and substrate water activity conditions. All EOs showed significant impact on AFB(1) accumulation. This effect was closely dependent on the water activity, concentration, and incubation periods. Important reduction of AFB(1) accumulation was observed in the majority of EO treatments at 11 days of incubation. Boldus, poleo, and mountain thyme EO completely inhibited AFB(1) at 2000 and 3000 microg g(-1). Inhibition of AFB(1) accumulation was also observed when aflatoxigenic isolates grew with different concentration of EOs during 35 days. PMID:18206775

  19. Interacción genotipos X prácticas de manejo en el rendimiento de grano de híbridos de maíz / Genotypes X crop management interaction grain yield of corn hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aristeo, Barrios-Ayala; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Rafael, Ariza-Flores; Marco, Otero-Sánchez; Alejandro, Michel-Aceves.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa al método de campo para generar recomendaciones de manejo en México son los modelos modulares dinámicos del crecimiento de los cultivos, que son aditivos en su concepción e ignoran al genotipo. El objetivo de este estudio fue: 1) demostrar que no se pueden generalizar las recomendaci [...] ones de manejo del cultivo de maíz para todos los genotipos (de maíz) disponibles para ello y 2) cotejar el efecto de las interacciones genotipo x factores de manejo sobre el rendimiento de grano en tres experimentos de campo conducidos bajo riego en el sureste de México, San Gregorio y Villa Flores, Chiapas y Piedras Negras, Veracruz. El diseño experimental fue en parcelas divididas con dos repeticiones, en el que las parcelas grandes se asignaron a 25 tratamientos de un compuesto central rotatorio para N, P, K y densidad de población. Las parcelas chicas fueron asignadas a tres o cuatro híbridos modernos de maíz, todos con desarrollo agronómico similar pero diferente origen genético. El rendimiento de grano se ajustó por regresión a un modelo cuadrático aditivo que ignoró a los genotipos y a otro no aditivo para manejo y genotipo; este último mediante variables mudas con valor 0 ó 1. Los resultados evidencian la interacción genotipo x manejo para el rendimiento de grano, que se manifiesta en diferentes efectos lineales, curvaturas e interacciones entre híbridos, que son cambiantes entre localidades. El modelo no aditivo mejoró entre 30 y 71% el coeficiente de determinación (R²) para rendimiento de grano en relación al modelo aditivo. Abstract in english An alternative to the field method for generating recommendations of management in Mexico is the use of modular, dynamic models of crop growth, which are additives in its conception and ignore the genotype. The objetive in this study was: 1) to prove that the recomendations for the use of maize crop [...] cultivation can not be used for all genotypes of maize available for this and 2) data from three maize field experiments conducted in southeastern Mexico, San Gregorio and Villa Flores, Chiapas and Piedras Negras, Veracruz, was analyzed in order to evaluate the genotype x crop management interactions on grain yield . Twenty-five treatments of a Rotable, Central Composite Design for N, P, K and population stand were assigned to main plots of a split plot design replicated twice. Small plots were assigned to three or four modern maize hybrids that had similar agronomic performance but different genetic background. Grain yield was fitted by regression with an additive model that ignored maize genotype and an interactive quadratic model for management factors and maize hybrids, in the last model dummy variables valued 0 or 1 accounted for maize hybrids. Results reflected genotype by management interaction that varied significantly among hybrids and locations in the interactive model. The interactive model consistently improved 30% to 71% the determination coefficient (R²) of grain yield as compared to the additive model.

  20. Weed Control and Grain Yield in Double-Cropped Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Simi?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different herbicide combinations: control (1, alachlor+linuron (2, and alachlor+linuron+imazethapyr (3 were investigated in double-cropped soybean grown in two row spacing variants, 38 cm and 76 cm, under conventional tillage (CT or no-tillage (NT. In trials conducted on a sandy loam soil at Zemun Polje, high weediness had a negative effect of on the yield of double-cropped soybean, especially at the higher row spacing tested and with no-tillage.Regression and correlation data revealed a dependence of weediness in double-cropped soybean on tillage system and herbicide combination, and dependence of soybean yield on tillage system.

  1. Initial austenite grain size effect on the structure and yield strength of martensite-quenched steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the structure of martensite of the structural 45KhNMFA-steel and N23G3-alloy depending on the initial austentic grain size are presented. Combination of the plate and lath-like martensite crystals in the form of a block which is characteristic of the large-grain state remains in the fine-grain state as well. The size of such martensite crystallites is compatible with the size of the austenite grain,provided it is not more than 20 microns. If the size of the austenite grains exceeds this value, the size of the martensite crystallites is constant (about 20 microns). The yield point of the hardened(low-temper) steel changes with variation in austenite grain size similarly to change in martensite crystallites size

  2. Combining ability analysis for yield and yield components in bold grained rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Assam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Chakraborty; Supriyo, Chakraborty; B.K., Dutta; S.B., Paul.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis for grain yield and its components was carried out in eight parental diallel crosses of bold grained rice excluding reciprocals. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importan [...] ce of both additive and non-additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parents Ranjit followed by Matonga and Monohar Sali contributed significantly to high GCA effect towards high grain yield per hill. The superior specific cross combinations for high grain yield per hill were Matonga/Bar Madhava, originated from high x low GCA combination followed by Dhola Mula/ Ranjit (low x high gca), Chandmoni/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA), Dhola Mula/Mala (low x low gca), Matonga/Mala (high x low GCA), Bar Madhava/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA) and Matonga/Hathi Sali (high x high GCA). Further, these crosses exhibited high SCA effects for some other characters as well.

  3. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  4. The role of ENSO in determining climate and maize yield variability in the U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Cane, Mark; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1999-06-01

    Recent advances in understanding the role of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in climate variability present opportunities for improving efficiency in agricultural production. We investigated the relationships between ENSO, climate and maize yields in the U.S. cornbelt, using both observed data and crop simulations. Using a time-series of sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) from the NINO3 region of the Pacific Ocean and historical records of temperature and precipitation spatially averaged across 51 mid-western climate divisions from 1950 to 1995, we ran linear correlation tests at three different lags. Northern hemisphere wintertime SSTAs were significantly correlated with air temperature at the 95% level of confidence in both the previous (r=-0.32) and following (r=0.41) summer, but had opposite signs. Correlations with precipitation were significant only in the summer preceding the ENSO event (r=0.31). Detrended maize yield for the same area and time period was also significantly related to SSTAs in the winter after harvest, with a correlation coefficient of 0.39, indicating that ENSO accounts for 15% of interannual maize yield variability in the cornbelt. Crop growth simulations at seven sites across the region suggest that water stress in July and August is the primary cause of lowered corn yield in La Niña years, but shortened grainfill period due to higher temperatures is also important. The benefits of El Niño-related rainfall and cooler temperatures are less pronounced than the negative impacts of warmer and dryer La Niñas. However, advance warning of both ENSO phases may present opportunities for improved crop management in the cornbelt.

  5. Yield and mineral nutrition of soybean, maize, and Congo signal grass as affected by limestone and slag / Produtividade e nutrição mineral de soja, milho e capim-ruziziensis influenciados por calcário e escória de siderurgia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral, Castro; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação superficial de calcário e escória de siderurgia e seus efeitos nos atributos químicos do solo e na produtividade e nutrição de soja, milho e capim-ruziziensis (Urochloa ruziziensis). O experimento foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho dis [...] troférrico, sob sistema de semeadura direta. Os tratamentos consistiram do uso de calcário e de escória de siderurgia (silicatos de cálcio e magnésio), para corrigir a acidez do solo, e de uma testemunha sem aplicação de corretivos. As dosagens foram calculadas com o intuito de elevar a saturação por bases a 70%. A soja foi semeada em novembro de 2006 e o milho em dezembro de 2007. O capim-ruziziensis foi semeado logo após as colheitas da soja e do milho e foi cultivado durante as entressafras. Os atributos químicos do solo foram avaliados aos 6, 12 e 18 meses após a aplicação dos corretivos. A escória é uma fonte eficiente para correção da acidez do solo e é capaz de aumentar o nível de bases trocáveis no perfil do solo mais rapidamente do que o calcário. Tanto o calcário como a escória aumentam a produção de matéria seca do capim-ruziziensis e a produção de grãos de soja e milho. A escória é mais eficiente em elevar a produtividade do milho. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of superficial application of limestone and slag, and their effects on soil chemical attributes and on yield and mineral nutrition of soybean, maize, and Congo signal grass (Urochloa ruziziensis). The experiment was carried out in a Rhodic Ha [...] pludox under no tillage system. The treatments consisted of the use of limestone or slag (silicates of calcium and magnesium) to correct soil acidity, and of a control treatment without the use of soil correctives. Rates were calculated in order to raise soil base saturation up to 70%. Soybean was sown in November 2006 and maize in December 2007. Congo signal grass was sown right after the harvests of soybean and maize, and it was cropped during the off-seasons. Soil chemical attributes were evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months after the application of the corrective materials. Slag is an efficient source for soil acidity correction, being able to raise the exchangeable base levels in the soil profile faster than lime. Both limestone and slag increase dry matter yield of Congo signal grass, and grain yield of soybean and maize. Slag is more effective in improving maize grain yield.

  6. Combining ability for grain yield and other related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Yadav and Anil Sirohi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability for grain yield and other related characters was studied in 36 F1s along with 15 parents (12 lines and three testers which were evaluated in a completely Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications during rabi 2005-06.The results indicated that among various lines, line HD 2687 was identified as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield per plant, whereas, Line UP 2338 appeared as a good general combiner for the characters, plant height, tillers per plant, spikelets per ear, spike length, grains per ear and 1000-grain weight. Line 35th IBWSN-4 for days to maturity and harvest index; Line 35th IBWSN-14 for days to maturity, grains per ear and grain yield per plant; 10th HTWYT-47 for days to heading, days to maturity, tillers per plant and grains per ear; 11th HRWYT-7 for the characters spike length, 1000- grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant and 4th IAT-49 for tillers per plant, plant height and harvest index were identified as good general combiners. Lines 20th SAWSN-18, CPAN 3004 and RD 1008 were identified as good general combiners for days to heading, tillers per plant and biological yield per plant, respectively. Tester PBW 373 emerged as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading and biological yield per plant, whereas, Tester PBW 502 appeared as a good general combiner for the tillers per plant. Out of 36 cross combinations, nine crosses viz. UP 2338/ PBW 502, 4th IAT-49 / PBW 502,11th HRWYT-16/ PBW 343,10th HTWYT-47/ PBW 343, RD 1008/ PBW 373 , 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502, 20th SAWSN-18/ PBW 343, 35th IBWSN-4/ PBW 502 and CPAN 3004/ PBW 373 emerged with significant positive sca effects for grain yield per plant. The parents involved in these crosses are average x average general combiners and or poor x average combiners except in cross 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502 (3.14, which involved good x average general combiners. Desirable specific combining ability of the crosses involving such parents seems to be mainly due to complementation of the genes. Thus these crosses can be exploited for grain yield per plant by using biparental mating system

  7. Responses of Sunflower Yield and Grain Filling Period to Plant Density and Weed Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of plant density and weed interference on sunflower yield and its attributes and also to determine the response of grain filling period in sunflower to plant density and weed interference, a factorial experiment was carried out using randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at research site of university of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Treatment were three levels of plant density (6, 8 and 10 plant m 2 as D1, D2 and D3, respectively and 2 levels of weed control (weedy and weed free. Results indicated that plant density had significant effects on sunflower growth characteristics. The highest grain yield obtained from D2. The highest 1000-grain weight, grain per head, stem and head diameter, dry matter, yield per plant and harvest index recorded at D1, while D3 showed the highest values of plant height and percentage of hollow grains. The levels of weed control did not affected sunflower yield and yield attributes significantly (except number of grain per head that probably due to soil salinity, weed genus, planting row space, density and high tolerance of sunflower to weeds. The highest rate and duration of grain filling recorded at D1 in both levels of weed treatments. Furthermore, D1 showed the highest mean of final grain weight, that probably due to effects of density on light interception by canopy.

  8. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proti? Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  9. Genetic Dissection of QTL Associated with Grain Yield in Diverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. breeding programs strive to increase grain yield; however, the progress is hampered due to its quantitative inheritance, low heritability, and confounding environmental effects. In the present study, a winter wheat population of 159 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was evaluated in six trials under rainfed, terminal drought, and fully-irrigated conditions, over four years. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL mapping was conducted for grain yield main effect (GY and the genotype × environment interaction (GEI effect. A total of 17 QTL were associated with GY and 13 QTL associated with GEI, and nine QTL were mapped in the flanking chromosomal regions for both GY and GEI. One major QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2, explaining up to 22% of grain yield, was identified in all six trials. Besides the additive effect of QTL associated with GY, interactions among QTL (QTL × QTL interaction, QTL × environment, and QTL × QTL × environment were also observed. When combining the interaction effects, QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2 along with other QTL explained up to 52% of the variation in grain yield over the six trials. This study suggests that QTL mapping of complex traits such as grain yield should include interaction effects of QTL and environments in marker-assisted selection.

  10. GRAIN AND OIL YIELD INVESTIGATED SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE GROWING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In four-year field experiments (2001-2004 conducted in Western Slavonia (Nova Gradiška influence of weather conditions (year and sunflower hybrids on grain and oil yield was investigated. In the experiments five sunflower hybrids (PR63A90, Alzan, Aleksandra, Opera and Pixel were investigated. Obtained results have indicated that weather conditions, hybrid and their interaction have significant influence on grain and oil yield. The highest grain and oil yield per hectare were obtained in the year with 65 mm precipitation in July, 48 mm in August and relative air humidity during the sunflower vegetation below 70%. High oil content in seed was obtained in the year with sufficient soil moisture during the oil synthesis, higher mean air daily temperature (21.70C in the stage of intensive oil sythesis, and lower (14.10C in the stage of slower oil synthesis. Significantly the highest grain (3901 kg/ha and oil (1688 kg/ha yield were obtained in 2003 year, while the highest oil content (54.94% in d. m. was obtained in 2001 year. According to grain and oil yield, the most productive hybrids were: PR63A90 and Aleksandra whereas the highest oil content in seed (51.56% in d. m. had Opera hybrid.

  11. Qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados em diferentes temperaturas / Quality of maize grains stored at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo T., Paraginski; Bruno A., Rockenbach; Rodrigo F. dos, Santos; Moacir C., Elias; Maurício de, Oliveira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura de armazenamento é um dos principais fatores que interferem na qualidade de armazenamento e, considerando a pequena quantidade de trabalhos realizados com grãos de milho, este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados nas temperaturas de 5, 15, 25 e 35 °C, dura [...] nte 12 meses. Foram realizadas análises de classificação dos grãos, teor de água, peso de mil grãos, percentual de germinação, condutividade elétrica e teor de lipídios no início, aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses de armazenamento; a análise de perfil de ácidos graxos foi realizada no início e ao final dos 12 meses. Os grãos foram classificados como Tipo 1 até os 6 meses de armazenamento porém após este período ocorreu uma redução drástica na qualidade sendo enquadrados como abaixo do padrão na temperatura de 25 °C. Os resultados de teor de água, peso de mil grãos, germinação, condutividade elétrica e perfil de ácidos graxos indicaram que as maiores alterações foram observadas nos grãos armazenados nas temperaturas mais elevadas principalmente a 25 e 35 °C indicando que o tempo de armazenamento seguro dos grãos nessas condições é menor quando comparado ao armazenamento em temperaturas mais baixas. Abstract in english The storage temperature is one of the main factors that affect the quality of storage, and considering the fact that limited studies have been conducted with maize, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of maize grains stored at 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C for 12 months. Analysis for classification of gr [...] ain, moisture content, thousand grain weight, germination percentage, electrical conductivity and lipid content at the beginning, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage, and analysis of fatty acid profile were performed at the beginning and at the end of 12 months. The grains were classified as Type 1 until 6 months of storage, but after this period there was a drastic reduction in quality, being framed with below standard temperature of 25 °C. The results of water content, thousand grain weight, germination, electrical conductivity, and fatty acid profile indicated that major changes were observed in grain storage at higher temperatures, especially at 25 and 35 °C, indicating that the safe time for storage of grains under these conditions is less compared to storage at lower temperatures.

  12. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  13. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samia, Berraies; Mohamed, Salah Gharbi; Salah, Rezgui; Amor, Yahyaoui.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB), caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schrot.), is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. [...] durum [Desf.] Husn.) particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  14. Perfilhamento, área foliar e produtividade do milho sob diferentes arranjos espaciais / Maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity under different spatial arrangement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Cleber, Schweitzer; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Amauri, Schmitt; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Clóvis Arruda de, Souza.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de variações no arranjo espacial de plantas sobre o perfilhamento, a área foliar e a produtividade do milho. Os experimentos foram implantados na primavera/ verão dos anos agrícolas 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro densidades [...] (três, cinco, sete e nove plantas por metro quadrado) e de três espaçamentos entre linhas (0,4, 0,7 e 1,0 m). Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF) e a produtividade de grãos do híbrido P30F53, além da contribuição dos perfílhos para esses caracteres. Em 2007/2008, não houve deficiência hídrica, o IAF na floração foi superior a 7 e os perfilhos contribuíram com 65% do IAF total, na menor densidade de plantas. Nesse ano, a produtividade de grãos (13,7 Mg ha-1) não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, e os perfilhos contribuíram com 44% da produtividade, na densidade de três plantas por metro quadrado. Em 2008/2009, houve restrição hídrica na pré?floração e no enchimento de grãos, o que diminuiu o perfilhamento e a contribuição dos perfilhos ao IAF. A produtividade de grãos, nesse ano, aumentou de 9,7 para 11,7 Mg ha-1 com o aumento na densidade de plantas, mas a contribuição dos perfilhos à produtividade foi menor. O perfilhamento aumenta a estabilidade fenotípica da produtividade de grãos frente a variações no arranjo de plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plant spatial arrangement on maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity. The experiments were carried out in the spring/summer of the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (three, five, s [...] even, and nine plants per square meter) and three row spacings (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 m). The leaf area index (LAI) and grain yield of hybrid P30F53 were assessed, as well as the tiller contribution to these characters. In 2007/2008, there was no water deficit, LAI values were higher than 7, and tillers contributed with 65% of total LAI at the lowest plant density. In this year, grain yield average (13.7 Mg ha-1) was not affected by treatments, and tillers contributed with 44% of total yield at the density of three plants per square meter. In 2008/2009, there was water deficit before flowering and during grain filling, which decreased tillering and tiller contribution to LAI. Grain yield in this year increased from 9.7 to 11.7 Mg ha-1 with increasing plant densities, but tiller contribution to grain yield was lower. Tillering increases phenotypic stability of grain productivity to variations in plant spatial arrangement.

  15. Perfilhamento, área foliar e produtividade do milho sob diferentes arranjos espaciais Maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity under different spatial arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de variações no arranjo espacial de plantas sobre o perfilhamento, a área foliar e a produtividade do milho. Os experimentos foram implantados na primavera/ verão dos anos agrícolas 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro densidades (três, cinco, sete e nove plantas por metro quadrado e de três espaçamentos entre linhas (0,4, 0,7 e 1,0 m. Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF e a produtividade de grãos do híbrido P30F53, além da contribuição dos perfílhos para esses caracteres. Em 2007/2008, não houve deficiência hídrica, o IAF na floração foi superior a 7 e os perfilhos contribuíram com 65% do IAF total, na menor densidade de plantas. Nesse ano, a produtividade de grãos (13,7 Mg ha-1 não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, e os perfilhos contribuíram com 44% da produtividade, na densidade de três plantas por metro quadrado. Em 2008/2009, houve restrição hídrica na pré?floração e no enchimento de grãos, o que diminuiu o perfilhamento e a contribuição dos perfilhos ao IAF. A produtividade de grãos, nesse ano, aumentou de 9,7 para 11,7 Mg ha-1 com o aumento na densidade de plantas, mas a contribuição dos perfilhos à produtividade foi menor. O perfilhamento aumenta a estabilidade fenotípica da produtividade de grãos frente a variações no arranjo de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plant spatial arrangement on maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity. The experiments were carried out in the spring/summer of the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (three, five, seven, and nine plants per square meter and three row spacings (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 m. The leaf area index (LAI and grain yield of hybrid P30F53 were assessed, as well as the tiller contribution to these characters. In 2007/2008, there was no water deficit, LAI values were higher than 7, and tillers contributed with 65% of total LAI at the lowest plant density. In this year, grain yield average (13.7 Mg ha-1 was not affected by treatments, and tillers contributed with 44% of total yield at the density of three plants per square meter. In 2008/2009, there was water deficit before flowering and during grain filling, which decreased tillering and tiller contribution to LAI. Grain yield in this year increased from 9.7 to 11.7 Mg ha-1 with increasing plant densities, but tiller contribution to grain yield was lower. Tillering increases phenotypic stability of grain productivity to variations in plant spatial arrangement.

  16. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynt...

  17. Relationship Between Different Growth and Yield Parameters in Maize under Varying Levels of Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Muhammad Iqbal; Hafiz Qutub Iqbal Chauhan

    2003-01-01

    The investigation to see the effect of different phosphorus levels viz., 0, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg P2O5 ha?1 with a recommended constant dose of nitrogen @ 150 kg ha?1 on the leaf growth of two maize varieties was carried out. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (factorial) with four replications. The maize cultivars included were Composite-17 against a standard variety Akbar. Leaf extension rate (LER) was calculated as the slope of a linear regression fitted to th...

  18. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  19. Yield component analysis and recombinative heterosis of complex characters in QPM maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Thanga Hemavathy, N.Subbaraman, S.M.Ibrahim and K.Balaji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Component analysis is the analysis of variation of complex character based on the variation of its components. For assessing the variation,components should be arranged in ontogenetical order. This allows determination of the mutually independent contributions of the components tothe variation of complex character. Component analysis provides the necessary data for the exploitation of recombinative heterosis in plantbreeding. Recombinative heterosis is the phenomenon where in, the progeny value of a complex character exceeds the mid parental value as aresult of the multiplicative relationship between the complex character and its component traits. It is suggested that this form of heterosis may bean important cause of specific combining ability. As such, it may be involved in the heterosis of complex characters in F1 hybrids and in thehybrid- vigor encountered in interspecific hybrid populations. It is demonstrated how recombinative heterosis may be explained by a quantitativegenetical model involving additive inheritance of the component traits. Current study was focused to predict progeny performance for thecomplex character from parental data for the component traits. This requires regression of individual components on the preceding primarycharacters. The contribution of the coefficient for yield component C3 (single seed weight to variance of log yield was maximum in the parentsCML 189, UMI 814, CML 145, UMI 524, CML 141 followed by the coefficient C2 (number of kernels per row which was maximum in theparents UMI 427 and UMI 814. In the present investigation, 35 hybrid combinations were tested for progeny prediction value. Application of thisprocedure revealed that among the 35 crosses, five crosses exceeded the predicted mid parental value. The predicted values can serve as a basisfor the selection of promising combinations. The crosses that exhibited higher values for grain yield per plant was predicted in the combination ofCML 142 x UMI 426, CML 143 x UMI 427, CML144 x UMI 189, CML 144 x UMI 426 and CML 147 x UMI 426.

  20. Grain yield losses in wheat by Russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia (mordvilko)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wheat cultivars were sown at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to evaluate their response to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Significant variability was observed among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and yield losses. Cultivar V-2707 was the least infested with the aphid (6.3 aphids/tiller) giving maximum grain yield (4638 kg/ha), with cultivar V-2047 the second best with 6.43 aphids/ tiller infestation and grain yield of 4206 kg/ha. Commercial cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Punjab-96) were heavily infested with 14.4 and 12.6 aphids/tiller, respectively, and yielded 2245 and 2490 kg/ha harvest, respectively. Aphid population increased up to the fourth week of March and then declined. Aphid infestation resulted in 3.96 to 7.36% yield loss. The cultivar V-2707 was later released for general cultivation, under the name of Punjab-1. (author)

  1. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  2. Effect of nitrogen rate on grain yield of bread wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorjanovi? Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in grain yield is the main objective of bread wheat breeding programs. Numerous studies indicate that nitrogen is the key factor of yield and quality in the wheat. The goal of this paper is to investigate variability of grain yield, of twelve bread wheat genotypes, on three nitrogen level. ANOVA showed that this trait was mostly under influence of the genotype (36, 3%, year × genotype interaction (26, 3%, year of investigation (14, 1%, and in the smallest amount of the nitrogen rate (8, 8%. On all three nitrogen level, the highest grain yield was found in the variety Malyska. The lowest grain yield in control was found in the variety Nevesinjka, while in the N75 and N100 rates it was found in the variety Tamaro. The mean performance of individual cultivars, in nine environments (three years × three nitrogen rates, was depicted using which-won-were view of SREG2 biplot. The nine environments fall into two sectors, which is an indication of a strong crossover GE interaction. Genotype Malyska was the winner (the highest yielding variety in first sector containing seven environments, while genotypes Pertrana and Axis were the winners in second sector containing two environments.

  3. Grain Yield and Morphological Characters of Spring Safflower Genotypes: Evaluation Relationship Using Correlation and Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of safflower were investigated. In this survey, 30 spring safflower genotypes were tested via the randomized complete block experiment design for two years of 2005 and 2006. The phenotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficient were estimated in both years. Grain yield was significantly correlated with some characters, like the plant height (r = 0.563** and r = 0.536**, hectoliter weight (r = 0.574** and r = 0.577** and biological yield (r = 0.980** and r = 0.977** in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on grain yield in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Therefore, improvement of the grain yield will immensely be efficient via plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight based selection.

  4. Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; FENG, YING; ZHANG Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significan...

  5. Caracterización y rendimiento de poblaciones de maíz nativas de Molcaxac, Puebla / Characterization and yield performance of native maize populations from Molcaxac, Puebla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Ángeles-Gaspar; Enrique, Ortiz-Torres; Pedro A., López; Gustavo, López-Romero.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En Molcaxac, Puebla 98 % de los productores de maíz (Zea mays L.) utilizan poblaciones nativas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el rendimiento de grano y caracterizar agronómicamente una muestra de la diversidad de las poblaciones locales de maíz existente en este municipio. En 2007 se evaluaron [...] 56 materiales genéticos -52 poblaciones locales y cuatro híbridos recomendados para la zona-bajo temporal o secano, en tres localidades. Los resultados mostraron que existen poblaciones locales con mayor rendimiento de grano (MX-6, SA-2 y SC-3 con 5.6, 4.8 y 4.5 t ha¹) que las variedades introducidas, lo que muestra mejor adaptación de esas poblaciones nativas a las condiciones de suelo y clima de la región. El análisis de componentes principales definió que las variables con mayor influencia para explicar la variación observada fueron días a floración femenina, número de hojas arriba de la mazorca, área de la hoja de la mazorca, aspecto de planta, longitud de mazorca, número de hileras de grano por mazorca, diámetro de mazorca, longitud de grano, ancho de grano, grosor de grano, diámetro de olote y diámetro de médula. El análisis de conglomerados definió cinco grupos de poblaciones. Se concluye que en la región de Molcaxac, Puebla, existe variación amplia entre los materiales locales de maíz y algunos presentan buen rendimiento para las condiciones de temporal. La variación observada está parcialmente relacionada con el origen geográfico de las poblaciones dentro del municipio. Abstract in english In Molcaxac, Puebla 98 % of maize (Zea mays L.) growers use local landrace populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate grain yield and agronomically characterize a sample of the local diversity maize populations from this country, Pue. Fifty-six genotypes -52 local populations and four hybrid [...] s recommended for that area- were evaluated in 2007 under rainfed conditions, in three locations of the region. Results showed the existence of local populations with higher yield (MX-6, SA-2, and Sc-3 which yielded 5.6, 4.8 and 4.5 t ha-1) than the introduced ones, so these populations have a better adaptation to the prevailing regional soil and climate conditions. The principal component analysis defined that the most influential traits to explain the observed variation were: female flowering, number of leaves above the ear, area of ear leaf, plant appearance, ear length, number of kernel rows per ear, ear diameter, kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, cob diameter and pith diameter. The cluster analysis defined five groups of populations. It is concluded that there is a wide variation among local maize landraces in the Molcaxac, Pue. region, and that some landraces can produce a good yield under rainfed conditions. The observed variation is partly related to the geographical origin of the maize populations within the county.

  6. Water use efficiencies of maize cultivars grown under rain-fed conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Mensah Amoatey; Justice Okona Frimpong; Emmanuel Ofori Ayeh; Daniel Kwasi Asare

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing water use efficiencies of rain-fed maize is a requirement for sustainable maize production, particularly in areas prone to low/drought and erratic rainfall patterns. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between total biomass/grain yield and water use efficiencies of three maize cultivars (Golden Crystal, Mamaba and Obatanpa) grown under rain-fed conditions in a coastal savannah agro-ecological environment of Ghana. Results of the study showed that a unified linear mod...

  7. Effect of Transplanting on Yield and Growth of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, GO.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effects of transplanting on growth and grain yield of three varieties of Sorghum bicolor, 'Ilorin local', SK 5912, and SSV10. Seedlings from each variety transplanted at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP were compared with directly seeded plants used as control. Results show that at 8 WAP with seedlings transplanted at 2 WAP were taller than the other transplants, but shorter than directly seeded plants. Transplanting caused delay in flowering, but at this stage, height of transplants was comparable to directly seeded plants in SK 5912 and SSV10, while in 'Ilorin local' the transplants were significantly shorter at P< 0.05. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield was comparable among transplants but lower than those of directly seeded plants. However, grain yield of seedlings that were transplanted at 2 WAP was statistically comparable with directly seeded plants at P< 0.05.

  8. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanovi?, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

  9. Parental Drought and Defoliation Effect on Yield, Grains Biochemical Aspects and Drought Performance of Sorghum Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, A. H.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113. Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive stage of Giza 15 and Hybrid 113 cultivars caused a two fold increase in length of lateral branch and panicles number. However, grain yield and total panicles weight were significantly reduced in all cultivars due to this stress. Application of drought with defoliation in the vegetative stage reduced shoot and straw weights, and grain yield in sorghum in comparison with drought stress only. Protein-N and polysaccharides content were decreased in parent grains in response to water stress.The stress intensity index (SII of progeny from drought- subjected parents was about 30-fold greater than SII of progeny from control parents. Further, SII of progeny from parents exposed to drought stress in the reproductive stage was higher than the SII of progeny from parents subjected to drought stress in the vegetative stage . A strong negative correlation appeared between the stress intensity index of the progeny and polysaccharides content of parent grains. Based on our research parental defoliation did not improve the drought resistance of sorghum progeny.

  10. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that...

  11. Onset of grain filling is associated with a change in properties of linker histone variants in maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajka, R.; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In maize kernel development, the onset of grain-filling represents a major developmental switch that correlates with a massive reprogramming of gene expression. We have isolated chromosomal linker histones from developing maize kernels before (11 days after pollination, dap) and after (16 dap) initiation of storage synthesis. Six linker histone gene products were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A marked shift of around 4 pH units was observed for the linker histone spot pattern after 2D-gel electrophoresis when comparing the proteins of 11 and 16 dap kernels. The shift from acidic to more basic protein forms suggests a reduction in the level of post-translational modifications of linker histones during kernel development. Analysis of their DNA-binding affinity revealed that the different linker histone gene products bind double-stranded DNA with similar affinity. Interestingly, the linker histones isolated from 16 dap kernels consistently displayed a lower affinity for DNA than the proteins isolated from 11 dap kernels. These findings suggest that the affinity for DNA of the linker histones may be regulated by post-translational modification and that the reduction in DNA affinity could be involved in a more open chromatin during storage synthesis.

  12. Effect of Planting Density, Irrigation Regimes, and Maize Hybrids with Varying Ear Size on Yield, and Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed K. Abbas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corn (maize, Zea mays L. hybrids expressing the flexibility trait in ear size (number of kernels per ear are marketed for ability to give higher yields under adverse conditions. Altered kernel number is associated with altered number of silk, a major route for infection of kernels by aflatoxin-producing fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. The effect of plant density and irrigation level on yield and accumulation of aflatoxins and fumonisins in harvested grain was compared in a fixed-ear hybrid (Pioneer 33K81, a semi-flexible ear hybrid (Pioneer 3223 and a flexible ear hybrid (Golden Acres 8460 over a range of seeding densities (49,400, 61,750, 74,700, 86,450, and 98,800 seeds·ha–1 in non-irrigated, moderately-irrigated (6.4 cm soil water deficit and well-irrigated plots (3.8 cm soil water deficit, during three years with variable rainfall. Irrigation increased yields in all hybrids, but in the absence of irrigation, yields were highest with the semi-flexible ear trait hybrid. In general, the hybrid with the flexible ear trait had lower optimal seeding densities than the other hybrids for each soil water regime. In general, kernel number was least affected by seeding density in the hybrid with fixed-ear trait compared to the semi- and flexible ear hybrids. The lowest levels of aflatoxin and of fumonisin contamination in harvested grain were associated with the flexible ear trait at all rainfall and irrigation levels, but there was no evidence that reducing stress by lowering seeding density reduced mycotoxin contamination. Inoculation with A. flavus resulted in much higher levels of aflatoxin and significantly higher levels of fumonisin contamination in grain of all hybrids under most conditions of rainfall and irrigation, suggesting that factors that promote A. flavus infection can affect production of both mycotoxins.

  13. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing strategies to collect and use cellulo sic biomass for bio energy production is important because those materials are not used as human food sources. This study compared corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies on a 50 ha Clarion- Nicol let-Webster soil Association site near Emmetsburg, Iowa, USA. Surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm) were analyzed after each harvest to monitor soil organic carbon (Soc), ph, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) changes. Grain yields in 2008, before the stover harvest treatments were imposed, averaged 11.4 Mg ha-1. In 2009, 2010, and 2011 grain yields averaged 10.1, 9.7, and 9.5 Mg ha-1, respectively. Although grain yields after stover harvest strategies imposed were lower than in 2008, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Four-year average stover collection rates ranged 1.0 to 5.2 Mg ha-1 which was 12 to 60% of the above-ground biomass. Soc showed a slight decrease during the study, but the change was not related to any specific stover harvest treatment. Instead, we attribute the Soc decline to the tillage intensity and lower than expected crop yields. Overall, these results are consistent with other Midwestern USA studies that indicate corn stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1

  14. Mapping QTL for grain yield, yield components, and spike features in a doubled haploid population of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Bahram; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Kearsey, Michael; Suenaga, Kazuhiro

    2011-06-01

    A doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between the Japanese cultivar 'Fukuho-kumogi' and the Israeli wheat line 'Oligoculm' was used to map genome regions involved in the expression of grain yield, yield components, and spike features in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). A total of 371 markers (RAPD, SSR, RFLP, AFLP, and two morphological traits) were used to construct the linkage map that covered 4190 cM of wheat genome including 28 linkage groups. The results of composite interval mapping for all studied traits showed that some of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) were stable over experiments conducted in 2004 and 2005. The major QTL located in the Hair-Xpsp2999 interval on chromosome 1A controlled the expression of grains/spike (R(2) = 12.9% in 2004 and 22.4% in 2005), grain weight/spike (R(2) = 21.4% in 2004 and 15.8% in 2005), and spike number (R(2) = 15.6% in 2004 and 5.4% in 2005). The QTL for grain yield located on chromosomes 6A, 6B, and 6D totally accounted for 27.2% and 31.7% of total variation in this trait in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Alleles inherited from 'Oligoculm' increased the length of spikes and had decreasing effects on spike number. According to the data obtained in 2005, locus Xgwm261 was associated with a highly significant spike length QTL (R(2) = 42.33%) and also the major QTL for spikelet compactness (R(2) = 26.1%). PMID:21635161

  15. The Relationship of Red and Photographic Infrared Spectral Data to Grain Yield Variation Within a Winter Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Two band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated within field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained approximately 64 percent of the within field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five week time window existed from stem elongation through antheses in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

  16. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pHorganic and nutrients rich monosodium glutamate wastewater (MW), and highly alkaline (pH>10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. PMID:24507456

  17. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  18. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high quality protein Heterose em cruzamentos entre populações de milho de grãos brancos com alta qualidade protéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate heterosis and its components in 16 white grain maize populations presenting high quality protein. These populations were divided according to grain type in order to establish different heterosis groups. The crosses were carried out according to a partial diallel cross design among flint and dent populations. Seven agronomic traits were evaluated in three environments while four leaf diseases and incidence of corn stunt were evaluated in one. Least square procedure was applied to the normal equation X'Xbeta = X'Y, to estimate the model effects and their respective sum of squares. Among the heterosis components, in diallel analysis, significance for average heterosis in grain yield, number of days to female flowering and to all evaluated diseases was detected. Specific heterosis was significant for days to female flowering and resistance to Puccinia polysora. Results concerned to grain yield trait indicate that populations with superior performance in dent group, no matter what flint population group is used in crosses, tend to generate superior intervarietal hybrids. In decreasing order of preference, the dent type populations CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 and ZQP/B 101 and the flint type CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 and ZQP/B 102 are recommended to form composites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a heterose e seus componentes em 16 populações de milho de grãos brancos, de alta qualidade protéica. Estas populações foram divididas de acordo com o tipo de grão, para estabelecer grupos heteróticos diferentes. Os cruzamentos foram realizados entre populações dentadas e duras, seguindo o esquema dialélico parcial. Sete caracteres agronômicos foram avaliados em três locais, e quatro doenças foliares e a incidência de enfezamento, em um. O procedimento de quadrados mínimos foi aplicado à equação normal X'Xbeta = X'Y, para estimar os efeitos do modelo e suas respectivas somas de quadrados. Entre os componentes de heterose, na análise dialélica, detectou-se significância para heterose média em dias para o florescimento feminino e resistência a Puccinia polysora. As populações com performance superior no grupo dentado, independentemente da população dura usada no cruzamento, tendem a gerar híbridos intervarietais de produtividade superior. Na formação de compostos, são recomendadas as populações CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 e ZQP/B 101, do tipo dentado, e CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 e ZQP/B 102, do tipo duro, nesta ordem.

  19. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high quality protein / Heterose em cruzamentos entre populações de milho de grãos brancos com alta qualidade protéica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Costa, Rodrigues; Lázaro José, Chaves; Cleso Antônio Patto, Pacheco.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a heterose e seus componentes em 16 populações de milho de grãos brancos, de alta qualidade protéica. Estas populações foram divididas de acordo com o tipo de grão, para estabelecer grupos heteróticos diferentes. Os cruzamentos foram realizados entre populaçõ [...] es dentadas e duras, seguindo o esquema dialélico parcial. Sete caracteres agronômicos foram avaliados em três locais, e quatro doenças foliares e a incidência de enfezamento, em um. O procedimento de quadrados mínimos foi aplicado à equação normal X'Xbeta = X'Y, para estimar os efeitos do modelo e suas respectivas somas de quadrados. Entre os componentes de heterose, na análise dialélica, detectou-se significância para heterose média em dias para o florescimento feminino e resistência a Puccinia polysora. As populações com performance superior no grupo dentado, independentemente da população dura usada no cruzamento, tendem a gerar híbridos intervarietais de produtividade superior. Na formação de compostos, são recomendadas as populações CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 e ZQP/B 101, do tipo dentado, e CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 e ZQP/B 102, do tipo duro, nesta ordem. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate heterosis and its components in 16 white grain maize populations presenting high quality protein. These populations were divided according to grain type in order to establish different heterosis groups. The crosses were carried out according to a partial [...] diallel cross design among flint and dent populations. Seven agronomic traits were evaluated in three environments while four leaf diseases and incidence of corn stunt were evaluated in one. Least square procedure was applied to the normal equation X'Xbeta = X'Y, to estimate the model effects and their respective sum of squares. Among the heterosis components, in diallel analysis, significance for average heterosis in grain yield, number of days to female flowering and to all evaluated diseases was detected. Specific heterosis was significant for days to female flowering and resistance to Puccinia polysora. Results concerned to grain yield trait indicate that populations with superior performance in dent group, no matter what flint population group is used in crosses, tend to generate superior intervarietal hybrids. In decreasing order of preference, the dent type populations CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 and ZQP/B 101 and the flint type CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 and ZQP/B 102 are recommended to form composites.

  20. Performance of Pure and Mixed Stands for Biomass and Grain Yield in Hexaploid Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aslam Chowdhry

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of ten biblends, each grown in a 1:1 genotypic ratio was compared with the performance of the involved five bread wheat genotypes grown in pure stands. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER was calculated by using the concept of de Wit and van den Berg (1965. Most of the biblends exhibited reduction in biomass and grain yield per plant than their respective mid component of pure stand. However, two biblends, Rohtas 90 - Chakwal 86 and 6500 - Chakwal 86 showed significant increase of 9.40 and 16.36 percent for biomass yield (LER values of 1.10 and 1.16 and 14.26 and 18.73 percent for grain yield per plant (LER values of 1.15 and 1.19, respectively. It was concluded that varietal mixtures do have potential as a means of increasing crop yield but identification of correct genotypic combination is essential.

  1. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  2. The Influence of Forage Combination Maize Grain – Fodder Beet on Feeding Behaviour Duration for Intensively Farmed Coypu (Nutria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan B?n??ean-Dunea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the behaviour of one species, with interest in animal husbandry science represent a compulsory necessityfor the development and improvement of the breeding and exploiting technology for this species. The studies oncoypus behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, coypu breeding technology,animal welfare and, at the moment, this present great importance for animal protection. The biological materialstudied was consisted of adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard. The supervised indices were:feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet according to gender and time slot, theduration of one feeding sequence according to forage consumed, gender and time slot and the number of feedingsequences according to forage consumed, gender and time slot. For realising the purposed aim, each coypu wasmonitorized (video, individually, 24 hours a day. The duration of feeding behaviour when coypus are fed with maizegrain and fodder beet was 4921.63±472.64 seconds for males (5.69% of the behaviour al manifestations, and forcoypu females, the duration of feeding behaviour was 5450.00±297.94 seconds (6.30% of the behaviour almanifestations. The most intense manifestations of the feeding behaviour occurred in the time slot 08:00-14:00, andthe lowest intensity of the feeding behaviour manifestations occurred in the time slot 02:00-08:00. The average totalnumber of males feeding sequences if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet was 51.63 ± 5.54 sequencesand the average total number of females feeding sequences was 56.38 ± 2.48 sequences.

  3. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred van Eeuwijk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination. Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and late grain filling phases, to dissect the effect on yield traits of the growth phases. Relationships between agrometeorological variables, grain yield (GY and its main components (GN and GW were also investigated by correlation. Results firstly gave a clear indication of the involvement of water consumption in determining GY and GW (r2=0.616, P=0.007 and r2=0.703, P=0.005, respectively calculated from sowing to the early grain filling period, while GN showed its highest correlation with the total photothermal quotient (PQ calculated for the same period (r2=0.646, P=0.013. With the only exception of total PQ calculated during the vegetative period, all significant correlations with GY were associated to water-dependent agrometeorological parameters. As a second result, the NT segregating population allowed us to weight the amount of interaction due to genotypes over environments or to environments in relation to genotypes by a GGE analysis; 47.67% of G+GE sum of squares was explained by the first two principal components. Then, the introduction of genomic information at major barley genes regulating the length of growth cycle allowed us to explain patterns of adaptation of different groups of NT lines according to the variants (alleles harbored at venalization (Vrn-H1 in combination with earliness (Eam6 genes. The superiority of the lines carrying the Nure allele at Eam6 was confirmed by factorial ANOVA testing the four possible haplotypes obtained combining alternative alleles at Eam6 and Vrn-H1. Maximum yield potential and differentials among the NT genotypes was finally explored through Finlay-Wilkinson model to interpret grain yield of NT genotypes together with yield adaptability (Ya, as the regression coefficient bi; Ya ranged from 0.71 for NT77 to 1.20 for NT19. Lines simply harboring the Nure variants at the two genes behaved as highest yielding (3.04 t ha-1, and showed the highest yield adaptability (bi=1.05. The present study constitutes a starting point towards the introduction of genomic variables in agronomic models for barley grain yield in Mediterranean environments.

  4. [Effects of high concentration ozone on soybean growth and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-hong; Li, Yong; Wuyun, Ta-na; Wu, Guang-lei; Jiang, Gao-ming

    2010-09-01

    By using open top chambers (OTCs), soybean plants were grown in pots, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air ([O3] < 10 microg x kg(-1)) and elevated O3 (80 microg x kg(-1)) after anthesis, aimed to investigate the responses of soybean' s agronomic characters, leaf area, chlorophyll content, antioxidant system, and grain yield to elevated O3. Under elevated O3, the leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the leaf catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities had a significant increase (P < 0.01) first but a gradual decrease then, compared with those under charcoal-filtered air. Elevated O3 decreased the leaf soluble protein and ascorbate content (AsA) contents while increased the leaf malonaldehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05), suggesting that the leaf membrane lipid peroxidation was accelerated. The dry mass per plant, effective pod number, grain number, 100-grains weight, and grain yield under elevated O3 had somewhat decreased, among which, grain yield decreased significantly, with the decrement reached to 47% (P < 0.01). PMID:21265159

  5. Effects of Number and Rate of Goat Manure Application on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Sweet Maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Felix Uwah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources of plant nutrients have now become highly imperative especially for vegetable crop production in Nigeria. Due to the escalating costs, environmental and health problems associated with excessive use of inorganic fertilizers on continuously cropped fields, there is a need for more research on the use of organic manures and residues. A field experiment was conducted in the late growing season from September to December, 2012 in Calabar, a humid forest agroecology in south eastern Nigeria to evaluate the effects of two types of goat manure (GM application (single and double split doses, five rates of GM (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 and 400kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer (120:60:60 kg ha-1 rate on soil chemical properties and agronomic performance of sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut. Factorial combinations of the treatments were fitted into a randomized complete block design with three replications. The application of GM significantly (P ? 0.05 increased soil pH, organic matter (OM content, total N, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and the cation exchange capacity (CEC status of the soil. Soil exchangeable acidity (EA was reduced from 1.76 to 0.64 cmol kg-1 at 20 t ha-1 GM rate. The 20 t ha-1 also recorded the highest values for soil pH, OM, P, Ca, Mg and CEC, while the values for residual N and K peaked at the NPK fertilizer treatment. The double split application of GM recorded higher values for growth and yield attributes, and increased soil properties than the single application. Growth and yield parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index (LAI, total dry matter (TDM, number and weight of grains/ear and total grain yield were significantly (P < 0.05 increased by GM and NPK fertilizer treatments. The values obtained for all growth and yield parameters except LAI at the 20 t ha-1 GM rate were not significantly different from those at the NPK fertilizer treatments. The application of 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 GM, and NPK fertilizer significantly increased TDM by 11.9, 74.3, 91.9, 106.2 and 104.6%; weight of grains/ear by 16.5, 54.6, 61.4, 100.6 and 94.4% and total grain yield by 46.9, 111.7, 121.0, 127.2 and 140.1% respectively, compared with the control treatment. The interactions between number of applications and rates showed that split applying GM at 20 t ha-1 maximized TDM, weights of whole and dehusked green ears and total grain yield compared to other GM rates, hence it is recommended.

  6. CHEMICAL CONTROL EVALUATION OF ALEXANDER GRASS (Brachiaria plantaginea ON MAIZE (Zea mays YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO MÉTODO QUÍMICO DE CONTROLE DE PAPUÃ (Brachiaria plantaginea SOBRE A PRODUTIVIDADE DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Brachiaria plantaginea control with pre and post-emergence herbicides and their effects on the hybrid Pioneer 3063 maize yield. The trial was conducted by using a complete randomized blocks design, with four replications, under the conventional sowing system. The treatments consisted of the herbicide s-metolachlor (1,620 g ha-1 and the mixture in tank of atrazine + nicosulfuron (1,250 + 28 g ha-1, applied in pre and early post-emergence of the culture, respectively, plus one infested and one weed-free control. The plants of B. plantaginea were obtained from the soil seed bank, with average population of 312 plants m-2. The evaluated variables were control of B. plantaginea by the herbicides and maize grain yield components, as well as grain yield. Among the herbicides, the one that provided better control of B. plantaginea was the mixture atrazine plus nicosulfuron, applied in post-emergence of the crop, maintaining the field free of B. plantaginea, from the beginning to the end of the cycle. The herbicide s-metolachlor showed to be an alternative for the initial control of weeds in maize, up to 20 days after emergence. The absence of B. plantaginea control causes interference in all grain yield components of maize, being observed up to 98% of grain yield losses.

    KEY-WORDS: Chemical control; herbicide mixtures; weed.

    Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea, com herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, e a influência destes na produtividade do milho híbrido Pioneer 3063. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em sistema de cultivo convencional, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo herbicida s-metolachlor (1.620 g ha-1 e pela mistura em tanque de atrazine + nicosulfuron (1.250 + 28 g ha-1, aplicados em pré e pós-emergência da cultura do milho, respectivamente, mais testemunha capinada e infestada. A população B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. As variáveis avaliadas foram o controle de B. plantaginea e os componentes do rendimento, bem como a produtividade de grãos de milho. O tratamento herbicida que proporcionou melhor controle da planta daninha foi a mistura de atrazine + nicosulfuron, aplicada em pós-emergência da cultura, mantendo-se o controle do início ao fim do ciclo da cultura. O herbicida s-metolachlor mostrou eficiência no controle inicial de plantas daninhas, até os 20 dias após a emergência da cultura. O não controle de B. plantaginea causou interferência em todas as v

  7. Research on Grain Yield Prediction Method Based on Improved PSO-BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the highly nonlinear and uncertainty of grain yield changes, a new method for grain yield prediction based on improved PSO-BP is proposed. By introducing mutation operation and adaptive adjust of inertia weight, the problem of easy to fall into local optimum, premature, low precision and low later iteration efficiency of PSO are solved. By using the improved PSO to optimize BP neural network’s parameters, the learning rate and optimization capability of conventional BP are effectively improved. The simulation results of grain production prediction show that the predict accuracy of the new method is significantly higher than that of conventional BP neural network method and the method is effective and feasible.

  8. Efecto del fertirriego y labranza de conservación en propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de maíz / Effect of fertigation and conservation tillage on soil properties and maize yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Martínez Gamiño; Cesario, Jasso Chaverria; Esteban Salvador, Osuna Ceja; Luis, Reyes Muro; Jesús, Huerta Díaz; Benjamín, Figueroa Sandoval.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola primavera-verano de 2009-2011 se realizaron trabajos de investigación en el Campo Experimental San Luis del INIFAP con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del fertirriego y labranza de conservación en algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de maíz. Se evaluaron tres ni [...] veles de nitrógeno: 200, 300 y 400 kg ha-1 y dos para potasio: 100 y 200 kg ha-1. La preparación del suelo se realizó con el sistema de labranza de conservación. Se utilizó el maíz H-358. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Durante el desarrollo del cultivo se realizaron muestreos de planta para determinar la concentración de nutrientes en el tejido vegetal y generar las curvas de extracción de NPK. Se realizaron muestreos de suelo para determinar el porcentaje de materia orgánica y la biomasa microbiana. Se determinó la velocidad de infiltración y resistencia mecánica del suelo. Al final de cada ciclo, se evaluó el rendimiento de grano y sus componentes. Al aplicar la dosis tradicional de fertilización a través del riego por goteo y dosificada por etapa fenológica y con labranza de conservación se incrementó 35% el rendimiento de maíz en relación con la fertilización al suelo, riego por gravedad y labranza tradicional. Se obtuvieron las curvas de extracción de NPK, herramienta básica para realizar una adecuada fertilización, acorde a las necesidades del cultivo por etapa fenológica. Abstract in english During the spring-summer agricultural cycle of 2009-2011 research was conducted in the Experimental Station San Luis from INIFAP in order to evaluate the effect of fertigation and conservation tillage on soil properties and maize yield. Three levels of nitrogen were tested: 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 [...] and two for potassium: 100 to 200 kg ha-1. Land preparation was made with the system of conservation tillage. Corn H-358 was used. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. During the development of the crop plant samples were made to determine the concentration of nutrients in plant tissue and generate extraction curves of NPK. Soil samples were made to determine the percentage of organic matter and microbial biomass. The infiltration rate and soil strength was determined. At the end of each cycle, grain yield and its components were evaluated. When applying traditional doses of fertilization through drip irrigation and metered by phenological stage and with conservation tillage, maize yield increased 35% in relation to soil fertilization, irrigation by gravity and conventional tillage. Extraction curves NPK, were obtained; a basic tool for proper fertilization according to crop needs by phenological stage.

  9. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  10. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix De Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da Silva; Maraisa Crestani; Rafael Nornberg; Irineu Hartwig; Giovani Benin

    2012-01-01

    The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  11. Mapping QTL for Grain Yield under Moisture Stress Environments in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polygenes (QTLs for grain yield were mapped on rice chromosomes under two moisture stress environments by multiple interval mapping (MIM method in a double haploid (DH population derived from a cross between a deep-rooted japonica and a shallow-rooted indica genotype. In environment 1 (E1, the MIM detected a total of six QTLs for grain yield on chromosomes-two QTLs on chromosome 1 and four QTLs on chromosome 5 along with one additive x additive epistasis. But in environment 2 (E2, the MIM detected five QTLs for grain yield on two chromosomes-three QTLs on chromosome 1 and two QTLs on chromosome 7. One common QTL on chromosome 1 flanked by the markers RG109-ME1014 was detected in both the environments, although the other detected QTLs differed between environments. The magnitude of QTL effect, percent genetic variance and percent phenotypic variance explained by each QTL was also estimated in both environments. The common QTL explained about 26.05 and 13.93% of genetic variance in E1 and E2, respectively. Estimated broad sense heritability for grain yield was 48.01 in E1 and 25.27% in E2.

  12. Effect of Maize Stover Application as Soil Mulch on Yield of Arabica coffee (Coffee arabica L., Rubiaceae) at Western Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zelalem Bekeko

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted during the dry seasons in western Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia at the Haramaya University Chiro Campus to determine the effect of maize stover as soil mulch on yield of Arabica coffee. Five levels of maize stover as soil mulch at a rate of: 0t/ha, 2t/ha, 4t/ha, 6t/ha and 8t/ha were applied in randomized complete block design with four replications from 2008 to 2011. Yield data was recorded during specific phenological stage of the plant. Result from the analysis...

  13. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars PØdenphant; Skovgaard, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Plant ecology theory predicts that growing seed mixtures of varieties (variety mixtures) may increase grain yields compared to the average of component varieties in pure stands. Published results from field trials of cereal varietymixtures demonstrate, however, both positive and negative effects on grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore, available information on varieties, mixtures and growing conditions was used as independent variables in a series of meta-regressions. Twenty-six published studies, examining a total of 246 instances of variety mixtures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), were identified as meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p <0.001), reconfirming the potential of overall grain yield increase when growing varieties in mixtures. The mixing effect varied between crop types, with largest and significant effects for winter wheat and spring barley. The meta-regression demonstrated that mixing effect increased significantly with (1) diversity in reported grain yields, (2) diversity in disease resistance, and (3) diversity in weed suppressiveness, all among component varieties. Relative mixing effect was also found to increase significantly with the effective number of component varieties. The effects of the latter two differed significantly between crop types. All analyzed models had large unexplained variation between mixing effects, indicating that the variables retrievable from the published studies explained only a minority of the differences among mixturesand trials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  14. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m?2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre-ost-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  15. Effects of Hydro-Priming Duration on Seedling Vigour and Grain Yield of Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

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    Safar NASROLLAHZADEH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (Talash, COS16 and Khomain were divided into four sub-samples, one of which was kept as control (non-primed, P1 and three other samples were soaked in distilled water at 20oC for 7 (P2, 14 (P3 and 21 (P4 hours and then dried back to initial moisture content. In the laboratory, the lowest mean germination time and the highest germination percentage and seedling dry weight were achieved with P2, which was not significantly different from P3. Mean time of seed germination for Khomain was significantly higher than that for Talash and COS16. In the field, 1000 grain weight of Khomain was significantly higher than that of other cultivars, but mean grains/plant, grains/m2, grain yield/plant and grain yield/m2 of COS16 and Talash were significantly higher than those of Khomain. Therefore, grains/plant was the most important yield component affecting grain yield of pinto bean cultivars. Hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours resulted in lower mean emergence time and higher seedling emergence percentage, grains/m2 and grain yield/m2, compared with P1 and P4. Grains/plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant were not significantly affected by hydro-priming. However, hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours improved grain yield per unit area indirectly through enhancing seedling establishment and grains/m2. Extended priming duration negatively affected laboratory and field performance of pinto bean cultivars.

  16. Chemical Control of Fusarium diseases of wheat and maize

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium diseases of cereals such as wheat and maize are a growing concern for farmers and breeders because they can cause heavy crop yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grains with severe economic impact. Fusarium diseases may affect wheat head and foot, maize ear and stalk as well as seeds, roots and seedlings. Fungicides or insecticides can be used for seed and/or foliar treatment to prevent Fusarium diseases of these cereals and reduce the consequent accumulation of mycotoxins in...

  17. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade / Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina, Dudienas; Gisèle M., Fantin; Aildson P., Duarte; Marcelo, Ticelli; Ivana M., Bárbaro; Rogério S., Freitas; Paulo C. L., Leão; Gerson, Cazentini Filho; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Angélica P., Pântano.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de [...] cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST) e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV) em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada). Abstract in english Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of culti [...] vars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different localities of São Paulo State, correlated to yield. A total of 50 simple and triple hybrids (HST) and 22 double hybrids and varieties of maize (HDV) in use by farmers were evaluated in 2005/2006 for their reaction to southern rust in six locations in western and north-central regions of São Paulo State. In the experiments with HST, the most resistant cultivars with the highest yields were: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 and Impacto. Among HDV, the most resistant ones presenting the highest yields were: 30S40 and AG 2040. Yield losses due to the severity of southern rust, assessed in the stage of pastry grain, ranged from 3.5%, for cultivars with approximately 2.5% of leaf area affected by the disease, to 20.3% for cultivars with 39% of the leaf area affected, compared to cultivars of higher resistance to the disease (1.4% affected leaf area).

  18. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dudienas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada.Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of cultivars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different localities of São Paulo State, correlated to yield. A total of 50 simple and triple hybrids (HST and 22 double hybrids and varieties of maize (HDV in use by farmers were evaluated in 2005/2006 for their reaction to southern rust in six locations in western and north-central regions of São Paulo State. In the experiments with HST, the most resistant cultivars with the highest yields were: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 and Impacto. Among HDV, the most resistant ones presenting the highest yields were: 30S40 and AG 2040. Yield losses due to the severity of southern rust, assessed in the stage of pastry grain, ranged from 3.5%, for cultivars with approximately 2.5% of leaf area affected by the disease, to 20.3% for cultivars with 39% of the leaf area affected, compared to cultivars of higher resistance to the disease (1.4% affected leaf area.

  19. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield / Absorção foliar de cobre por plantas de milho: efeitos no crescimento e rendimento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Hidalgo, Barbosa; Luciane Almeri, Tabaldi; Fábio Rodrigo, Miyazaki; Márcio, Pilecco; Samir Oliveira, Kassab; Daísa, Bigaton.

    1561-15-01

    Full Text Available Um leve aumento nos níveis de certos nutrientes pode causar um significante aumento no rendimento das culturas ou causar sintomas de fitotoxicidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da fertilização foliar com cobre (Cu) sobre o crescimento e rendimento do milho híbrido triplo DG [...] -501. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período entre dezembro de 2009 e abril de 2010, em sistema de plantio convencional. Quando as plantas encontravam-se com 6-8 folhas totalmente desenvolvidas, o Cu (0; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500 e 600g ha-1) foi aplicado via foliar. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Quando 50% das plantas apresentavam-se no período de florescimento, avaliaram-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro de colmo, altura da inserção da primeira espiga, área foliar e teor de clorofila. Na colheita, avaliaram-se o diâmetro e o comprimento da espiga, o rendimento e o peso de mil grãos. Houve redução linear na altura de plantas de milho e na altura de inserção da primeira espiga com o aumento das doses de Cu. Por outro lado, os dados de índice relativo de clorofila, área foliar, diâmetro e comprimento da espiga, peso de mil grãos e rendimento aumentaram quando foram utilizadas doses de Cu de até 100g ha-1 e diminuíram nas doses maiores. Portanto, o Cu aplicado via foliar em doses maiores que 100g ha-1 exerceu efeito tóxico às plantas de milho, com prejuízos no crescimento e no rendimento. Abstract in english A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu) on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried ou [...] t between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1) was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  20. Levantamento da micoflora presente em grãos ardidos e sementes de milho / Survey of mycoflora in grains and kernels of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalgisa Thayne Munhoz, Ramos; Maria Heloisa Duarte de, Moraes; Roberto Venceslau De, Carvalho; Luis Eduardo Aranha, Camargo.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do milho as podridões de espigas causadas por fungos destacam-se como uma das principais responsáveis pelas perdas em produção e qualidade, principalmente devido a formação dos chamados grãos ardidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de identificar a micoflora presente em grãos e sementes [...] produzidos em difer entes regiões e zonas macro-climáticas do Brasil, nos períodos de safra e safrinha. A determinação da incidência dos gêneros fúngicos foi feita pelo método do papel de filtro com congelamento. Foram a nalisa dos duzentos grãos/ sementes por amostra em um total de 44 amostras de grãos ardidos e 12 de sementes. As análises foram efetuadas sob mi croscópio estereoscópico e microscópio ópt ico. Os principais fungos encontrados neste levantamento, tanto em sementes como em grãos ardidos, foram Penicillum sp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp., Cephalosporium sp. e Stenocarpella spp. Dentre os patógenos principais, Fusarium spp. e Penicillium sp. foram os gêneros encontrados em maior incidência tanto nos grãos como nas sementes nas duas safras. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diferentes climas e regiões na safra verão para a incidência de Fusarium spp. e Penicillium sp. Porém, durante a safrinha, foi observada uma maior incidência de Fusarium spp. na região CO. Cladosporium sp. se destacou entre os fungos sobretudo durante a safrinha. Abstract in english In maize crop, ear rot caused by fungi is one of the main responsible for quality and production losses, mainly because of the development of the so called discolored grains. The purpose of this study was to identify the mycoflora present in grains and kernels produced in different regions and clima [...] tic zones of Brazil during summer and winter harvest and relate the occurrence of fungi with such parameters. The identification of the fungi was done by the filter paper with freezing method. Two hundred grains/kernels for sample totaling 44 samples of discolored grains and 12 of kernels were analyzed. The tests were performed under a stereomicroscope and an optical microscope. The main fungi found in this survey, both in kernel and discolored grains were Penicillium sp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp. Cephalosporium sp. and Stenocarpella spp. Among the major pathogens, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. were found in higher incidence in grains and kernels in both seasons. There were no significant differences between regions and climates in the summer season for Fusarium spp. and Penicillium sp. incidence. However, during the winter season there has been observed a higher incidence of Fusarium spp. in the region CO. Cladosporium sp. stood out among fungi especially during the winter season.

  1. Herbicidal control of parthenium weed in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years experiments were conducted using randomized complete block (RCB) design, having eight treatments, replicated four times to find their impact on maize, parthenium and associated weeds. The treatments consisted of 6 herbicides, viz., Aatrax (atrazine) at the rate 1.0, Buctril super (bromoxynil+MCPA) 60 EC at the rate 0.80, Dual gold (s-metolachlor) 960 EC at the rate 1.92, Sencor extra (metribuzin) at the rate 2.0, Primextra gold 720 SC (atrazine+s-metolachlor), at the rate 1.50 Stomp (pendimethalin) 330 EC at the rate 1.50 kg. a.i. ha/sub -1/, hand weeding and a control. Data showed that weed density was significantly influenced by application of various herbicides in maize. Fresh weed biomass (g m/sup -2/) was reduced in plots where Primextra gold and Dual gold were sprayed followed by hand weeding. Weed mortality (%) was significantly influenced by application of different herbicides, whereas year effect remained similar for weed mortality. Higher weed mortality was observed in Primextra gold treated plots, followed by hand weeding and Dual gold which were statistically at par. Long stature maize plants were recorded in hand weeding and Primextra gold treated plots, whereas short stature plants were found in control plots. Number of grains ear-1 was significantly increased by application of herbicides and higher numbers of grains were recorded in Primextra gold and hand weeded plots. Thousand grain weight was significantly increased by herbicides and hand weeding. Application of herbicides significantly influenced biological and grain yields of maize. The effect of year was found non-significant for both grain and biological yields. Control plots resulted in lower grain and biological yield. Overall results indicated that application of Primextra gold as pre-emergence could provide good control of parthenium weed and associated weeds in maize. (author)

  2. Effects of Delaying Transplanting on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Rice under Mechanical Transplantation Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qihua; Wu, Xiu; Ma, Jiaqing; Chen, Bocong; Xin, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT) of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT). The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT. PMID:25875607

  3. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  4. Effects of Postponing N Application on Wheat Grain Yield, Protein Quality and Fertilizer-N use Efficiency in Low-Yield Field in Jianghan Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-yan Wang; Chun-bao Gao; Zhang-yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 to 2010, the effects of postponing N application on wheat grain yield and process quality were studied in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain in wheat. The results were as follows. When the Topdressing fertilizer N (TN) was postponed from tilling stage to jointing stage, the biomass and the SPAD value in flag leaf reduced, respectively. And grain yield, protein content in grain and stability time of paste, reduced as a result. When the topdressing fertilizer N was postponed from jointin...

  5. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell-wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT), days to silking (DTS), dry matter content (DMC), and dry matter yield (DMY) were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield- and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF), and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s) combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP) alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area. Udgivelsesdato: 15 January 2010

  6. The Effect of Different Densities and Interferences Periods of Sorghum on Contribution of Stem Reserves to Corn Grain Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHakiba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield component and determinate the contribution of stem reserves to corn yield under effect of different densities and interference periods of sorghum, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2002 on the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture Tabriz University. Experimental factors were sorghum interference at different periods (0,14,28,42 days after corn emergence and also during plant life corn with three densities (4,8,12 plants m-2. Characteristics of study were yield, yield component and the contribution of stem reserves to corn grain yield. The results showed that with increasing sorghum density and interference, corn yield components (except the number of grain rows were decreased, due to shading and competition between plants for using available resources. Maximum grain yield and grain number per ear was obtained at pure corn plantation. With increasing sorghum density and interference periods grain yield decreased, and maximum corn yield loss was 38%, which occurred at the highest sorghum density and interference. Dry matter remobilization and contribution of stem reserves were significantly influenced by sorghum densities and interferences in corn grain yield. The highest contribution of dry matter remobilization and stem reserves to corn yield was obtained at maximum density and complete interference of sorghum. The least contribution of reserves was shown in pure corn plantation. This might be related to shading and competition between plants for light and other resources.

  7. Productividad de variedades precoces de maíz de grano amarillo para Valles Altos / Yellow maize grain of early season varieties' productivity for the Highlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita, Tadeo Robledo; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón; Israel, Arteaga Escamilla; Viridiana, Trejo Pastor; Mauro, Sierra Macías; Roberto, Valdivia Bernal; Benjamín, Zamudio González.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available México importa anualmente diez millones de toneladas de grano de maíz amarillo; por lo que se requiere incrementar la producción. El uso de semilla mejorada es un elemento clave, para alcanzar niveles competitivos en la producción. Una opción para atender esta demanda y aminorar las dificultades por [...] las condiciones limitantes del temporal, son las variedades de grano amarillo de ciclo corto, cuya disponibilidad en Valles Altos es escasa. En la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, se han generado variedades de maíz de grano amarillo, de ciclo precoz. En los últimos años se promueven variedades de grano amarillo en ambas instituciones (Oro Ultra C, Oro Plus D y V-53A, V-54A, V-55A), las dos últimas ya inscritas en el Catálogo Nacional de Variedades Vegetales (CNVV). En este trabajo se evaluaron 8 variedades en comparación con un testigo comercial, en tres experimentos, dos de ellos en el CEVAMEX, con fecha de siembra diferente. En el CEVAMEX, fecha de siembra 1, fue donde se obtuvo el mejor rendimiento (6 070 kg ha-1), similar estadísticamente al rendimiento medio de la FESC-UNAM (5 553 kg ha-1), en ambos casos en siembra de la segunda quincena de junio, pero diferentes estadísticamente a la media de CEVAMEX, fecha de siembra 2, en la primera quincena de julio (3 493 kg ha-1). Las variedades V-53 A, V-54 A, Oro Ultra 3 C y V-55 A, exhibieron en promedio los mejores rendimientos (6 157 kg -1, 6 112 kg ha-1, 5 843 kg ha-1, 5 405 kg ha-1, respectivamente), superiores estadísticamente a Amarillo Zanahoria. Abstract in english Mexico imports annually ten million tons of yellow maize grain; making necessary to increase its production. The use of improved varieties is a key element to achieve competitive levels of production. One option to meet this demand and lessen the difficulties by boundary conditions of rainfed is the [...] varieties of yellow grain of short cycle, whose availability is limited in the Highlands. At the School of Advanced Studies Cuautitlán, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock, varieties of yellow maize of early season cycle have been generated. In recent years yellow grain varieties have been promoted at both institutions (Oro Ultra C, Oro Plus D and V-53 A, V-54 A, V-55 A), the latter two already recorded in the National Catalogue of Plant Varieties (CNVV). In this study, 8 varieties were evaluated comparing them with a commercial control in three experiments, two in the CEVAMEX, with different planting dates. In the CEVAMEX, the planting date 1, had the best yield obtained (6 070 kg ha-1), statistically similar to the average return of the FESC-UNAM (5 553 kg ha-1), both cases planting in the second half of June, but statistically different to the average in CEVAMEX, planting date 2, in the first half of July (3 493 kg ha-1). The varieties V-53 A, V-54 A, Oro Ultra 3 C and V-55 A, showed on average the best yields (6 157 kg-1, 6 112 kg ha-1, 5 843 kg ha-1 and, 5 405 kg ha-1, respectively), statistically superior to Amarillo Zanahoria.

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Nutritional Quality of Maize Cultivars (Zea mays) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Grains

    OpenAIRE

    B. Hassan Amro; A.M. Osman Gammaa; A.H. Rushdi Mohamed; M. Eltayeb Mohamed; E.E. Diab

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of maize and sorghum grains, packs were exposed to doses of 0 and 2 kGy in a 60 Co package irradiator. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperatures. Proximate composition, minerals content, minerals bio-availability, tannins content, phytic acid content, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility were evaluated. The results indicated that gamma irradiation caused no effect on...

  9. Effect of Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Population Density on the Yield and Yield Attributes of Maize (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubul Alam, M.; Md. Mainul Basher; Karim, A.; Rahman, M. A.; Rafiqul Islam, M.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted during the period from April to July 2001 to find out effect of 3 levels of plant population (53000, 66000, 80000 plants ha-1) and 4 levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 140, 180 and 220 kg ha-1) in silty clay loam soil. The results showed that the yield and yield attributes characters varied significantly due to the variation in population densities and nitrogen rates. The lower plant population (53000 plants ha-1) produced higher cobs plant-1, cob length, grains c...

  10. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH?(+) and NO?(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  11. Effects of Foliar Micronutrient Application on Osmotic Adjustments, Grain Yield and Yield Components in Sunflower (Alster cultivar under Water Stress at Three Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghanbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar micronutrient application under water stress at three stages of growth on proline and carbohydrate concentrations, grain yield and yield components of sunflower (Alster cultivar, a field experiment in split plot design with three replications was conducted in 2007. Alster cultivar was considered under water stress at three stages of growth (heading, flowering and grain filling as main plot and seven micronutrient treatments, Fe, Zn, Mn, Fe+Zn, Fe+Mn, Zn+Mn and Fe+Zn+Mn, as sub plots. Results showed, water stress at three stages of growth significantly decreased grain yield, biological yield, 1000 weight seeds, cap diameter and cap weight of sunflower (Alster cultivar. The impact of water stress was more pronounced when applied at grain filling. Use of foliar micronutrient increased grain yield in water stress. On the other hand, use of Mn foliar application had the highest positive effect on yield components and grain yield. Free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress at all of the three stages of growth. The highest concentration of these two components was found on the flowering stage. Foliar micronutrient also increased accumulation of the two components.

  12. Variabilidade de genótipos de milho quanto à composição de carotenoides nos grãos Variability of maize genotypes for grain carotenoid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Soares Cardoso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a variabilidade quanto ao teor e perfil de carotenoides nos grãos de 134 genótipos de milho (Zea mays, com vistas à utilização em programas de biofortificação. Os materiais foram provenientes dos campos experimentais e do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG. São cultivares e híbridos comerciais, linhagens-elite e outros acessos escolhidos com base na coloração amarelo-alaranjada do endosperma. A quantificação do teor de carotenoides totais, carotenos e xantofilas mono-hidroxilada e di-hidroxilada dos grãos foi realizada por método cromatográfico-espectrofotométrico. As médias encontradas nos grãos foram 22,34µ gg-1 de carotenoides totais, 2,55µ gg-1 de carotenos, 3,86µ gg-1 de xantofilas mono-hidroxiladas e 15,93µ gg-1 de xantofilas di-hidroxiladas. Os genótipos foram agrupados em 18 grupos pelo método de Tocher. O germoplasma da Embrapa possui potencial para ser usado em programas de desenvolvimento de linhagens de milho biofortificadas, quanto ao total de carotenoides pró-vitamina A.The objective of this work was to characterize 134 maize (Zea mays genotypes, for carotenoids content and build a genetic profile to facilitate future breeding to increase grain nutritional value (biofortification. Seeds came from experimental fields and from the Banco Ativo de Germoplasma of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The genotypes were co mmercial hybrids, varieties, and inbred lines developed by the Embrapa biofortification program and other accessions, chosen for their yellow-orange endosperm color. Total grain carotenoids, carotenes, xanthophylls (monohydroxylates and dihydroxylates were determined by chromatographic-spectrophotometric methods. The detected averages were: 22.34µ gg-1 for total carotenoids, 2.55µ gg-1 for carotenes, 3.86µ gg-1 for monohydroxylated xanthophylls, and 15.93µ gg-1 for dihydroxylated xanthophylls. The genotypes variability was divided into 18 groups by the method of Tocher. The Embrapa germplasm has variability and potential for development of maize lines biofortified for total of provitamin A carotenoids.

  13. Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars / Rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Itala Paula de C., Almeida; Paulo Sérgio L. e, Silva; Maria Z. de, Negreiros; Zenaide, Barbosa.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que a maioria das cultivares de milho foi desenvolvida para produção de grãos, existe interesse em se avaliá-las quanto à produção de minimilho e espigas verder pois as cultivares superiores podem diferir, dependendo da finalidade de exploração da cultura. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as [...] produções de minimilho, espigas verdes e de grãos de dez cultivares (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 e DKB 747) de milho. Dois experimentos, conduzidos na mesma época, em áreas vizinhas e manejados de forma semelhante, foram realizados em Mossoró-RN, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. Em um deles (178.571 plantas ha-1) avaliou-se a produção de minimilho. No outro (50.000 plantas ha-1), avaliaram-se as produções de espigas verdes e de grãos. As cultivares DKB 350 e AG 8080 mostraram-se as mais produtivas em número e peso de espigas de minimilho comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. As cultivares DKB 435 e AG 8080 mostraram-se as mais produtivas quanto aos números e pesos de espigas verdes comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. Não houve diferença entre cultivares quanto ao rendimento de grãos. Abstract in english Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work t [...] en corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 and DKB 747) were evaluated in the yield of baby corn, green ears and dry grains. Two experiments were carried out in the same season, in neighboring areas and managed in a similar way, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, in a randomized blocks design with five replicates. Baby corn yield (178,571 plants ha-1) was evaluated in one of the experiments. The other experiment (50,000 plants ha-1) was set to evaluate green ear and dry grain yield. Cultivars DKB 350 and AG 8080 were the most productive in number and weight of marketable unhusked, and husked baby corn ears. Cultivars DKB 435 and AG 8080 were the most productive in number and weight of marketable, unhusked, and husked ears. There were no differences between cultivars for grain yield.

  14. Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Paula de C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 and DKB 747 were evaluated in the yield of baby corn, green ears and dry grains. Two experiments were carried out in the same season, in neighboring areas and managed in a similar way, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, in a randomized blocks design with five replicates. Baby corn yield (178,571 plants ha-1 was evaluated in one of the experiments. The other experiment (50,000 plants ha-1 was set to evaluate green ear and dry grain yield. Cultivars DKB 350 and AG 8080 were the most productive in number and weight of marketable unhusked, and husked baby corn ears. Cultivars DKB 435 and AG 8080 were the most productive in number and weight of marketable, unhusked, and husked ears. There were no differences between cultivars for grain yield.Desde que a maioria das cultivares de milho foi desenvolvida para produção de grãos, existe interesse em se avaliá-las quanto à produção de minimilho e espigas verder pois as cultivares superiores podem diferir, dependendo da finalidade de exploração da cultura. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as produções de minimilho, espigas verdes e de grãos de dez cultivares (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 e DKB 747 de milho. Dois experimentos, conduzidos na mesma época, em áreas vizinhas e manejados de forma semelhante, foram realizados em Mossoró-RN, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. Em um deles (178.571 plantas ha-1 avaliou-se a produção de minimilho. No outro (50.000 plantas ha-1, avaliaram-se as produções de espigas verdes e de grãos. As cultivares DKB 350 e AG 8080 mostraram-se as mais produtivas em número e peso de espigas de minimilho comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. As cultivares DKB 435 e AG 8080 mostraram-se as mais produtivas quanto aos números e pesos de espigas verdes comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. Não houve diferença entre cultivares quanto ao rendimento de grãos.

  15. Evaluation of short stature mutants of Basmati-370 for yield and grain quality characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three short stature mutants were induced in an indica rice cultivar by gamma irradiation. The mutants were assessed for their yielding ability and grain quality characteristics. All the mutants out yielded the parent variety, Basmati-370. The increase in yield of the mutants ranged from 19.37% to 29.66%. DM-2 gave the highest yield (3587.96 kg/ha) among the mutants. As regards physical, cooking and eating quality characteristics, there was no significant difference in water absorption, volume expansion ratios and stickiness among the mutants and Basmati-370. However, Basmati-370 was scored best for flavour as this variety had strong aroma as compared to its mutants which were scored for moderately strong aroma. (authors)

  16. BRS Esteio: common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helton Santos, Pereira; Leonardo Cunha, Melo; Luís Cláudio de, Faria; Adriane, Wendland; Maria José, Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da, Costa; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; José Luis Cabrera, Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de, Carvalho; Válter Martins de, Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de, Melo; Antônio Félix da, Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli, Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza, Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa, Abreu; Cléber Moraes, Guimarães; Jaison Pereira de, Oliveira; José Aloísio Alves, Moreira; Maurício, Martins; Benedito Fernandes de, Souza Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 Brazilian States. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1, which is 8.1% higher than that of the contr [...] ol cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging, and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  17. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  18. Predictive grain yield models based on canopy structure and structural plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Abdullah A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural dimensions, digitally measured on stems and leaves of soybean plants during thefirst six reproductive growth stages (R1-R6), were used to assess the impact of fivemanagement strategies (combinations of cropping systems, tillage practices and croprotations) on grain yield per plant. Stem and leaf dimensions, light penetration within thecanopy [log (I/Io) x 100], fractal dimension of plant skeletal images (Do) multiplied by leafarea index (LAI), and midday differential canopy tempera...

  19. EFFECT OF DROUGHT CONDITION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF UPLAND RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Raumjit Nokkoul; Teerayut Wichitparp

    2014-01-01

    Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought condition on growth, yield and grain quality of two varieties in upland rice: Nangdam and Lebnok. The experiment was performed at the King Mongkut?s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2010. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. This results showed that Nangdam and Labnok varieties were got 12.40-97.10 mm of average monthl...

  20. Effect of Transplanting on Yield and Growth of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Agbaje, Go; Olofintoye, Ja

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of transplanting on growth and grain yield of three varieties of Sorghum bicolor, 'Ilorin local', SK 5912, and SSV10. Seedlings from each variety transplanted at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP) were compared with directly seeded plants used as control. Results show that at 8 WAP with seedlings transplanted at 2 WAP were taller than the other transplants, but shorter than directly seeded plants. Transplanting caused delay in flowering, b...

  1. Effect of Forage and Grain Pearl Millet on Pratylenchus penetrans and Potato Yields in Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Be?lair, G.; Dauphinais, N.; Fournier, Y.; Dangi, O. P.; Cle?ment, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Rotation crop experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 to assess the impact of forage and grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Pratylenchus penetrans populations in three potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) fields in Quebec. These crops were compared to oats and(or) barley. Forage millet had a suppressive effect on P. penetrans populations after a 1 year rotation. The following year, marketable potato yields were negatively correlated with initial P. penetrans densities on two e...

  2. Rice transcription factor AP37 involved in grain yield increase under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youn Shic; Kim, Ju-kon

    2009-01-01

    Drought is a serious threat to the sustainability of rice yields in rainfed agriculture. In particular, exposure to drought conditions during the stage of panicle development of a rice plant results in a delayed flowering time, reduced number of spikelets and poor grain filling. In our recent report, we functionally characterized the rice AP37 gene for drought tolerance during the vegetative and reproductive growth. Transgenic overexpression of the AP37 with the OsCc1 promoter in rice increas...

  3. Sistema de cultivo e doses de nitrogênio na sanidade e no rendimento do milho / Cropping systens and nitrogen levels in the maize plant health and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Américo, Wordell Filho; Evandro, Spagnollo.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As podridões da base do colmo (PBC) e grãos ardidos (GA) ocorrem em lavouras de milho, causando prejuízos aos produtores e contaminando os grãos com micotoxinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os efeitos do monocultivo de milho, da rotação de culturas com feijoeiro e da adubação nitrogenada [...] na incidência de PBC e GA, nos teores de fumonisinas, peso de mil sementes (PMS) e no rendimento de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições por tratamento. Na parcela principal, foram testados três híbridos de milho: P30F36, AS 1575 e Maximus. Nas subparcelas, foi avaliada a resposta dos híbridos a cinco doses de nitrogênio (N), equivalentes a 0; 75; 140; 215 e 290kg de N ha-1, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para os valores médios de PBC, fumonisina e rendimento de grãos nos dois sistemas de cultivo avaliados. Para os valores médios de GA e PMS, ocorreram diferenças entre híbridos somente quando cultivados em rotação de cultura. A incidência dos parâmetros PBC e GA, quando em monocultura, foi superior aos encontrados quando cultivado em rotação de culturas. As variações médias do PMS e rendimento de grãos foram superiores quando em rotação, comparativamente ao sistema de cultivo em monocultura. As diferentes doses de N explicaram apenas parcialmente as variações observadas em todas as variáveis analisadas. Abstract in english The stalk rot (SR) and grain rot (GR) occur in crops as corn, causing losses to farmers and contaminating the grain with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of corn monoculture, crop rotation with common bean, and nitrogen fertilization on the incidence of SR, GR, fumonisin [...] levels, weight of thousand seeds (WTS) and grain yield. The experiment was randomized blocks with split plot and four replicates per treatment. In the main plot were tested three maize hybrids: P30F36, AS 1575 and Maximus. In the sub-plots, each of the hybrids was evaluated in five levels of nitrogen (N), equivalent to 0; 75; 140; 215 and 290kg of N ha-1 in both cropping systems. There were no significant differences for mean values of SR, Fumonisin and grain yield in both cropping systems evaluated. For GR and WTS average values had differences between hybrids only when corn was grown in crop rotation with common bean. The annual growth rate of SR and GR parameters in corn monoculture ranged from 44.8 to 172.4 %, above the rate found on corn when grown in crop rotation. In turn, mean changes of WTS and grain yield was 1.2 to 17.6 % higher when in rotation compared to monoculture cropping system. The differences found in nitrogen rates partly explained the changes observed in all variables.

  4. Improving grain yield and nitrogen fixation of common bean grown in an acrisol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of selected management practices such as the use of phosphate rock (PR), partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) and soil liming, on improving grain yields and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in an strongly acid Acrisol from Cuba. In Experiment 1 the agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR and FPA 50, a PAPR from Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 50% acidulation level were evaluated as P sources for the common bean genotypes, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa. In Experiment 2 the response of the CC 25-9N common bean genotype to the increasing application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1) of two P sources, i.e. triple super phosphate and C 40, was determined at two liming levels. C40 was a PAPR from the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 40% acidulation level. In Experiment 3 the effect of soil liming on grain yield and BNF of BAT 58, BAT 304, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390, Judia Roja Camagueyana (JRC) and Censa common bean genotypes was studied. The most effective P sources to increase grain yields of the studied bean genotypes were the water-soluble superphosphate in experiments 1 and 2. Both partially acidulated PR products, FPA 50 and C 40, showed intermediate agronomic effectiveness and they increased grain yields over the PR and control (withouain yields over the PR and control (without P) treatments. Soil liming increased grain yields and BNF of the common bean genotypes tested. Based on an economic analysis of profit and value/cost ratios, single superphosphate was the P source that gave the highest economic profit for all common bena genotypes while FPA 50 was efficient for DOR 390 and Censa. Lime application increased the economic profit of all bean genotypes. Genotype BAT 304 showed adaptability to soil acidity and gave the highest profit in limed soil. (author)

  5. Estimation of characters association and direct and indirect effects of yield contributing traits on grain yield in exotic and Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Et Al, Rangare N. R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the nature and magnitude of the degree of association between yield and its component characters and their direct and indirect effects on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The study evaluated forty exotic and Indian rice germplasm including one local check for their efficiency with respect to eleven yield and yield contributing characters from Kharif 2009 under normal conditions. Associated studies have indicated that for an improvement in gr...

  6. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  7. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8x8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P=0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  8. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8 X 8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P.0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  9. The Effect of Tillage System and Rimsulfuron Application on Weed Flora, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM Root Colonization and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna KAKABOUKI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of tillage system and rimsulfuron application on weed flora and growth of maize (Zea mays L. Mitic F1 at a site with no history of pesticide use for the last 5 years. A randomized complete block design was employed with three replicates per treatment (conventional tillage without rimsulfuron application (control, no-tillage with rimsulfuron application (NT+Rim and conventional tillage with rimsulfuron application (CT+Rim. The lowest leaf area index, dry weight and yield of maize were recorded in NT+Rim plots. In addition, the highest soil bulk density was determined in NT+Rim plots. Moreover, the rimsulfuron application resulted in significant reduction in the root growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization. The lowest root biomass, root length density, root surface and AM root colonization was found in CT+Rim plots. The lowest weed number and biomass was also observed at CT+Rim plots. Sustainability yield index (SYI shown that the maize crop is more stable under conventional tillage compared with no-tillage. Our results indicated that root growth was reduced significant by rimsulfuron application but statistically significant lower maize yield was obtained in no-tillage system.

  10. Regional crop modelling in Europe: The impact of climate conditions and farm characteristics on maize yields

    OpenAIRE

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Boogaard, H.; Diepen, K (Koen) van

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of climate variability and climate change on regional crop yields are commonly assessed using process-based crop models. These models, however, simulate potential and water limited yields, which do not always relate to observed yields. The latter are largely influenced by crop management, which varies by farm and region. Data on specific management strategies may be obtained at the field level, but at the regional level information about the diversity in management strategies is rarel...

  11. SELECTED AND NON-SELECTED MAIZE HYBRIDS BEHAVIOR FOR ASI UNDER WATER STRESS IN FLOWERING AND GRAIN FILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOEL XAVIER DOS SANTOS

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Among abiotic stresses, drought is one of the most serious problem that reduces maize production. This reduction depends on the development of the culture and on the scarcity of water. The Anthesis Silk Interval (ASI has been related as a trait of easy measurement and it is negatively correlated with drought tolerance. The objective of this work was to verify the hybrids behavior originated from selected and non-selected inbreed lines for ASI under water stress during flowering/grain filling stages. The applied irrigation was measured in collecting cans placed in each experiment. In the experiment with stress the irrigation was interrupted at 55 days after planting date (dap and initiated again at 90 dap. To evaluate the applied water stress, soil-water was monitored in three depths of the soil profile (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm using the gravimetric method. Ten non-selected hybrids for ASI (NSASI, five hybrids with 100% ASI, five hybrids with 50% ASI and two commercial checks were used. For both trials the experimental design was randomized complete blocks with three replications and a plot formed by two five-meter-long rows. Significant differences were found (P<0.01 for all evaluated traits in each environment and for grain weight, ear number and plant height in the combined analysis. The hybrids with ASI 100% showed, in average, zero ASI and they showed protogyny while the others showed protandry. The NSASI hybrids showed an average reduction of 62% in the productivity while hybrids with 100% ASI and 50% ASI showed average reductions of 44,8% and 54%, respectively. The highest average productivity of the ASI hybrids in the environment with moisture stress seems to be more associated with the higher ear number than with the ASI trait.

  12. Changes in Grain Yield and Associated Physiological Traits in Iranian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars Released During 1940-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study changes in morphophysiological traits of wheat cultivars released from 1940 to 2000 in Iran and to determine the association of these traits with grain yield, an RCBD experiment was conducted with 15 wheat cultivars released during past 60 years in Arsanjan (Fars province in 2006 and 2007. Results indicated that grain yield increased significantly during these 60 years (r=0.912, P<0.01. HI and BY increased significantly with increasing grain yield. The changes in photosynthesis rate were not significant during this period, but transpiration rate and stomotal conductance in recent cultivars increased significantly. Chlorophyll index also increased in new cultivars. Among yield components, grain number per ear increased significantly, but increase in ear number was not significant. Plant height decreased significantly in new cultivars. The results showed that during wheat breeding in Iran, increasing HI, grain number per ear, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and decreasing plant height had the highest role in wheat yield increase. The role of BY and ear number per area were lower in grain yield increase. It seems that present HI values are near the highest possible value, but the opportunity for increasing grain yield by mean of HI is still possible.

  13. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated wem reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  14. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. C.; Justino, F.; Oliveira, L. J. C.; Sediyama, G. C.; Ferreira, W. P. M.; Lemos, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  15. Effects of row spacing and N fertilizer on N2 fixation of groundnut, N transfer to intercropped maize and crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to examine effects of row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on N2 fixation, N transferred to the intercropped maize, (Zea mays, L.) and the yields of crops in cropping systems involving maize and groundnut (Arachis hypogea, L.). The cropping systems involved were: (1)L1, one groundnut row between maize double rows; (2) L2, two groundnut rows between maize double rows; (3) L3, one groundnut row between maize single rows; (4) L4, sole groundnut; and (5) M, sole maize. The rate of N fertilizer studied was 80 kg N/ha. Both with and without the N fertilizer, L1 produced not only the highest maize yield but also the highest total crops dry matter. Without the N fertilizer, groundnut in L1, L2, L3, and L4 gave percent N derived from fixation of 53, 63, 46 and 60, and of 22, 52, 31, and 175 kg/ha of N2 fixed by the legumes, respectively. With the N fertilizer, the corresponding figures were 41, 44 and 34 percent and 14, 25, and 20 kg/ha for L1, L2, and L3, respectively. Quantities of fixed N2 estimated by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and by N-Balance Method (NB) highly correlated with those estimated by the 15N isotope dilution method. However, ARA generally gave higher figures that ID, especially in the cases of high N2 fixation whereas NB gave higher figureub> fixation whereas NB gave higher figures than ID in the cases of low fixation and lower figures in the cases of high fixation. There was no evidence to support transfer of fixed N from the legume to the intercropped maize in any of the systems. Without the N fertilizer, L2 gave smaller amount of N deficit due to cropping than L1 and L3. With the N fertilizer, the three systems were comparable. Both with and without the N fertilizer, the three systems were comparable in their quantities of N returned to the soil in stubbles. Taking these and crop yields into account, L1 is the most recommendable intercropping system. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  17. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  18. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D

    2010-01-01

    Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22 % shading treatment (S1), while 16.2 % and 25.8 % under 33 % shading (S2) in Yangmai 158 and Yangmai 11 respectively. The reduction in LAI was 6.0 % and 9.2 % (S1), and 18.2 % and 22.2 % (S2) in Yangmai 158 and Yangmai 11 respectively. However, decline in canopy apparent photosynthetic rate (CAP) was 15.0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease in photosynthetic rate (Pn) of flag leaf was partially compensated by the increase in Pn of the third leaf from the top. In addition, an inconsistency between the low Pn and the high Chl content in flag leaf was observed at 30 DAA. This could be explained that more excitation energy was dispersed via the non-photochemical approaches in the photosystem II (PSII) of flag leaf after long-term shading.

  19. Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

  20. A mathematical model of phloem sucrose transport as a new tool for designing rice panicle structure for high grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Motohide; Feugier, François Gabriel; Song, Xian-Jun; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Haruka; Ishiyama, Keiki; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Inari-Ikeda, Mayuko; Kitano, Hidemi; Satake, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world. Numerous quantitative trait loci or genes controlling panicle architecture have been identified to increase grain yield. Yet grain yield, defined as the product of the number of well-ripened grains and their weight, is a complex trait that is determined by multiple factors such as source, sink and translocation capacity. Mechanistic modelling capturing capacities of source, sink and transport will help in the theoretical design of crop ideotypes that guarantee high grain yield. Here we present a mathematical model simulating sucrose transport and grain growth within a complex phloem network. The model predicts that the optimal panicle structure for high yield shows a simple grain arrangement with few higher order branches. In addition, numerical analyses revealed that inefficient delivery of carbon to panicles with higher order branches prevails regardless of source capacity, indicating the importance of designing grain arrangement and phloem structure. Our model highlights the previously unexplored effect of grain arrangement on the yield, and provides numerical solutions for optimal panicle structure under various source and sink capacities. PMID:25516572

  1. Assessment of Relationship between Grain Yield and Important Agronomic Traits of Rapeseed as Second Culture in Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moumeni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To study relationship between grain yield and important agronomic traits of rapeseed in paddy fields as second culture, fourteen varieties of spring rapeseed were grown in a randomized complete block design of experiment with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht, during 2005-2006. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between varieties for most of traits. Broad sense heritability ranged from 0.29 for pod length to 0.99 for days to maturity. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation for days to maturity and the number of pods in secondary branches were the lowest and highest, respectively. Moreover, genetic advance with 5% of selection intensity varied from 3.68% (0.25 cm for pod length in main branch to 31.48% (915.58 Kg.ha-1 for grain yield. Results from genotypic correlation coefficients demonstrated that there were positive significant correlations between grain yield and the number of secondary branches, the number of pod in main and secondary branches, pod length in secondary branches, pod diameter in main and secondary branches, 1000-grain weight and oil percentage, and negative significant correlations between grain yield and days to 90% of flowering and days to maturity. Path analysis on genotypic correlations for grain yield as a dependent variable and the other traits as independent variables showed that the 1000-grain weight and the number of pods in secondary branches had the highest direct effects and days to 90% of flowering had low and negative direct effect on grain yield. Therefore, indirect selection for increasing 1000-grain weight and the number of pods in secondary branches are recommended for improving grain yield in rapeseed as second culture in paddy fields.

  2. Foliar Nutrient Balance Standards for Maize (Zea mays L.) at High-Yield Level

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Cristina Modesto; Serge-Étienne Parent; William Natale; Léon Etienne Parent

    2014-01-01

    Maize is one of the most nutrient demanding staple crops. Tissue nutrient diagnosis of maize is currently conducted using critical nutrient concentration or dual ratio ranges, but such diagnoses are pathological as biased by data redundancy, sub-compositional incoherence and non-normal distribution. The use of orthogonal balances, a compositional data analysis technique, avoids such biases. Our objective was to develop foliar nutrient balance standards for maize. We col...

  3. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars PØdenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.

    2012-01-01

    Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety mixtures relative to their component varieties. For this purpose, six variety mixtures of spring barley and 14 component varieties were grown in each of 17 trial environments. Atotal of 28 observed and a priori plant characteristics, including grain yield, disease severity and weed competitiveness, were derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out-yielded all of its component varieties in almost half of the trial environments. Inter-varietal diversity in grain yield potential correlated significantly with mixing effect, as did straw length diversity when weighted with weed pressure. The grain yields of most mixtures were more stable across environments than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.

  4. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize / Volatilização de amônia e componentes da produção do milho com a aplicação de ureia revestida com polímeros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Zavaschi; Letícia de Abreu, Faria; Godofredo Cesar, Vitti; Carlos Antonio da Costa, Nascimento; Thiago Augusto de, Moura; Diego Wyllyam do, Vale; Fernanda Latanze, Mendes; Marcos Yassuo, Kamogawa.

    1200-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das maneiras de aumentar a eficiência dos fertilizantes nitrogenados, visando, por exemplo, à redução de perdas de amônia por volatilização, é o revestimento desses com polímeros. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de ureia revestida com polímeros no controle da volatilização de amônia e [...] a sua influência nos componentes da produção na cultura do milho. O experimento foi instalado na safra 2009/10 no município de Uberlândia, MG, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA) distrófico textura argilosa. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação, em cobertura no milho, de ureia revestida com polímeros e ureia convencional nas doses de 45; 67,5; e 90 kg ha-1 de N, mais um tratamento-controle (sem N), dispostos em blocos casualizados. A aplicação de N influenciou positivamente o teor do nutriente nas folhas e nos grãos, a leitura SPAD e a produtividade de grãos, porém a ureia revestida não alterou as taxas de volatilização de amônia, a leitura SPAD e o teor de N nas folhas e grãos, assim como a produtividade de grãos em relação à aplicação do fertilizante convencional. Abstract in english A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was [...] carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N), in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  5. Improvement in grain quality characteristics and yield in rice by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement in grain quality has been obtained in two rice cultures CR.75-83 and CR-75-93 (Rexore X Chianan-8) after gamma irradiation. The culture CR.75-83 and R.75-93 have good field resistance for bacterial leaf blight, but have comparatively low yield potential (4-5 tonns/ha) and have defects in grain quality such as low gelatinization temperature of starch and relatively low amylose content with inferior cooking quality since one of their parents was a 'Ponlai' type (Taiwan japonica). Improvement in fineness of the kernel and cooking quality by mutation of genes especially for higher amylose content and intermediate gelatinization temperature have been achieved in CR.75-83 mutants No.1,4,6,7,8,9,11 and 13 under 15Kr., in CR.75-93 in mutant No.2,4 and 10 under 25 Kr. Yield atributes have also improved with a shortening in the total duration by 10 to 20 days. The feasibility of improving the cooking quality especially the geletinization temperature and amylose content in the high yielding varieties by mutagenesis is discussed. (author)

  6. Lower Limits of Water Use By Cotton, Maize, and Grain Sorghum in Three Great Plains Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate knowledge of the amount of soil water available for crop use helps agricultural producers select cropping and irrigation management strategies that maximize crop yields. Using neutron attenuation, we measured the lower limits of soil water content (LL, in m**3 m**-3) at harvest (three seas...

  7. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 gene in soybean increases grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Sasha B; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P; Tripodi, Federico A; Screen, Steven E; Anil, Veena S; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Reuber, T Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E; McClerren, Amanda L; Ruff, Thomas G; Petracek, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to deliver increased agricultural productivity. PMID:22363475

  8. Estabilidade da produção de germoplasma de milho avaliado em diferentes regiões do Brasil Yield stability of maize germoplasm evaluated in several regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELTO EUGENIO GOMES E GAMA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações quanto aos aspectos relacionados aos padrões de respostas apresentados por 30 diferentes genótipos de milho (híbridos, cultivares e populações, avaliados em 14 diferentes ambientes do Brasil, no ano agrícola de 1995/96. Foram obtidas as estimativas dos parâmetros de estabilidade da produção de espigas despalhadas. Os genótipos estudados apresentaram comportamento diferenciado quanto à adaptabilidade da produção. Os híbridos foram mais adaptados que as cultivares e populações. O híbrido triplo P 3041 foi o mais produtivo, porém de baixa previsibilidade e estabilidade nos ambientes estudados. As cultivares CMS 50 e BR 106 apresentaram a primeira e a quinta melhores produções, respectivamente, entre as cultivares estudadas, porém não foram muito resistentes ao baixo nível tecnológico. Foi possível identificar genótipos promissores para utilização de imediato e em programas de melhoramentoThe objective of this work was the obtention of information on the response pattern of 30 maize genotypes in 14 environments of Brazil in 1995/96. The stability parameters of ear yield were estimated. All the genotypes varied for yield adaptability. The three-way cross P 3041 presented the best yield and showed low stability to a deterioration on environmental variations. The open pollinated materials CMS 50 and BR 106 were, respectively, the first and fifth best yieldings among all the studied maize genotypes, with low adaptation on unfavorable environments. The identification of promising maize genotype was possible for immediate utilization and as a source of germplasm in breeding programs.

  9. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and changes in climate v