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Sample records for maize grain yield

  1. Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield

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    Živanovi? Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that occurs in inbreds during inbreeding. The highest average value of heterosis for gain yield was detected in the hybrid ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 (123.0% and 178.1% in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The estimation of combining abilities was done on the basis of diallel hybrids after the method established by Griffing, 1956 (method II, mathematical model I. The analysis of variance of combining ability for grain yield indicated highly significant values of GCA and SCA for the observed trait in both study years. Grain yield inheritance was more affected by non-additive genes (dominance and epistasis as indicated by the GCA to SCA ratio that was smaller than unity. The inbreds ZPLB401 and ZPLB406 had high GCA effects, while the hybrid combinations ZPLB40Î x ZPLB402, ZPLB401 x ZPLB403, ZPLB401 x ZPLB405, ZPLB402 x ZPLB406, ZPLB403 x ZPLB406, ZPLB404 x ZPLB406, ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 had high SCA effects in both study years. These hybrid combinations include one parent with high GCA effects and other with low GCA effects. Furthermore, there are combinations ZPLB402 x ZPLB405, ZPLB403 x ZPLB405 and ZPLB404 x ZPLB405 with significant SCA effects that include parents with low GCA effects. This is probably the result of the additive type (additive x additive of interaction between parents.

  2. Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Muhammad Bashir Alvi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between grain yield and its components were determined by genotypic correlation and path co-efficient analysis in eighteen maize lines/hybrids. The results indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with all parameters studied. The results also showed that number of kernels row?1 has maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1. Ear height had negative direct effect on grain yield. It was concluded that number of kernels row?1, 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1 were the main yield components.

  3. DISTRIBUITION AND POPULATION OF PLANTS AND MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

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    DURVAL DOURADO NETO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the effect of plant population (30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha-1, under two width rows (0.40 and 0.80 m, on the grain yield of three maize genotypes with open (AG 1051, semi-erect (AG 7575 and erect (DKB 911 leaf architecture, a field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil between November 20th, 2000 and April 10th, 2001. According to the results: a in high population (90,000 plants ha-1, the reduction of width row (from 0.80 m to 0.40 m increases grain yield on the open-leaf-architecture genotype, and b, until 60,000 plants ha-1, regardless of genotype, the grain yield is crescent with an increase in plant population. With the plant population increasing from 60,000 to 90,000 plants ha-1, the grain yield: a increases in the erect-leaf-architecture genotype, b stabilizes on the semi-erect-leaf-architecture genotype, c stabilizes under reduced spacing (0.40 m, and decreases under spacing of 0.80 m in the open-leaf-architecture genotype.

  4. Effect of irrigation frequencies on grain yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the water requirement and its application frequencies in spring Maize a trial was designed. The trial was comprised of five maize varieties (Ev-5098, EV-6098, EV-1098, Composite-20 and Pack Afgoyee) and five irrigation frequencies (7,8,9,10 and 11). The trial was sown in split plot design with three replication, keeping varieties in main plots and irrigation frequencies in sub plots. The plot size was 5m x 4.5 with 75cm apart rows and plant to plant distance was 15 com to maintain the 88888 plants per hectare. The trial was conducted during spring 2000 and 2001. Data were collected for days to 50% silking. Plant height (cm), cob height (cm) and grain yield per hectare. The data were analyzed and results obtained which revealed highly significant differences among varieties and also among irrigation frequencies in all the characters studied during both the years and in pooled analysis over years. The interaction between varieties and irrigation frequencies was highly significant for grain yield kg ha/sup -1/ and significant for other characters studied in year wise as well as in pooled analysis. Years effect was also high significant which is clear from the table of weather data which shows that temperature remained high during the crop season of 2001 as compared to 2000 along with high temperature more rains were also received in March. April and May in 2001 while in 2000 rain was received only in February. Three was gradual decrease in days to 50% silking with the increase in number of irrigations in all the varieties while plant height, cob height and grain yield increased with every addition of irrigation. Trend of increase or decrease remained the same during both the year. All the varieties separately or in combine showed better results during spring 2001, maximum grain yield was obtained by EV-5098 (full duration variety) with 11 irrigations during both the years 2000 and 2001 i.e. 3511 and 6140 kg ha/sup -1/ while EV-1098 (short duration variety out yielded with 10-irrigation i.e. 2082 and 5265 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  5. Effect of different proportions of exotic germplasm on grain yield and grain moisture in maize

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    Nastasi? Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two main questions in programs introgressing exotic maize germplasm into temperate materials are the choice of available exotic sources to work with, and the proportion of exotic germplasm that should be incorporated into adapted germplasm. The objective of this study was to compare effects of different proportions of tropical maize inbred line NC298 in hybrids male parent on grain yield and grain moisture content, using method of orthogonal polynomials. Methods of direct crosses and backcrosses were used to form four hybrid groups (six hybrids each containing 0, 25, 50 and 75 percent of tropical exotic germplasm, respectively, by their male parent (or one half of mentioned proportions in the corresponding hybrids. The linear components of the germplasm proportions sum of squares, were significant (p<0.01 for both grain yield and moisture content and the cubic effect (p<0.05 for grain yield only. Results in this study clearly suggested backcross foundation populations with an adapted line to be appropriate selection sources for both grain yield and grain moisture content.

  6. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

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    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  7. Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Bashir Alvi; Muhammad Rafique; Muhammad Shafique Tariq; Amer Hussain; Tariq Mahmood; Muhammad Sarwar

    2003-01-01

    Interrelationships between grain yield and its components were determined by genotypic correlation and path co-efficient analysis in eighteen maize lines/hybrids. The results indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with all parameters studied. The results also showed that number of kernels row?1 has maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1. Ear height had negative direct effect on g...

  8. Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

  9. RESPONSIVENESS OF OBAATANPA MAIZE GRAIN YIELD AND BIOMASS TO SOIL, WEATHER AND CROP GENETIC VARIATIONS

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    Atakora K. Williams

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development as well as data on soil and weather was collected from field on-station experiment conducted during the 2010 growing season at Kpalesawgu, Tamale-Ghana. Twenty on-farm experiments were also conducted in the Tolon-Kunbungu and Tamale Metropolitan districts in Northern Ghana to determine the responsiveness of maize grain yield and biomass to soil, weather and crop genetic variations. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. Data on phenology, grain yield and biomass from the field experiment were used for model validation and simulations. Validation results showed good agreement between predicted and measured yields with a Normalized Random Square mean Error (NRSME value of 0.181. Results of these sensitivity analysis results showed that the DSSAT model is highly sensitive to changes in weather variables such as daily maximum and minimum temperatures as well as solar radiation, however, the model was found to be least sensitive to rainfall.  The model also found to be sensitive to crop genetic and soil variations. Model predictions of the responsiveness of the yield and biomass to changes in soil, weather and crop genetic coefficients were found to be good with an r2 values between 0.95 to 0.99 except when predicting maize grain yield using changes in minimum temperature with an r2 value of 0.8577.

  10. Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates

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    Darko Grbeša

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L. grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002 maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400. Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May and delayed (about two weeks later sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

  11. EFFECT OF GRAY LEAF SPOT ON SECOND-SEASON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD IN SÃO PAULO STATE

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    GISÈLE MARIA FANTIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot is an important maize disease in São Paulo State. Due to its relevance, the effect of this disease on maize grain yield was studied during the 2004 to 2008 autumn-winter seasons. Experiments were carried out to evaluate corn cultivars, comprising 44 to 60 simple and triple hybrids, being 19 trials in 2004, 15 in 2005, 16 in 2006, 16 in 2007 and 15 in 2008. The evaluations of disease severity were done at the kernel dough stage, ascribing notes 1 to 9 (for 0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and more than 75% affected leaf area, respectively. Significant negative correlation between gray leaf spot severity and grain yield was detected in 16 of the 35 trials where the disease occurred. In order to quantify the effect of gray leaf spot on yield of these 16 trials, attempting to minimize the dispersion caused by differences of yield potential, cultivars tolerance to the disease and other factors, cultivars were grouped into categories of disease intensity based on the Scott-Knott test at 5%, and means for severity and yield were calculated for each category. The adjustment of linear equations to these data allowed to estimate the yield reduction as a function of disease severity, for the intervals studied in each trial, that was on average 238 kg ha-1 (4% with note 2, 634 kg ha-1 (11% with note 3, 1006 kg ha-1 (17% with note 4 and 1574 kg ha-1 with note 5, in relation to the groups with greatest gray leaf spot resistance which showed mean note 1.4 and mean grain yield 5655 kg ha-1. These results indicate that even with low disease severity a significant maize yield loss can be observed, demonstrating the importance of the use of genetic resistance in the control of gray leaf spot and to reduce losses in maize grain yield.

  12. TILLERING AND PROLIFICACyAS STABILIZING TRAITS TO MAIZE GRAIN yIELD AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES

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    LUÍS SANGOI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that increase the number of ears produced per plant can minimize losses in maize grain yield caused by low plant populations. This study was carried out aiming to evaluate if tillering and prolificacy are effective traits to stabilize maize grain yield at different plant populations. The trial was set in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, during the growing season of 2007/08. Four plant densities (2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 pl m-2 and three maize hybrids (P30F53 - tillering; AG9020 - prolific; AS1570, scarce tillering and low prolificacy were tested. The leaf area index of hybrids at flowering increased linearly from 2.6 to 6.9 with the increase in plant population. Grain yield ranged from 10,750 to 13,740 kg ha-1 and increased quadratically with the increment in plant population. P30F53 was more productive than AG9020 at the density of 5.0 pl m-2. There was no difference on hybrids grain yield at the other plant populations. The higher tillering ability of P30F53 and prolificacy of AG9020 did not provide them yield advantages, in comparison to AS1570, when maize was grown at the lowest plant population. The regular distribution of pluvial precipitation and the favorable soil and management conditions attenuated yield losses caused by low plant populations, reducingthe importance of tillering and prolificacy as productivity stabilizing traits at sub-optimal stands.

  13. Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

  14. Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions

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    Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-dominance type of gene action for protein content, osmotic potential, stomata size and grain yield per plant under normal condition also remained unchanged under water stress whereas additive type of gene action for stomatal frequency under normal changed to over-dominance type of gene action under water stress.

  15. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

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    Božinovi? Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  16. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

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    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  17. The Effects of Weeding Regimes and Maize Planting Density on Quantity of Management and Grain Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of four weeding regimes: weed free, herbicide use, two times hand cultivation at week three and eight after emergency and any two planting densities: Low planting density of 10 plants per m2, high planting density of 21 plants per m2 were evaluated on maize H511. A 4x2 factorial blocked design was used. Thinning done at 112 DAP interaction effect was not significant; weeding regime was significant while planting density was highly significant. Herbicide use regime had highest mean dry matter yield of thinnings of 13.82 t/ha. High planting density showed the highest mean dry matter yield of thinning of 15.2 t/ha while low planting density showed the lowest of 8.7 t/ha. The treatment interaction on stover dry matter was not significant, while planting density and weeding regimes were significant. Two times hand cultivation gave the highest stover dry matter forage yield of 19.4 t/ha while weedy regime gave the least yield of 10.2t/ha. Low planting density which gave 11.1 t/ha. Hand cultivation-2 times had the highest grain dry matter yield of 5.03t/ha, while weedy regime had the least of 1.93t/ha. Low planting density had the highest grain dry matter yield of 4.9t/ha, while high planting density had the least yield of 2.4t/ha

  18. VARIATION ON MAIZE GREEN EARS AND GRAIN YIELD IN RESPONSE TO WEED COMPETITION

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    PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify whether maize cultivars behave differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars AG 405, AG 2060, BA 8517, BA 9513, DKB 435 and EX 6005, applied to the plots, underwent the following treatments: without weeding and two weedings (22 and 41 days after planting. Only ten weed species were found in the experiment, many of which were gramineae. There was no difference among cultivars in relation to the number of weeds m-2. The number of weeds in the weeded plots (70.0 m-2 was superior to the one of the no-weeded plots (32.8 m-2. The cultivars only differed in grain yield when the weeds were controlled, with BA 8517 cultivar standing out as being superior. Therefore, the cultivars presented different reductions in grain yield with the presence of weeds suggesting that some (AG 405, BA 9513 and EX 6005 are more competitive than others against weeds. The weeds reduced green ears yield, in addition to 16 of the 26 evaluated characteristics, including some traits of the stalk, leaves, tassel, ear and grain.

  19. Genetics of ear traits and grain yield in quality protein maize (Zea mays L.

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    V.K. Agrawal*, R.M. Singh, J.P. Shahi and R.K. Agrawal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hayman’s component analysis was employed to ascertain the gene actions conditioning the ear related traits viz., ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per ear, kernels per row and grain yield per plant in quality protein maize. Eight yellow seeded quality protein maize (QPM inbred lines were crossed in diallel mating design, including reciprocals. The inbreds and their 56 crosses were evaluated in randomized block design with 3 replications across the three environments. Significant differences among genotypes observed for all the traits over the environments. Influence of epistasis found for all the traits in one or more seasons except ear length. Ear length exhibited importance of additive gene effects across the seasons. Over-dominance showed in all the characters. The range of narrow sense heritability was low over the environments for most of the traits i.e. for ear length (15.1-19.3%, ear diameter (12.1-17.7%, kernels per row (23.6-30.5% and grain yield per plant (13.6-19.5% whereas kernel rows per ear exhibited moderate narrow sense heritability ranging from 44.3-66.5% over the environments. In general, narrow sense heritability estimates were higher in rabi environment as compared to kharif environment

  20. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

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    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  1. Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

  2. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

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    Amir José Klein Werle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

  3. Effects of shading on spike differentiation and grain yield formation of summer maize in the field

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    Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J.; Jin, Libin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on tassel and ear development and yield formation of three summer maize hybrids Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking stage (R1) to physiological maturity stage (R6) (treatment S1), from the sixth extended leaf stage (V6) to R1 (treatment S2) and from seeding to R6 (treatment S3). Shading had no significant effect on the time from seeding to shoot emergence (VE); however, subsequent growth and development were delayed with shading beyond this point. The differentiation time of both tassel and ear delayed, and female spike (tassel) floret differentiation, sexual organ formation time, and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) were lengthened. After shading, the total number of floret, silk, and fertilization floret reduced significantly; the number of abortive seeds increased, and the total setting percentage among different treatments showed that CK>S2>S1>S3; and the total setting percentages in S1, S2, and S3 of ZD958 were 44, 72, and 15 % respectively. The total floret number of tassel primordium differentiation, fertility rate, and seed setting rate of florets in S3 treatment was the minimum; kernels per ear decreased seriously and single ear setting percentage was only 16 %; although floret degeneration number of S2 during ear differentiation stages increased and floret fertility rate reduced than that of CK, fertilization flower seed production increased and abortive seed decreased after canceling shading. Aborted kernel of S1 increased and kernel dry weight reduced, resulting in a significant decrease of kernel number per ear and kernel weight, and the grain abortive rate of 40-62 %. In conclusion, shading changed the growth and development process and caused infertility of tassel and ear; tassel branches decreased, reducing pollen vitality and silks differentiation cut down; and grain dry matter accumulation and setting percentage decreased, causing yield reduction. Grain yield and biomass reduced 66, 36, and 93 % compared to the control by shading treatments of S1, S2, and S3, respectively.

  4. Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield

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    Iraj Nosratti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that received nicosulfuron had significantly higher maize grain yield than other two SU herbicides. At Double Row (DR planting pattern, all the treatments controlled weeds more effectively than at Single Row (SR planting pattern and increased maize grain yield by mean of 1.0 t haG1. At both planting patterns herbicidal mixture of atrazine and alachlor was the best treatment in controlling weeds. The hoe weeded control and all herbicidal treatments had lower weed dry matter than the untreated control at crop harvest period. In addition the lowest weed dry matter was obtained from the hoe weeded control. Results of this study revealed that nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron were the best and the weakest SU herbicide at both planting patterns, respectively.

  5. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

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    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  6. Physiological responses related to increased grain yield under drought in the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemali, Krishna S; Bonin, Christopher; Dohleman, Frank G; Stephens, Mike; Reeves, William R; Nelson, Donald E; Castiglioni, Paolo; Whitsel, Joy E; Sammons, Bernard; Silady, Rebecca A; Anstrom, Donald; Sharp, Robert E; Patharkar, Osric R; Clay, David; Coffin, Marie; Nemeth, Margaret A; Leibman, Mark E; Luethy, Michael; Lawson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays?L.) is highly susceptible to drought stress. This work focused on whole-plant physiological mechanisms by which a biotechnology-derived maize event expressing bacterial cold shock protein B (CspB), MON 87460, increased grain yield under drought. Plants of MON 87460 and a conventional control (hereafter 'control') were tested in the field under well-watered (WW) and water-limited (WL) treatments imposed during mid-vegetative to mid-reproductive stages during 2009-2011. Across years, average grain yield increased by 6% in MON 87460 compared with control under WL conditions. This was associated with higher soil water content at 0.5?m depth during the treatment phase, increased ear growth, decreased leaf area, leaf dry weight and sap flow rate during silking, increased kernel number and harvest index in MON 87460 than the control. No consistent differences were observed under WW conditions. This indicates that MON 87460 acclimated better under WL conditions than the control by lowering leaf growth which decreased water use during silking, thereby eliciting lower stress under WL conditions. These physiological responses in MON 87460 under WL conditions resulted in increased ear growth during silking, which subsequently increased the kernel number, harvest index and grain yield compared to the control. PMID:25210866

  7. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMUNDO NONATO CARVALHO ROCHA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010 and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S; 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 4th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 8th leaf stage and 20% at S, 40% at 4th leaf stage and 40% at 8th leaf stage. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with four replications in split-plot design, being maize hybrids the plot and portioning of nitrogen fertilization the split. Determinations of the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index, evaluated with the chlorophyll meter, leaf nitrogen content, and grain yield were done. The chlorophyll meter readings were efficient to provide early diagnose of nitrogen content at the fourth tally expanded leaf of maize cultivars AG9010 (super-early cycle and P32R21 (early cycle. Concerning the hybrid DKB333B (normal cycle there was no correlation between chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD index and nitrogen content on the fourth fully expanded leaf.

  8. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of grain -protein, -starch and -oil among the years was from 9.61 to 11.84%, from 68.51% to 70.93% and from 3.50% to 4.17%, respectively. The C2 separated by the higher grain protein contents (10.93% from the remaining three genotypes (average 9.96%. The genotype effects on starch and oil contents were from 69.83% (C4 to 70.58% (C1 and from 3.56% (C3 to 4.09% (C1, respectively.

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da, Silva; Antonio Saraiva, Muniz; Anny Rosi, Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé, Porto; Marlene Estevão, Marchetti; Antonio, Nolla; Ivan, Grannemann.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressin [...] g, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

  10. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

  11. Timing of azoxystrobin + propiconazole application on maize to control Northern Corn Leaf Blight and maximize grain yield.

    OpenAIRE

    REYNERI, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of foliar fungicides on field maize has increased greatly over the past ten years. There has also been an increasing interest in foliar fungicide applications on maize, because quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, in addition to providing disease control, have been shown to induce physiological benefits for plants in studies conducted under controlled conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the timing of fungicide applications on maximizing grain yiel...

  12. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF. PMID:20136000

  13. Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm2. Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency (15NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ?) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

  14. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Temesgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX. Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS and without subsoiling (ST were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV. Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season?1, the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season?1, the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha?1 and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m?3 followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season?1, T=178 mm-season?1, Y=1840 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.60 kg-m?3 and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season?1,T=158 mm-season?1, Y=1720 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.58 kg-m?3. However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

  15. Effects of Bean-Maize Intercropping,Phosphorus and Manure Additions on N2 fixation and Grain Yield of Phaseolus Vulgaris in the Central Kenya Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole bean and intercropped bean crops were studied for four seasons from 1996-1998. Addition of organic P at the recommended rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased bean standing biomass and grain yields during the first season. Cattle manure applied at the rate of 12 t ha-1 (25% moisture content), had a negative effect on bean yield during the first season, possibly due to short-term nutrient immobilisation induced by the high C:N ratio of manure. In subsequent seasons, manure additions resulted in higher grain yields compared to inorganic P. Intercropping bean with maize lowered grain yields by 10-100%. N2 fixed on beans on average from 55 to 69%. Intercropping thus provides a strategy for a better N resource use where the maize competes efficiently for available soil mineral N and the legume replenishes part of the extracted N via atmospheric N2 fixation. However, the amounts of N2 fixed appear not to be enough to replenish whole systems N in grain crops and so additional N2 are needed. Thus more attention needs to be given to manure management and its long-term impact on soil fertility

  16. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  17. YIELD OF ENERGY AND PROTEIN FROM GRAIN MAIZE HYBRIDS USING AGROTECHNICAL SYSTEM, OPTIMAL FOR THE CONDITIONS IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANYA DELIBALTOVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The yields of metabolizable energy for ducks and protein, so as the multiplication effect by different varieties of maize have been investigated. For the conditions in the Plovdiv region the hybrid PR35P12 had the highest yield of crude protein - 1368 kg/ha, and metabolizable energy – AME- 171,5 GJ/ha and TME – 181,3 GJ/ha. The highest multiplication effect (protein yield/crude protein applied by seed material – showed hybrid PR35P12 - +403.3.

  18. Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Mishra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L. based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria sole, pea (Pisum sativum L. sole, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. sole, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. mend. Fiori and Paol. sole, maize + potato (1:1,maize + mustard (1:1, maize + toria (1:2, maize + pea (1:2, maize + linseed (1:2 and maize + toria (1:2, were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Maize + potato system recorded higher yield attributes and grain yield of maize followed by maize + pea than sole stand of maize. potato was showed most compatible intercrop planted with winter maize as it gave higher maize-equivalent yield, land-equivalent ratio, productivity, monetary returns and lowered weed population, weed dry-biomass and highest weed-control efficiency under irrigated conditions of central Uttar Pradesh. Pea was the next best intercrop with winter maize.

  19. Rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos de maíz y su generación avanzada F2 / Grain and forage yield in maize hybrids and their advanced F2 generation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Gaytán-Bautista; Ma. Isabel, Martínez-Gómez; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ante el alto costo de la semilla de híbridos de maíz, los productores a pequeña escala usan semilla en generaciones F2 y F3. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de utilizar semilla autofecundada de híbridos sobre el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco de híbridos de maíz. El estudio [...] se estableció bajo condiciones de riego en Tepezalá y Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes y Calera de Víctor Rosales, Zacatecas, México en el ciclo 2001. Se sembraron 22 híbridos comerciales y su respectiva generación avanzada F2. Se determinó rendimiento de grano y forraje, altura de planta, días a floración masculina y femenina y altura de mazorca. Se utilizó un arreglo en parcelas subdivididas con diseño en bloques completamente al azar y tres repeticiones. Se efectuó el análisis conjunto de la relación beneficio/costo. En general, usar semilla F2 redujo 22% el rendimiento de grano y 8% de forraje seco. La mayoría de los híbridos y sus generaciones avanzadas mostraron estabilidad en el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco en las tres localidades. En promedio, el avance generacional redujo 9% la relación beneficio/costo en la producción de grano; sin embargo, la incrementó 11% en la producción de forraje seco. Los híbridos SB-302 y AS-948 mostraron alto rendimiento de grano y forraje, menor reducción con el avance de generación y alta relación beneficio/costo. Abstract in english To cope with the high seed cost of maize hybrids, small-scale farmers use F2 and F3 seed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of using seed from self-pollinated hybrids on grain and forage yields of maize hybrids. The study was conducted under irrigated conditions at Tepezalá and [...] Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes, and Calera de Victor Rosales, Zacatecas, Mexico during 2001. Twenty-two commercial hybrids and their respective advanced F2 generation were sown under a split split plot arrangement in a complete random block design with three replications. Grain and forage yield, plant height, days to masculine and feminine flowering and husk height were determined. A profit/cost analysis was performed. On average, the use of F2 seed diminished 22% grain and 8% forage yields. Most of the hybrids and their advanced generations did show grain and dry forage yield stability across locations. Due to generational advance, the profit/cost ratio diminished 9% for grain production and increased 11% for dry forage production. Hybrids SB-302 and AS-948 showed high grain and dry forage yields, less reduction with the advance of generation and high profit/cost ratios.

  20. Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize / Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Vagno de, Souza; Glauco Vieira, Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso, Galvão; Fernando Roberto, Eckert; Éder Eduardo, Mantovani; Rodrigo Oliveira, Lima; Lauro José Moreira, Guimarães.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG) e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado) e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado) e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido) -, [...] em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e três testemunhas) foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied) and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake), in maize grown in envir [...] onments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls) were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.

  1. Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vagno de Souza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY and nitrogen (N use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake, in maize grown in environments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido -, em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e três testemunhas foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes.

  2. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva; Antonio Saraiva Muniz; Anny Rosi Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé Porto; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; Antonio Nolla; Ivan Grannemann

    2011-01-01

    The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was s...

  3. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-01-01

    Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grai...

  4. Rendimiento de variedades precoces de maíz grano amarillo para valles altos de México / Grain yield of maize varieties with yellow endosperm and earliness for Mexican highlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Espinosa-Calderón; Margarita, Tadeo-Robledo; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Mauro, Sierra-Macías; Noel, Gómez-Montiel; Benjamín, Zamudio-González.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estableció como objetivo determinar la capacidad productiva de variedades de grano amarillo desarrolladas en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM) y en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas [...] y Pecuaria (INIFAP). Fueron establecidos, dos experimentos uniformes, uno en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX), en Santa Lucía de Prías y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM), en comparación con un testigo comercial de grano blanco y dos testigos de grano amarillo; ambos se sembraron en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010. Se evaluaron trece variedades, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. El mayor rendimiento medio se obtuvo en CEVAMEX (5887 kg/ha), el cual fue superior al obtenido en FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). En el grupo de mayor rendimiento de grano se ubicaron las variedades ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) y V-54 A (5405 kg/ha). Abstract in english The objective in this work was to evaluate the grain yield capacity of yellow grain maize varieties developed in The Cuautitlan Faculty of Superior Studies, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (FESC-UNAM), and the National Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Research (INI [...] FAP). Two experiments were planted in two locations; one in the CEVAMEX, in Saint Lucia of Prias and another at the FESC-UNAM, compared to white grain and yellow commercial control groups; both were planted mid June, 2010. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated in each experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of CEVAMEX had the best grain yielding, 5887 kg/ha, and was superior (p ? 0.05) to the experiment of FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). The best grain yielding varieties were ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) and A V-54 (5405 kg/ha).

  5. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Landi, Pierangelo; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Salvi, Silvio; Conti, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a drought tolerance index (DTI) computed as GY-WS/GY-WW. In hydroponics, 11, 7, 9, and 10 QTLs were identified for primary root length (R1L), primary root diameter (R1D), primary root weight (R1W), and for the weight of the adventitious seminal roots (R2W), respectively. In the field, 7, 8, and 9 QTLs were identified for GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, respectively. Despite the weak correlation of root traits in hydroponics with GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, a noticeable overlap between the corresponding QTLs was observed. QTLs for R2W most frequently and consistently overlapped with QTLs for GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. At four QTL regions, an increase in R2W was positively associated with GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. A 10 cM interval on chromosome 1 between PGAMCTA205 and php20644 showed the strongest effect on R1L, R1D, R2W, GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI. These results indicate the feasibility of using hydroponics in maize to identify QTL regions controlling root traits at an early growth stage and also influencing GY in the field. A comparative analysis of the QTL regions herein identified with those described in previous studies investigating root traits in different maize populations revealed a number of QTLs in common. PMID:11999844

  6. Rendimiento de grano de genotipos de maíz sembrados bajo tres densidades de población / Grain yield of maize genotypes grown at three population densities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, de la Cruz-Lázaro; H, Córdova-Orellana; MA, Estrada-Botello; JD, Mendoza-Palacios; A, Gómez-Vázquez; NP, Brito-Manzano.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la densidad de población sobre el rendimiento de grano de nueve genotipos de maíz (Zea mays L.) tropical, se condujo en 2005 un estudio en el campo experimental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco en el municipio de Centro, Tabasco. Se utilizó un d [...] iseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones. En las parcelas grandes se establecieron las densidades de población de 44 289, 53 200 y 66 500 plantas ha-1, y en la parcela chica se establecieron las poblaciones de maíz: población 21, 22, 23, 25, 32, 43, 49, híbrido HS-3G y variedad VS-536. Hubo diferencias significativas entre densidades sólo para rendimiento de grano (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the population density on the grain yield of nine tropical maize genotypes (Zea mays L.). A study was conducted in 2005 at the experimental station of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Centro municipality, Tabasco. A randomized com [...] plete block experimental design with four replicates and a split plot arrangement was used. The big plots contained population densities of 44 289, 53 200 and 66 500 plants ha-1, and the small plot contained population densities of 21, 22, 23, 25, 32, 43, 49, the HS-3G hybrid and the VS-536 variety. Significant differences among densities were recorded only for grain yield (p

  7. Desenvolvimento e produtividade de grãos de milho submetido a níveis de desfolha / Grain development and yield in maize subjected to defoliation levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wender Santos, Rezende; Césio Humberto de, Brito; Afonso Maria, Brandão; Cláudio José Faria, Franco; Maurício Viana, Ferreira; Adão de Siqueira, Ferreira.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da desfolha do milho no desenvolvimento e na produtividade de grãos. Seis ensaios foram conduzidos em diferentes safras e locais e em dois níveis de produtividade. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com sete repetições. A desfolha foi re [...] alizada no estádio vegetativo V4 do milho (quatro folhas expandidas), e os tratamentos foram: remoção das duas folhas basais, remoção das quatro folhas expandidas, remoção total das folhas (secção da parte aérea) e testemunha (sem desfolha). Foram avaliados: duração do período vegetativo; e, em pré-colheita, altura de planta, altura de espiga, percentagem de plantas acamadas, força de quebramento de colmo, força de arranquio da planta e produtividade. A remoção das quatro folhas e a remoção total aumentaram a duração do período vegetativo e reduziram a altura de planta, a altura de espiga e a resistência do colmo ao quebramento. Esses níveis de desfolha também reduziram a produtividade, principalmente com a remoção total das folhas. A força de arranquio da planta não foi influenciada pela desfolha. A retirada de quatro folhas e do total das folhas reduz a produtividade de grãos, respectivamente, em 6,25 a 14,05% nos híbridos avaliados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of defoliation of maize on grain development and yield. Six trials were conducted in different growing seasons and locations and at two yield levels. A randomized complete block design was used, with seven replicates. Defoliation was made at t [...] he V4 vegetative stage of maize (four expanded leaves), and treatments consisted of: removal of the two basal leaves, removal of the four expanded leaves, total removal of leaves (aerial plant section), and a control (without defoliation). The following were evaluated: length of the vegetative period; and, at pre-harvest, plant height, ear insertion height, plant lodging percentage, stalk-breaking strength, force required to pull the plant, and yield. The removal of four leaves and the total removal of leaves increased the length of the vegetative period and reduced plant height, ear insertion height, and stalk strength against breaking. These defoliation levels also reduced yield, mainly with the total removal of leaves. The force required to pull the plant was not influenced by defoliation. Removal of four leaves and of all leaves reduces grain yield, respectively, in 6.25 to 14,05 in the evaluated hybrids.

  8. Crescimento inicial de milho e sua relação com o rendimento de grãos / Initial growth of maize hybrids and its relation with grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milton Luiz de, Almeida; Luís, Sangoi; Itamar Cristiano, Nava; Jonantam, Galio; Paulo Sérgio, Trentin; Clair, Rampazzo.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando identificar características morfo-fisiológicas de milho que se correlacionam com seu crescimento inicial, para determinar sua importância no rendimento de grãos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Lages, SC, nos anos agrícolas de 1998/99 e 1999/00. Em [...] 1998/99 avaliaram-se os híbridos C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 e AS 32 e em 1999/00 os híbridos C909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 e AS 32. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado através de seis coletas semanais, da emergência até o estádio de dez folhas expandidas. Em cada coleta, determinou-se a área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF), acúmulo de massa seca, taxa de crescimento celular (TCC) e taxa de expansão celular (TEC). O híbrido AS 3601 apresentou maior área foliar, IAF e TEC do que os demais híbridos em 1998/99. No segundo ano agrícola, o híbrido AS 3466 destacou-se dos demais em acúmulo de massa seca e TCC. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no rendimento de grãos dos híbridos testados nas duas estações de crescimento. Houve baixa correlação entre os parâmetros de crescimento inicial e o rendimento de grãos da cultura do milho. Já as variáveis utilizadas para estimar o crescimento inicial (MS, área foliar, TEC, IAF e TCC) se correlacionaram positivamente. Abstract in english This study was conducted aiming to identify morphological and physiological traits associated with the initial growth speed and to determine the importance of a vigorous early growth to set high grain yields. The study was conducted in Lages, SC, during 1998/99 and 1999/00 growing seasons. A randomi [...] zed complete block design was used. Hybrids C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 and AS 32 were avaluated in 1998/99, whereas in 1999/00 the studied hybrids were C 909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 and AS 32. Maize initial growth was evaluated through six samplings. Samples were taken weekly from plant emergence the ten fully expanded leaves stage. Leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, cellular growth rate (CGR) and cellular expansion rate (CER) were estimated. Hybrid AS 3601 presented larger values of leaf area, IAF and CER than the other genotypes in 1998/99. In the second growing season, Hybrid AS 3466 had the highest values for dry mass and CGR. There was no significant difference among hybrids for grain yield. Low correlation values between initial growth parameters and maize grain yield were found. Otherwise, leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, CGR and CER showed high correlation.

  9. Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

  10. Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio Luiz Strieder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m, two hybrids (Penta and Flash and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 × 2 × 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.A redução do espaçamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuição entre plantas na área e pode incrementar a produtividade de grãos. Os benefícios da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas na produtividade de grãos de híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Seis experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos agrícolas 2004/05 e 2005/06. Cada experimento correspondeu a um sistema de manejo. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos (0,8 e 0,4 m, dois híbridos (Penta e Flash e duas densidades de plantas, variáveis com o sistema de manejo e anos agrícolas. Além da densidade, os sistemas de manejo diferiram nas quantidades aplicadas de adubo na semeadura, em cobertura e na suplementação hídrica. Em cada experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, com quatro repetições. Os incrementos na produtividade de grãos com redução do espaçamento foram de pequena magnitude, variando de 0 a 14%. Eles dependeram da estação de crescimento e se manifestaram apenas com produtividades superiores a 10 t ha-1, independente do híbrido. O número de grãos por área foi o componente que melhor explicou a resposta da produtividade com redução do espaçamento, independentemente de densidade, híbrido e sistema de manejo. A redução do espaçamento é uma estratégia de manejo válida para incrementar a produtividade de grãos quando são adotados níveis de manejo muito altos.

  11. Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz / Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Peña Ramos; Fernando, González Castañeda; Francisco Javier, Robles Escobedo.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbri [...] dos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376. Abstract in english The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was [...] established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels, 180 and 240 kg ha-1, were tested; in medium plot plant stands, 60 000, 80 000 and 100 000 plants ha-1 and the hybrids H-376 and Lobo in the small plots. The recorded variables were: grain yield per ha and total dry matter production, neutral and acid detergent fiber content, dry matter digestibility in vitro and milk production per ton of dry matter as well as per hectare. The 240-90-00-fertilization level increased grain yield and total dry matter in 1.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 respectively. The increase in plant stand from 80 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased grain yield in 1 t ha-1 and the change of 60 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased total dry matter in 3.2 t ha-1. The H-376 had the greatest yield of total dry matter with 21.7 t ha-1 and the largest contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and the lowest digestibility in vitro; nonetheless Lobo produced 216 kg of milk t-1 and 3.5 t of milk ha-1 more than H-376.

  12. Effect of non-uniform sprinkler irrigation and plant density on simulated maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Salmerón Cortasa, Montserrat; Urrego Pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Cavero Campo, José; Isla Climente, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Typical field conditions under sprinkler irrigation include low irrigation uniformity and non-uniform plant density, which can affect the crop yield and the environmental impact of irrigation. The effect of the uniformity of sprinkler irrigation and plant density on the variability of maize grain yield under semi-arid conditions was evaluated, and the relevance of the spatial variability of these two variables on the simulation of maize grain yield was tested with the DSSAT-CERES-Maize model ...

  13. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amir José Klein, Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves, Ferreira; Ronald José Barth, Pinto; Claudete Aparecida, Mangolin; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo, Gonçalves.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

  14. Grain Yield and Yield Components of Quality Protein Maize Genotypes as Influenced by Irrigation and Plant Population in the Nigerian Savannah

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Sani; Abubakar, I. U.; A. M. Falaki; Mani, H.; M. M. Jaliya

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the yield and yield components of QPM genotypes to plant population under irrigated conditions in a semi arid ecology of Northern Nigeria. Field trials were conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa (11° 39'N, 08° 20'E) and 500 m above sea level) during dry seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of (Zea mays L.) genotypes (TZE-W Pop X 1368, EV-DT W99 STR and DMR-ESRW), four plant population (33333, ...

  15. Influence of row spacing reduction on maize grain yield in regions with a short summer / Influência da redução do espaçamento entre linhas no rendimento do milho em regiões de verões curtos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Márcio, Ender; Altamir Frederico, Guidolin; Milton Luiz de, Almeida; Pedro Canísio, Heberle.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O interesse em reduzir o espaçamento entre linhas do milho tem aumentado nas regiões brasileiras com estação estival de crescimento reduzida, devido a vantagens potenciais, tais como a maior eficiência de uso da radiação solar. Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da redução de espaç [...] amentos entre linhas no rendimento de grãos, em diferentes épocas de semeadura e cultivares de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 1996/97 e 1997/98, em delineamento de parcelas sub-subdivididas. Uma época de semeadura antecipada (1º de outubro) e uma normal (15 de novembro) foram testadas na parcela principal; duas cultivares morfologicamente contrastantes (híbrido simples superprecoce e híbrido duplo tardio foram utilizados nas subparcelas e três espaçamentos entrelinhas (100, 75 e 50 cm) foram usados nas sub-subparecelas. A redução do espaçamento de 100 para 50 cm aumentou linearmente o rendimento de grãos. Os aumentos no rendimento obtidos pela utilização de menor espaçamento entre linhas foram maiores na semeadura antecipada. O tipo de arquitetura da planta e o ciclo do híbrido utilizado não interferiram na resposta do milho à redução do espaçamento entre linhas. Abstract in english The interest in reducing maize row spacing in the short growing season regions of Brazil is increasing due to potential advantages such as higher radiation use efficiency. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of row spacing reduction on grain yield of different maize cultivars plante [...] d at different dates. The trial was conducted in Lages, in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during 1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons, in a split-split plot design. Early (October 1st) and normal (November 15) planting dates were tested in the main plot; two morphologically contrasting cultivars (an early single-cross and a late double-cross hybrids) were evaluated in the split plots and three row widths (100, 75 and 50 cm) were studied in the split-split plots. The reduction of row spacing from 100 to 50 cm increased linearly maize grain yield. The yield edge provided by narrow rows was higher when maize was sown earlier in the season. Differences in hybrid cycle and plant architecture did not alter maize response to the reduction of row spacing.

  16. Rendimiento en granos y eficiencia de una asociación maíz (zea mays y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan con o sin fertilización Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system with and without fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Quiroz

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar el rendimiento en granos y la eficiencia de una asociación maíz (CENIAP PB8 y quinchoncho (var. ICPL 87119 se estableció un experimento aditivo con 62.500 plantas/ha del cereal y 50.000 p/ha de la leguminosa, con siembra escalonada y dos niveles de fertilización. El maíz no fue afectado por la competencia con la leguminosa a pesar del retardo de 20 días en su siembra y produjo 6938 y 7665 kg/ha en parcelas de monocultivo no fertilizadas y fertilizadas, respectivamente, mientras que en las asociadas los valores correspondientes fueron 7030 y 7507 kg/ha. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en el rendimiento de la leguminosa asociada, aunque el ciclo en este último caso se prolongó por 18 días. El quinchoncho rindió 3437 y 3464 kg/ha en monocultivo no fertilizado y fertilizado, respectivamente, en tanto que en las parcelas asociadas los valores fueron 3064 y 3277 kg/ha. No se detectó efecto significativo por la aplicación del fertilizante. La eficiencia de uso de los recursos por la asociación se estimó mediante los índices de relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET, relación de equivalencia de área y tiempo (REAT y la relación de equivalencia de área y cosecha (REAC, que evidenciaron ventajas significativas de las parcelas asociadas respecto a los monocultivos de referencia.Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system were compared in an additive experiment with 62.500 plants/ha sole cropped maize (CENIAP PB8, 50.000 plants/ha sole cropped pigeonpea (ICPL 87119 and 112.500 plants/ha in intercropping plots. Two fertilization levels were applied. Maize was planted 20 days after pigeonpea. Grain yields of maize were 6938 and 7665 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized monoculture plots, and 7030 and 7507 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pigeonpea, with grain yields of 3437 and 3464 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized sole cropped plots, and 3064 and 3277 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots. Efficiency indexes land equivalent ratio (LER, area-time equivalency ratio (ATER and area-harvest equivalency ratio (AHER showed advantages of intercropping in relation to monocultures.

  17. Rendimiento en granos y eficiencia de una asociación maíz (zea mays) y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan) con o sin fertilización / Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system with and without fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Isabel, Quiroz; Douglas, Marín.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar el rendimiento en granos y la eficiencia de una asociación maíz (CENIAP PB8) y quinchoncho (var. ICPL 87119) se estableció un experimento aditivo con 62.500 plantas/ha del cereal y 50.000 p/ha de la leguminosa, con siembra escalonada y dos niveles de fertilización. El [...] maíz no fue afectado por la competencia con la leguminosa a pesar del retardo de 20 días en su siembra y produjo 6938 y 7665 kg/ha en parcelas de monocultivo no fertilizadas y fertilizadas, respectivamente, mientras que en las asociadas los valores correspondientes fueron 7030 y 7507 kg/ha. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en el rendimiento de la leguminosa asociada, aunque el ciclo en este último caso se prolongó por 18 días. El quinchoncho rindió 3437 y 3464 kg/ha en monocultivo no fertilizado y fertilizado, respectivamente, en tanto que en las parcelas asociadas los valores fueron 3064 y 3277 kg/ha. No se detectó efecto significativo por la aplicación del fertilizante. La eficiencia de uso de los recursos por la asociación se estimó mediante los índices de relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET), relación de equivalencia de área y tiempo (REAT) y la relación de equivalencia de área y cosecha (REAC), que evidenciaron ventajas significativas de las parcelas asociadas respecto a los monocultivos de referencia. Abstract in english Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system were compared in an additive experiment with 62.500 plants/ha sole cropped maize (CENIAP PB8), 50.000 plants/ha sole cropped pigeonpea (ICPL 87119) and 112.500 plants/ha in intercropping plots. Two fertilization levels were applie [...] d. Maize was planted 20 days after pigeonpea. Grain yields of maize were 6938 and 7665 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized monoculture plots, and 7030 and 7507 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pigeonpea, with grain yields of 3437 and 3464 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized sole cropped plots, and 3064 and 3277 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots. Efficiency indexes land equivalent ratio (LER), area-time equivalency ratio (ATER) and area-harvest equivalency ratio (AHER) showed advantages of intercropping in relation to monocultures.

  18. Effect of mucuna intercropped with maize on soil fertility and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field trials were used to evaluate the effect of mucuna (Mucuna utilis) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on soil fertility and maize yield. In Experiment I, mucuna seeds were sown at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) of maize. A basal application of 50 kg N/ha was administered. These treatments were compared with control (no fertilizer, no mucuna), sole application of 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In Experiment II, complementary application of 0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass, which was sown in the previous year, were administered to maize. The results showed that intercropping of maize with mucuna at planting (0 WAP) recorded averagely 46, 60 and 87 percent of the yields for maize that received 100, 50 and 0 kg N/ha alone, respectively. The maize yield increased as sowing date of mucuna was delayed. Undersowing of mucuna at 6 and 8 WAP with application of 50 kg N/ha resulted in 30 - 62 per cent higher yield than at 0 - 4 WAP, and was comparable (91 %) with application of 100 kg N/ha. It also had residual effect of average yield increase of 52 per cent over the latter. Soil analysis showed positive residual effect on soil fertility. Planting of mucuna under maize raised the organic C, exchangeable Ca and Mg by 81, 14 and 28 percent, respectively, when compared with the chemically fertilized soil. The soil N and P levels also showed 48 and 25 percent increase, respectively. Complementary application of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass increased plant height, biomass weight, and grain yield of maize by 18, 23 and 31 percent, respectively, compared with incorporation of mucuna alone. The former was equally effective as the complementary use of 100 kg N/ha. The results suggest that undersowing of mucuna in relay with maize could be a good practice for sustaining soil fertility in a cereal based cropping system. (au)

  19. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Este estudo foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento no rendimento e teor de proteína nos grãos de híbridos de milho. Dois experimentos foram instalados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, nos anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Em 2001/2002, os tratamentos foram compostos por dois híbridos (Agroceres 303 e Pioneer 32R21, três doses de N aplicadas durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo (30, 80 e 130 kg ha-1 e três doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1. Em 2002/2003, quatro híbridos (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 e Syngenta Penta e quatro doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 foram testadas. A fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento promoveu incrementos significativos no rendimento e teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. A resposta do rendimento de grãos à cobertura nitrogenada tardia diferiu entre as cultivares. O impacto da fertilização nitrogenada no espigamento foi maior quando se aplicou baixas doses de N na fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os aumentos no rendimento de grãos obtidos com coberturas tardias deveram-se principalmente ao maior peso de grãos. Os híbridos contemporâneos são capazes de absorver N depois do espigamento, contradizendo a hipótese de que coberturas nitrogenadas tardias não são eficientes para aumentar o rendimento de grãos do milho.

  20. Incremento na densidade de plantas: uma alternativa para aumentar o rendimento de grãos de milho em regiões de curta estação estival de crescimento Increment on plant density: an alternative to improve maize grain yield in short growing season regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz de Almeida

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento de novos cultivares de milho, de ciclo mais curto, estatura reduzida, menor número de folhas e folhas mais eretas aumentou o potencial de resposta da cultura à densidade de plantas. Essa tendência pode ser acentuada nos planaltos do Sul do Brasil, que apresentam temperatura média nos meses mais quentes inferiores a 22°C, o que resulta em menor estação estival de crescimento. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos objetivando avaliar a viabilidade de se trabalhar com densidade de plantas maiores do que as atualmente recomendadas para esta região, como uma forma de aumentar o rendimento de grãos. Nestes experimentos, submeteram-se os híbridos Cargill 901 e XL 370 a uma população que variou de 37.000 a 100.000pl ha-1, sob diferentes situações de manejo. Em três dos quatro experimentos realizados, o uso de densidade de plantas superior a 60.000plha-1 maximizou o rendimento de grãos. A maior competição intraespecífica verificada nas densidades mais elevadas não reduziu drasticamente o número de espigas por planta, o que contribuiu para a melhor adaptação da cultura a densidades elevadas. Dessa forma, para locais com estação estival de crescimento mais curta, o uso de cultivares precoces, de menor porte, pode ser acompanhado pelo incremento na densidade para valores compreendidos entre 65.000 e 80.000pl ha-1. Isso é possível desde que se tenha bom nível de fertilidade no solo, boa disponibilidade hídrica e cultivares resistentes ao acamamento.The development of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number and upright leaves has increased maize potential adaptability to withstand high plant densities. This trend may be emphasized on the high lands of Southern Brazil due to their mild Spring and Summer temperatures and shorter maize growing season. Four trials were carried out, aiming to investigate the viability of using higher than recommended plant populations, as an alternative to improve grain yield. The maize hybrids Cargill 901 and XL 370 were evaluated at several plant populations, ranging from 37000 to 100000pl ha-1, under different management situations. In three out of four experiments, plant populations above 60000pl ha-1 maximized grain yield. The greater competition among individuals verified at high plant populations did not decrease substantially the number of ears per plant, which contributed to improve maize adaptation to high plant densities. Therefore, for regions with a short growing season, the use of early small stature maize hybrids may be accompanied by an increment in plant population up to a value varying between 65000 and 80000pl ha-1. This is conceivable as long as there is adequate soil fertility, water availability and stem lodging resistant genotypes.

  1. Incremento na densidade de plantas: uma alternativa para aumentar o rendimento de grãos de milho em regiões de curta estação estival de crescimento / Increment on plant density: an alternative to improve maize grain yield in short growing season regions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milton Luiz de, Almeida; Aldo, Merotto Junior; Luís, Sangoi; Márcio, Ender; Altamir Frederico, Guidolin.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento de novos cultivares de milho, de ciclo mais curto, estatura reduzida, menor número de folhas e folhas mais eretas aumentou o potencial de resposta da cultura à densidade de plantas. Essa tendência pode ser acentuada nos planaltos do Sul do Brasil, que apresentam temperatura média nos me [...] ses mais quentes inferiores a 22°C, o que resulta em menor estação estival de crescimento. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos objetivando avaliar a viabilidade de se trabalhar com densidade de plantas maiores do que as atualmente recomendadas para esta região, como uma forma de aumentar o rendimento de grãos. Nestes experimentos, submeteram-se os híbridos Cargill 901 e XL 370 a uma população que variou de 37.000 a 100.000pl ha-1, sob diferentes situações de manejo. Em três dos quatro experimentos realizados, o uso de densidade de plantas superior a 60.000plha-1 maximizou o rendimento de grãos. A maior competição intraespecífica verificada nas densidades mais elevadas não reduziu drasticamente o número de espigas por planta, o que contribuiu para a melhor adaptação da cultura a densidades elevadas. Dessa forma, para locais com estação estival de crescimento mais curta, o uso de cultivares precoces, de menor porte, pode ser acompanhado pelo incremento na densidade para valores compreendidos entre 65.000 e 80.000pl ha-1. Isso é possível desde que se tenha bom nível de fertilidade no solo, boa disponibilidade hídrica e cultivares resistentes ao acamamento. Abstract in english The development of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number and upright leaves has increased maize potential adaptability to withstand high plant densities. This trend may be emphasized on the high lands of Southern Brazil due to their mild Spring and Summer temperatures and sho [...] rter maize growing season. Four trials were carried out, aiming to investigate the viability of using higher than recommended plant populations, as an alternative to improve grain yield. The maize hybrids Cargill 901 and XL 370 were evaluated at several plant populations, ranging from 37000 to 100000pl ha-1, under different management situations. In three out of four experiments, plant populations above 60000pl ha-1 maximized grain yield. The greater competition among individuals verified at high plant populations did not decrease substantially the number of ears per plant, which contributed to improve maize adaptation to high plant densities. Therefore, for regions with a short growing season, the use of early small stature maize hybrids may be accompanied by an increment in plant population up to a value varying between 65000 and 80000pl ha-1. This is conceivable as long as there is adequate soil fertility, water availability and stem lodging resistant genotypes.

  2. Levels of nutrients and grain yield of maize intercropped with signalgrass (Brachiaria) in different arrangements of plants / Teores de nutrientes e produção de grãos do milho consorciado com a Braquiaria em diferentes arranjos de plantas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A.M., FREITAS; D.V., VALADÃO SILVA; M.F., SOUZA; A.A., SILVA; D.T., SARAIVA; M.M., FREITAS; P.R., CECON; L.R., FERREIRA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A competição entre o milho e a braquiaria pode inviabilizar economicamente o consórcio devido à redução na produção de grãos do milho e de matéria seca da forrageira. Na busca por definir arranjos de plantas que permitam tornar esse sistema mais eficiente, realizou-se esta pesquisa com o objetivo de [...] avaliar os efeitos da interferência de densidades de braquiária (Urochloa brizantha) na nutrição e produção de grãos do milho. Foram realizados dois experimentos de campo, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados de modo semelhante nos dois experimentos, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, sendo o primeiro fator a dose aplicada do herbicida Nicosulfuron (0 e 8 g ha-1) e o segundo as densidades de semeadura da forrageira (0, 2, 4 e 6 kg de sementes por hectare). A interferência da braquiária reduziu os teores foliares de nitrogênio, potássio e fósforo nas plantas de milho consorciadas com a forrageira. Maiores valores de produção de grãos foram verificados com a redução do espaçamento e a aplicação da subdose recomendada do herbicida (8 g ha-1). Concluiu-se que, independentemente da densidade de semeadura de Urochloa brizantha, a redução do espaçamento entre linhas do milho, aliada à aplicação da subdose do Nicosulfuron, causou efeito positivo por reduzir o crescimento inicial da forrageira, resultando em menor interferência de Urochloa brizantha no acúmulo de nutrientes pelas plantas de milho e na produtividade de grãos da cultura. Abstract in english Competition between maize and signalgrass can economically cripple the intercropping by the reduced yield of maize and dry matter content of the forage. In seeking to define plant arrangements which make this system more efficient, this research was held with the objective of assessing the effects o [...] f interference of densities of signalgrass (Urochloa Brizantha) on nutrition and on maize grain yield. Two field experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were arranged similarly in both experiments, in a 2 x 4 factorial design, the first factor being the dose of Nicosulfuron herbicide applied (0 and 8 g ha-1) and the second factor being the forage seeding rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 kg of seeds per hectare). The interference of signalgrass reduced foliar nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content in maize plants intercropped with the forage. Higher values of grain yield were observed with the reduction of the spacing and the application of the recommended herbicide underdose (8 g ha-1). It was concluded that, regardless of the seeding density of U. Brizantha, reducing the maize seeding inter-rows spacing, combined with the application of an underdose of Nicosulfuron, caused a positive effect by reducing the initial forage growth, resulting in less interference of Urochloa brizantha on nutrient uptake by the maize plants and grain yield of the crop.

  3. The variations in maize grain composition induced by different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragi?evi? Vesna D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine maize hybrids were grown with the aim to determine variations in chemical composition of the grain. Analyzed hybrids were grown in split-plot experimental design with tree replications in Sremska Mitrovica and Zemun Polje, during the summer of 2010 and 2011. Grain yield, protein, starch, oil, as well as, antioxidants like phytate, soluble phenolics and free sulfhydryl groups (PSH were analyzed. Unfavorable meteorological conditions affected not only grain yield, but its chemical composition too, by decreasing starch, phenolics and PSH and increasing protein, oil and phytate concentrations. Hybrids from the FAO 600 maturity group achieved higher grain yield during unfavourable conditions, with higher starch and phytate contents and decreased levels of PSH and phenolics. Hybrids from the FAO 500 maturity group were much more stable in respect of protein and oil contents, irrespective to year and location. The grain yield did not have the same source of variations as the factors which determine nutritional quality, an exception being oil content, which decreased with the increase in the grain yield. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31068

  4. The Effects of Intra-row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Okan Sener; Huseyin Gozubenli; Omer Konuskan; Mehmet Kilinc

    2004-01-01

    Maize hybrids react differently to various plant density and intra-row spacing. A two-year study was conducted at Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Research Farm to determine the optimum intra-row spacing for maize hybrids commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were maize hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer...

  5. Tillage, Residue, Fertilizer and Weed Management on Phenology and Yield of Spring Maize in Terai, Nepal

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    Saugat Dahal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of developing crop management technologies that reduce the yield gap of maize (Zea mays L. in Nepal, a study was carried-out to determine whether the grain yield of maize could be manipulated through tillage, residue, and nutrient and weed management practices. The effect of tillage (conventional and no tillage, residue (residue retained and residue removed, fertilizer (recommended doses of fertilizer and farmers’ doses of fertilizer and weed management practices (herbicide use and manual weeding on phenology and grain yield of maize were investigated under maize-rice cropping system in Rampur, Nepal during 2013. The experimental results revealed that no tillage had significant effect on grain yield (6.64 Mg ha-1 and phenological parameters like days to silking, physiological maturity and seed fill duration. Similarly, residue retained treatment had significant effect on grain yield (7.02 Mg ha-1 and phenological parameters. Research dose of fertilizer had significant effect on phenological parameters and grain yield (8.42 Mg ha-1. However, weed management factor did not influence significantly on grain yield and phenological parameters. The grain yield increased in no tillage by 23.19% over conventional tillage, residue retained by 39.84% over residue removed, recommended doses of fertilizer by 132.60% over farmer dose of fertilizer. Thus, no tillage, residue retention, recommended doses of fertilizer and use of herbicide for weed management can be alternative technologies for sustainable higher grain yield.

  6. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Sérgio L. e Silva; Paulo Igor B. e Silva; Ana Karenina F de Sousa; Kamila M Gurgel; Israel A Pereira Filho

    2006-01-01

    Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the f...

  7. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

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    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  8. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.S.L., Silva; K.M.B., Silva; P.I.B., Silva; V.R., Oliveira; J.L.B., Ferreira.

    Full Text Available A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plan [...] tas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura). Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas), Leguminosas (Fabáceas), Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas. Abstract in english The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in co [...] mpetition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing) in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae), Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.

  9. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura. Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas, Leguminosas (Fabáceas, Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas.

  10. Grain and Stover Yield of Corn with Varying Times of Plant Density Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kiramat Khan; Muhammad Iqbal; Zubair Shah; Bashir Ahmad,; Abdul Azim; Hassan Sher

    2003-01-01

    Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.). The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and stover ...

  11. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dahmardeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L. c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1 and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1 were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

  12. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

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    Nikoli? Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  13. Growth and yield of maize in purple nutsedge interference

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    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed evaluates the influence of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus on the agronomic performance of maize. We conducted a field experiment at Viçosa, MG, in completely randomized design experimental with three replications. The treatments consisted of the interaction of maize with nine nutsedge densities (0, 10, 30, 50, 90, 110, 130, 160 and 260 plants m-2. In the flowering culture was made the measurement of plant height, the insertion of the corn ears and the total dry matter of corn plants. At harvest were determined ear weight, grain yield and 100-grain weight adjusted to 13% moisture. Higher density of nutsedge increased plant height and the insertion of the first corn ear. We also observed a reduction in total dry matter accumulation, ear weight, 100-grain weight and grain yield in all densities evaluate. Nutsedge control, even at low densities is necessary because the presence of this plant promotes negative effect on growth and development of corn with a direct consequences on crop productivity.

  14. PHOSPHORUS SOURCES AND PLACEMENT ON MAIZE YIELD AND MINERAL NUTRITION

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    IVÂNIA BARBOSA ARAÚJO

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of evaluating the effect of phosphorus sources in different placement options on maize yield and mineral nutrition, a trial was carried out in field conditions on a clayey Typical Red Argisol under cerrado vegetation. The treatments were: triple superphosphate (TS, magnesium termophosphate (MT, Arad reactive rock phosphate (RP, and Araxá rock phosphate (AP, which were spread on the whole area or banded in the seeding furrow. All fertilizers were applied at the rate of 180 kg P2O5 ha-1, based on the total P2O5 of each fertilizer. A check, without P, was used as an additional treatment. It was measured the nutrient concentrations in the maize leaves at the flowering and in different plant parts at harvest. The shoot dry matter, grain yield, and accumulation of nutrients were also determined. Greater yields were obtained with the most soluble sources (TS and MT when spread and with the reactive phosphate (RP banded in the planting furrow. Placement of TS in the planting furrow decreased yield because of metabolic disorders due to the P and Zn interaction. The leaf analysis at the flowering showed to be appropriate for maize P/Zn balance evaluation.

  15. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  16. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD / A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no dese [...] nvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura. Abstract in english Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on e [...] ar development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.

  17. DETECTION OF QTLS FOR VERTICAL ROOT PULLING RESISTANCE IN MAIZE AND OVERLAP WITH QTLS FOR ROOT TRAITS IN HYDROPONICS AND FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertical root pulling resistance (VRPR) is a trait used to estimate root strength in maize (Zea mays L.). Its measurement is laborious and destructive; hence, we examined the possibility of studying root strength without resorting to VRPR and whether conducting marker-assisted selection for VRPR wou...

  18. Maize growth and yield in Peshawar under changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is consequence of accumulating greenhouse gases (Carbon) at lower atmosphere which might affects crops growth and yield. Maize is an important summer cereals, grown on considerable area in Pakistan every year. We, therefore, study the delay sowing response with changing climate on maize. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design. Sowing was done from June 8 to July 24, 2010 with ten days intervals. Mazie (cv. Azam) was planted in rows at 0.75 m distance in NS orientations. Crop was raised under the uniform recommended cultural practices. Data regarding days to emergence, tasseling and maturity showed a consecutive decrease when so wing was delayed form June 08 onwards. However, the crop life cycle (i.e. vegetative and reproductive durations) initially remained uniform but expanded for late sowing dates (July). Delay sowing showed an increase in the leaf area index with an abrupt decline for the late sown crop. Nonetheless, plant stand at harvest remained static during the growth for all sowing dates. A stable to moderate reduction was noticed in ear length (cm) when sowings was delayed from Jun 08 onwards. Grain rows cob/-1 did not influence by the delay sowing in the season. Moreover, delay sowing did not show any significant (P<0.05) change for the grain number. However, thousand grains weight was initially remained stable but declined (P<0.05) by delay in sowing. Biological yield, dry matter and grains yield (g m/sup -2/) revealed almost a similar decreasing trend when sowing was delayed. Dry matter to grain yield relationship was linear (r/sup 2/ = 0.95) and revealed a mean loss of 1.65 g m/sup 2/ when sowing delayed from June 08 to July 24 in the season. Radiation use efficiency (RUE), the growth function, was also declined by the delay in sowing. We inferred that losses in leaf area indices, ear length and grain weights were basis of the grain yield reduction by changing climate of the growing season which brought a significant disturbance in the vegetative and reproductive phases of the crop life cycle that resulted losses (P<0.05) in grain yield by the late sown crop in the season. (author)

  19. Seed-specific expression of the wheat puroindoline genes improves maize wet milling yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M; Beecher, Brian; Morris, Craig F; Curtis Hannah, L; Giroux, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    The texture of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds is important to seed processing properties, and soft dent maize is preferred for both wet-milling and livestock feed applications. The puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) are the functional components of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Hardness locus and together function to create soft grain texture in wheat. The PINs (PINA and PINB) are believed to act by binding to lipids on the surface of starch granules, preventing tight adhesion between starch granules and the surrounding protein matrix during seed maturation. Here, maize kernel structure and wet milling properties were successfully modified by the endosperm-specific expression of wheat Pins (Pina and Pinb). Pins were introduced into maize under the control of a maize gamma-Zein promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic lines were evaluated over two growing seasons. Textural analysis of the maize seeds indicated that the expression of PINs decreased adhesion between starch and protein matrix and reduced maize grain hardness significantly. Reduction in pressure required to fracture kernels ranged from 15.65% to 36.86% compared with control seeds. Further, the PINs transgenic maize seeds had increased levels of extractable starch as characterized by a small scale wet milling method. Starch yield was increased by 4.86% on average without negatively impacting starch purity. The development of softer maize hybrids with higher starch extractability would be of value to maize processors. PMID:19702647

  20. Grain and Stover Yield of Corn with Varying Times of Plant Density Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiramat Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.. The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and stover yield. The grain and stover yield were found to have decreased as thinning was delayed. Yield components such as number of ears, ear length, number of grains per ear row, ear diameter and 100 kernel weight were significantly affected by late thinning. In vegetative phase, LAI (leaf area index was the only character, which exhibited significant differences among thinning treatments. The results suggested that thinning of maize crop as early as seedling emergence is important for increasing yield.

  1. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N, que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1 no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  2. YIELD PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE HYBRIDS IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL HIDROMORFIC SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILDA PEREIRA PORTO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural diversification in RS lowlands aims to qualify the productive system historically based on rice/cattle raising binomial. Maize is one of the grain crop alternatives to these areas; benefiting the system of rotation and amplifying the maize supply in RS state. The maize hybrids grain yield is influenced by environmental factors, which can interact with plant genotype. A study was carried out with the objective of identifying stable and/or responsive maize hybrids to grain yield in RS hidromorfic soils. It was used yield data (t ha-1 of a group of maize trials developed in fifteen environments in the agricultural period from 1995/96 to 2000/01. The stability was analyzed by an unbalanced discontinuous bi-segmented model (Storck, 1998. Each hybrid was classified by the comparison of its yield average with the average of all hybrids, in a function of parameters from discontinuous bi-segmented equation (b1 and b2 and in a function of adjustment quality (R2. AG 6018, P 30F33, P 30K75, DKB 215 and DKB 344 hybrids were indicated for intermediate environments; AGN 2012, AGN 3150, BRS 3060, and P 30R07 hybrids, for higher than intermediate environments, and AG 5011, G 800 and P 3063 hybrids were indicated for all environments, indicating that these are responsive hybrids. The other hybrids were not indicated due to low stability or low grain yield (below hybrids average, 5.704 t ha-1.

  3. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S?rgio L e Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Baby corn (BC consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot: BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%; mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.O minimilho (MM é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG 1051 foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repetições (52 plantas por parcela: colheita de MM; colheita das espigas verdes (grãos com teor de umidade de 60 a 70%; colheita das espigas maduras; colheita de MM e colheita das outras espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes comercializáveis e de grãos, produzidos sem a remoção da primeira inflorescência, foram superiores aos rendimentos respectivos produzidos após a remoção da primeira inflorescência, colhida como minimilho. Colhendo-se somente a primeira espiga como minimilho e as demais espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras obtiveram-se menores rendimentos de minimilho que o obtido colhendo-se todas as espigas como minimilho. Economicamente, as melhores receitas líquidas seriam obtidas explorando-se a cultura para a produção de espigas verdes, espigas verdes + minimilho, minimilho, minimilho + grãos e grãos, nesta ordem.

  4. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sérgio L e, Silva; Paulo Igor B e, Silva; Ana Karenina F de, Sousa; Kamila M, Gurgel; Israel A, Pereira Filho.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O minimilho (MM) é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produ [...] ção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga) e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG 1051 foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repetições (52 plantas por parcela): colheita de MM; colheita das espigas verdes (grãos com teor de umidade de 60 a 70%); colheita das espigas maduras; colheita de MM e colheita das outras espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes comercializáveis e de grãos, produzidos sem a remoção da primeira inflorescência, foram superiores aos rendimentos respectivos produzidos após a remoção da primeira inflorescência, colhida como minimilho. Colhendo-se somente a primeira espiga como minimilho e as demais espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras obtiveram-se menores rendimentos de minimilho que o obtido colhendo-se todas as espigas como minimilho. Economicamente, as melhores receitas líquidas seriam obtidas explorando-se a cultura para a produção de espigas verdes, espigas verdes + minimilho, minimilho, minimilho + grãos e grãos, nesta ordem. Abstract in english Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to pr [...] oduce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot): BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%); mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.

  5. Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

  6. The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kisić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

  7. Differences in maize physiological characteristics, nitrogen accumulation, and yield under different cropping patterns and nitrogen levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xiangqian, Zhang; Guoqin, Huang; Qiguo, Zhao.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping and N fertilization play an important role in increasing crop yield. In order to further understand the advantage mechanism of intercropping and the effect of increasing N application on the advantage effect of intercropped crop, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effe [...] cts of different cropping patterns (i.e. M, maize monoculture; I1, maize-cotton intercrop; I2, maize-soybean intercrop) and N fertilization levels (N1, 100 kg ha-1; N2, 200 kg ha-1; N3, 300 kg ha-1; N4, 400 kg ha-1) on maize (Zea mays L.) Results showed that intercropping and increasing N application could enhance green leaf area per maize plant and chlorophyll content, and differences in green leaf area per plant and chlorophyll content between intercropping and monoculture under N1 were significant. Intercropping and increasing N application could improve maize photosynthetic characters, but their effects would be decreased with increasing N fertilization level. Root bleeding sap rate and root DM of maize were also obviously affected by intercropping and N fertilization, and the differences in root bleeding sap rate and root DM between I2 and M under N1 and N2 were significant. Compared to M, under N1, N2, N3, and N4, I2 increased grain N content by 12.8%, 6.3%, 2.7%, 1.5%, respectively. Intercropping and increasing N application could increase maize yield, and the difference in yield between I2 and M under N1 was significant. All the findings suggest that intercropping and increasing N application can improve maize physiological characters and increase maize root DM, N accumulation and yield, but their effects will be decreased with increasing N fertilization level.

  8. Yields of Maize (Zea mays L. As Affected by Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Eruotor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out during the 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons to investigate the effects of crude oil contaminated soil on the yield of seven maize varieties (Composite suwan 1, Hybrid 3x-yx, AMATZBR w, TZBRSYN w, AMATZBR y, TZBRSYN y and Ozoro local in two locations (Asaba and Ozoro in Delta State, Nigeria. Five crude oil concentrations (0.0, 5.2, 10.4, 20.8, and 41.6 mL per maize stand applied to soil at seven weeks after planting (7 WAP constituted treatments. The experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot arrangement and replicated four times. Locations of study were allotted the main plots, the crude oil levels, the sub-plots and the maize varieties, the sub-sub-plots. The results indicated that both the fresh grain yields and dry grain yields of the maize across locations and within locations were not significantly affected (p = 0.05 by crude oil application to soil up to 5.2 mL but higher levels of the oil contamination significantly (p = 0.05 reduced these characters. The Hybrid (3x-yx variety had the highest fresh and dry grain yields across and within locations hence it should be recommended for planting in Asaba and Ozoro locations of Delta State. Ozoro local had the lowest grain yields among the varieties tested. This study has shown that crude oil contaminated soil has a highly significant effect of reducing the yields of maize. The present study also established varietal differences in maize with response to crude oil thereby providing a basis for future study by plant breeders.

  9. Selection on uniformity and yield stability in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanovi? Tomislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, both the introduction of double-cross hybrids and use of single crosses have caused the increase in grain yield and significantly improved agricultural practice. Nowadays, the uniformity of crops is regarded as an advantage of modern agriculture, since the uniformity of products is crucial in global market. Thus, uniformity of crop maturation provides both planning and efficient mechanized harvest. F1 single-cross hybrids of maize, which is an allogamous species, not only exploit heterosis, but also impose homogeneity. Basically, the uniformity of hybrids has been regarded as their crucial advantage. There are two aspects of hybrid maize uniformity: (i genetic homogeneity and (ii genetic stability. Genetic homogeneity refers to presence of identical genotypes, whereas genetic stability refers to phenotypic uniformity (homeostasis in different environments. At present, yield performance of inbreds has not advanced as rapidly as performance of hybrids, especially in stressful environments. Focusing on inbred productivity combined with stability may be more appropriate strategy in the future. Poor farmers are not able to employ superior genotypes because they require considerable financial investment and farmers survive not due to high yield in good seasons, but due to enduring extreme ones. Breeding process may create genotypes in favorable seasons when genetic variance is maximal and environmental influence is minimal, which should be followed by breeding for different environments. The aim of such breeding are, most probably, genotypes intended for a specific set of conditions which, in fact, represents a convergence of two strategies of plant breeding. One should probably bear in mind the strategy of both yield improvement and survival of farmers in extreme conditions without decreasing yield of best genotypes, especially those adapted only to favorable conditions. Solution to this problem should be: financial (best possible loans, social (education, and technological (breeding improved genotypes and advanced agricultural production.

  10. Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

  11. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Amauri, Bogo; Luís, Sangoi.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o ren [...] dimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento) e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento). Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos. Abstract in english The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowdin [...] g. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding) and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding). Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

  12. Grain abortion and yield stability under drought: a key role for growth processes in reproductive organs

    OpenAIRE

    Tardieu, Francois; Oury, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Yield maintenance under drought in maize (Zea mays) is associated to flowering synchrony which requires the rapid extension of styles and stigma (silks) to be accessible for pollen. Most analyses of the control of grain abortion in maize conclude that abortion is linked to a carbon shortage in ovaries, but they have been performed with a common protocol avoiding the impact of water deficit on silk growth. A series of recent works attempt to reconcile the developmental view that abortion is du...

  13. A genetic base of utilisation of maize grain as a valuable renewable raw material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen?enko Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. Many studies have shown that the kernel composition and starch structure of maize are highly influenced by genetic background of the maize. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch, which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production. This study was conducted with aim to understand how different genetic background affects bioethanol yield and other fermentation properties of the selected maize genotypes in the process of maize grain- based bioethanol production. Twenty seven maize hybrids, including genotypes of standard chemical composition as well as specialty maize hybrids such as popping, waxy, white kernel and red kernel hybrids, developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, were investigated in this study. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w obtained for hybrid ZP 611k after 48 h of fermentation and the highest by genotype ZP 434 (8.96% w/w. A very significant positive correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation, as well as volumetric productivity (48h (r=0.67. Between bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation and soft endosperm content in kernel of the investigated ZP maize hybrids a very significant positive correlation was assessed (r=0.66. Higher overall bioethanol yields have been obtained from genotypes containing higher starch and lower protein and lipid contents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  14. Treatment of cooked and storage maize grains with the insecticide 14C - malathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residues of the insecticide 14C-malathion was determined in cooked maize grains, after storage as raw maize up to 24 weeks under laboratory conditions. Results showed a higher concentration of 14C - malathion residues bound to the grains in cooked maize, as compared to previous experiments conducted with raw maize, where the highest concentration was found on the surface of the grains. (author)

  15. Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kyamuhangire; A.N. Kaaya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain usi...

  16. Identifying driving climate factors of wheat and maize yields inter-annual variability in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Lecerf, Remi; Dentener, Frank J.

    2015-04-01

    A canonical powered Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) approach is here used to estimate the relationship between meteorological variables and crop (durum wheat and grain maize) yield time series over France. This method combines the advantages of both the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and the PLSR. The latter is mainly based on the extraction of a subset of latent variables (having the best predictive power) from the full set of predictors. The method is applied to detrended (by using a LOESS approach) time series of crop yields and monthly mean temperature, cumulated precipitation and global solar radiation during the growing seasons from 1990 to 2011. Results show that, overall, temperature has a substantial influence on winter wheat yields in south-western and eastern France, while rainfall plays an important role in the northern and southern parts of the country. Finally, radiation is more important over the southern part of France. Concerning grain maize, the inferred statistical models show relatively low skill over the northern part of France, where inter-annual yield variability is low. Overall, results show that temperature is the most important variable influencing grain maize yields over the southern and eastern parts of France, while rainfall is more important in the central and northern parts of the country. Finally, global radiation is the main meteorological factor over the westernmost part of France.

  17. Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

  18. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MURAWSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

  19. Sensitivity of CERES-Maize yield simulation to the selected weather data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analysis of selected weather data runs after successful parametrization and validation of the CERES-Maize simulation model. Estimation of the potential yield has been carried out during the long term experiment (1980-1997) as well as the estimation of influence of meteorological parameters on the simulation results for the water-limited yield. 10 % under and over stimulation of global radiation and precipitation as well as increasing and decreasing temperature by 1 deg C on simulated potential and water-limited yield have been done. In most of the years, air temperature underestimation resulted in a higher simulated grain yield and overstimulation shown a lower yield for water limited level. Overestimation of precipitation during wet days in growing period of the maize leads to an increase of amount of water available for the plant and to increase the yield. Underestimation of global radiation by 10 % resulted in a decline in simulated grain yield from -8.8 to -9.9 %. The overestimation caused increase of the yield from 7.8 to 10 %. Overestimation by 10 % resulted in a slight underestimation of the yield in low yielding years and underestimation of global radiation by 10 % in overestimation of the yield. The effect was opposite in high yielding years

  20. Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

  1. Impact of nitrogen and sulfur application on growth and yield of maize (zea mays L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications with net plot of 4.2 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur on growth, yield and quality of double cross hybrid (DCH) maize (Cargil-707). Application of fertilizers at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg of nitrogen and sulfur per hectare respectively greatly increased by dry weight per plant (DWP), plant grains number per ear (GNE) and grain weight per ear (GWE) over other treatments. Similarly, the highest grain yield of 8.59 tons per hectare was recorded from the plot fertilized at the rate of 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare, while maximum grain oil content (GOC) and grain protein contents (GPC) were recorded from plot fertilized at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare respectively. (author)

  2. Strategies for selecting high-yielding and broadly adapted maize hybrids for the target environment in Eastern and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Windhausen, Sandra Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Maize is a major food crop in Africa and primarily grown by small-holder farmers under rain-fed conditions with low fertilizer input. Projections of decreasing precipitation and increasing fertilizer prices accentuate the need to provide farmers with maize varieties tolerant to random abiotic stress, especially drought and N deficiency. Genetic improvement for the target environment in Eastern and Southern Africa can be achieved by: (i) direct selection of grain yield in random abiotic stress...

  3. 14C-pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored maize grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of 14C-pirimiphos-methyl in maize grains were determined during 6 months under storage conditions simulating actual practice in Brazil. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. A total of 78% of the applied dose was recovered at 0-24 h and this amount decreased to 16% after 180 d of storage. Cooking had no effect on the levels of the residue recovered. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

  4. THE EFFECT OF INTERCROPS AND DIFFERENTIATED TILLAGE ON THE MAIZE YIELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Biskupski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the years 2008–2010 in the fields of the Experimental Station IUNG at Jelcz-Laskowice. Two-factorial experiments were laid out on the grey-brown podzolic soil formed out of loamy sand silt by the method of randomized subblocks in four replications. The experimental factors were intercrops (mustard and lupine and tillage system (traditional, simplified and zero. Winter wheat was the forecrop and maize the sequent plant. Leaf area index (LAI and mean tip angle (MTA were determined in the stage of early flowering with use of a LAI-2000 meter (LI-COR, USA in four replications. The research was carried out to find out which tillage system and intercrop would positively influence the yielding, selected indices of canopy architecture (height of plants, LAI, MTA and the amount of weeds in maize grown for grain. The yield of maize grain grown in simplified and zero tillage appeared to be lower than that obtained in traditional tillage. The highest LAI index of maize grown after both forecrops was found with traditional tillage, while the lowest with zero one. The highest maize plants were those in conventional tillage. The intercrop which appeared to have the most favourable effect on the height of maize was mustard. Reduced tillage systems increased total weed infestation in comparison to conventional tillage. Compensation of Echinochloa crus-galli, Geranium pusillum and Chenopodium album was noticed. The greatest number of weeds per unit area was found in the experiment after no-tillage system.

  5. Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqrar Hussain

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707. Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare was recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare. While maximum grain oil and crude protein contents were recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively.

  6. The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragi?evi? Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy and inorganic phosphorus (Pi and soluble proteins among 28 maize populations, consisted into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-phytic populations, with the aim to determine the potential of enhancing the P profile of maize plants and high grain yield through selection. The highest genetic variability of Pi and Pphy content in leaves was expressed in group with intermediate Pphy content in grain. Meanwhile, leaves of low-phytic populations were characterized with low Pphy, too (averagely 18% and high content of soluble proteins (averagely 15% in relation to high- and intermediate-phytic populations. Additionally, the lowest genetic variability of protein content was also noticeable in leaves of low-phytic populations. Positive correlation between Pi and protein content was observed in leaves of low- and high-phytic populations. The negative correlation between Pphy and Pi was detected in maize grain, but correlation was significant only in intermediate-phytic group. The highest, but not significant, average yield was observed in group of low-phytic populations, as well as its relative high genetic variability. That indicates that development of high yielding genotypes with lower phytate in grain is reasonable, and could be potentially useful in enhancing the sustainability and decreasing of environmental impact in agricultural production.

  7. Interacción gonotipo-ambiente del rendimiento y calidad de grano y tortilla de híbridos de maíz en Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México / Genotype-environment interaction of yield and grain and tortilla quality of maize hybrids at the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Gricelda, Vázquez Carrillo; David, Santiago Ramos; Yolanda, Salinas Moreno; Israel, Rojas Martínez; José L., Arellano Vázquez; Gustavo A., Velázquez Cardelas; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la baja productividad del maíz (Zea mays L.) en los Valles Altos del Centro de México se debe a condiciones ambientales adversas de sequía, temperatura más alta que la usual y heladas tempranas. Para aumentar la productividad es necesario desarrollar variedades estables con rendimiento a [...] lto y que cumplan con las características físicas de grano, nixtamal y tortilla que demandan las industrias procesadoras. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la interacción genotipo x ambiente sobre el rendimiento, las características físicas del grano y la calidad de nixtamal y tortillade 20 híbridos pre-comerciales y comerciales de maíz cultivados durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2009 en seis localidades de los Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano, peso hectolítrico, peso de 100 granos (PCG), índice de flotación (IF), color de grano y harina, y la calidad de nixtamal y tortilla. Los resultados para rendimiento y características físicas del grano fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI), y los de calidad de nixtamal y tortilla bajo un diseño completamente al azar. El modelo AMMI proporcionó buena descripción de la interacción genotipo x ambiente, y de la estabilidad de los 20 híbridos. Las condiciones de siembra y las ambientales modificaron las características físicas de los híbridos, especialmente el tamaño del grano y la dureza. Huamantla y Tlatempa fueron las mejores localidades en rendimiento (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), tamaño (PCG > 33 g), dureza (IF 60 %). De los híbridos evaluados 15 cumplieron con las especificaciones de la industria de la masa y tortilla, pero ninguno cumplió las especificaciones de la industria de harina nixtamalizada. Abstract in english Currently, the low productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the central highlands of México is due to adverse environmental conditions such as drought, higher than usual temperatures and early frosts. To increase productivity, it is necessary to develop stable maize varieties with high yield which can [...] meet the quality characteristics of grain, nixtamal and tortilla demanded by the processing industry. In this study, we determined the effect of the genotype x environment interaction on grain yield and on the physical traits of grain, nixtamal and tortilla of 20 pre-commercial and commercial maize hybrids, grown during the 2009 harvest season in six locations in the highlands of Tlaxcala, México. Grain yield, test weight, 100-grains weight (HGW), flotation index (FI), color of grain and flour, and nixtamal and tortilla quality were evaluated. The results for grain yield and grain physical traits were statistically analyzed using the model of additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), while data of nixtamal and tortilla quality were analyzed under a completely randomized design. The AMMI model provided a good description of the genotype x environment interaction and stability of the 20 hybrids. Both planting conditions and environment induced changes on the physical characteristics of hybrids, especially the grain size and hardness. Tlatempa and Huamantla were the best localities for yield (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), grain size (HGW > 33 g), hardness (FI 60 %). Fifteen hybrids met the specifications for masa and tortilla industry but none met the specifications for nixtamalized flour industry.

  8. CONSERVATION AND DETERMINATION OF THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE POLLEN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARISSA ALVES FERREIRA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In maize breeding programs, factors related to receptivity length of stigma, longevity of pollen grain in the plant, differences in the period of blossoming among plants and conservations of the genetics resources are some aspects that reinforce the importance of pollen grains storage. In this research the influence of water tenor, period and storage environment were evaluated in regard to the viability and germination of maize pollen grains. The assays took place in laboratories of Analyses of Seed Molecular Biology of the seeds sector and in the experimental area of Agricultural Department of UFLA. In the pre-tests, different culture methods were verified to evaluate the in vitro germination as well the best time to collect the pollen grains. The germination pollen grains in different water tenors was also evaluated: 51,7%; 29,4%, 21,7%; 17,7%; 17%. In a second experiment the pollen grains with water tenors of 51,7%; 29,4%; 21,7% were stored in deep freezer (-86oC, fridge (4oC, and liquid nitrogen (-193oC for 14 and 30 days. After the storage, the germination and viability of pollen grains were evaluated in vitro in culture medium and through the tetrazoilium test, respectively. The viability of stored pollen grain for 14 days in different water tenors and storage places/environment was also tested in vivo through auto fecundation in plants of Le-57 inbred lines and GNZ 2004 hybrid, when both showed receptive style-stigmas. For the evaluation of germination and viability of pollen grains, a completely randomized design was used, in factorial scheme 2 (period of storage x 3 (water tenors of pollen grains x 3 (places storage, with four repetitions. In the pre-tests higher values of germination of pollen grains were observed in culture medium containing 10% sucrose; 0,03% boric acid; 0,15% calcium chloride (M2, and when the collection took place at 9 a.m. the viability of pollen grains was reduced substantially below 21,7% of water tenor indicating they don’t tolerate the desiccation. For a better conservation during the storage, the pollen grains should be dried until 21,7% of water tenor and storage in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl in stored maize grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-pirimiphos-methyl (specific activity 16.36 mCi/mmol (1 Ci = 37 GBq)) was applied to maize grains at a concentration of 5 mg/kg using the procedures described in the FAO/IAEA Model Protocol, Annex I, these Proceedings. After treatment, the maize was stored at ambient temperature (20-35 deg. C) in jute sacks lined with polythene. The surface (water soluble) and methanol extractable residues were investigated over a period of 8 months. There was a gradual increase in the methanol extractable residues and a corresponding decrease in the surface residues over the storage period. At the end of this time, the total extractable residue was 56% of the applied dose. For technical reasons no data were available for the residues bound within the grain tissues. Four types of local diet were prepared from the treated maize, these being: akple, roasted akple, kenkey and banku; some reduction in the extractable residues was observed as a result of the cooking process. (author)

  10. Estimation of weed dry biomass and grain yield as a function of growth and yield traits under allelopathic weed management in maize / Estimativa de biomassa seca de plantas daninhas e rendimento de grãos como uma função de características de crescimento e produção sob o manejo de plantas daninhas alelopáticas na cultura do milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., MAHMOOD; A., KHALIQ; M.Z., IHSAN; M., NAEEM; I., DAUR; A., MATLOOB; F.S., EL-NAKHLAWY.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As crescentes preocupações sobre toxicidade e desenvolvimento de resistência a herbicidas sintéticos exigiram a busca por abordagens alternativas no manejo de plantas daninhas. Alelopatia obteve apoio e potencial suficientes para o manejo sustentável de plantas daninhas. Extratos aquosos de seis esp [...] écies vegetais (girassol, arroz, amora, milho, colza ou couve-nabiça e sorgo) em diferentes combinações, isoladamente ou em mistura com 75% de redução da dose de herbicidas, foram avaliados por dois anos consecutivos em condições de campo. Uma verificação de plantas daninhas e S-metolachlor com atrazina (pré-emergência) e apenas atrazina (pós-emergência) nas doses recomendadas foi incluída para comparação. Dinâmica de plantas daninhas, índices de crescimento do milho e estimativa de rendimento foram realizados seguindo procedimentos padrão. Todas as combinações de extrato vegetal aquoso suprimiram crescimento e biomassa de ervas daninhas. Além disso, o efeito supressor foi mais pronunciado quando extractos de plantas aquosas foram suplementados com doses reduzidas de herbicidas. A combinação de colza ou couve-nabiça-girassol-sorgo suprimiu plantas daninhas em 74 - 80%, 78 - 70%, 65 - 68% durante os dois anos de estudo que foram semelhantes com S-metolachlor juntamente com meia dose de atrazina e uma dose completa apenas de atrazine. A taxa de crescimento da cultura e o acúmulo de matéria seca atingiram valores máximos de 32.68 e 1.502 g m-2 d-1 para a combinação de colza ou couve-nabiça-girassol-sorgo em 60 e 75 dias após a semeadura. Regressão de ajuste de curva para as características de crescimento e produção previu uma forte correlação positiva com o rendimento dos grãos e uma correlação negativa para biomassa seca de plantas daninhas em manejo alelopático de plantas daninhas na cultura de milho. Abstract in english Growing concerns about toxicity and development of resistance against synthetic herbicides have demanded looking for alternative weed management approaches. Allelopathy has gained sufficient support and potential for sustainable weed management. Aqueous extracts of six plant species (sunflower, rice [...] , mulberry, maize, brassica and sorghum) in different combinations alone or in mixture with 75% reduced dose of herbicides were evaluated for two consecutive years under field conditions. A weedy check and S-metolachlor with atrazine (pre emergence) and atrazine alone (post emergence) at recommended rates was included for comparison. Weed dynamics, maize growth indices and yield estimation were done by following standard procedures. All aqueous plant extract combinations suppressed weed growth and biomass. Moreover, the suppressive effect was more pronounced when aqueous plant extracts were supplemented with reduced doses of herbicides. Brassica-sunflower-sorghum combination suppressed weeds by 74-80, 78-70, 65-68% during both years of study that was similar with S-metolachlor along half dose of atrazine and full dose of atrazine alone. Crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation attained peak values of 32.68 and 1,502 g m-2 d-1 for brassica-sunflower-sorghum combination at 60 and 75 days after sowing. Curve fitting regression for growth and yield traits predicted strong positive correlation to grain yield and negative correlation to weed dry biomass under allelopathic weed management in maize crop.

  11. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  12. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  13. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change. PMID:26251975

  14. Maize-grain legume intercropping is an attractive option for ecological intensification that reduces climatic risk for smallholder farmers in central Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Rusinamhodzi, Leonard; Corbeels, Marc; Nyamangara, Justice; Giller, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    Many farmers in central Mozambique intercrop maize with grain legumes as a means to improve food security and income. The objective of this study was to understand the farming system, and to evaluate the suitability of maize–legume intercropping to alleviate the biophysical and socio-economic constraints faced by smallholder farmers in Ruaca and Vunduzi villages, central Mozambique. To achieve this we characterised the farming systems and measured grain yields, rainfall infiltration, economic...

  15. Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage

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    W. Kyamuhangire

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain using the biomass dryer delayed insect infestation by three months and significantly (p?0.05 reduced mould and aflatoxin contamination during storage for 6 months. Maize dried using the biomass dryer was only infested with Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella while that dried on bare ground was infested by both the moth and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais implying that the biomass dryer controlled the most important storage insect pest of maize in Uganda. Drying maize using the biomass dryer had no effect on the germination potential of the grain. Thus, drying maize grain with the biomass dryer reduces drying time and greatly improves the quality of the grain during storage. However, the subsequent storage quality of the grain highly depends on the storage form (shelled or unshelled, time and environment.

  16. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  17. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Courtman, C.; Van Ryssen, J.B.J.; Oelofse, A.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 ?g selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals a...

  18. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iqrar Hussain; Tariq Mahmood; Aman Ullah; Amjed Ali

    1999-01-01

    The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707). Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare wa...

  20. Criterios para elegir el mejor probador de la aptitud combinatoria general para rendimiento de grano de líneas autofecundadas de maíz / Criteria to choose the best tester of the general combining ability for grain yield of maize inbred lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Lobato-Ortiz; José D., Molina-Galán; José de J., López-Reynoso; José A., Mejía-Contreras; Delfino, Reyes-López.

    2010-02-15

    Full Text Available En un programa de mejoramiento genético por hibridación de maíz (Zea mays L.) es importante disponer de un probador confiable y eficiente de la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de líneas autofecundadas de maíz. Con el propósito de aportar más evidencia experimental relativa a la identificación del [...] mejor probador de la ACG de líneas autofecundadas de maíz, en el presente trabajo se usaron 50 líneas S1 derivadas de la variedad Compuesto Universal original (variedad original), más cuatro líneas de alta y cuatro de baja ACG derivadas de las poblaciones de maíz Xolache y Mex. Gpo. 10. Las líneas S1 fueron cruzadas con tres probadores: una línea de baja ACG (P1), una línea de alta ACG (P2) y la variedad original (P3). La hipótesis fue que la línea de baja ACG es el mejor probador. Para evaluar los probadores los criterios fueron: 1) la variación fenotípica y genotípica de los mestizos (línea×probador); 2) la clasificación de las ocho líneas de ACG conocida, con cada uno de los tres probadores; 3) el coeficiente de divergencia (CD); 4) el efecto del probador, el efecto y la varianza de interacción línea×probador. La variable estudiada fue el rendimiento promedio de mazorca por planta. Con base en los criterios señalados, el mejor probador fue la línea de baja ACG en comparación con la línea de alta ACG y la variedad original; además, la variedad original fue también un buen probador, pero con menor valor discriminatorio que la línea de baja ACG. Abstract in english In a maize (Zea mays L.) breeding program by hybridization it is important to have a reliable and efficient tester for the general combining ability (GCA) of maize inbred lines. With the aim to contribute more experimental evidence relative to the identification of the best tester of GCA of maize in [...] bred lines, in this study 50 S1 lines derived from the Compuesto Universal original (original variety), plus four lines of high and four of low GCA derived from populations of Xolache and Mex. Gpo. 10 were used. The S1 lines were crossed with three testers: a line of low GCA (P1), a line of high GCA (P2), and the original variety (P3). The hypothesis was that the line of low GCA is the best tester. The criteria to evaluate the testers were: 1) the phenotypic and genotypic variation of top crosses (line × tester); 2) the classification of the eight lines of known GCA, with each of the three testers, 3) the coefficient of divergence (CD), 4) the effect of the tester, effect and variance of interaction line × tester. The variable studied was the average yield of ear by plant. Based on the mentioned criteria, the best tester was the line of low GCA compared to the line of high GCA and the original variety; besides, the original variety was also a good tester, but with less discriminatory value than the low GCA line.

  1. Relationships of intercropped maize, stem borer damage to maize yield and land-use efficiency in the humid forest of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    Stem borers are the most important maize pests in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Field trials were conducted in the long and short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003 to assess the level of damage and yield reductions caused by stem borers in monocropped maize and in maize intercropped with non-host plants such as cassava, cowpea and soybean. The intercrops were planted in two spatial arrangements, i.e. alternating hills or alternating rows. All intercrops and the maize monocrop were grown with and without insecticide treatment for assessment of maize yield loss due to borer attacks. The land-use efficiency of each mixed cropping system was evaluated by comparing it with the monocrop. The temporal fluctuation of larval infestations followed the same pattern in all cropping systems, but at the early stage of plant growth, larval densities were 21.3-48.1% higher in the monocrops than in intercrops, and they tended to be higher in alternating rows than alternating hills arrangements. At harvest, however, pest densities did not significantly vary between treatments. Maize monocrops had 3.0-8.8 times more stems tunnelled and 1.3-3.1 times more cob damage than intercrops. Each percentage increase in stem tunnelling lowered maize grain yield by 1.10 and 1.84 g per plant, respectively, during the long and short rainy season in 2002, and by 5.39 and 1.41 g per plant, respectively, in 2003. Maize yield losses due to stem borer were 1.8-3.0 times higher in monocrops than in intercrops. Intercrops had generally a higher land-use efficiency than monocrops, as indicated by land-equivalent-ratios and area-time-equivalent-ratios of >1.0. Land-use efficiency was similar in both spatial arrangements. At current price levels, the net production of mixed cropping systems was economically superior to controlling stem borers with insecticide in monocropped maize. The maize-cassava intercrop yielded the highest land equivalent ratios and the highest replacement value of the intercrop. At medium intensity cropping this system is thus recommended for land-constrained poor farmers who do not use external inputs such as fertilizer and insecticides. PMID:16197562

  2. Manejo do nitrogênio no milho em semeadura direta em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno e em dois locais: II - efeito sobre o rendimento de grãos Nitrogen management in maize in no-till system in succession to winter cover crops at two locations: II - effect on grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilber Argenta

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A liberação de nitrogênio (N de restos culturais depende dos processos de imobilização e mineralização microbiana, que são influenciados pelo ambiente. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar, em dois locais, os efeitos de dose e época de aplicação de N em milho (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 e 60-100kg/ha, respectivamente, na semeadura e em cobertura, em sistema de semeadura direta, implantado em duas épocas, após a dessecação (1 e aos 20 dias de duas coberturas de solo no inverno (aveia preta e ervilhaca comum e pousio invernal, sobre o rendimento de grãos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com suplementação hídrica, sendo um em Eldorado do Sul e outro em Passo Fundo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano agrícola 1996/97. A resposta à aplicação de N dependeu do local, da cobertura de solo no inverno e da época de semeadura após a dessecação. Em Eldorado do Sul, a aplicação de N na semeadura aumentou o rendimento de grãos em relação ao tratamento com todo o N em cobertura, independentemente do tipo de planta de cobertura de solo no inverno. Em Passo Fundo, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos com N. O aumento na dose de N na semeadura de 30 para 60kg/ha não afetou o rendimento de grãos, independente do fator testado. O atraso em 20 dias na época de semeadura do milho em sucessão à aveia preta somente foi benéfico em Eldorado do Sul, aumentanto em 34% o rendimento de grãos.The release of nitrogen (N of crop residues depends on the processes of microbial immobilization and mineralization, which are influenced by environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate, at two locations, the effects of rate and timing of N application in maize (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 and 60-100kg/ha, respectively, at sowing and sidedressed, in no-till system, established in two sowing dates after desiccation (1 and 20 days of two winter cover crops (black oat and common vetch and bare area, on grain yield. The experiment was conducted at two locations of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the 1996/97 growing season. Maize response to N application depended on the location, on the specie of winter cover crop used and on sowing date after desiccation. In Eldorado do Sul, N application at sowing increased grain yield in relation to the treatment with total N sidedressed. At Passo Fundo there were no differences among the treatments with N application. The increase of the N rate from 30 to 60kg/ha at sowing date did not affect grain yield of maize, regardless of the other treatments used. The delay in 20 days of maize sowing date in succession to black oat was benefitial only in Eldorado do Sul, with 34% of increase of the grain yield.

  3. COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KRUPAKAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability of some polygenic and quality traits was studied in a set of diallel crosses involving 10 maize inbreds (P1 to P10 to know the inheritance pattern of yield attributes. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant differences among themselves for all the traits in all environments. The ratio of gca /sca was less than unity there by indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of most of the characters studied. The parents P1 , P2 and P3 for grain yield, P5 and P8 for oil content, P6 , P8 and P9 for starch content and P7 , P8 and P10 for protein content were identified as most promising parents due to having good general combining ability. Among the crosses significant and desirable sca effects P3 × P1 and P3 × P2 for grain yield, P7 × P4 and P5 × P9 for oil content, P1 × P3 and P9 × P5 for starch content and P9 × P6 & P8 × P3 for protein content, respectively. Therefore, these crosses could be utilized for further selection of high yielding and quality progenies to achieve a quantum jump in maize improvement

  4. Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arif Hussain Shah

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Pods per plant, 100 grain weight and branches per plant were the most important determinants of grain yield.

  5. The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM) applied every second year on maize grown for grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Nogalska; Matgorzata, Skwierawska; Zenon, Nogalski; Monika, Kaszuba.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (M [...] BM) is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L.) grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year), and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years). Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

  6. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kashta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 period, with the objective of estimating the associations between yield and yield-related traits and to identify direct effects of characters for durum wheat grain yield improvement. The experimental material consisted of 20 durum wheat genotypes, which are randomly taken from the germoplasm collection. Significant genotypic differences (P<0.01 were observed for all the traits studied, indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. Grain yield had strong positive correlations (P<0.01 with plant height, number of kernels spike-1, grain yield plant-1, biological yield and thousand-kernel weight. On the other hand, grain yield had strong negative correlation (p< 0.01 with days to heading, suggesting the usefulness of selecting early heading genotypes with long grain filling period in improving grain yield. The remaining traits recorded moderate to low phenotypic and genotypic estimates. The maximum positive direct effect on grain yield was exerted by biological yield (0.99 followed by days to maturity (0.89 and harvest index (0.73. While, maximum negative direct effects were exerted by days to heading (-0.81 and grain filling period (-0.68. Therefore, days to heading, biological yield and harvest index could be used as an indirect selection criterion for better grain yield. Thus, selecting early heading genotypes having high biological yield and harvest index could improve grain yield.

  7. The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van?etovi? Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

  8. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new...

  9. Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Dai, T.; De Boer, W.; Qi, J; Cao, W

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping w...

  10. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  11. Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Viruel; L. E, Erazzú; L, Martínez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Siñeriz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumán, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

  12. Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Viruel; L. E, Erazzú; L, Martínez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Siñeriz.

    Full Text Available Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumán, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

  13. Deficit hídrico e produtividade na cultura do milho / Water deficit and yield in maize crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Homero, Bergamaschi; Genei Antonio, Dalmago; Flávia, Comiran; João Ito, Bergonci; Artur Gustavo, Müller; Solange, França; Antonio Odair, Santos; Bernadete, Radin; Cleusa Adriane Menegassi, Bianchi; Pedro Gabert, Pereira.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto do deficit hídrico, no rendimento de grãos de milho, e a eficácia da irrigação em todo ciclo e, especificamente, no florescimento. Os dados foram obtidos em dez anos de experimentação, durante os quais doses variáveis de irrigação foram aplicadas por u [...] m sistema de aspersão, localizado no centro da área experimental. Foram calculados balanços hídricos, tendo como variáveis a água precipitada (chuva e irrigação) e a evapotranspiração máxima do milho. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão para 27 condições hídricas, relacionando-se rendimento de grãos com deficit hídrico e razão evapotranspiração real sobre evapotranspiração máxima (ETr/ETm). A maior redução na produção ocorre em conseqüência do deficit hídrico na polinização, formação do zigoto e desenvolvimento inicial do grão, numa relação quadrática. Nesse período, a razão ETr/ETm explica quase 80% das variações na produção de grãos, que se estabiliza acima de uma razão de 0,7. A irrigação aumenta e estabiliza a produção do milho; doses de rega de aproximadamente 60% daquela necessária para elevar a umidade do solo à capacidade de campo aumentam a eficiência de uso da irrigação. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of water deficit on maize grain yield, as well as the irrigation effectiveness, considering all the crop cycle and, specifically, the flowering period. Data were collected during ten years in several experiments, in which variable doses of irriga [...] tion were applied by an aspersion system located in the center of the experimental area. Water balances were calculated, and the precipitated water (rainfall and irrigation) and the maximum evapotranspiration of the maize were considered as inputs. Models of regression for 27 water conditions were adjusted, relating grain yield to water deficit and actual evapotranspiration to maximum evapotranspiration ratio (ETr/ETm). The highest reduction on grain production occurred in consequence of the water deficit during pollination, zygote formation and initial development of the grain, with a quadratic relation. For this period, the ratio ETr/ETm explains almost 80% of the variations in grain yields, stabilizing over a ratio of 0.7. The irrigation increases and stabilizes the maize production; doses of irrigation of approximately 60% of that necessary to rise soil moisture up to field capacity increase the efficiency of use of the irrigation.

  14. Deficit hídrico e produtividade na cultura do milho Water deficit and yield in maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto do deficit hídrico, no rendimento de grãos de milho, e a eficácia da irrigação em todo ciclo e, especificamente, no florescimento. Os dados foram obtidos em dez anos de experimentação, durante os quais doses variáveis de irrigação foram aplicadas por um sistema de aspersão, localizado no centro da área experimental. Foram calculados balanços hídricos, tendo como variáveis a água precipitada (chuva e irrigação e a evapotranspiração máxima do milho. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão para 27 condições hídricas, relacionando-se rendimento de grãos com deficit hídrico e razão evapotranspiração real sobre evapotranspiração máxima (ETr/ETm. A maior redução na produção ocorre em conseqüência do deficit hídrico na polinização, formação do zigoto e desenvolvimento inicial do grão, numa relação quadrática. Nesse período, a razão ETr/ETm explica quase 80% das variações na produção de grãos, que se estabiliza acima de uma razão de 0,7. A irrigação aumenta e estabiliza a produção do milho; doses de rega de aproximadamente 60% daquela necessária para elevar a umidade do solo à capacidade de campo aumentam a eficiência de uso da irrigação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of water deficit on maize grain yield, as well as the irrigation effectiveness, considering all the crop cycle and, specifically, the flowering period. Data were collected during ten years in several experiments, in which variable doses of irrigation were applied by an aspersion system located in the center of the experimental area. Water balances were calculated, and the precipitated water (rainfall and irrigation and the maximum evapotranspiration of the maize were considered as inputs. Models of regression for 27 water conditions were adjusted, relating grain yield to water deficit and actual evapotranspiration to maximum evapotranspiration ratio (ETr/ETm. The highest reduction on grain production occurred in consequence of the water deficit during pollination, zygote formation and initial development of the grain, with a quadratic relation. For this period, the ratio ETr/ETm explains almost 80% of the variations in grain yields, stabilizing over a ratio of 0.7. The irrigation increases and stabilizes the maize production; doses of irrigation of approximately 60% of that necessary to rise soil moisture up to field capacity increase the efficiency of use of the irrigation.

  15. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

  16. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements. PMID:23995918

  17. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  18. Nitrogen use efficiency in forage yield of tropical maize populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lopes Cancellier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of adapted cultivars to nitrogen stress conditions is shown as an ecologically sustainable option to ensure higher yields in low input agricultural systems. This study aimed to evaluate the NUE in tropical maize (Zea mays L. populations to forage production in the south of the State of Tocantins. Two experiments were done corresponding to low and high N availability sown on November 21, 2009. Twenty four maize populations and a commercial cultivar BR 106 were used in the experiments. The experimental design was a randomized block with two replicates. Plant height, ear height, ear participation in plant total green mass, ear green mass; plant green mass without ear, total green mass and NUE in forage production were evaluated. Through Moll methodology differences among populations for nitrogen use efficiency were found, however these differences weren’t found on Fischer methodology. Populations 12-4, 1-3, 12-6, 12-5, 26-1, 15-2, 25-2 and 1-5 are considered efficient in nitrogen use. The populations 12-6, 12-5, 12-4, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 and 15-2 are the best populations to use in high and low N environment, combining great production of green mass and being efficient in N use.

  19. Estimation of maize yield by using a process-based model and remote sensing data in the Northeast China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengmei; Tang, Yanjing; Wang, Peijuan; Zhang, Jiahua

    Climate change significantly impact on agriculture in recent year, the accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The 111 statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (p process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

  20. Solar radiation interception of various planting space patterns of maize and its relation to yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research was carried out to study solar radiation interception and its relation to yield of maize in various plant spacing patterns at high elevation. The goal of this research was to contribute the development of crop science, especially the plant ecophysiology. A field experiment was executed from March to August 1998 at Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology, Sukarami, West Sumatra. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment data was analyzed by ANOVA and path analysis. The results of experiment indicated that the percentage of solar radiation interception gave high contribution to the dry grain yield for Pioneer-7 cultivar, and the solar radiation interception was depend on LAI and leaf angle

  1. Crop Rotation and N Input Effects on Soil Fertility, Maize Mineral Nutrition, Yield, and Seed Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield of maize (Zea mays L.) rotated annually with soybean (Glycine max merr.) is better than its yield in monoculture. To determine how maize would respond to rotations that includes wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under different levels of N input, we evaluated N fer...

  2. Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

  3. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  4. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    OpenAIRE

    Piens Kathleen; Ståhlberg Jerry; Sandgren Mats; Eriksson Anna; Passoth Volkmar; Schnürer Johan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared...

  5. The Effects of Rate and Placement of Boma Manure on Maize Yield in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six session study on the response of maize to boma manure was conducted on farmer's field in Wamuyu, Machakos District in the Eastern province of Kenya to; a) determine the yield response of maize to application of boma manure in the 0-100 t ha-1 range, b)evaluate the benefits of banding of boma manure as compared with broadcasting, c)determine the residual response to boma manure application; d)compare the response of boma manure with that of inorganic fertiliser. The soil on the experimental site was a well drained ,dark red, loamy sand with an average of 16.64 mg kg-1 extractable P and 0.065 % total N in the 0-1 cm depth. Maize grain yield and total dry matter markedly increased with increasing rates of boma manure while placement method and interaction between placement and rate of application effect. A combined analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in grain yield above the rate of 40 t ha -1 of manure. Using inorganic fertiliser at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 + 20 kg P ha-1 was found to be the best option in terms of economic benefits. The residual effects of the manure were, however, still very evident in the last season, indicating that more benefits would have been obtained from manure over a number of succeeding seasons, especially from the high rates (60-100 t ha-1)

  6. THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry De-Graft Acquah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

  7. Diallel analyze of yield and progress of the severity of leaf diseases in maize hybrids in two population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ventura Faria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven commercial maize hybrids (AS1575, 2B688, Penta, GNZ2004, AG8021, Sprint e P30F53 were intercrossed in a complete diallel, excluded reciprocal, obtaining 21 crosses. The 28 treatments were evaluated in two environments characterized by different densities (62,500 and 90,000 plants ha-1, with the aim of selecting the most promising parents for generating base population to obtain lines. Two experiments were carried out in Guarapuava-PR, at randomized block design with three replications. We estimated the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities for yield and disease severity assessed by the area under the common rust (Puccinia sorghi progress curve (AURPC and the area under the leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis progress curve (AULPC. The effects of GCA and SCA were significant for grain yield and diseases severity in both densities, revealing the importance of both additive and non-additive effects. There GCA x densities interaction was significant only for grain yield. Crossings P30F53 x AG8021 and P30F53 x Penta had negative estimates of SCA for AURPC and AULPC on the environments average. Hybrids GNZ 2004 and P30F53 stood out showing positive GCA for grain yield and negative for AURPC and AULPC in both densities and therefore are recommended for generating base populations for obtaining lines adapted for both densities, conventional and denser plantings, given the current trends in management of maize.

  8. Genetics and statistical association between lethal alleles and quantitative yield factors in maize (Zea mays l.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Salerno; Mariana, Kandus; R., Boggio Ronceros; O., Sorarrain; Cecilia, González; David, Almorza.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los procesos genéticos relacionados con el vigor híbrido (heterosis) y la identificación de QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) en el maíz. Para obtener los resultados, se construyó un modelo biométrico usando los formalismos relacionados a las cadenas absorbentes [...] discretas de Markov en forma canónica, con el fin de analizar la evolución de segmentos cromosómicos, con genes recesivos letales ligados con factores de rendimiento en grano a través de las sucesivas generaciones. El rendimiento en grano obtenido de una línea de maíz regulada por un sistema de letales balanceados y otras líneas sin este sistema como testigo, se evaluó durante 5 generaciones de endocría. El uso de la teoría de las cadenas de Markov con el fin de estudiar la evolución durante estas generaciones fue una aproximación diferente a los métodos matemáticos clásicos. Abstract in english The objective of this work is to study the genetic process related to the hybrid vigour (heterosis) and the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in maize. A biometric model was built using the mathematical formalism relating to the discrete absorbent Markov chain in canonical form, in ord [...] er to analyse the evolution of chromosome segments, with recessive lethal genes linked with grain yield factors through generations. The grain yield obtained from an inbred maize line regulated by a balanced lethal system, and other lines without this system as control, were evaluated during five inbreeding generations. The use of the Markov chain theory for the study of evolution during these generations was a different approach of the classical mathematical ones.

  9. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Courtman; J.B.J., van Ryssen; A., Oelofse.

    Full Text Available A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contai [...] ned below 50 µg selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals and humans. The geographical distribution of Se values of maize grain is consistent with that of previous studies on the Se status of herbivores in South Africa, suggesting that plants growing in most of the maize-producing areas of the country contain low concentrations of Se. However, these findings contradict those of the soil Se status in the country as reported by the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, which states that the eastern part of the maize-producing areas of the country tends to have adequate to high soil Se levels and the western areas to have low levels. These contradictory results can be explained to a large extent by the varying soil pH throughout the country. Soil pH plays a primary role in the availability of selenium to plants. Although the eastern parts of the country tend to have high Se concentration in the soil, it is not available to the maize plant owing to a low soil pH, while in the western parts of the country, where soil pH may be suitable for Se uptake by plants, there seems to be an inadequate concentration of available Se in the soil.

  10. Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

  11. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no desenvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura.

  12. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoth, Volkmar; Eriksson, Anna; Sandgren, Mats; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Piens, Kathleen; Schnürer, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry) stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production. PMID:19695089

  13. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  14. Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Gueye, MT.; Goergen, G.; S. Ndiaye; Asiedu, EA.; Wathelet, JP.; Lognay, G.; Seck, D.

    2013-01-01

    Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage peri...

  15. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

  16. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I Three Year Yield Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006 field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

  17. Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of maize in loess plateau of northwest china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China. (author)

  18. Effect of Sowing Methods and Seed Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Pak-81

    OpenAIRE

    Hayatullah Khan; Muhammad Ayaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain; Muhamad Zaman Khan; Masood Khan Khattak

    2000-01-01

    The results revealed that sowing method greatly affected the number of fertile tillers, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index value whereas grain spike-1 and 1000-grain weight were non significant. Among the method pora method supersede broadcast method. Similarly seed rates also highly significantly affected the grain yield and yield components except 1000- grain weight. Seed rate of 175 kg ha-1 produced grain yield of 5325. 13 kg ha-1 and proved to be the most economical seed rate...

  19. Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses on maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Urrego-Pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Cavero Campo, José

    2013-01-01

    Daytime sprinkler irrigation with a solid-set system can result in higher water losses, lower uniformity, and lower maize (Zea mays L.) yield compared with nighttime irrigation. We studied the relevance of irrigation time (daytime or nighttime) and water losses (compensating them or not in the irrigation applied) for the growth and yield of maize during 2 yr. The seasonal average sprinkler water losses compensated ranged from 14 to 19% for daytime irrigation and from 5 to 11% for nighttime ir...

  20. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo De Carli; Bruna Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña; Irineu Lorini; Adriano Brandelli

    2010-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no sign...

  1. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  2. Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

  3. Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize and sorghum grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Crosby; G.D., Mendoza; I., Bonola; F.X., Plata; H., Sandoval; L.M., Melgoza.

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release a-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibil [...] ity of sorghum and maize grain was measured after 6 and 12 hours of fermentation with or without exogenous a-amylase in powder form or dispersed in a matrix system for slow release by a diffusional mechanism. Tablets were used as the drug release matrix system, and were formulated with barium sulphate and ethylcellulose as the core of the final tablet. Treatments consisted of incubation of sorghum or maize grains with four doses of enzyme, using a-amylase in powder or in the press-coated tablet (16 treatments). The results showed that with a higher dose of exogenous enzyme, the digestibility of the grains was improved. Sorghum and maize digestion with tablets were improved compared with a-amylase in powder form. Releasing a-amylase from matrix tablets represents a potential technology to improve grain digestion in ruminants.

  4. Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Idziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L. and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effective weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1 and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1 with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO and ammonium nitrate (AMN adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1 and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively.

  5. Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Idziak; Zenon, Woznica.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effe [...] ctive weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1) and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1) with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) and ammonium nitrate (AMN) adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1) and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively).

  6. High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dragana, Ignjatovic-Micic; Marija, Kostadinovic; Sofija, Bozinovic; Violeta, Andjelkovic; Jelena, Vancetovic.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collecti [...] on, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p

  7. Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Po...

  8. Improving sustainable intensification of cereal-grain legume cropping systems in the savannahs of West Africa: Quantifying residual effects of legumes on maize, enhancing P mobilization by legumes and studying long-term Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved cereal-grain-legume systems, allowing farmers to use their land productively on a continuous basis, are being rapidly developed and adopted by small-scale farmers in the West African Moist Savannah. This paper summarizes work on several issues related to the improvement of productivity and sustainability of these intensified systems. A first study looked at the sustainability of several legume-maize cropping systems in a 5-year field trial at Sekou, Benin. Fairly low maize yields were found in continuous maize cropping systems (maize/maize), poor response to N fertilizer beyond 45 kg N ha-1, and no evidence that P and K were limiting crop yield. Over the last 5 years of the trial, maize/Mucuna relay cropping gave consistently a 2000 kg ha-1 yield increase relative to maize/maize cropping, and most of this yield gain was preserved even when Mucuna residues were removed from the plots when planting the next year's maize crop. Some yield gain, although far less than with maize/Mucuna, was observed in the maize/pigeon pea system. The maize/cowpea system offered no maize yield gain over maize/maize cropping. In a second study, enhanced isotopic methods to determine the plant available P allowed us to test the hypothesis that certain legume accessions can mobilize sparingly-available P. In one out of the 3 West-African Moist Savannah soils studied, we found that cowpea could access sparingly soluble soil P that is unavailable to maize. This mobilization of P was only observed when P deficiency occurred. These results confirm the P efficiency of some legume genotypes, which may lead to benefits of improved P availability by the incorporation of legumes in rotation systems. A third study, involving a 16-year continuous-cropping field experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria, provided information on long-term changes in soil organic matter carbon (SOC) contents in savannah soils with sandy top soil. In the control treatments with continuous maize and cowpea cropping without trees, SOC levels dropped from the initial 15.4 Mg C ha-1 to 7.3-8.0 Mg C ha-1 in 16 years (SOC content in 1700 Mg ha-1 equivalent soil mass). In the two continuously cropped alley cropping systems (Leucaena and Senna), the SOC levels dropped to levels between 10.7 and 13.2 Mg C ha-1. The 13C natural abundance technique yielded useful information to test the ROTHC- 26.3 SOC model in sub-humid tropical conditions under a complex pattern of cropping systems. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongman M, Khare KB* and Khonga EB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55% and barley grains (3.46, 14 days, 13 days and 55.24% in terms of mycelium growth vigor, colonization time, spawn running time of the substrate and yield  of the oyster mushroom. Hot water treatment and steaming of substrate significantly reduced substrate contamination and improved mushroom yield as compared to the untreated control. Mushrooms grown on steamed substrates had significantly higher yield (BE: 69.4% than those grown on substrates treated with hot water (BE: 53.3%.

  10. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  11. Genetic and biochemical differences in populations bred for extremes in maize grain methionine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methionine is an important nutrient in animal feed and several approaches have been developed to increase methionine concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. One approach is through traditional breeding using recurrent selection. Two populations selected were selected for high and low methionin...

  12. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  13. Rendimiento y calidad de elote en poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tehuacán, Puebla / Yield and quality of tender maize from native maize populations of Tehuacán, Puebla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Ortiz-Torres; Pedro Antonio, López; Abel, Gil-Muñoz; Juan de Dios, Guerrero-Rodríguez; Higinio, López-Sánchez; Oswaldo R., Taboada-Gaytán; J. Arahón, Hernández-Guzmán; Mario, Valadez-Ramírez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el estado de Puebla, la región más importante en producción de maíz (Zea mays L.) para elote es Tehuacán. Las variedades usadas son principalmente poblaciones nativas, de las cuales se desconoce su potencial para la producción de elote y la calidad del mismo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue [...] evaluar agronómicamente un conjunto de poblaciones nativas de maíz colectadas en Tehuacán, para determinar su variación en rendimiento y calidad de elote. En 2009 se evaluaron 100 variedades en tres localidades bajo condiciones de riego, de las cuales 95 fueron colectadas en el área de Tehuacán. Las cinco restantes fueron dos variedades mejoradas y tres testigos raciales de Bolita, Celaya y Pepitilla. Se midieron 20 variables de planta y elote. Los resultados del análisis de varianza combinado mostraron en todas las variables evaluadas, excepto en una, diferencias altamente significativas (P ? 0.01) entre variedades, lo que indica la presencia de diversidad para tales características entre los maíces nativos estudiados. En rendimiento de elote, un grupo de 16 poblaciones nativas resultó sobresaliente (P ? 0.05). La variedad local TEH77 obtuvo el mayor número de características deseables para rendimiento y calidad de elote: rendimiento promedio de 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11.3 °Brix, 13.7 cm de longitud de mazorca, 5.5 cm de ancho de mazorca y 30.7 granos por hilera. Esta variedad superó al mejor híbrido comercial 'AS900' en 52, 23, 30, 33 y 47 % en rendimiento (kg·ha-1), contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), longitud y diámetro de mazorca (cm), número de hileras y granos por hilera, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the state of Puebla, Tehuacán is the most important region in the production of tender maize (Zea mays L.) sold on the cob. The varieties used are mainly native populations, whose potential for production and quality are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate agronomically a set of native [...] maize populations collected in Tehuacán to determine their variation in tender maize yield and quality. In 2009, 100 irrigated varieties were evaluated in three locations; of these 95 were collected in the Tehuacán area. The remaining five were two improved varieties and three control races: Bolita, Celaya and Pepitilla. Twenty variables were measured on plant and ear. The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ? 0.01) among varieties, except one, indicating presence of diversity for the characteristics measured among the native maize under study. In tender maize yield, the group of 16 native populations was outstanding (P ? 0.05). The local variety TEH77 had the highest number of desirable traits for yield and quality of tender maize ears: average yield 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11,3 °Brix, 13.7 cm ear length, 5.5 cm ear width and 39.7 grains per row. This variety surpassed the best commercial hybrid 'AS900' by 52, 23, 30, 33 and 47 % in yield kg·ha-1, total soluble solids content (°Brix), ear length and diameter (cm), number of rows and grains per row, respectively.

  14. Impact of spatial-temporal variations of climatic variables onsummer maize yield in North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Wang, E.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summer maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the dominant crops in the North China Plain (NCP). Itsgrowth is greatly influenced by the spatial-temporal variation of climatic variables, especially solar radiation, temperature and rainfall. The WOFOST (version 7.1) model was applied to evaluate the impact of climatic variability on summer maize yields using historical meteorological data from 1961to 2000. The model was calibrated and validated using data from field experiments conducted duringthe perio...

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Application on Biomass Production, Yield and Nitrogen Fixation of Legumes and Maize Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, M. A.; K. Yasmin; M.I. Lone; Khan, K S

    1999-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen application on biomass production and yield of legumes and maize under rainfed field conditions was studied to estimate the amount of nitrogen fixed by various leguminous crops under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions and to compare the yield, income and net return of legumes and non-legumes. Yield and biomass of summer legumes were not affected significantly with N application but in case of maize there was an increase of 69 and 74 per cent in dry matter and grai...

  16. Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Khorramabad, Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghalavand

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to use organic fertilizers and decrease chemical fertilizers consumption to reach sustainable agriculture. Thus, to study the effects of manure incorporation methods, and integrated effects of poultry manure with chemical fertilizers on the grain yield and yield components of maize, an experiment was conducted in 2004 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Lorestan Weather Department, 30 kms northeast of Khorramabad. The treatments were arranged in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of incorporation of fertilizer with soil by furrower or disk. The subplots included T0: control (no consumption of fertilizer and poultry manure; T1: 200, 100, and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively; T2: 80% of T1+ 4 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T3: 60% of T1+ 8 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T4: 40% of T1+ 12 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T5: 20% of T1+ 16 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; and T6: 20 ton ha-1 of poultry manure. The results showed that incorporation of fertilizer by furrower, compared with disk, led to significant increase in plant height, 1000 seed weight and grain and biological yields. However, there were not significant differences in the number of seed per ear and harvest index between the two fertilizer incorporation methods. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increase of the treats mentioned except for the harvest index. The interaction effects were not significant for any traits. T5 treatment produced the highest grain yield, and was significantly different from T0, T1, T3 and T6 treatments. The differences between T1 (chemical nutrition system and T6 (organic nutrition system were not significant either. Effectiveness of integrated poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on maize yield components was higher than either poultry manure or chemical fertilizer. The results of this experiment indicated that incorporation of 16 ton poultry manure + 40, 20 and 20 kg ha-1 N, P and K with furrower might be appropriate for maize prodution under conditions similar to this experiment.

  17. Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes

    OpenAIRE

    Brou Kouakou; Gbogouri Albarin; Ocho Anin Louise; Djeni N`Dede Theodore; Kone Youssouf; Gnakri Dago

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeabi...

  18. FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa, Crestani; Rafael, Nornberg; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quali [...] ty.

  19. Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Levels of Soybean Seed Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Hayder; S. Suhail Mumtaz; Aslam Khan; Sherin Khan

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with an objective to study the land use efficiency and economic return in maize-soybean intercropping system under various seed rates of soybean. Intercropping significantly reduced the thousand grains weight and grain yield of soybean at all seed rates. Maize thousand grain weight and grains yield remained unaffected in intercropping. The relative yield total of maize and soybean was greater in intercropping than monoculture. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER...

  20. Crescimento e produtividade de milho em função da cultura antecessora / Maize growth and yield according to the previous crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila de, Oliveira; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; João, Kluthcouski; Tomás de Aquino, Portes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas de cobertura, no sistema plantio direto, pode proporcionar melhores condições para o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, com reflexos positivos na produtividade de grãos. Mediante a técnica de análise de crescimento, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar o desempenho agronômic [...] o de milho cultivado sobre palhada de feijão comum, Brachiaria brizantha e milheto. O Experimento foi conduzido em solo de Cerrado, em Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com três tratamentos (palhadas de cobertura) e cinco repetições. A velocidade de decomposição da palhada de feijão comum foi maior que a de B. brizantha e milheto. Os maiores valores de acúmulo de matéria seca das folhas, colmos, espigas e total, bem como do índice de área foliar e produtividade de grãos de milho, foram obtidos quando o cultivo ocorreu sobre palhada de feijão comum. Abstract in english The use of cover crops in the no-tillage system can provide better conditions for the development of maize plants, with positive effects on grain yield. By using the growth analysis technique, this study aimed at characterizing the agronomic performance of maize on common bean, Brachiaria brizantha [...] and millet straw. The experiment was carried out in a Brazilian Savannah soil, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three treatments (cover crops) and five replications. The common bean straw decomposition rate was higher than the B. Brizantha and millet ones. The highest values for the dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, cobs and total, as well as leaf area index and maize grain yield, were observed when cultivated on common bean straw.

  1. PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K MANDAL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2 INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUNDNUT INTERCROPPING (1:2 AND IT HAD HIGHEST YIELD FOLLOWIED BY SOLE GROUNDNUT. THE MAIZE EQUIVALENT YIELD WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING (1:2 AND IT HAD HIGHEST YIELD FOLLOWED MAIZE WITH GROUND NUT (1:2, MAIZE WITH GROUND NUT (2:4 AND MAIZE WITH LSOYBEAN (2:4 INTERCROPPING. THUS LIKE GROUNDNUT CAN BE GROUWN AS INTERCROPS WITH MAIZE TO GET HIGHER MONETARY RETURNS.

  2. EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eche N. Mary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a “balanced” fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

  3. The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleti? Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

  4. Adapting Towards Climate Change: A Bioeconomic Analysis of Winterwheat and Grain Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.; Klein, T.; Calanca, P.; Walter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change (CC) will alter the environmental conditions for crop growth. In order to minimize negative CC impacts on cropping systems, farmers will have to adapt their management schemes. In this paper we analyzed CC impacts and adaptation in winterwheat and grain maize production using a bio-economic modeling approach in two study regions of the Swiss Plateau, which differed in their climate and soil types. Considered adaptation options reflected the adjustment of farmers’ management de...

  5. GROWTH AND MASS SPECTROMETRY PROFILE OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA PIGMENT GROWN IN MAIZE GRAIN EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Sagarika Devi; Hemanth AK. Kumar; Geetha Ramachandran; Chandrasekarenthiran Subramanian; Perumal Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes found in a variety of habitats as ubiquitous agents of decay. Alternaria spp. produces about sixty different secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, growth and production of pigment from Alternaria alternata was studied in maize grain extract at pH 4-9. The reddish brown pigment was extracted, estimated and partially purified by fractionation. Through mass spectrometry, major constituents of pigment from Alternaria alternata such as Tenua...

  6. Grain yield and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat and pea in a high yielding environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Sandaña; D, Pinochet.

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of grain yield, phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE, g yield g-1 P available) and related root traits of wheat and pea to different P availabilities in a high yielding environment (e.g.: yield higher than 10 Mg ha-1 for wheat). Two experiments [...] were conducted in southern Chile. Treatments consisted of the combination of (i) two crops (spring-bred wheat and pea) and (ii) three rates of P fertilization (0 (P0), 100 (P1) and 250 (P2) kg P ha-1). Grain yield of wheat was more sensitive to P deficiency than pea. Wheat showed consistently higher (P

  7. Grain yield and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat and pea in a high yielding environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Sandaña; D, Pinochet.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of grain yield, phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE, g yield g-1 P available) and related root traits of wheat and pea to different P availabilities in a high yielding environment (e.g.: yield higher than 10 Mg ha-1 for wheat). Two experiments [...] were conducted in southern Chile. Treatments consisted of the combination of (i) two crops (spring-bred wheat and pea) and (ii) three rates of P fertilization (0 (P0), 100 (P1) and 250 (P2) kg P ha-1). Grain yield of wheat was more sensitive to P deficiency than pea. Wheat showed consistently higher (P

  8. Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

  9. Climate Change Impact Uncertainties for Maize in Panama: Farm Information, Climate Projections, and Yield Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Cecil, L. Dewayne; Horton, Radley M.; Gordon, Roman; McCollum, Raymond (Brown, Douglas); Brown, Douglas; Killough, Brian; Goldberg, Richard; Greeley, Adam P.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a pilot project to characterize and bound multi-disciplinary uncertainties around the assessment of maize (Zea mays) production impacts using the CERES-Maize crop model in a climate-sensitive region with a variety of farming systems (Panama). Segunda coa (autumn) maize yield in Panama currently suffers occasionally from high water stress at the end of the growing season, however under future climate conditions warmer temperatures accelerate crop maturation and elevated CO (sub 2) concentrations improve water retention. This combination reduces end-of-season water stresses and eventually leads to small mean yield gains according to median projections, although accelerated maturation reduces yields in seasons with low water stresses. Calibrations of cultivar traits, soil profile, and fertilizer amounts are most important for representing baseline yields, however sensitivity to all management factors is reduced in an assessment of future yield changes (most dramatically for fertilizers), suggesting that yield changes may be more generalizable than absolute yields. Uncertainty around General Circulation Model (GCM)s' projected changes in rainfall gain in importance throughout the century, with yield changes strongly correlated with growing season rainfall totals. Climate changes are expected to be obscured by the large inter-annual variations in Panamanian climate that will continue to be the dominant influence on seasonal maize yield into the coming decades. The relatively high (A2) and low (B1) emissions scenarios show little difference in their impact on future maize yields until the end of the century. Uncertainties related to the sensitivity of CERES-Maize to carbon dioxide concentrations have a substantial influence on projected changes, and remain a significant obstacle to climate change impacts assessment. Finally, an investigation into the potential of simple statistical yield emulators based upon key climate variables characterizes the important uncertainties behind the selection of climate change metrics and their performance against more complex process-based crop model simulations, revealing a danger in relying only on long-term mean quantities for crop impact assessment.

  10. Irrigation and nitrogen effects on wheat grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo do Santos Targa; Mauricio Alves Moreira; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor Rudorff; José Guilherme de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Two agronomic experiments with wheat crop were conducted during the period of May through October of 1999 and 2000 at the experimental site of the University of Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on grain yield of two wheat cultivars. The work also intended to present the feasibility of this agriculture activity during the winter crop season in the Paraíba Valley region of São Paulo St...

  11. Methyl jasmonate triggers loss of grain yield under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Su-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2009-01-01

    Drought is one of the major constraints to rice production worldwide. The development of rice panicle and spikelet meristem is repressed under the drought conditions, resulting in a reduction in the numbers of panicles and spikelets. In our recent report, we demonstrated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in drought-induced loss of grain yield. Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AtJMT) in rice resulted in a large reduc...

  12. Grain injury models for Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rural maize stores in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, N; Meikle, W G; Markham, R H

    2000-08-01

    Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky have been reported as the two most serious pests of stored maize in sub-Saharan Africa and smallholder farmers are in urgent need of guidelines for their proper management. In this article we investigate the injury rates attributable to these two species in terms of percentage weight loss and percentage grain damage, and we derive functional response models for the two species on maize. The models successfully described the progression of grain injury in an extensive data set compiled from previously published studies, comprising 46 time series of data relating maize injury and insect pest density. The grain injury models can be used in conjunction with predictive models of pest population dynamics to guide the development of integrated management strategies for postharvest maize pests in West Africa and comparable regions elsewhere. PMID:10985051

  13. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Ia?i contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

  14. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zavaschi; Letícia de Abreu Faria; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Carlos Antonio da Costa Nascimento; Thiago Augusto de Moura; Diego Wyllyam do Vale; Fernanda Latanze Mendes; Marcos Yassuo Kamogawa

    2014-01-01

    A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea trea...

  15. Maize yield response to a phosphorus-solubilizing microbial inoculant in field trials

    OpenAIRE

    LEGGETT, M.; NEWLANDS, N. K.; Greenshields, D.; West, L; INMAN, S.; KOIVUNEN, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from multi-year, multi-site field trial experiments measuring maize yield response to inoculation with the phosphorus-solubilizing fungus, Penicillium bilaiae Chalabuda are presented. The main objective was to evaluate representative data on crop response to the inoculant across a broad set of different soil, agronomic management and climate conditions. A statistical analysis of crop yield response and its variability was conducted to guide further implementation of a stratified tria...

  16. Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Tabu; R.K. Obura; Bationo, A.; L. Nakhone

    2005-01-01

    Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols) were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and Mollic gleyso...

  17. Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailovi? Vojislav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

  18. Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kahraman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lüleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, K?z?ltan95, Ayd?n 93 and Alt?n 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

  19. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  20. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE AND COLOR OF WHOLE-GRAIN FLOURS OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE (QPM AND NORMAL MAIZE CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTINA DIAS PAES

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-grain flours of Quality Protein Maize (QPM and normal maize were extruded under controlled conditions in order to evaluate the effect of extrusion on the essential amino acids profile and color of the raw material used in the production of maize based extrudates. Flours were conditioned to 150g/kg moisture and processed in a single screw extruder at a screw compression ratio of 3:1, screw speed of 80 rpm, and die head temperature of 1300C, using two different die nozzle diameters (3 and 5 mm. Extrusion caused a diminishment in the contents of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine and valine when compared to their original flours (P0.05. QPM samples, either raw or extruded, were significantly higher in lysine, methionine and tryptophan compared to samples of normal maize (P<0.05. Extrudates produced with yellow QPM flours were lighter than their correspondent raw material (P<0.05, different from that of yellow normal maize. This trend was also observed for redness (a values in extrudates. On the other hand, white and yellow extrudates presented higher b values (yellowness than their correspond raw flour. Despite the adverse effect of extrusion in the amino acid retention, the use of QPM flours in replacement of normal maize flours can provide maize extrudates with superior protein quality.

  1. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Bass, Adrian M; Nelson, Paul N; Bird, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10tha(-1) biochar (B)+F; 3) 25tha(-1) compost (Com)+F; 4) 2.5tha(-1) B+25tha(-1) Com mixed on site+F; and 5) 25tha(-1) co-composted biochar-compost (COMBI)+F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the ?(15)N and ?(13)C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N2O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar-compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems. PMID:26590867

  2. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

  3. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Justin M; Betzelberger, Amy M; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-17

    Numerous controlled experiments find that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) damage crops and reduce yield. There have been no estimates of the actual yield losses in the field in the United States from [O3], even though such estimates would be valuable for projections of future food production and for cost-benefit analyses of reducing ground-level [O3]. Regression analysis of historical yield, climate, and [O3] data for the United States were used to determine the loss of production due to O3 for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) from 1980 to 2011, showing that over that period production of rain-fed fields of soybean and maize were reduced by roughly 5% and 10%, respectively, costing approximately $9 billion annually. Maize, thought to be inherently resistant to O3, was at least as sensitive as soybean to O3 damage. Overcoming this yield loss with improved emission controls or more tolerant germplasm could substantially increase world food and feed supply at a time when a global yield jump is urgently needed. PMID:26578785

  4. Application of a New Mathematical Model for Estimating Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Karadavut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out International Agricultural Research Institute’s experimental areas in Konya province in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. In the research, three corn cultivars (P 3394, DK 585 and NS 640 were tested in randomized complete block design with four replications. The interelation between the productivity of Zea mays and the increasing of it’s generative organs during the phenological phase ‘tasseling-milky ripeness’, as far as the dependence of this relation on some factors influencing crop grow, provide a basis for a quantity analysis left to this work. The potantial yield of the used hybrid was the only parametric index from the stock of the growth limiting factors, which take part in the analysis. Environmental factors, especially sum of effective temperatures, precipitation and nitorgen supply, were strongly effected yield formation. The interrelation between these factors gave us a real possibility to determine the function of the growth and yield.

  5. Variable rate fertilization for maize and its effects based on the site-specific soil fertility and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiments of variable rate fertilization (VRF) for maize were carried out using a self-developed VRF system. In the studies, prescriptions of VRF were made for maize according to the nutrient levels in soil and the theory of yield goal. The results of this study have shown that VRF increased...

  6. Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

  7. Effect of time of sowing and system Brachiaria brizantha intercropped with maize on yield components and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edleusa Pereira Seidel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4; sown in two seasons and two seeding systems in space between two rows, and to evaluate the effect of intercropping on maize yield, as well as evaluating the physical properties of the soil after the consortium. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2010, the Municipality of Quatro Pontes/PR. The experimental design was randomized blocks as a factorial 2x2, and an additional treatment that was corn cultivation single, with four replications. The treatments consisted two intercropping systems: corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in the row, and corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in space between two rows, and two times of sowing Brachiaria brizantha: simultaneously corn, and twenty-five days after sowing corn. The seed was planted mechanically in no-tillage system, with spacing between the lines of 0,70 m. The ears were harvested by hand and in the laboratory were evaluated: yield components and productivity. Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4 was sown and harvested manually. We evaluated the production of fresh and dry mass and yield components. For soil analyzes the soil was sampled at 0-0.10 and 0,10-0,20 m. Were determined the total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. The results demonstrated that the production components of Brachiaria brizantha were lower when it was sown twenty-five days after sowing corn, and between sowing systems when Brachiaria brizantha was sown in line. There was no reduction in grain yield of maize intercropped with Brachiaria system independent and sowing date. The consortium of pasture with corn increased the total porosity, and reduced soil bulk density.

  8. Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zamani Babgohari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS, municipal compost (MC and cow manure (CM on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.. The treatments were control (without any organic waste and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 and 45 t ha-1. This research was done in the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology (Lavark-Najafabad. The experimental design was a randomized, complete block with three replications. Treatments were incorporated into the soil before the maize planting (on 23 June 2008 and soil sampling was performed after 132 days (Simultaneously with maize harvesting. Application of the organic wastes resulted in significant increase soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and significantly decreased bulk density. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was decreased by application of PSS. Application of 15 and 45 t ha-1 of PSS reduced Ks more than 14% and 42%, respectively, compared with control; however, the reduction was significant only in the plots which received 45 t ha-1 of PSS compared with control. The results of plant yield and growth showed that leaf area index (LAI, plant length, biological yield, 1000 seed weight and seed yield increase due to the application of organic wastes.

  9. Onset of grain filling is associated with a change in properties of linker histone variants in maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajka, R.; Finnie, Christine; Grasser, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    In maize kernel development, the onset of grain-filling represents a major developmental switch that correlates with a massive reprogramming of gene expression. We have isolated chromosomal linker histones from developing maize kernels before (11 days after pollination, dap) and after (16 dap) initiation of storage synthesis. Six linker histone gene products were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A marked shift of around 4 pH units was observed for the linker histone spot pattern after ...

  10. Combining ability effects for seed vigour traits related to emergence at low temperature in maize and grain sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    García de Yzaguirre, Álvaro; Lasa Dolhagaray, José Manuel; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Gracia Gimeno, María Pilar

    1999-01-01

    [EN] Seed vigour traits correlated with field emergence speed in cool conditions and with acceptable coefficientsof variation were determined in hybrids and selfs from public inbred lines of maize and grain sorghum. Controlledtests showed less environmental variation than field measurements. In maize, there were significant parentaleffects in all traits except mean time to field emergence in cool conditions (FEI). Germination percentage after12 days at 10 oC, alone (LT) or related to a 25 oC...

  11. The long-term effects of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system in Southern Malawi, on gliricidia and maize yields, and soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Makumba, W.I.H.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Mweta, D.; Kwesiga, F.R.

    2006-01-01

    A gliricidia¿maize (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)¿Zea mays L.) simultaneous intercropping agroforestry system has shown to be a suitable option for soil fertility improvement and yield increase in highly populated areas of sub Saharan Africa where landholding sizes are very small and inorganic fertilizer use is very low. An 11 year old field experiment, gliricidia¿maize simultaneous intercropping, with and without a small application of inorganic fertilizer was studied to increase our understandi...

  12. An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanovi? Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD at Zemun Polje (Serbia, during the summer of 2009. Average content of proteins, oil and starch of analyzed maize hybrids was 10.5%, 4.7% and 80.8%, respectively. Hybrids from FAO maturity group 600 had highest grain mass (in average 419.5 g. Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 2.64 to 3.75, averaged 3.44 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi concentrations were between 0.120 µ g g-1 (ZP 805 to 0.415 µ g g-1 (ZP 588ex, averaged 0.24 µ g g-1. Content of soluble proteins varied from 54.33 to 78.74 mg g-1. The high positive correlation was observed between total proteins and oil content in hybrids, as well as between starch and phenolics content. Phytate content was positively correlated with proteins, but this correlation was not significant, while the correlation between phytate and mass of 1,000 grains was positive and significant. A negative correlation occurred between phytate and starch. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  13. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2015-11-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  14. Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Priya A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY and susceptibilityindex (S were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY was significantly positivelycorrelated with number of leaves, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of primary branches per panicle,number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, number of chaffs per panicle and boot leaf breadthwhen evaluated under controlled irrigation condition. But none of the above traits had significant positive correlation withSPY in upland condition. In the path analysis, it was found out that number of productive tillers per plant has a high positivedirect effect and most of other traits showed negligible or low direct effect in lowland condition, but in upland conditionnone of the factors are having high direct effects towards SPY. From the S and RY, it was found that the local land racesand drought tolerant varieties MDU 5, TKM11 etc., performed well under upland condition

  15. COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A KRUPAKAR; BINOD KUMAR; S. Marker [Rentz

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability of some polygenic and quality traits was studied in a set of diallel crosses involving 10 maize inbreds (P1 to P10) to know the inheritance pattern of yield attributes. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant differences among themselves for all the traits in all environments. The ratio of gca /sca was less than unity there by indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of most of the characters studied. The parents P1 , ...

  16. Maize Growth and Yield under Daytime and Nighttime Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavero Campo, José; Jiménez, Laura; Puig Basa, Miriam; Faci González, José María; Martínez-Cob, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Nighttime sprinkler irrigation usually results in lower wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) and better irrigation uniformity compared with daytime irrigation. However, daytime sprinkler irrigation modifies the microclimatic conditions within the crop canopy which could result in improved crop growth. We studied the effect of daytime and nighttime irrigation on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) irrigated with a solid-set sprinkler system. Two irrigation treatments were tested: ...

  17. Optimizing the Yield of Maize Cropping Systems Using Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Rajesh Kanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green revolution motivated many researchers to carry out forecasting study in the agricultural cropping systems to yield maximum profitability. The profitability can be improved by optimizing unpredictable variables, involved in the cropping systems. Thus a need arises to forecast the unpredictable variables. In this study, the unpredictable variables have been successfully forecasted for cropping productivity using Ant Colony Algorithm. Rainfall, temperature and irrigation are the major variables considered for maize cropping systems in this research. The details of the rainfall, temperature and irrigation have been collected for eight years and twelve months and given as input to the Minitab software to generate the mathematical equation. This mathematical equation has been used as the objective function equation for ant colony algorithm. Thus the ant colony algorithm can generate the best optimal yielding period for maize crop cultivation and also it can be used to forecast the optimal combination of variables that can yield best productivity. This model has helped farmers to make efficient resource allocation decisions with the aim of forecasting productivity and profitability of maize cropping systems.

  18. Variable sensitivity of US maize yield to high temperatures across developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E. E.; Huybers, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of maize to high temperatures has been widely demonstrated. Furthermore, field work has indicated that reproductive development stages are particularly sensitive to stress, but this relationship has not been quantified across a wide geographic region. Here, the relationship between maize yield and temperature variations is examined as a function of developmental stage. US state-level data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service provide dates for six growing stages: planting, silking, doughing, dented, mature, and harvested. Temperatures that correspond to each developmental stage are then inferred from a network of weather station observations interpolated to the county level, and a multiple linear regression technique is employed to estimate the sensitivity of county yield outcomes to variations in growing-degree days and an analogous measure of high temperatures referred to as killing-degree days. Uncertainties in the transition times between county-level growth stages are accounted for. Results indicate that the silking and dented stages are generally the most sensitive to killing degree days, with silking the most sensitive stage in the US South and dented the most sensitive in the US North. These variable patterns of sensitivity aid in interpreting which weather events are of greatest significance to maize yields and provide some insight into how shifts in planting time or changes in developmental timing would influence the risks associated with exposure to high temperatures.

  19. Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nezarat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area. The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

  20. Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

    2014-06-01

    The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. PMID:23826742

  1. Evaluation of the yield and nitrogen use efficiency of the dominant maize hybrids grown in North and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanjun; Fang, Zenguo; Gao, Qiang; Ye, Youliang; Jia, Liangliang; Yuan, Lixing; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-06-01

    Breeding high-yielding and nutrient-efficient cultivars is one strategy to simultaneously resolve the problems of food security, resource shortage, and environmental pollution. However, the potential increased yield and reduction in fertilizer input achievable by using high-yielding and nutrient-efficient cultivars is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of 40 commercial maize hybrids at five locations in North and Northeast China in 2008 and 2009. The effect of interaction between genotype and nitrogen (N) input on maize yield was significant when the yield reduction under low-N treatment was 25%-60%. Based on the average yields achieved with high or low N application, the tested cultivars were classified into four types based on their NUE: efficient-efficient (EE) were efficient under both low and high N inputs, high-N efficient (HNE) under only high N input, low-N efficient (LNE) under only low N input, and nonefficient-nonefficient under neither low nor high N inputs. Under high N application, EE and HNE cultivars could potentially increase maize yield by 8%-10% and reduce N input by 16%-21%. Under low N application, LNE cultivars could potentially increase maize yield by 12%. We concluded that breeding for N-efficient cultivars is a feasible strategy to increase maize yield and/or reduce N input. PMID:23504275

  2. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  3. 14C-lindane residues in stored maize grain in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and fate of the insecticide 14C-lindane in stored maize grains were studied for 36 weeks in the laboratory under conditions simulating local agricultural practices. Surface extracts declined from 10.9% of the applied activity at zero time (0-24 hours) to 1.5% after 36 weeks. Lindane penetrated the seed coat and internal (methanol-extractable) residues accounted for 38% of the applied activity, after 4 weeks. Bound pesticide residues reached a maximum of 23.4% after the second week and declined very slowly to 10.7% after 36 weeks. A total concentration of lindane residues in the grain (methanol-extractable and bound) was calculated to be 7.6 mg/kg at the end of the storage period. (author)

  4. The effect of a high selection intensity on the change of maize yield components' additive variance

    OpenAIRE

    Deleti? Nebojša; Stojkovi? Slaviša; ?uri? Vladan; Gudži? Slaviša; Biberdži? Milan

    2005-01-01

    A set of 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 Co and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize population was studied in this paper. After line selection and seed multiplication in 2000, the trials were carried out in 2001-2002. at Krusevac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design. After three cycles of recurrent selection we observed a significant decrease of homozygous progenies' means of root and stalk lodged plants percent, plant and ear height, but also of row number per ear. The means of grain number per ear ...

  5. Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

  6. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    OpenAIRE

    Borghese, A.; P. Manzi; M. Mattera; M. Maschio; S. Allegrini; G. Palocci; C. Pacelli; L. Pizzoferrato; C. Tripaldi; V.L. Barile

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group) and sorghum silage (S group), had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein). Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea), somatic cell count, coagulation...

  7. Relationships between Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat under Different Water Availability (Dryland and Supplemental Irrigation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Path and correlation analysis were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes during two years (2009-2011 under supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions. Field experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield showed positive correlation with plant height and test weight under supplemental irrigation condition. The similar results were also revealed between grain yield and plant height, spike length, days to maturity, agronomic score and test weight in dryland environment. The grain yield of bread wheat in dryland condition depended on the effect of plant height, days to maturity, agronomic score and 1000 kernel weight, whereas in supplemental irrigation was mainly related to plant height, spike length, 1000 kernel weight and test weight. The influence of 1000 kernel weight on grain yield in both environments seems to cause from the fact that grain yield in wheat is frequently the sink limited, and for this reason, the 1000 kernel weight has been reported as a promising trait for increasing grain yield in wheat under different conditions. The nearly equal value of correlation and path coefficients of plant height and grain yield showed plant height had positive and direct effect on grain yield, in both conditions and suggesting a criteria trait for improving of grain yield. The results showed that genotype 12 (CS/TH.SC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/MILAN/5/ TILHI is a high yielding potential genotype in moisture limited conditions.

  8. Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

  9. Rendimiento de las generaciones F1 y F2 de híbridos trilineales de maíz en los valles altos de México / Grain yield of the F1 and F2 generations of three-way maize hybrids in the high valleys of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Espinosa-Calderón; M, Tadeo-Robledo; I, Arteaga-Escamilla; A, Turrent-Fernández; M, Sierra-Macías; N, Gómez-Montiel; A, Palafox-Caballero; R, Valdivia-Bernal; V, Trejo-Pastor; E, Canales-Islas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En México se usa 25% de semilla mejorada de maíz y 75% de semillas criollas ó variedades mejoradas acriolladas (generaciones avanzadas de híbridos). El precio de la semilla híbrida F1, es el más alto del mundo, esto limita un mayor uso, por lo que se emplea semilla obtenida de la propia parcela de h [...] íbridos, dado que en los Valles Altos los híbridos que se siembran en mayor superficie son H-50 y H-48, en este trabajo se estableció como objetivo definir la productividad de las generaciones F1 y F2 de los híbridos H-48, H-50, H-153, H-50 AE y H-47 AE, los cuales se evaluaron en el ciclo primavera-verano 2007 en dos experimentos; en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) de la UNAM y en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del INIFAP. El análisis estadístico combinado detectó para rendimiento diferencias altamente significativas para localidades, genotipos, generaciones F1 F2, así como para la interacción genotipos x generaciones F1 F2. La media de rendimiento fue 8 560 kg ha-¹ y el coeficiente de variación fue 18.8%. En CEVAMEX la media de rendimiento fue 10 053 kg ha-¹ diferente estadísticamente a la FESC donde la media fue 7 069 kg ha ¹. La generación F1 en promedio rindió 9 985 kg ha-¹ que representó 139.9% con respecto a la generación F2 que produjo 7 137 kg ha-¹. Los resultados obtenidos ratifican que no es conveniente el uso de semilla de la generación F2, por el decremento en productividad ya que la diferencia en rendimiento justifica la adquisición de semilla nueva cada ciclo. Abstract in english In Mexico, 25% of improved maize seed and 75% of native seed or improved native varieties (advanced generations of hybrids) are used. The price of the F1 hybrid seed is the highest in the world, limiting its greater use, for which reason farmers use seeds from their own plots of hybrid seeds. In the [...] high valleys of Mexico, the maize hybrids most planted are the H-50 and H-48. The purpose of this study was to determine the productivity of the F1 and F2 generations of the hybrids H-48, H-50, H-153 H-50 AE and H-47 AE. They were evaluated during the 2007 Spring-Summer season in two experiments carried out at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) of the UNAM and the experimental station Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) of the INIFAP. With respect to yield, the combined statistical analysis detected highly significant differences for localities, genotypes and F1 F2 generations, as well as for the interaction genotypes x F1 F2 generations. Mean yield was 8 560 kg ha-¹ and the coefficient of variation was 18.8%. The mean yield obtained at the CEVAMEX was 10 053 kg ha¹. This was statistically different from that recorded in the FESC where a mean of 7 069 kg ha-¹ was logged. The F1 generation yielded 9 985 kg ha-¹ on average, which represented 139.9% with respect to the F2 generation that produced 7 137 kg ha¹. The results indicate that the use of F2 generation seeds is not convenient due to a decrease in productivity, and that the difference in yield justifies acquiring new seeds every season.

  10. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  11. Physical-chemical characterization and wet milling yield of four maize hybrids / Caracterização físico-química e rendimento da moagem úmida de quatro híbridos de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata C., Mussolini; José F., Lopes Filho; Aildson P., Duarte.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a influência da aparência e as características físico-químicas do grão de milho e da concentração de ácido lático durante a maceração nos rendimentos de subprodutos da moagem úmida convencional, quatro híbridos de milho foram caracterizados e macerados em duas concentrações de ácido l [...] ático (0,55% e 1,00%). Para a caracterização físico-química dos grãos, foram determinadas suas dimensões (comprimento, espessura e largura), massa de cem grãos, porcentagem de grãos boiantes, massa volumétrica e análise da composição centesimal. Diferenciaram-se estatisticamente entre os grãos a porcentagem de grãos boiantes (2,33% a 24,67%), massa volumétrica (0,810 kg L-1 a 0,850 kg L-1), massa de cem grãos (0,033 kg a 0,037 kg), teor de água (11,86% a 12,20%), proteínas (8,21% a 9,06%), lipídeos (3,00% a 4,77%) e cinzas (1,07% a 1,26%). Verificou-se que não há relação entre a aparência ou a composição química dos grãos com seus rendimentos de subprodutos na moagem úmida. A adição de 1,00% de ácido lático não proporcionou, estatisticamente, melhores rendimentos de subprodutos, entretanto facilitou a separação dos componentes do grão. Abstract in english The influence of physical-chemical characteristics of maize grains and lactic acid concentrations on byproduct yields, generated by conventional wet milling, was studied during steeping, for four maize hybrids and two lactic acid concentrations (0.55 and 1.00%). For physical-chemical characterizatio [...] n, grain dimensions (length, thickness, and width) were determined, as well as mass of 100 grains, percentage of floating grains, volumetric mass, and centesimal composition. Statistical differences were found for percentage of floating grains (2.33 to 24.67%), volumetric mass (0.814 to 0.850 kg.L-1), mass of 100 grains (0.033 to 0.037 kg), water content (11.86 to 12.20%), proteins (8.21 to 9.06%), lipids (3.00 to 4.77%), and ashes (1.07 to 1.26%). There were no relationships of wet milling yields with maize appearance and physical-chemical characteristics. The addition of 1.00% lactic acid did not statistically improve byproduct yields; however, it favored separation of the grain components.

  12. Influence of Precursor Crops on Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers Response of Maize at Bako, Western Oromiya, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tolera Abera; Daba Feyissa; Hasan Yusuf; Tesfaye G. Georgis

    2005-01-01

    The present research was conducted with the objective to determine the right precursor crop with integrated nutrient management is an approach to soil fertility management and play a significant influence on sustainable production of maize (Zea mays). Precursor crops showed significant effect on yield and yield components of maize. Higher grain yield of maize was observed from Niger seed precursor crop. All inorganic and organic nutrients gave better yield of maize on Niger seed precursor cro...

  13. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Kamaluddin; Rishi M., Singh; Lal C., Prasad; Malik Z., Abdin; Arun K., Joshi.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) parents (n = 11) and their F1 (n = 55) and F2 (n = 55) offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD), GFD for growing degree days (GDD), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of varianc [...] e for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low). The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  14. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  15. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Phosphorus Fertilizer Use Efficiency, Mycorrhizal Dependence and Maize Yield under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorchiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency, mycorrhizal dependence and grain yield and dry matter yield of maize under water deficit conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments in this experiment were included as follows: irrigation (normal irrigation and water deficit stress based on evaporation from class A pan evaporation; combined different seed inoculations with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment of chemical phosphate fertilizer (non- consumption of phosphate fertilizer, consumption of 50 percent of triple superphosphate fertilizer needed, and consumption of rock phosphate, based on the quantity of consumed phosphorus of triple superphosphate source. The results showed that effects of irrigation, seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens biological phosphate fertilizer and chemical phosphate fertilizer were significant on yield and yield components, dry matter yield, relative agronomic efficiency and root colonization. Mild stress significantly reduced grain yield, relative agronomic efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency compared to optimum irrigation. Results showed that grain and dry matter yield are highly correlated with root colonization under mild stress condition. Maximum mycorrhizal dependence was obtained in mild stress condition. Maximum relative agronomic efficiency, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, yield and yield components was related to seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of triple superphosphate fertilizer were increased grain yield in comparison with rock phosphate along with inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. However, maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal dependence was achieved in non- consumption treatment of phosphate fertilizer.

  16. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  17. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain yield.

  18. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure irrespective of topsoil removal, compared to NPK + urea which was only effective without topsoil removal. Therefore, poultry manure was a better soil ameliorant than NPK + urea after topsoil removal. (author)

  19. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  20. Relationships between Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat under Different Water Availability (Dryland and Supplemental Irrigation Conditions)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kazem SHEFAZADEH; KARIMIZADEH2, Rahmatollah; Peyman SHARIFI; Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2012-01-01

    Path and correlation analysis were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during two years (2009-2011) under supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions. Field experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield showed positive correlation with plant height and test weight under supplemental irrigation condition. The similar results we...

  1. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumi Abe, Camila Agnes; Bertechini Faria, Carla; Fernandes de Castro, Fausto; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; Novais da Silva, Cleiltan; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases. PMID:26198227

  2. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Agnes Lumi Abe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  3. Genetic variability for carotenoid content of grains in a composite maize population

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Volmir, Kist; Vanessa Stainbach, Albino; Marcelo, Maraschin; Juliana Bernardi, Ogliari.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local maize (Zea mays L.) varieties are cultivated by small-scale farmers in western Santa Catarina (SC) State, in southern Brazil. These small areas frequently present many problems related to biotic and non-biotic stresses, which have limited the economic output and income of the farmers. Producti [...] on from local varieties for human consumption would be an alternative way of improving income and stimulating on farm conservation. The genetic variability of the total carotenoid content (TCC) of kernels in a local maize population was evaluated for their economic exploitation potential as biofortified food. Two independent samples of 96 half-sib families (HSF) plus four checks were evaluated in two groups of experiments in western SC and each one was carried out in two environments. They were set out in a 10 × 10 partially balanced lattice with three replications per location; plots consisted of one row, 5.0 m long with 1.0 m between rows. TCC ranged from 11 to 23 µg g-1, averaging ?16 µg g-1 in the pooled analysis over the two sets. The local composite population exhibited genetic variability in order to increase the TCC of grains in the second cycle of selection by the convergent-divergent scheme.

  4. Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

  5. Factor Analysis for Quantitative Traits and Path Analysis for Grain Yield in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Saeidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available   In this study, factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors which contributed to the variation of quantitative traits and path analysis was performed to find the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in bread wheat. A doubled haploid population of 157 lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was evaluated for agronomic and morphological traits, using a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2003 and 2004. The results of factor analysis based on maximum likelihood indicated five factors explaining 80.4% and 73.9% of total variation in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The first factor in 2003 had 30.5% contribution to the total variation, strongly influenced by the traits of pollination date, heading date, flag leaf length and days to maturity. This factor also indicated the negative relationship among the yield components and the importance of relationship between grain yield and some morphological traits. The first factor in 2004 was more affected by grain weight/spike, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, thus it was named as grain yield factor. The second and third factors in 2003 were considered as plant height and grain yield and in 2004 as maturity and plant height, respectively. The results of path analysis showed that grains/spike had the most direct and positive effects on grain yield in 2003 (1.33 and 2004 (0.87. Because of the negative and high indirect effects of grains/spike via fertile spikes/m2 and 1000-grains weight on grain yield, the correlation coefficient between grain yield and grains/spike was very low. There was not much difference between the phenotypic and genetic direct effects of spike/m2 on grain yield, indicating that their relationship was less affected by environmental conditions. In general, the results showed that grains/spike and spikes/m2 can be more efficient compared to 1000- grains weight for increasing grain yield and can be used as selection indices in breeding programs. Also, according to the results of factor analysis, selection based on the fourth factor including biological yield, spike/m2 and grain yield as selection index can be effective to improve grain yield in breeding programs.

  6. Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Nematode Densities and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a yard waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and forage yield of maize (Zea mays) were determined over three seasons in two sites in north Florida. In each test, the experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replications and three treatments: 269 mt/ha of a yard waste compost C:N ratio = 35:1 to 46:1) applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Of the nematodes found in ...

  7. Effects of autoclaving and pullulanase debranching on the resistant starch yield of normal maize starch

    OpenAIRE

    MARIJA S. MILAŠINOVI?; MILICA M. RADOSAVLJEVI?; LJUBICA P. DOKI?

    2010-01-01

    In this study, resistant starch (RS), type 3, was prepared by the autoclaving and debranching of normal maize starch isolated from a selected ZP genotype. The objectives of this study were to optimize both starch autoclaving and debranching with pullulanase (PromozymeBrewQ) for the production of RS. Autoclaving at 120 °C (30 min) increased the RS content of all samples, whereas freezing at –20 °C did not have an obvious effect on the RS contents. The highest RS yield in the autoclaved starch ...

  8. Effects of different organic materials on forage yield and quality of silage maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NAZLI, Recep ?rfan; KU?VURAN, Alpaslan; ?NAL, ?lker; DEM?RBA?, Ahmet; TANSI, Veyis

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at the experimental area of the Field Crops Department of Çukurova University (37°01'N, 35°18'E) in the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons to determine the effects of sole or combined applications of 3 organic materials (poultry litter, cattle manure, and leonardite) with supplemental inorganic fertilizer on the forage yield and quality of silage maize. The field trial was arranged in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications. Poultry litter (PL) and...

  9. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F1 and F2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F1 and segregation in F2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F1, suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F1 was observed. In the F2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F2, a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  10. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  11. Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye, MT.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage period, all granaries were artificially infested with 7 pairs Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais. No damage, losses or live insects were observed during 7 months of storage when maize cobs were placed between layers of H. spicigera. Compared with the control, incorporation of insecticidal plants within the granary bottom had no significant effect on the damage and loss level irrespective of the storage mode. Non-winnowed maize always suffered less damage and losses than the winnowed variant. In all granaries depredation, insect abundance and moisture content were highest toward the end of storage period between June and July.

  12. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo De, Carli; Bruna, Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata, Noreña; Irineu, Lorini; Adriano, Brandelli.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dia [...] s a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2. Abstract in english The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concen [...] trations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.

  13. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

  14. Compositional equivalence of grain from multi-trait drought-tolerant maize hybrids to a conventional comparator: univariate and multivariate assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Goodacre, Royston; Harrigan, George G

    2014-10-01

    MON 87460 (D1) maize contains a gene that expresses the cold shock protein B (CSPB) from Bacillus subtilis to confer a yield advantage when yield is limited by water availability. This study evaluated the composition of grain from the D1-containing combined-trait maize hybrids D1 × NK603, D1 × MON 89034 × NK603, and D1 × MON 89034 × MON 88017. These stacks offer a combination of insect protection and herbicide tolerance traits. These hybrids were grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions at three replicated field sites across Chile during the 2006-2007 growing season. Compositional analyses included measurement of proximates, fibers, total amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, raffinose, phytic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The statistical analyses included an evaluation of the applicability of multiblock principal component analysis (MB-PCA) and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) to studies when more than one experimental factor will contribute to compositional variability. Results from these multivariate procedures highlighted that water treatment was the greatest contributor to compositional variability and, as expected, confirmed that the grain of combined-trait drought-tolerant hybrids was compositionally equivalent to that of conventional comparators as established by traditional statistical significance testing. PMID:25175069

  15. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  16. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  17. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudari?

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wiand S2GxY indicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  18. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  19. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize. Contrary to our hypothesis, total growing-season root CO2 flux was not proportional to end-of-season root biomass of cropping systems; unfertilized prairie contained nearly twice the root biomass of N-fertilized prairie, but the two systems' total root CO2 fluxes were not significantly different in either year. We found that the total growing-season flux of both root- and organic matter-derived CO 2 was higher in the prairie systems compared to the maize system. However, on a percentage basis, the prairies' soil-surface CO2 flux from May-September averaged 29% root-derived while from mid-June through September the maize averaged 22% root-derived. The percentage of the total CO2 flux that was root-derived in a given system varied from year to year, indicating there is no set relationship for a given cropping system.

  20. How model and input uncertainty impact maize yield simulations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter; Wang, Enli

    2015-02-01

    Crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in studies on food security and global change. Various uncertainties however exist, not only in the model design and model parameters, but also and maybe even more important in soil, climate and management input data. We analyze the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM and the global scale crop model LPJmL with different climate and soil conditions under different agricultural management in the low-input maize-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. We test the models’ response to different levels of input information from little to detailed information on soil, climate (1961-2000) and agricultural management and compare the models’ ability to represent the observed spatial (between locations) and temporal variability (between years) in crop yields. We found that the resolution of different soil, climate and management information influences the simulated crop yields in both models. However, the difference between models is larger than between input data and larger between simulations with different climate and management information than between simulations with different soil information. The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models even with little information on soils and management but APSIM simulates a higher variation between single locations than LPJmL. The agreement of simulated and observed temporal variability is lower due to non-climatic factors e.g. investment in agricultural research and development between 1987 and 1991 in Burkina Faso which resulted in a doubling of maize yields. The findings of our study highlight the importance of scale and model choice and show that the most detailed input data does not necessarily improve model performance.

  1. Potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole grain sorghum and maize lager brewing and bioethanol production through grain genetic modification and phytase treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Johanita; Oelofse, Andre; Janet TAYLOR; Taylor, J.R.N. (John Reginald Nuttall)

    2012-01-01

    Brewing and bioethanol production with raw grain and exogenous enzymes produces wort with satisfactory hot water extract (HWE). However, the free amino nitrogen (FAN) and mineral content can be too low, owing to low protein digestibility (PD) and phytate–mineral chelation, respectively. This study evaluated the potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole sorghum and maize brewing and bioethanol production by genetic modification (GM) of sorghum to improve PD and reduce phytate c...

  2. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  3. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological ......A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro...

  4. Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo R., Matiello; Maria Teresa G., Lopes; Kátia R., Brunelli; Luis Eduardo A., Camargo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatmen [...] ts arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf and tasseling stage). Internal lesion length, adjusted yield, and yield components (length, diameter and ear weight) were evaluated 120 days after emergence. Significant differences in yield and ear weight were detected in the susceptible hybrid inoculated at the earliest stage: yield was reduced by 16.1 and 20.2% in the first and second experiment, respectively. Although lesion length in the susceptible hybrid was approximately three times greater than in the resistant, there were no significant differences in lesion length among treatments for each hybrid. However, there were differences in the number of dead plants and ear weight. It is suggested that damage caused by early infection with C. graminicola results mainly from plant death and reduction in ear weigh rather than from the extent of colonization of the stalk.

  5. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  6. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling. Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuva de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos.

  7. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil / Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Homero, Bergamaschi; Timothy Robert, Wheeler; Andrew Juan, Challinor; Flávia, Comiran; Bruna Maria Machado, Heckler.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuv [...] a de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State [...] was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling). Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.

  8. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  9. Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

  10. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ? Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ? More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ? Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ? New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

  11. Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

  12. Consorciação milho e feijão caupí para produção de espigas verdes e grãos verdes Intercropping maize with cowpea for green ears and green grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio L. Silva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de espigas verdes de cultivares de milho (Centralmex, AG-401 e C-701 e o rendimento de feijão verde de cultivares de caupí (Pitiúba, Caicó e CNCx 658-15E em monocultivos e em consorciação. O rendimento de espigas verdes (grãos com 70% a 80% de umidade foi avaliado pelo peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas (EE ou despalhadas (ED. O rendimento de feijão (grãos com 60 a 80% de umidade foi avaliado pelos rendimentos de vagens (RV e de grãos verdes (RG. O estudo foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, entre abril e julho/1990. Três monocultivos de milho, três monocultivos de caupí e 3 x 3 consórcios foram avaliados no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. As populações de plantas de milho e caupí, por hectare, foram 50.000 e 40.000 nos monocultivos, e 25.000 e 20.000 nos consórcios, respectivamente. Não existiu interação cultivares de milho x cultivares de caupí para as características avaliadas. A consorciação reduziu em 50% EE e ED. A redução em RV e RG com a consorciação foi de 55%. O índice Uso Eficiente da Terra (UET, calculado com EE e RV, foi maior com a cultivar Pitiúba do que com as outras cultivares de caupí. Não existiram diferenças entre cultivares de caupí quando UET foi calculado com ED e RG. Não existiram diferenças entre cultivares de milho quando o UET foi calculado com EE e RV ou ED e RG.The objective was to evaluate the green ears yield of maize cultivars (Centralmex, AG-401 and C-701 and the green bean yield, of cowpea cultivars (Pitiúba, Caicó and CNCx 658-15E, using monocropping and intercropping systems. The green ears yield (grains with 70% - 80% humidity was evaluated by weight of marketable green ears, both with husk (EH and without husk (EW. The green bean yield (grains with 60% - 80% humidity was evaluated by green pods yield (PY and green grains yield (GY. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Brazil, between April and July, 1990. Three maize monocroppings, three cowpea monocroppings and 3 x 3 intercroppings were arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The maize and cowpea plant populations, per hectare, were 50,000 and 40,000 with monocropping, and 25,000 and 20,000, with alternate-row intercropping, respectively. The maize cultivars x cowpea cultivars interaction was not significant for the traits evaluated. The intercropping systems reduced 50% EH and EW. The reduction of PY and GY by intercropping was 55%. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER calculated from EH and PY was greater when intercropping was made with Pitiúba cultivar than with other cowpea cultivars. There were no differences among cowpea cultivars when LER was obtained from EW and GY. Maize cultivars did not differ as LER calculated from EH and PY or EW and GY.

  13. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-06-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961-2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains.

  14. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  15. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  16. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  17. Variability parameters for yield components of different progeny types in an F3 maize population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkovi? Slaviša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of F3 population 2002-30, created in the Department of Maize, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. At first, about 150 plants of the studied population were selfed and simultaneously crossed with the tester 1491x1496, in order to get complementary S1 and HS progenies. After the harvest, 41 progenies of each type were selected by the random sample method for the trials carried out in Aleksinac, Leskovac, and Kruševac, as three studied environments, in RCB design. Genetic variances were significantly higher in S1 progenies, with the exception of root and stalk lodged plants percent and grain number per row, where these differences were not significant. Phenotypic variances followed the same tendency. The obtained values of broad-sense heritability were significantly higher in S1 than in HS progenies. Low heritability values were calculated only for root and stalk lodged plants percent. Cluster analysis did not show any greater difference between S1 and HS progenies, neither in distances nor in group definition, although there were significant differences between them in genetic variances. However, one can see a lower degree of distances between HS progenies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31054: The development of new technologies of small grains cultivation on acid soils using contemporary biotechnology

  18. PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, M.K.; Banerjee, M; Banerjee, H.; A ALIPATRA; G C MALIK

    2014-01-01

    A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2) INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUN...

  19. The genetic architecture of zinc and iron content in maize grains as revealed by QTL mapping and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Tiantian; Zhou, Jinfeng; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, LiYing; Zhao, Yongfeng; Huang, Yaqun

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in diets, has aroused worldwide attention. Biofortification of food crops has been considered as a promising approach for alleviating this deficiency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to dissect the genetic mechanism of Zn and Fe content in maize grains using a total of 218 F2:3 families derived from a cross between inbred lines 178 and P53. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detec...

  20. Effect of solar radiation and temperature on grain number definition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of solar radiation and temperature regime between emergence and silking on the crop development rate and the number of grain per growing rate unit of the crop, and the relationships of such parameters with the grain yield of corn hybrids. The experiments were carried out in the years 1994/95 to 1996/97, using the commercial hybrids C-901, XL-560, and XL-678 in 1994/95 and the hybrids C-901, XL-212, and XL-370 in the remaining years. The treatments consisted of sowing dates from September to December, in 1994/95, and from August to December, in 1995/96 and 1996/97. High dry matter accumulation was observed when there was high incidence of solar radiation during the period between emergence and flowering. However, as the mean air temperature exerts effect on the duration of that period, the growth rate during such period was more associated to temperature than to solar radiation. The effect of the temperature was inversely proportional to the number of grains per unit of growing rate in this period, possibly due to the longer time for solar radiation interception. As a result of the association between temperature and radiation, the photothermal coefficient was positively associated with the grain yield. (author)

  1. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd; Dai, T; Jing, Q; Cao, W

    2010-01-01

    Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate the...... impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22...

  2. Effect of pre-sowing gamma irradiation and microelement seed treatment on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to study the joint application of gamma irradiation and microelement treatment. The microelement treatment consisted in soaking the seeds for 24 hours in combined solution of H3BO3, CuSO4, ZnSO4, MnSO4 (0.01% each). The yield and growth of plants have not been affected considerably by the sequence of irradiation and microelement treatment. From the experimental data it can be concluded that under the testing conditions, in the majority of the cases, the fresh weight and growth of the young plants of the MvSC 530 maize hybrid, changed positively on the influence of treatment with gamma irradiation prior to sowing (1000 rad) and microelement solution. However, an enhanced depression in weight and length was caused by the treatment with 7000 rad. (author)

  3. Global and grain-specific accumulation of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases in transgenic maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin N; Bougri, Oleg; Carlson, Alvar R; Meissner, Judy; Pan, Shihao; Parker, Matthew H; Zhang, Dongcheng; Samoylov, Vladimir; Ekborg, Nathan A; Michael Raab, R

    2011-12-01

    In planta expression of cell wall degrading enzymes is a promising approach for developing optimized biomass feedstocks that enable low-cost cellulosic biofuels production. Transgenic plants could serve as either an enzyme source for the hydrolysis of pretreated biomass or as the primary biomass feedstock in an autohydrolysis process. In this study, two xylanase genes, Bacillus sp. NG-27 bsx and Clostridium stercorarium xynB, were expressed in maize (Zea mays) under the control of two different promoters. Severe phenotypic effects were associated with xylanase accumulation in maize, including stunted plants and sterile grains. Global expression of these xylanases from the rice ubiquitin 3 promoter (rubi3) resulted in enzyme accumulation of approximately 0.01 mg enzyme per gram dry weight, or approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein (TSP). Grain-specific expression of these enzymes from the rice glutelin 4 promoter (GluB-4) resulted in higher-level accumulation of active enzyme, with BSX and XynB accumulating up to 4.0% TSP and 16.4% TSP, respectively, in shriveled grains from selected T0 plants. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the GluB-4 promoter for biotechnological applications. The phenotypic effects of xylanase expression in maize presented here demonstrate the difficulties of hemicellulase expression in an important crop for cellulosic biofuels production. Potential alternate approaches to achieve xylanase accumulation in planta without the accompanying negative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:21689368

  4. Distribuição hídrica no período crítico do milho e produção de grãos Water supply in the critical period of maize and the grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho pode sofrer reduções na produção de grãos quando há déficit hídrico no período crítico do ciclo da cultura, que ocorre desde o pendoamento até o início de enchimento de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer relações entre o suprimento de água durante o período crítico do milho e a produção de grãos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em Eldorado do Sul, RS (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, nas safras 1998/1999 e 2002/2003, anos em que ocorreram os fenômenos La Niña e El Niño, respectivamente. Os dados de rendimento de grãos e seus componentes foram obtidos em experimentos de campo, sob diferentes volumes de aplicação de água via irrigação. A produtividade de grãos foi inversa à média geral do Estado, nos dois anos analisados. Em 1998/1999, durante uma estiagem longa, 46,8 mm de chuva no período crítico garantiram rendimento próximo de 8.000 kg ha-1 sem irrigação. Em 2002/2003 uma curta estiagem no período crítico reduziu a produtividade para menos de 2.000 kg ha-1 no mesmo tratamento, afetando o número de espigas por planta e o número de grãos por espiga. Portanto, em anos de El Niño, mesmo que as previsões climáticas apontem para uma distribuição favorável de chuvas, há risco na produção esperada de milho, se o suprimento de água no período crítico da cultura não for adequado.Maize crops may experience reductions of grain yields when submitted to water deficit during the critical period of crop cycle, from tasseling stage to beginning of grain filling. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the importance of the water supply during the critical period on the grain production of maize. Experiments were conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, during the crop seasons of 1998/1999 and 2002/2003, characterized by La Niña and El Niño phenomenon, respectively. Data of grain yield and its components were obtained in field experiments, using different volumes of water applied through irrigation. The grain yields showed an opposite tendency when compared to the regional estimated average. In 1998/1999, during a long drought period, 46.8 mm of rain on the critical period allowed a grain yield of about 8 t ha-1 without irrigation. In contrast, in 2002/2003 a short drought during the critical period reduced the grain yield to less than 2 t ha-1, affecting the number of ear per plant and the number of kernel per ear. Therefore, risks in the expected maize production are probable, although having climatic forecasting of favorable rain distribution in the region, such as by El Niño phenomenon.

  5. QTL identification of grain protein concentration and its genetic correlation with starch concentration and grain weight using two populations in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuling Li; Yanzhao Wang; Mengguan Wei; Xuehui Li; Jiafeng Fu

    2009-04-01

    Protein is one of the three main storage chemical components in maize grains, and is negatively correlated with starch concentration (SC). Our objective was to analyse the influence of genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for protein concentration (PC) and to reveal the molecular genetic associations between PC and both SC and grain weight (GWP). Two hundred and eighty-four (Pop1) and 265 (Pop2) F2:3 families were developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred GY220 and two normal maize inbreds 8984 and 8622 respectively, and were genotyped with 185 and 173 pairs of SSR markers. PC, SC and GWP were evaluated under two environments. Composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiple interval mapping (MIM) methods were used to detect single-trait QTL for PC, and multiple-trait QTL for PC with both SC and GWP. No common QTL were shared between the two populations for their four and one PC QTL. Common QTL with opposite signs of effects for PC and SC/GWP were detected on three marker intervals at bins 6.07–6.08, 8.03 and 8.03–8.04. Multiple-traits QTL mapping showed that tightly-linked QTL, pleiotropic QTL and QTL having effects with opposite directions for PC and SC/GWP were all observed in Pop1, while all QTL reflected opposite effects in Pop2.

  6. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd; Dai, T; Jing, Q; Cao, W

    2010-01-01

    Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both...

  7. Foliage applied boron improves the panicle fertility, yield and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Rehman; M, Farooq; Z, Ata Cheema; A, Nawaz; A, Wahid.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B) deficiency in rice field is becoming a common problem in South Asia. Correcting B deficiency in rice has potential to improve the rice productivity. Foliage application of B is an easy and effective way to resolve this problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of foliage [...] applied (0.16, 0.24, 0.32, 0.40 and 0.48 M) B on leaf elongation, tillering, water relations, yield and B grain enrichment of rice cultivars Super Basmati and Shaheen Basmati. Foliage applied B improved leaf elongation, tillering, leaf chlorophyll contents, water relations, grain yield, yield-related traits and B grain contents with simultaneous decrease in panicle sterility. However, foliage application of 0.32 M B was the most effective in this regard. An increase in leaf and grain B contents was observed with increase in B concentration in the foliar spray. There was no difference between the cultivars for grain yield; however, Shaheen Basmati had more grain weight, and grain and leaf B contents than Super Basmati. Boron foliage application (0.32 M B) proved an effective way to correct B deficiency in rice. Improvement in grain yield by B application was attributed to increase in grain size and decrease in panicle sterility.

  8. Genotypic Variation in Dry Weight and Nitrogen Concentration of Wheat Plant Parts; Relations to Grain Yield and Grain Protein Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafeez Malik; Allan Andersson; Ramune Kuktaite; Muhammad Yaqub Mujahid; Bismillah Khan; Eva Johansson

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating genotypic variability in nitrogen (N) concentration and dry weight of wheat plant parts and their relation with grain yield and protein concentration. Sixteen Nordic and three Pakistani wheat genotypes were grown in controlled climate chambers. Plant parts such as shoot, roots and grains were collected after harvesting, weighed and N concentration was determined. The results showed a large genetic variation for dry weight and N concentration in the various p...

  9. Growth, Grain Yield and Components of Three Durum Wheat Genotypes with Different Plant Densities in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ehsanzadeh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, not much information exists on growth and productivity of durum wheat in Iran and Isfahan. In order to evaluate growth, grain yield, and attributes in three durum wheat genotypes, Osta/Gata, Dipper-6, and PI40100, with five planting densities of 200, 275, 350, 425 and 500 seeds/m2, a four-replicate RCBD field study with a spilt-plot layout was carried out in winter 2000 to spring 2001 at Lavark Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Genotypes were the main-plots and planting densities, the sub-plots. Each plot contained six rows, spaced 25cm apart, each 6m in length. While Osta/Gata produced a greater spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight and grain yield, PI40100 indicated a greater height, leaf area index (LAI and biological yield, and Dipper-6 produced a larger number of grains per spike and harvest index, compared to the other two genotypes. Increasing plant density led to an increase in LAI, spikes/m2, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index but a decrease in grains/spike and 1000-grain weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with spikes/m2, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, despite negative correlations with LAI and plant height. It may be concluded that with environmental conditions such as those encountered in Isfahan in 2000-2001, Osta/Gata can be planted at approximately 425 seeds/m2, if an acceptable grain yield is to be achieved.

  10. Rice grain resistance to brown spot and yield are increased by silicon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro J., Dallagnol; Fabricio A., Rodrigues; Mateus V. B., Mielli; Jian F., Ma.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases of rice and can cause a reduction in yield and grain quality. The effect of silicon (Si) on the resistance of rice grains to brown spot was investigated. Plants from cv. Oochikara and its mutant, defective in the Lsi1 tran [...] sporter (lsi1 mutant), were grown in hydroponic culture either with Si (+Si; 2 mM) or without Si (-Si). Panicle inoculation with B. oryzae was carried out at the beginning of the milk-grain stage. Panicles were harvested at physiological grain maturity. The supply of Si significantly increased Si concentration in husks compared to -Si plants. Si concentration in husks from cv. Oochikara was up to three times greater than the lsi1 mutant. In the presence of Si, brown spot severity was reduced by 88% in grains from cv. Oochikara and by 53% in grains from lsi1 mutant. Brown spot severity was 77% lower for grains of cv. Oochikara than for the lsi1 mutant, both plant types were grown in the presence of Si. Panicle inoculation reduced significantly the following yield components: number of grains per panicle, the weight of 1000 grains and the percentage of filled grains. Si significantly increased these yield components, especially for inoculated panicles. Considering kernel quality, the panicle inoculation with B. oryzae significantly reduced the yield of husked kernel, yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, especially for grains from -Si plants. For panicles from +Si plants, the kernel quality was improved under inoculation, compared to -Si plants. Results from this study show that Si improved rice yield and kernel quality in panicles inoculated with B. oryzae. Furthermore the functional Lsi1 gene contributed significantly for increasing the yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, possibly due to the increasing Si concentration in husks.

  11. Yields of Maize (Zea mays L.) As Affected by Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    P.G. Eruotor; S.O. Akparobi; Agbogidi, O. M.

    2006-01-01

    A study was carried out during the 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons to investigate the effects of crude oil contaminated soil on the yield of seven maize varieties (Composite suwan 1, Hybrid 3x-yx, AMATZBR w, TZBRSYN w, AMATZBR y, TZBRSYN y and Ozoro local) in two locations (Asaba and Ozoro) in Delta State, Nigeria. Five crude oil concentrations (0.0, 5.2, 10.4, 20.8, and 41.6 mL per maize stand) applied to soil at seven weeks after planting (7 WAP) constituted treatments. The experiment was la...

  12. Crop yield and quality parameters of 4 annual fibre crops (Hemp, Kenaf, Maize and Sorghum) in the North of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amaducci, S.; Amaducci, M.T.; Benati, R.; Venturi, G.

    2000-01-01

    Four fibre crops (hemp, kenaf, maize and sorghum) considered amongst the most suitable for the conditions of Northern Italy were compared in 1995 and 1997, over two irrigation regimes (rainfed conditions and restoration of 100?Tp) and in two locations (Bologna and Milano). Three harvests were carried out on each crop at different development stages. At each harvest time data on yield and yield components were collected. Sub-samples of stems of each crop and at each harvest time were analysed ...

  13. Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Water Deficit Stress

    OpenAIRE

    S.M.R. Ehteshami; M. Aghaalikhani; K. Khavazi; M.R. Chaichi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of seed inoculation by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L. SC. 704) was studied in a field experiment. Positive effect on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculum of Glomus intraradices (AM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf). Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and...

  14. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  15. Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; van Rooijen, C; Kabel, M A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-12-01

    Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and thereby increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n=11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8±0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (approximately 3 percentage units [% units]); P=0.063) and starch (approximately 1% unit; P=0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2% units, P=0.030, for CP and 0.3% units, P<0.01, for starch) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD; 3% units, P<0.01, for CP and 0.2% units, P=0.024, for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets, indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6% units; P=0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6% units; P<0.01), whereas hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for growing pigs. Although acid extrusion seemed to facilitate more rapid degradation of NSP and shifted fermentation to more proximal gastrointestinal segments, total extent of NSP degradation was not affected. More than 35% of the NSP from DDGS remained undegraded, independent of technological processing. Enzyme technologies that specifically target ester-linked acetyl, feroloyl, or coumaroyl groups were identified to be of interest for future research. PMID:25367528

  16. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuero, R.G.; Smith, J.E.; Lacey, J.

    1987-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16/sup 0/C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 25/sup 0/C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 25/sup 0/C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 16/sup 0/C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions.

  17. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 160C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 250C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 250C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 160C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions

  18. Fertilização nitrogenada, densidade de plantas e rendimento de milho cultivado no sistema plantio direto / Nitrogen fertilization, plant density and maize yield cropped under no-tillage system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de Brito, Melo; José Eduardo, Corá; Milton José, Cardoso.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do milho (Zea mays L.), o suprimento inadequado de nitrogênio e a densidade de plantio são considerados fatores limitantes ao rendimento de grãos. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio e diferentes densidades de plantas nos componentes de produção e no [...] rendimento da cultura de milho. O experimento foi instalado na Região de cerrado do sul do Maranhão, MA, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura argilosa, cultivado há seis anos em sistema de plantio direto (SPD). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, e os tratamentos segundo o arranjo em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de cinco doses de nitrogênio, na forma de uréia (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1), e quatro densidades de plantas (25.000; 50.000; 75.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1).O número e massa de grãos por espiga e massa de grãos por planta aumentaram com o acréscimo da dose de N e com o decréscimo da densidade de plantas. Maiores rendimentos de grãos foram obtidos com acréscimos, concomitantemente, nas doses de N e nas densidades de plantas. A máxima produtividade de grãos de milho (11,9 Mg ha-1) foi obtida com 120 kg ha-1 de N e 83.000 plantas ha-1. Abstract in english In maize (Zea mays L.), the inadequate nitrogen supply and planting density are considered limiting factors to the grain yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different nitrogen levels and plant densities to the maize yield components and productivity. The experiment wa [...] s carried out in the Cerrado region, located in the southern of the Maranhão State, Brazil, in a clay Oxisol (Ustox), cropped under the no-tillage system for six years. The randomized completed blocks experimental design with four replications was used, with treatments arrangement in a 5 x 4 factorial. The treatments were a combination of five doses of nitrogen as urea (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and four plant densities (25,000; 50,000; 75,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1). The grain number and mass per spike and grain mass per plant were improved by increased N and decreased plant density. Higher incomes of grains were obtained with adding concomitantly in N doses and in plants density. The maximum grain yield (11,9 Mg ha-1) was obtained with 120 kg ha-1 of N and 83,000 plants ha-1.

  19. Avaliação do método químico de controle de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea) sobre a produtividade do milho / Chemical control evaluation of alexander grass (Brachiaria plantaginea) on maize (Zea mays) yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Galon; Siumar Pedro, Tironi; Evander Alves, Ferreira; Ignácio, Aspiazu; Jesus Juares Oliveira, Pinto.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea, com herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, e a influência destes na produtividade do milho híbrido Pioneer 3063. O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007, no município de Capão do Leão (RS). [...] Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em sistema de cultivo convencional, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo herbicida s-metolachlor (1.620 g ha-1) e pela mistura em tanque de atrazine + nicosulfuron (1.250 + 28 g ha-1), aplicados em pré e pós-emergência da cultura do milho, respectivamente, mais testemunha capinada e infestada. A população B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. As variáveis avaliadas foram o controle de B. plantaginea e os componentes do rendimento, bem como a produtividade de grãos de milho. O tratamento herbicida que proporcionou melhor controle da planta daninha foi a mistura de atrazine + nicosulfuron, aplicada em pós-emergência da cultura, mantendo-se o controle do início ao fim do ciclo da cultura. O herbicida s-metolachlor mostrou eficiência no controle inicial de plantas daninhas, até os 20 dias após a emergência da cultura. O não controle de B. plantaginea causou interferência em todas as variáveis avaliadas, apresentando limitação de produtividade de grãos de até 98%. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the Brachiaria plantaginea control with pre and post-emergence herbicides and their effects on the hybrid Pioneer 3063 maize yield. The trial was conducted from October 2006 to February 2007, in Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by using a co [...] mplete randomized blocks design, with four replications, under the conventional sowing system. The treatments consisted of the herbicide s-metolachlor (1,620 g ha-1) and the mixture in tank of atrazine + nicosulfuron (1,250 + 28 g ha-1), applied in pre and early post-emergence of the culture, respectively, plus one infested and one weed-free control. The plants of B. plantaginea were obtained from the soil seed bank, with average population of 312 plants m-2. The evaluated variables were control of B. plantaginea by the herbicides and maize grain yield components, as well as grain yield. Among the herbicides, the one that provided better control of B. plantaginea was the mixture atrazine plus nicosulfuron, applied in post-emergence of the crop, maintaining the field free of B. plantaginea, from the beginning to the end of the cycle. The herbicide s-metolachlor showed to be an alternative for the initial control of weeds in maize, up to 20 days after emergence. The absence of B. plantaginea control caused interference in all grain yield components of maize, being observed up to 98% of grain yield losses.

  20. Winter Cover Crops Affect Monoculture Maize Yield and Nitrogen Leaching under Irrigated Mediterranean Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Salmerón Cortasa, Montserrat; Cavero Campo, José; Quílez Sáez de Viteri, Dolores; Isla Climente, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Under semiarid Mediterranean conditions irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) has been associated with nitrate pollution of surface water and groundwater. Cover crops grown during the intercrop period of maize could reduce N leaching. A 2-yr experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters with three cover crops: barley (Hordeum vulgare L), winter rape (Brassica rapa L.), or common vetch (Vicia sativa L.). Bare soil was used as control treatment. Maize was fertilized with 300 kg ha?1 N in the control,...

  1. GRAIN AND OIL YIELD OF SINGLE-CROSS AND THREE-WAY CROSS OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Miji?

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower breeding program at the Agricultural Institute Osijek is aimed at creating hybrids with high genetic potential for grain and oil yield and with improved agronomical traits. Achieved grain and oil yields of 30 new (single-cross and three-way cross OS hybrids in comparison with standard hybrids (Apolon and Šokac, during 2006 and 2007 at location Osijek (Croatia are presented in this paper. The experiments were set up in randomized complete block design (RCBD and analyzed traits were grain and oil yield. The highest grain yield (for both years of the research was achieved with hybrids OS-H-271 S and OS-H-35 T (above 5 t ha-1, and oil yield with hybrids OS-H-35 T, OS-H-K3 T and OS-H-271 S (above 2 t ha-1. On the average, three-way cross hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to single-cross hybrids. Experimental hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to registered OS sunflower hybrids, indicating a genetic advance in domestic sunflower hybrids breeding.

  2. PAY1 improves plant architecture and enhances grain yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Xiao, Langtao; Xie, Daoxin; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-08-01

    Plant architecture, a complex of the important agronomic traits that determine grain yield, is a primary target of artificial selection of rice domestication and improvement. Some important genes affecting plant architecture and grain yield have been isolated and characterized in recent decades; however, their underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we report genetic identification and functional analysis of the PLANT ARCHITECTURE AND YIELD 1 (PAY1) gene in rice, which affects plant architecture and grain yield in rice. Transgenic plants over-expressing PAY1 had twice the number of grains per panicle and consequently produced nearly 38% more grain yield per plant than control plants. Mechanistically, PAY1 could improve plant architecture via affecting polar auxin transport activity and altering endogenous indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Furthermore, introgression of PAY1 into elite rice cultivars, using marker-assisted background selection, dramatically increased grain yield compared with the recipient parents. Overall, these results demonstrated that PAY1 could be a new beneficial genetic resource for shaping ideal plant architecture and breeding high-yielding rice varieties. PMID:26095647

  3. Contribution of Cereal-Legume association to the yield and grain quality of cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the mixed cereal-legume cultivation in different planting patterns was undertaken for two consecutive years. The aim was to investigate the contribution of the association of legumes towards yield and grain quality of cereal crops. The data indicated that the association of legumes in different planting pattern with sorghum affected the yield and grain quality of sorghum. During both the years of study, the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern significantly increased the grain yield of sorghum, as compered with single rows (60 cm apart) and triple row strips (30/120 cm). The grain yield of sorghum decreased when sorghum was associated with mungbean or guar, but the additional harvest of intercrops increased the total productivity. The difference in grain yield between the treatment means of interaction was non-significant. Moreover, in the first year of study, protein content of sorghum grain was not significantly affected by the planting pattern, but in the second year of study, double and triple row strips planting pattern significantly increased the grain protein content (respectively, 9.41% and 9.345%) of sorghum, as compared with single row planting pattern (protein content of 9.19%). Sorghum grain protein content of 9.51 and 9.49% produced in association with mungbean was significantly more than the grain protein content of sorghum alone or sorghum grown in the association with guar during 1999 and 2000, respectively. Increase in grain protein content of sorghum, when associated with mungbean, was attributed to the N transfer from companion mungbean to sorghum. It may be concluded from the results obtained that sorghum + mungbean association in the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern can efficiently utilize the available resources to improve the grain quality and overall production of sorghum-based cropping system. (author)

  4. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha?1 reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha?1 and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha?1 (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha?1. With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha?1, Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21. PMID:26565992

  5. Anisotropic yield locus of ultrafine-grained aluminium produced by Equal Channel angular extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    El Houdaigui, Fouad; Duchene, Laurent; Habraken, Anne; Poortmans, Stijn; Verlinden, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Macroscopic tensile, compression and torsion tests have been performed as well as texture measurements. Based on these data a phenomenological yield locus has been defined to describe the behaviour of an ultrafine-grained aluminum obtained by ECAE.

  6. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Jain and P. R. Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of nine parents and one standard check GJ-39 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. Both additive and non additive genetic effects were present in the material under study. However the ratio of ?2gca/ ?2sca suggested that the preponderance of non additive gene action in expression of all the characters under study. Out of the nine parents GJ-39, GFS-5, CSV-15, SSV 84 and SPV 2113 identified as good general combiner for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant and other agronomical traits. The hybrid SPV 2110 x GFS 5 and GFS 5 x GJ 39 for grain yield/plant and hybrid CSV 15 x SSV 84, SPV 2113 x SPV 1616 and SPV 2110 x GFS 5 for dry fodder yield/plant exhibited higher magnitude of positive significant specific combining ability effect with highest standard heterosis and per se performance. These hybrids were also found suitable for two or three yield contributing traits. In general, close association between specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis was observed among the best hybrids identified on the basis of specific combining ability effects for grain and dry fodder yield.

  7. Effects of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of grain corn (cv. Maxima)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarang E. et al.

    2013-01-01

    Tests were done to evaluate the effect of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Maxima corn. The experiment was set up as factorial in a randomized complete block design and conducted at an Agricultural Research farm in Shiraz, during 2010. The first factor was concentrations of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer (0%, 50% and 100%) of the recommended amount (1 liter of biological fertilizer for 30 Kg of grain). The second factor was the following chemical fert...

  8. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?en, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 60, ?. 5 (2014), s. 221-227. ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2014

  9. HETEROSIS STUDIES OF AROMATIC LINES FOR YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonya Nayak. P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen crosses developed from four aromatic lines and four non scented testers were evaluated for various yield and grain quality traits to assess the heterosis of the crosses and to identify best combinations. The estimates of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis were variable among the crosses. Heterosis in desirable direction was recorded for important yield and quality attributes viz., Number of Panicles Plant-1(69.57, Panicle Length (20.82, Number of Filled Grains Panicle-1(30.14, 250 Grain Weight (23.12, Grain Yield plant-1 (89.25,Water Uptake (14.89, Alkali spreading value (45.32 and Protein (19.95. Some of these heterotic crosses have turned out to be best specific crosses and exhibited desirable per se. Among the heterotic crosses RNR 2354/BM-71(Number of panicles per plant, Panicle length, Ranbir Basmati/MTU-1010 (250 Grain weight, Protien, RNR2354/Sye632003 (Number of filled grains per panicle, Pusa 1121/MTU1010 (Grain yield, Yamini/MTU1081 (Water uptake and Yamini/Sye632003( Alkali spreading value were found to be superior, expressing heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis in desirable direction. The results of the present study indicated the potential of these parental lines in the improvement of grain quality of rice hybrids.

  10. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Acciaresi, Horacio A.; Zuluaga, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays) has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn...

  11. Genotype by environment interaction for grain yield and carbon isotope discrimination of barley in Mediterranean Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been found to be either positively or negatively related to grain yield of small grain cereals when grown in contrasting environments. In order to clarify a possible association between grain yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Δ of mature kernels, five 6-rowed and five 2-rowed barley cultivars were evaluated in 22 rainfed environments of northern Mediterranean Spain. Analyses of variance suggested that the genotypic Δ values were more consistent across environments than the genotypic yields. Genotype-environment (GxE) interaction for grain yield was further explored by fitting an AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) model. The first 2 multiplicative axes were found significant. The AMMI2 model provided more accurate estimates of genotypic yields within environments than the conventional unadjusted means across replicates. AMMI2 estimates were used for input into cluster analysis, grouping environments that ranked genotypic yields similarly. Three major groups were obtained, with average yields of 2.42 t/ha (cluster I), 3.06 t/ha (cluster II), and 5.16 t/ha (cluster III). The genotypic ranking for Δ did not vary substantially across clusters, but it changed for grain yield. The average genotypic yields in the low-yielding cluster I ranked opposite to those in the high-yielding cluster III, suggesting the existence of a crossover point at an intermediate yield level. The association between grain yield and Δ for genotypic means within clusters was variable. In cluster I, yield and Δ tended to be negatively related, whereas they were positively related in clusters II and III. Genotypes with lower D, i.e. with higher transpiration efficiency, performed better in low-yielding environments (mostly those grouped in cluster I). On the contrary, a high genotypic Δ was of advantage in medium (cluster II) and high-yielding environments (cluster III). This observation supports the assumption that drought tolerance and high yield potential under non-limiting growing conditions may be antagonistic concepts in barley. Genotypic means for kernel number per m2 and Δ were consistently and positively related within clusters, suggesting that a constitutively high Δ may have been driven by a large genotypic reproductive sink. The convenience of using Δ as a selection criterion in areas exhibiting a considerable GxE interaction for grain yield is discussed. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  12. Diallelic analysis for lysine and oil contents in maize grains / Análise dialélica para conteúdos de lisina e óleo em grãos de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Oliveira, Medici; Salete Aparecida, Gaziola; Vanderlei Aparecido, Varisi; José Antonio Carmezini de, Paula; Renato Rodrigues, Ferreira; Ricardo Antunes, Azevedo.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis linhagens S5 de milho, com diferenças para conteúdos de óleo e de lisina nos grãos, foram usadas para realizar uma série completa de cruzamentos dialélicos. Os 15 híbridos resultantes foram cultivados em campo com dois níveis de nitrogênio (10 e 130 kg N ha-1). A capacidade geral de combinação [...] (CGC) e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC) foram obtidas com o método 4, modelo I de Griffing para produtividade de grãos e concentração de lisina e óleo nos grãos. Interação significativa (p Abstract in english Six S5 lines of maize, with differences for lysine and oil contents in grains, were used to carry out a complete series of diallelic crosses. The resulting 15 hybrids were grown in a field at two nitrogen levels (10 and 130 kg N ha-1). The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining abili [...] ty (SCA) were obtained by using the method 4, model I of Griffing for grain yield, and grain lysine and oil contents. Significant (p

  13. Comparison of cellulosic ethanol yields from midwestern maize and reconstructed tallgrass prairie systems managed for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequate fertilization over years both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and the 31-spe...

  14. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  15. Manuring Effect on the Potential Grain Yield of Wheat in the Light of The Holy Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ayyaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain

    2001-01-01

    Combined application of chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure increased the ears m -2 and grains per ear than alone application of organic or inorganic fertilizer to wheat variety Ghaznavi under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan however both parameters i.e. ears per emerged seedling and grains per ear remained lower than the predicted yield in Ayah No. 261 of Surah Al-Baqrah of The Holy Quran. This variety produced the grain yield of 5.5 t ha -1 when fertilized with ...

  16. YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF SPECLIATY CORN AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN APPLICATION UNDER PONGAMIA + MAIZE AGRI- SILVI SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    C. Prathyusha; Hemalatha, S

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at the Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad on red sandy loam soils to study the effect of nitrogen management in speciality corn under Pongamia + maize agri-silvi system. All the parameters such as cob yield (with husk), green fodder/stover yield, harvest index of all the types of corn were found significantly higher at 120 kg N ha-1 than the other two lower doses of nitrogen. Similarly kernel yield of popcorn an...

  17. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liu, Qi-Hua; Wu, Xiu; Li, Tian; Ma, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Biao.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effec [...] t worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  18. Análise de componentes principais de atributos químicos e físicos do solo limitantes à produtividade de grãos / Principal component analysis of soil chemical and physical attributes limiting grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Luis, Santi; Telmo Jorge Carneiro, Amado; Maurício Roberto, Cherubin; Thomas Newton, Martin; João Leonardo, Pires; Lisandra Pinto Della, Flora; Claudir José, Basso.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio da análise dos componentes principais, a redução na dimensionalidade de atributos químicos e físicos do solo para a compreensão da variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas de grãos. A área experimental, de 54 ha, é manejada em agr [...] icultura de precisão há oito anos. Com base em seis mapas de colheita (soja - safra 2000/2001; milho - 2001/2002; soja - 2002/2003; trigo - 2003; soja - 2003/2004; e milho - 2004/2005), a área foi dividida em três zonas de produtividade de grãos (alta, média e baixa). Foram definidos 15 pontos georreferenciados representativos, para determinação de atributos químicos e físicos do solo, o que totalizou 63 variáveis analisadas. Entre os atributos químicos, o elevado teor de K no solo é o que melhor explica a variabilidade espacial da produtividade das culturas de grãos, provavelmente em razão do desbalanço das relações Ca:K e Mg:K. A zona de baixa produtividade apresentou baixa qualidade física do solo. Neste caso, a infiltração de água no solo, isoladamente, é a variável que melhor explica o desempenho das culturas de grãos. A análise dos componentes principais dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é estratégia eficiente para explicar a variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas de grãos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate, through principal component analysis, the reduction in the dimensionality of soil chemical and physical attributes in order to understand the spatial and temporal variability of grain crop yield. The experimental area of 54 ha has been managed under precis [...] ion agriculture for eight years. Based on six grain yield maps (soybean - 2000/2001 harvest season; maize - 2001/2002; soybean - 2002/2003; wheat - 2003; soybean - 2003/2004; and maize - 2004/2005), the area was split in three grain yield zones (high, medium, and low). Fifteen representative geo?referentiated points were defined in order to determine soil chemical and physical attributes, totaling 63 analyzed variables. Among chemical attributes, the high K content in soil is the variable that best explains the spatial variability of grain crop yield, probably due to the imbalance of the Ca:K and Mg:K relations. The low?yield zone had low soil physical quality. In this case, soil water infiltration, solely, is the variable that best explains the performance of the grain crops. Principal components analysis of soil chemical and physical attributes is an efficient strategy to explain the spatial and temporal variability of grain crop yield.

  19. Sowing Date and Genotype Effects on Barley Growth and Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?Ahmad Sobati

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth and grain yield of irrigated barley cultivars (Valfajr, Binam and Raihaneh was investigated at 4 sowing dates (6, 22 Oct. and 14, 20 Nov. in Karaj region. The effect of sowing date, genotype and their interaction on grain yield were statistically significant. Early and late sowing enhanced cold damage. However, the damage was more in late sowings. It was estimated that the optimum sowing date would be about 50 days (600 GDD prior to freeze-up and maximum cold damage would occur when sowing was delayed until some 22 days (230 GDD before freeze-up but any more delay in sowing would cause less damage. Highest grain yield was obtained from Raihaneh at 22 Oct. sowing. Binam showed good yield stability and relatively high yield, especially in unfavorable sowing dates. In the relatively favorable sowing dates (6 and 22 Oct., grain weight showed positive correlation with linear grain filling rate, storage and translocation of reserves. LAI, LAR, RGR, CGR and LAD of each cultivar were higher in the second sowing date compared to the first one. The “ratio of post anthesis growth to maximum TDM” showed a high correlation with the harvest index. Raihaneh was the highest cultivar in resistance to lodging, harvest index, storage and retranslocation of assimilates, and linear grain filling rate. It is suggested that at favorable sowing dates, Valfajr and Binam had source limitation or disturbed translocation and Raihaneh had sink limitation.

  20. Combining ability analysis for yield and yield components in bold grained rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Assam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Chakraborty; Supriyo, Chakraborty; B.K., Dutta; S.B., Paul.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis for grain yield and its components was carried out in eight parental diallel crosses of bold grained rice excluding reciprocals. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importan [...] ce of both additive and non-additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parents Ranjit followed by Matonga and Monohar Sali contributed significantly to high GCA effect towards high grain yield per hill. The superior specific cross combinations for high grain yield per hill were Matonga/Bar Madhava, originated from high x low GCA combination followed by Dhola Mula/ Ranjit (low x high gca), Chandmoni/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA), Dhola Mula/Mala (low x low gca), Matonga/Mala (high x low GCA), Bar Madhava/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA) and Matonga/Hathi Sali (high x high GCA). Further, these crosses exhibited high SCA effects for some other characters as well.

  1. Broiler responses to supplementation of phytase and admixture of carbohydrases and protease in maize-soyabean meal diets with or without maize Distillers' Dried Grain with Solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Cowieson, A J; Adeola, O

    2010-06-01

    1. This experiment investigated growth performance and nutrient utilisation responses of broilers to partial replacement of maize and soyabean meal in broiler diets with 100 g kg(-1) maize Distillers' Dried Grain with Solubles (mDDGS) as well as responses to supplementation of an admixture of carbohydrases and protease (XAP) or phytase individually or in combination in the diets. 2. A total of 288 one-day-old broilers were allocated to 8 treatments in a randomised complete block design and a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The three factors were two levels each of mDDGS (0 or 100 g kg(-1)), phytase (0 or 1000 FTU kg(-1)), and XAP (0 or 500 mg kg(-1)). 3. Each treatment had 6 replicate cages with 6 birds per replicate cage. The control diets were formulated to meet all nutrient requirements of broilers according to National Research Council recommendations of 1994, but were marginally deficient in non-phytate P and ME. 4. Weight gain and gain:food were higher in broilers receiving diets containing mDDGS. The coefficient of apparent ileal N digestibility was lower in diets with mDDGS. Phytase increased the coefficient of apparent ileal DM digestibility in all diets. 5. Phytase improved the coefficient of the apparent total tract DM retention independently of mDDGS and tended to improve the coefficient of apparent P retention in the diets without mDDGS. The enzymes were additive in their effects in the diets with mDDGS. Overall, the results showed that adding 100 g kg(-1) mDDGS to a maize-soyabean meal diet had no negative effect on growth when energy and nutrient concentrations were similar to the maize-soyabean meal diet, and that phytase or an admixture of carbohydrases and protease individually or in combination modestly improved nutrient utilisation independently of mDDGS addition. Combination of the enzymes did not produce greater benefit than the use of phytase alone. PMID:20680879

  2. Initial austenite grain size effect on the structure and yield strength of martensite-quenched steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the structure of martensite of the structural 45KhNMFA-steel and N23G3-alloy depending on the initial austentic grain size are presented. Combination of the plate and lath-like martensite crystals in the form of a block which is characteristic of the large-grain state remains in the fine-grain state as well. The size of such martensite crystallites is compatible with the size of the austenite grain,provided it is not more than 20 microns. If the size of the austenite grains exceeds this value, the size of the martensite crystallites is constant (about 20 microns). The yield point of the hardened(low-temper) steel changes with variation in austenite grain size similarly to change in martensite crystallites size

  3. La oferta de maíz grano en Guanajuato, México: 1980-2009 / Supply of grain maize in Guanajuato, Mexico: 1980-2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Guzmán-Soria; S., Rebollar-Rebollar; J., Hernández-Martínez; J. A., García-Salazar; M. T. de la, Garza-Carranza; N., Callejas-Juárez; A., Terrones-Cordero.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En México la escasa rotación de cultivos ha afectado la capacidad del suelo para producir, el uso de genotipos de maíz con mayor potencial de rendimiento y sistemas de producción más intensivos ha incrementado la demanda de insumos; lo cual afecta la economía del productor. Para determinar el efecto [...] de los cambios en el precio de los insumos y de los principales factores que explican la oferta de maíz grano en Guanajuato, en este trabajo se estimó un modelo econométrico compuesto por dos ecuaciones de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad para el periodo de 1980 a 2009. Los resultados indican que la oferta de maíz grano en el estado responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y de manera elástica si los cambios se suscitan en el mismo nivel de precio pero de la oferta en temporal, con elasticidades precio-propias de 0.8531 y 1.0604; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta estatal son el precio del plaguicida y de la mano de obra, con elasticidades precio-cruzada de -0.6154 y -0.5470; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactan son los registrados en el frijol, con elasticidades precio-cruzada de -0.5489 si es producido bajo riego y de -1.0292 si es producido en temporal. El efecto de transmisión de los precios, indica que el precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal estatal es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0.79 y 0.80% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el precio al mayoreo en el estado a niveles de 0.21 y 0.13% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en éstos. Abstract in english In Mexico, poor crop rotation has affected the capacity of soil to produce; the use of maize genotypes with higher yield potential and more intensive production systems has increased the demand for inputs, which affects the economy of the producer. To determine the effect of changes in input prices [...] and the main factors that explain the supply of maize grain in Guanajuato, in the present work an econometric model was estimated; comprised of two supply equations, three transmission prices and an identity for the period from 1980 to 2009. The results indicate that the supply of maize grain in the state responds inelastically to changes in the producer price of maize produced under irrigation and elastically if changes arise in the same price level but the offer temporary, with elasticities own-price 0.8531 and 1.0604, changes in input prices that more affect the state offer are the pesticide and labor price, with cross-price elasticities of -0.6154 and -0.5470, changes in the competitive product that more impact are those in the bean, with cross-price elasticities of -0.5489, if produced under irrigation and -1.0292 if produced in temporary. The effect of price transmission, indicate that the producer price of maize under irrigation and temporary state is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0.79 and 0.80% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence on the wholesale price in the state at levels of 0.21 and 0.13% for every unit percentage change in them.

  4. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of 15N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha-1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha-1, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha-1, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF AUXIN AND ITS PRE-CURSOR APPLIED THROUGH COMPOST FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. KHOKHAR

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study compost was prepared from waste fruit and vegetables and enriched with 25% (44 kg ha-1 of full dose (175 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer for maize. Pure auxin, indole 3-acetic acid (IAA and L-TRP (precursor were blended with respective batches @ 10 mg kg-1 compost for the value addition of N-enriched compost (NEC. Comparative effectiveness of IAA or L-TRP-blended NEC was studied, in the presence or absence of 50% (88 kg N ha-1 of full dose of N fertilizer, through pot and field trials. Compost was applied @ 300 kg ha-1. Results indicated that IAA-blended NEC supplemented with half dose of N fertilizer was as effective as NEC in improving growth and yield of maize. However, precursor (L-TRP-blended NEC was found better than pure auxin (IAA-blended, when both were compared with NEC. It significantly improved growth, yield and nutrient uptakes (up to 8.4, 8.6 and 11% respectively of maize over NEC in the presence of 88 kg N ha-1. The technology bears its promise not only to improve crop yield on sustainable basis but also reduce huge piles of organic wastes causing environmental pollution.

  6. A rare SNP mutation in Brachytic2 moderately reduces plant height and increases yield potential in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Anqi; Gao, Yufeng; Ye, Lingfeng; Zhang, Weiping; Cai, Lichun; Ching, Ada; Llaca, Victor; Johnson, Blaine; Liu, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Kang, Dingming; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2015-07-01

    Plant height has long been an important agronomic trait in maize breeding. Many plant height QTLs have been reported, but few of these have been cloned. In this study, a major plant height QTL, qph1, was mapped to a 1.6kb interval in Brachytic2 (Br2) coding sequence on maize chromosome 1. A naturally occurring rare SNP in qph1, which resulted in an amino acid substitution, was validated as the causative mutation. QPH1 protein is located in the plasma membrane and polar auxin transport is impaired in the short near-isogenic line RIL88(qph1). Allelism testing showed that the SNP variant in qph1 reduces longitudinal cell number and decreases plant height by 20% in RIL88(qph1) compared to RIL88(QPH1), and is milder than known br2 mutant alleles. The effect of qph1 on plant height is significant and has no or a slight influence on yield in four F2 backgrounds and in six pairs of single-cross hybrids. Moreover, qph1 could reduce plant height when heterozygous, allowing it to be easily employed in maize breeding. Thus, a less-severe allele of a known dwarf mutant explains part of the quantitative variation for plant height and has great potential in maize improvement. PMID:25922491

  7. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  8. Effects of soil type, vertical root distribution and precipitation on grain yield of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Abashiri in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, grain yields of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Hokushin) in the western area, with umbric andosol or dystric cambisol soil type, are lower and unstable compared to those in the eastern area, with mostly haplic andosol soil type. The aim of this study was to evaluate yield differences between the eastern and western areas. The vertical root distribution of wheat plants was examined over two seasons in farmers' fields in both areas by a wall profile method. Plants grown in the western area had shallower root systems than those grown in the eastern area. Poor soil porosity and high soil penetration resistance suppressed the vertical distribution of root systems in umbric andosol and dystric cambisol. Grain yields were not always correlated with the amount and distribution of the root system. Grain yield in the 2004/2005 season was not correlated with root depth index, whereas it was positively correlated in the 2005/2006 season. During the period from heading to maturity (mid June to late July) over the two seasons, grain yield was associated with precipitation more than with temperature and total solar radiation. In the 2005/2006 season, during the late growing stage of wheat, precipitation was extremely low and soils were very dry. The difference in grain yield between the eastern and western areas was significant and negatively related to precipitation during the period from heading to maturity. Significant correlations of yield with sunshine duration and solar radiation from the heading stage to maturity were observed only on haplic andosol. The results suggest that the major factor controlling yearly changes in the difference in grain yield of winter wheat between the eastern and western areas is the difference in photosynthetic ability, which is based on rooting depth and water supply in response to solar radiation during the late growing stage

  9. Combining ability for grain yield and other related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Yadav and Anil Sirohi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability for grain yield and other related characters was studied in 36 F1s along with 15 parents (12 lines and three testers which were evaluated in a completely Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications during rabi 2005-06.The results indicated that among various lines, line HD 2687 was identified as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield per plant, whereas, Line UP 2338 appeared as a good general combiner for the characters, plant height, tillers per plant, spikelets per ear, spike length, grains per ear and 1000-grain weight. Line 35th IBWSN-4 for days to maturity and harvest index; Line 35th IBWSN-14 for days to maturity, grains per ear and grain yield per plant; 10th HTWYT-47 for days to heading, days to maturity, tillers per plant and grains per ear; 11th HRWYT-7 for the characters spike length, 1000- grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant and 4th IAT-49 for tillers per plant, plant height and harvest index were identified as good general combiners. Lines 20th SAWSN-18, CPAN 3004 and RD 1008 were identified as good general combiners for days to heading, tillers per plant and biological yield per plant, respectively. Tester PBW 373 emerged as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading and biological yield per plant, whereas, Tester PBW 502 appeared as a good general combiner for the tillers per plant. Out of 36 cross combinations, nine crosses viz. UP 2338/ PBW 502, 4th IAT-49 / PBW 502,11th HRWYT-16/ PBW 343,10th HTWYT-47/ PBW 343, RD 1008/ PBW 373 , 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502, 20th SAWSN-18/ PBW 343, 35th IBWSN-4/ PBW 502 and CPAN 3004/ PBW 373 emerged with significant positive sca effects for grain yield per plant. The parents involved in these crosses are average x average general combiners and or poor x average combiners except in cross 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502 (3.14, which involved good x average general combiners. Desirable specific combining ability of the crosses involving such parents seems to be mainly due to complementation of the genes. Thus these crosses can be exploited for grain yield per plant by using biparental mating system

  10. Genetic Association between Grain Yield of Bread Wheat and Carbon Isotope Discrimination under Drought in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of the wheat plant to discriminate against the carbon-13 isotope during photosynthesis, in favor of the lighter carbon-12 isotope, has been found to correlate with grain yield in many studies. This hypothesis was tested under four contrasting environments in Morocco during 2003-2006 using three sets of elite wheat genotypes. Significant positive correlations were found between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ) and grain yield, and were higher under more water stressed environments at Douyet and Jemaa Sahim, indicating that high Δ is associated with high yield under drought stress. Selection based on yield appeared to have indirectly acted on Δ as well, since the correlation was significant and remained relatively unchanged across years of selection. This indicates a possible genetic linkage between yield and Δ. Also, transgressive segregation occurred for most agronomic and physiological traits, including Δ, offering a potential genetic variation for selection. At the molecular level, CID was found to be linked to a molecular marker at the gwm095 region of chromosome 2A, and to a thousand kernel weight marker at the gwm071 region, distant by 20-30 cent Morgan (cM). A poor QTL associated with grain yield was detected at chromosome 5A, similar to the one detected at CIMMYT in Obregon (Mexico) and northern Australia. From these results, it can be concluded that CID may be used as a new selection criterion to enhance wheat grain yield potential under drought in Morocco. (author)

  11. Genetic Dissection of QTL Associated with Grain Yield in Diverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. breeding programs strive to increase grain yield; however, the progress is hampered due to its quantitative inheritance, low heritability, and confounding environmental effects. In the present study, a winter wheat population of 159 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was evaluated in six trials under rainfed, terminal drought, and fully-irrigated conditions, over four years. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL mapping was conducted for grain yield main effect (GY and the genotype × environment interaction (GEI effect. A total of 17 QTL were associated with GY and 13 QTL associated with GEI, and nine QTL were mapped in the flanking chromosomal regions for both GY and GEI. One major QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2, explaining up to 22% of grain yield, was identified in all six trials. Besides the additive effect of QTL associated with GY, interactions among QTL (QTL × QTL interaction, QTL × environment, and QTL × QTL × environment were also observed. When combining the interaction effects, QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2 along with other QTL explained up to 52% of the variation in grain yield over the six trials. This study suggests that QTL mapping of complex traits such as grain yield should include interaction effects of QTL and environments in marker-assisted selection.

  12. Regulation of OsmiR156h through Alternative Polyadenylation Improves Grain Yield in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Liu, Binmei; Wu, Kun; Ye, Yafeng; Huang, Shixia; Wang, Shuansuo; Wang, Yi; Han, Ruixi; Liu, Qian; Fu, Xiangdong; Wu, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    Substantial increases in grain yield of cereal crops are required to feed a growing human population. Here we show that a natural variant of SEMIDWARF AND HIGH-TILLERING (SDT) increases harvest index and grain productivity in rice. Gain-of-function sdt mutation has a shortened polyadenylation tail on the OsmiR156h microRNA precursor, which cause the up-regulation of OsmiR156h. The plants carrying the semidominant sdt allele exhibit reduced plant height, enhanced lodging resistance, increased tiller numbers per plant, and resulting in an increased grain yield. We also show that combining the sdt allele with the OsSPL14WFP allele can be effective in simultaneously improving tillering capacity and panicle branching, thereby leading to higher harvest index and grain yield. Most importantly, pyramiding of the sdt allele and the green revolution gene sd1 enhances grain yield by about 20% in hybrid rice breeding. Our results suggest that the manipulation of the polyadenylation status of OsmiR156 represents a novel strategy for improving the yield potential of rice over what is currently achievable. PMID:25954944

  13. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26803502

  14. Genetic variability and association of yield attributing traits with grain yield in upland rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jambhulkar Nitiprasad Namdeorao; Bose Lotan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the genetic variability and correlation between yield and other yield attributing characters of rice genotypes in upland ecology. The experiment was conducted with twenty two upland genotypes grown during Wet season under direct seeded condition in a randomized block design. Analysis of variance shows significance in all the traits indicating the presence of considerable amount of genetic variation among the genotypes. The...

  15. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samia, Berraies; Mohamed, Salah Gharbi; Salah, Rezgui; Amor, Yahyaoui.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB), caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schrot.), is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. [...] durum [Desf.] Husn.) particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  16. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  17. Yield and quality of canola grains due to nitrogen and sulfur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Teixeira Lucas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canola (Brassica napus, L. cultivation was encouraged for grain and oil production at the 80’s, and it is also considered a good option for crop rotation. The nitrogen is one of the most required nutrients by the plant to increase its production, while sulfur is essential to provide seed quality. Thus, the objective of this study was, at Cerrado region, evaluate the effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization at yield and contents of oil and crude protein in the grains. We also sought relate to grain yield the S content in the soil and concentrations of N and S in the diagnosis leaf. The experiment was conducted in Uberaba County, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an Oxisol, utilizing the Hyola 401 hybrid. The treatments consisted in a factorial scheme 5 x 4 (five N rates: 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg ha-1 and; four S rates: 0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 in a randomized blocks design, with four replicates. The nitrogen and sulfur fertilization increased canola grain yield, without significantly alter contents of oil and crude protein. Rates higher than to 140 kg ha-1 of N and 15 kg ha-1 of S provided grain yield above 1100 kg ha-1. Plots with yield higher than to 1000 kg ha-1 presented foliar concentration of N above 52 g kg-1. The highest S content was observed at the 0.15-0.30 m layer, proving the sulfate anion mobility. The lowest grain yield were observed when the S content in the soil at this layer were less than 4 mg dm-3. The N concentrations in the diagnostic leaf and S-SO4 -2 content in the 0.15-0.30 m layer correlated positively with crop yield.

  18. Produtividade do milho irrigado em sucessão a espécies invernais para produção de palha e grãos Productivity of irrigated maize in succession to winter crops for straw and grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade do milho irrigado, em sucessão a espécies invernais, quanto à cobertura de solo e produção de grãos, cultivado em diferentes doses de nitrogênio em cobertura. O trabalho foi realizado nas safras 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, em Eldorado do Sul, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de cultivo do milho, em sucessão a cinco espécies invernais: aveia-preta, ervilhaca-comum e nabo forrageiro (produção de palha; aveia-branca e trigo (produção de grãos e palha; e de um tratamento-testemunha em que a vegetação espontânea foi controlada por aplicações periódicas de dessecante. Quando se aplicou nitrogênio em cobertura, a produtividade do milho superou 8 Mg ha-1 e não foi afetada pela espécie invernal antecessora. Em ausência de cobertura nitrogenada, a produtividade do milho foi maior, quando este sucedeu ao nabo forrageiro. A aveia-branca e o trigo adicionaram quantidades de palha superiores a 3 Mg ha-1 e produziram mais do que 1,5 Mg ha-1 de grãos. Com uso de irrigação e aplicação de N em cobertura obtém-se elevada produtividade de grãos de milho cultivado em sucessão, independentemente da cobertura do solo no inverno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of irrigated maize, grown using several rates of nitrogen sidedress, in succession to different winter crops. The experiment was carried out in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Southern Brazil, during the 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 growing seasons. Maize was sown in succession to five winter crops: black oat, common vetch, wild radish (straw production, white oat and wheat (grain and straw production, and to a control treatment, where the spontaneous vegetation was controlled by successive desiccant application. Maize grain yield was higher than 8 Mg ha-1 and was not affected by the specie of preceding winter crop, when nitrogen sidedress was applied. Maize grain yield was higher, when it succeeded wild radish and in the treatment without N in side-dressing. White oat and wheat added more than 3 Mg ha-1 of straw and produced more than 1.5 Mg ha-1 of grain. With supplementary irrigation and side-dress nitrogen application, it is possible to obtain high grain yield, when corn is cultivated as a sequential crop, independently of winter cover species.

  19. Grain yield losses in wheat by Russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia (mordvilko)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wheat cultivars were sown at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to evaluate their response to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Significant variability was observed among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and yield losses. Cultivar V-2707 was the least infested with the aphid (6.3 aphids/tiller) giving maximum grain yield (4638 kg/ha), with cultivar V-2047 the second best with 6.43 aphids/ tiller infestation and grain yield of 4206 kg/ha. Commercial cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Punjab-96) were heavily infested with 14.4 and 12.6 aphids/tiller, respectively, and yielded 2245 and 2490 kg/ha harvest, respectively. Aphid population increased up to the fourth week of March and then declined. Aphid infestation resulted in 3.96 to 7.36% yield loss. The cultivar V-2707 was later released for general cultivation, under the name of Punjab-1. (author)

  20. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  1. Grain Yield and Morphological Characters of Spring Safflower Genotypes: Evaluation Relationship Using Correlation and Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of safflower were investigated. In this survey, 30 spring safflower genotypes were tested via the randomized complete block experiment design for two years of 2005 and 2006. The phenotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficient were estimated in both years. Grain yield was significantly correlated with some characters, like the plant height (r = 0.563** and r = 0.536**, hectoliter weight (r = 0.574** and r = 0.577** and biological yield (r = 0.980** and r = 0.977** in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on grain yield in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Therefore, improvement of the grain yield will immensely be efficient via plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight based selection.

  2. Effect of incorporation of 32P labelled green manure (Sesbania aculeata) on the yield ans P uptake by maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of applied inorganic P and 32P labelled Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) as green manure on the yield and P utilization by maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of two long term experiments was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Significant increase in the drymatter yield and total P uptake was obtained with increasing level of applied sesbania and P fertilizer. The relationship between total P uptake and total P added as organic plus inorganic fertilizer was significant. The Sesbania application significantly increased per cent P derived from added plant material by the maize crop. It also enhanced P uptake and its utilization from fertilizer source. The addition of Sesbania in the absence and presence of inorganic P fertilizer improved P use efficiency. The direct beneficial effect of added organic P was significant only in its application on soils with lower level of residual P. The utilization of P by maize after addition of sesbania varied from 5 to 9 per cent. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Maize Production and Marketing in Trans Nzoia District Under a Liberalised Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers have for along time been known to reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no systematic study had been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate loss of stem borers in maize production in most transitional maize zone in western Kenya, a major maize-production zone, an experiment was superimposed on six farmers' field each in the six sites in western Kenya. One plot was treated with bulldock, an insecticide and the other was the control. Direct measurement and comparison of the grain yields in the plots indicated that in all sites, the control plots had 10-15% yield increase over the non-treated plots. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 8000.00 or about 10 bags per hectare, an equivalent of annul maize grain requirements for five adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers

  4. Canopy warming caused photosynthetic acclimation and reduced seed yield in maize grown at ambient and elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Drag, David W; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-11-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and attendant increases in growing season temperature are expected to be the most important global change factors impacting production agriculture. Although maize is the most highly produced crop worldwide, few studies have evaluated the interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and temperature on its photosynthetic physiology, agronomic traits or biomass, and seed yield under open field conditions. This study investigates the effects of rising [CO2 ] and warmer temperature, independently and in combination, on maize grown in the field throughout a full growing season. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was used to target atmospheric [CO2 ] to 200 ?mol mol(-1) above ambient [CO2 ] and infrared heaters to target a plant canopy increase of 3.5 °C, with actual season mean heating of ~2.7 °C, mimicking conditions predicted by the second half of this century. Photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, leaf water potential components, and developmental measurements were collected throughout the season, and biomass and yield were measured at the end of the growing season. As predicted for a C4 plant, elevated [CO2 ] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Canopy warming caused a large shift in aboveground allocation by stimulating season-long vegetative biomass and decreasing reproductive biomass accumulation at both CO2 concentrations, resulting in decreased harvest index. Warming caused a reduction in photosynthesis due to down-regulation of photosynthetic biochemical parameters and the decrease in the electron transport rate. The reduction in seed yield with warming was driven by reduced photosynthetic capacity and by a shift in aboveground carbon allocation away from reproduction. This field study portends that future warming will reduce yield in maize, and this will not be mitigated by higher atmospheric [CO2 ] unless appropriate adaptation traits can be introduced into future cultivars. PMID:26119211

  5. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ? We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ? The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ? Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ? Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical composition. ? Silage quality parameters may be used as criteria for indirect selection of MFY.

  6. Use of a crop climate modeling system to evaluate climate change adaptation practices: maize yield in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N. J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.; Thornton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is dominated by small-scale farmers and is heavily depend on growing season precipitation. Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic- induced warming including the Indian Ocean sea surface significantly influences precipitation in East Africa. East Africa is a useful region to assess impacts of future climate because of its large rainfall gradient, large percentage of its area being sub-humid or semi-arid, complex climatology and topography, varied soils, and because the population is particularly vulnerable to shifts in climate. Agronomic adaptation practices most commonly being considered include include a shift to short season, drought resistant maize varieties, better management practices especially fertilizer use, and irrigation. The effectiveness of these practices with climate change had not previously been tested. We used the WorldClim data set to represent current climate and compared the current and future climate scenarios of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs) including a wetter (CCSM) and drier (HadCM3) GCM downscaled to 6 km resolution. The climate data was then used in the process-based CERES maize crop model to simulate the current period (representing 1960- 1990) and change in future maize production (from 2000 to 2050s). The effectiveness of agronomic practices, including short duration maize variety, fertilizer use and irrigation, to reduce projected future yield losses due to climate change were simulated. The GCMs project an increase in maximum temperature during growing season ranging from 1.5 to 3°C. Changes in precipitation were dependent on the GCM, with high variability across different topographies land cover types and elevations. Projected warmer temperatures in the future scenarios accelerated plant development and led to a reduction in growing season length and yields even where moisture was sufficient Maize yield changes in 2050 relative to the historical period were highly varied, in excess of +/- 500 kg/ha in many areas. The simulated yield changes in the future were both spatially explicit and dependent on the GCM used. The effectiveness of agronomic practices was highly varied across the region depending on soil type, agro-ecological zone and projected climate change. The results have critical implications for agronomic research and policy. The study challenges using a ';one size fits all' approach in the identification of potential adaptation strategies. The goal is to use models to target local, optimized solutions as part of the broader need for impact assessments at coarser scales.

  7. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, P. S.

    2010-02-01

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  8. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  9. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder, E-mail: bsingh@iari.res.i [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Datta, P.S. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  10. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  11. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to plant breeders in making decisions regarding the development and evaluation of new cultivars. (author)

  12. Severidade de doenças foliares e produtividade de genótipos de milho em resposta à adubação nitrogenada / Severity of foliar diseases and genotype maize yield in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gil Rodrigues dos, Santos; Francismar Rodrigues, Gama; Clebson Gomes, Gonçalves; Artenisa Cerqueira, Rodrigues; Evelynne Urzedo, Leão; Carlos Henrique, Cardon; Aurenivia, Bonifacio.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças foliares, principalmente, helmintosporiose (Bipolaris spp.), antracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) e ferrugem (Puccinia spp.), podem ocasionar redução do rendimento da cultura do milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e severidade de helmintosporiose, antracnose e fe [...] rrugem, bem como a produtividade de genótipos de milho, em resposta a doses crescentes de nitrogênio. Avaliou-se a severidade das doenças, utilizando-se escala de notas, em nove genótipos de milho (AG9040, AG7088, 30F35, 3F624, 1F583, 1F632, 1F557, 1F640 e ID219), submetidos a quatro doses de nitrogênio (67; 112; 157; e 202 kg ha-1), em duas safras (2009/2010 e 2010/2011). Para determinar a produtividade, utilizou-se a massa dos grãos coletados. Os graus de severidade da helmintosporiose, da antracnose e da ferrugem variaram em resposta às doses de nitrogênio e, entre os genótipos de milho avaliados durante as duas safras, entretanto, não houve relação clara entre as doses de nitrogênio aplicadas e a ocorrência das doenças nas duas safras. A ferrugem foi detectada apenas durante a safra I. Apesar da severidade das doenças foliares, elas, de modo geral, não afetaram significativamente a produtividade dos genótipos de milho avaliados. Desses, o genótipo de milho AG7088 pode ser considerado o mais produtivo e o mais resistente às doenças avaliadas. Abstract in english Leaf diseases, mainly, helmintosporiosis (Bipolaris spp.), anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) and rust (Puccinia spp.), may cause reduction in maize yield. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of helmintosporiosis, anthracnose and rust, as well as productivity of different [...] genotypes of maize in response to increasing doses of nitrogen. Disease severity was evaluated using a score scale in nine maize genotypes (AG9040, AG7088, 30F35, 3F624, 1F583, 1F632, 1F557, 1F640 and ID219) subjected to four different nitrogen levels (67; 112; 157; and 202 kg ha-1) in two cropping years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). To determine the productivity, it was used the weight of collected grains. It was observe that the severity of helmintosporiosis, anthracnose and rust varied in response to nitrogen levels and between the genotypes evaluated during two cropping years, although there was no clear relationship between the nitrogen levels applied and disease incidence in two cropping years. Rust was detect only during the cropping year I. Although the severity of foliar diseases, in general, these did not significantly affect the productivity of the maize genotypes evaluated. Of the evaluated genotypes, genotype AG7088 can be consider the most productive and the most resistant to the diseases evaluated.

  13. INTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK-BIOGAS AND THE EFFECT OF DRIED SLUDGE MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE ON ULTISOL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyo Soelaeman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Tamanbogo Experimental Farm consists of 3 activities, namely 1. To evaluate the kind and amount of feed consumed by 20 heads of cattle and the amount of manure produced, 2. To evaluate the amount of biogas, sludge and slurry produced by digester, and 3. To study the application of manure, dried sludge manure, and NPK fertilization on the growth and yield of hybrid maize of Pioneer 27 (P27. The research results showed that the total weight of feed consumed in the rainy season and in the dry season has already achieved to the recommendation of 10% of the body weight of cattle. The average production of manure and urine were 11.25 kg head-1 day-1 with the biogas production of 3 m3 day-1 was sufficient for cooking and lighting for 5 members of family daily. The by-product of biogas production was 8 kg day-1 of sludge and 127 L day-1 of slurry. The grain yield of P27 with application of dried sludge accompanied with 50 % of NPK fertilizer recommendation dose gave the highest yield of P27 (4.45 t ha-1 with a profit Rp. 3,466,000 ha-1 and B/C of 1.5

  14. Genetic analysis of seed morphological traits and its correlations with Grain yield in common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Dalla Corte; Vania Moda-Cirino; Carlos Alberto Arrabal Arias; José Francisco Ferraz de Toledo; Deonisio Destro

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the genetic control of seed morphological traits and its correlations with grain yield in common bean. Three crossings among bean cultivars with different growth habit and seed characteristics were analyzed. F1 progenies gave origin to F2, RC1P1F1 and RC1P2F1 generations. Random samples of seeds from F2 generations and parents, F1 and backcrossings were sown during the season 2003/2004. Plant grain yield and seed morphological traits were determined by a sample of 150 p...

  15. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin Wang; Fa Cui; Jinping Wang; Li Jun; Anming Ding; Chunhua Zhao; Xingfeng Li; Deshun Feng; Jurong Gao; Honggang Wang

    2012-12-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  16. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing strategies to collect and use cellulo sic biomass for bio energy production is important because those materials are not used as human food sources. This study compared corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies on a 50 ha Clarion- Nicol let-Webster soil Association site near Emmetsburg, Iowa, USA. Surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm) were analyzed after each harvest to monitor soil organic carbon (Soc), ph, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) changes. Grain yields in 2008, before the stover harvest treatments were imposed, averaged 11.4 Mg ha-1. In 2009, 2010, and 2011 grain yields averaged 10.1, 9.7, and 9.5 Mg ha-1, respectively. Although grain yields after stover harvest strategies imposed were lower than in 2008, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Four-year average stover collection rates ranged 1.0 to 5.2 Mg ha-1 which was 12 to 60% of the above-ground biomass. Soc showed a slight decrease during the study, but the change was not related to any specific stover harvest treatment. Instead, we attribute the Soc decline to the tillage intensity and lower than expected crop yields. Overall, these results are consistent with other Midwestern USA studies that indicate corn stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1

  17. Strategy of specification of management areas: rice grain yield as related to soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known nowadays that soil variability can influence crop yields. Therefore, to determine specific areas of soil management, we studied the Pearson and spatial correlations of rice grain yield with organic matter content and pH of an Oxisol (Typic Acrustox under no- tillage, in the 2009/10 growing season, in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the Brazilian Cerrado (longitude 51º24' 21'' W, latitude 20º20' 56'' S. The upland rice cultivar IAC 202 was used as test plant. A geostatistical grid was installed for soil and plant data collection, with 120 sampling points in an area of 3.0 ha with a homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. The properties rice grain yield and organic matter content, pH and potential acidity and aluminum content were analyzed in the 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers. Spatially, two specific areas of agricultural land management were discriminated, differing in the value of organic matter and rice grain yield, respectively with fertilization at variable rates in the second zone, a substantial increase in agricultural productivity can be obtained. The organic matter content was confirmed as a good indicator of soil quality, when spatially correlated with rice grain yield.

  18. Production, decomposition of residues and yield of maize and soybeans grown on cover crops / Produção, decomposição de resíduos e rendimento de milho e soja cultivados sobre coberturas de solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luiz Rodrigues, Torres; Marcos Gervasio, Pereira; Dilson José, Rodrigues Junior; Arcângelo, Loss.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os resíduos das plantas de cobertura e das culturas comerciais deixados sobre a superfície do solo podem influenciar a decomposição, ciclagem de nutrientes e a produtividade das culturas subsequentes. Neste estudo objetivouse avaliar a produção de fitomassa seca (FS), taxa de decomposição dos [...] resíduos e o rendimento de milho e soja, cultivados sobre diferentes coberturas de solo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados no esquema em faixas, com quatro coberturas: braquiária, crotalária, milheto e pousio no período outono/inverno, com milho e soja em sucessão na primavera/verão. Avaliou-se FS, a decomposição através das sacolas de decomposição e o rendimento de milho e soja. Milheto e crotalária foram às coberturas que apresentaram maior produção de fitomassa seca no período outono/inverno; a produção de fitomassa seca de milho e soja não foi influenciada pelas coberturas de solo avaliadas; a taxa de decomposição dos resíduos vegetais de milho e soja é lenta no período seco e acelerada no chuvoso; o rendimento do milho foi superior quando cultivado sobre crotalária e braquiária nos anos avaliados, enquanto que para soja não ocorreram diferenças sobre qualquer cobertura avaliada; Milho e soja apresentam rendimentos de grãos superiores à média regional quando cultivados sobre as diferentes coberturas do solo. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The residues of cover plants and crops left on the soil surface can influence decomposition, nutrient cycling and follow crop yield. The objective was to evaluate the production of dry biomass (BD), of residues decomposition rate and yield of maize and soybean grown on different soil covers [...] . The experimental design was a randomized block scheme banded, with four covers: Brachiaria, sun hemp, pearl millet and fallow period in autumn/winter, with maize and soybean crop in the spring/summer. We evaluated BD, decomposition through bags of decomposition and yield of maize and soybeans. Pearl millet and sunhemp were the covers which produced more of BD in the fall/winter period. the rate of decomposition of plant residues in maize and soybeans is slow in the dry period and accelerated in the rainy period; maize yield was higher when grown on sunhemp and brachiaria in the years evaluated, while for soybeans there were no differences on any measured coverage; maize and soybeans have grain yields higher than the regional average when grown on different soil covers.

  19. Qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados em diferentes temperaturas / Quality of maize grains stored at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo T., Paraginski; Bruno A., Rockenbach; Rodrigo F. dos, Santos; Moacir C., Elias; Maurício de, Oliveira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura de armazenamento é um dos principais fatores que interferem na qualidade de armazenamento e, considerando a pequena quantidade de trabalhos realizados com grãos de milho, este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados nas temperaturas de 5, 15, 25 e 35 °C, dura [...] nte 12 meses. Foram realizadas análises de classificação dos grãos, teor de água, peso de mil grãos, percentual de germinação, condutividade elétrica e teor de lipídios no início, aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses de armazenamento; a análise de perfil de ácidos graxos foi realizada no início e ao final dos 12 meses. Os grãos foram classificados como Tipo 1 até os 6 meses de armazenamento porém após este período ocorreu uma redução drástica na qualidade sendo enquadrados como abaixo do padrão na temperatura de 25 °C. Os resultados de teor de água, peso de mil grãos, germinação, condutividade elétrica e perfil de ácidos graxos indicaram que as maiores alterações foram observadas nos grãos armazenados nas temperaturas mais elevadas principalmente a 25 e 35 °C indicando que o tempo de armazenamento seguro dos grãos nessas condições é menor quando comparado ao armazenamento em temperaturas mais baixas. Abstract in english The storage temperature is one of the main factors that affect the quality of storage, and considering the fact that limited studies have been conducted with maize, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of maize grains stored at 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C for 12 months. Analysis for classification of gr [...] ain, moisture content, thousand grain weight, germination percentage, electrical conductivity and lipid content at the beginning, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage, and analysis of fatty acid profile were performed at the beginning and at the end of 12 months. The grains were classified as Type 1 until 6 months of storage, but after this period there was a drastic reduction in quality, being framed with below standard temperature of 25 °C. The results of water content, thousand grain weight, germination, electrical conductivity, and fatty acid profile indicated that major changes were observed in grain storage at higher temperatures, especially at 25 and 35 °C, indicating that the safe time for storage of grains under these conditions is less compared to storage at lower temperatures.

  20. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance. PMID:20952627

  1. Performance of Pure and Mixed Stands for Biomass and Grain Yield in Hexaploid Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aslam Chowdhry

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of ten biblends, each grown in a 1:1 genotypic ratio was compared with the performance of the involved five bread wheat genotypes grown in pure stands. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER was calculated by using the concept of de Wit and van den Berg (1965. Most of the biblends exhibited reduction in biomass and grain yield per plant than their respective mid component of pure stand. However, two biblends, Rohtas 90 - Chakwal 86 and 6500 - Chakwal 86 showed significant increase of 9.40 and 16.36 percent for biomass yield (LER values of 1.10 and 1.16 and 14.26 and 18.73 percent for grain yield per plant (LER values of 1.15 and 1.19, respectively. It was concluded that varietal mixtures do have potential as a means of increasing crop yield but identification of correct genotypic combination is essential.

  2. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  3. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.; Gigena, Rubén; DÍAZ-AMBRONA, Carlos G. H.

    2013-01-01

    The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070?2099 compared to a 1961?1990 baseline) on a maize?dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated ...

  4. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

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    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  5. Economic Analysis of Maize Stalk Borer Control in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers significantly reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no farm level systematic study has been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate the loss of stem borers in maize production, experiments were carried out with the objectives of: estimating the economic value of maize losses due to stem borers; estimating the functional relationship between maize yield losses and stem borer damage estimators; and also obtain farmer perceptions on maize stem borers. The trials were superimposed on farmers' fields with one plot measuring 100M2 treated with Bulldock pesticide and the other one not. The experiment covered all the 7 maize agro-climatic zones in Kenya. Direct measurement of the Grain yields in the plots indicated that the average percentage yield loss was between, 3.5% - 15.7% in all sites. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 6 billion or about 6 million bugs/90 kg , an equivalent of annual maize grain requirements for 3 million adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers in order to meet household and national food security and income generation

  6. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  7. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  8. Research on Grain Yield Prediction Method Based on Improved PSO-BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the highly nonlinear and uncertainty of grain yield changes, a new method for grain yield prediction based on improved PSO-BP is proposed. By introducing mutation operation and adaptive adjust of inertia weight, the problem of easy to fall into local optimum, premature, low precision and low later iteration efficiency of PSO are solved. By using the improved PSO to optimize BP neural network’s parameters, the learning rate and optimization capability of conventional BP are effectively improved. The simulation results of grain production prediction show that the predict accuracy of the new method is significantly higher than that of conventional BP neural network method and the method is effective and feasible.

  9. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  10. Corn grain yield and nutrient uptake from application of enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demand for food and agricultural products directly impact the use of chemical fertilizers particularly nitrogen (N). This study examined corn grain yield and nutrient uptake resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitr...

  11. Modeling Biomass Allocation and Grain Yield in Bread and Durum Wheat under Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry matter (DM) partitioning into stems, leaves, and seed of two wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) genotypes (A and D, respectively) in response to multiple abiotic stresses were quantified and their impact on kernel weight (KW, mg kernel**-1) and grain yield (GY, Mg ha**-1) was evaluated in a ...

  12. Grain yield and agronomic traits in soybean according to crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS, Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS were compared, namely: 1 no tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4 conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean, system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum. This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.

  13. Mapping QTL for Grain Yield under Moisture Stress Environments in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polygenes (QTLs for grain yield were mapped on rice chromosomes under two moisture stress environments by multiple interval mapping (MIM method in a double haploid (DH population derived from a cross between a deep-rooted japonica and a shallow-rooted indica genotype. In environment 1 (E1, the MIM detected a total of six QTLs for grain yield on chromosomes-two QTLs on chromosome 1 and four QTLs on chromosome 5 along with one additive x additive epistasis. But in environment 2 (E2, the MIM detected five QTLs for grain yield on two chromosomes-three QTLs on chromosome 1 and two QTLs on chromosome 7. One common QTL on chromosome 1 flanked by the markers RG109-ME1014 was detected in both the environments, although the other detected QTLs differed between environments. The magnitude of QTL effect, percent genetic variance and percent phenotypic variance explained by each QTL was also estimated in both environments. The common QTL explained about 26.05 and 13.93% of genetic variance in E1 and E2, respectively. Estimated broad sense heritability for grain yield was 48.01 in E1 and 25.27% in E2.

  14. Regulation of grain yield in rice under well-watered and drought stress conditions by GUDK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Basu, Supratim; Gupta, Chirag; Pereira, Andy

    2015-11-01

    Increasing the grain yield of cereals, which is stable under unfavorable environmental stress, is a major objective to sustain production and feed the growing world population. Recently, we functionally characterized a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, named GROWTH UNDER DROUGHT KINASE (GUDK), revealing its role in regulating grain yield under well-watered and drought stress conditions by transphosphorylating the OsAP37 transcription factor. GUDK is induced under several stresses and its loss-of-function increased the sensitivity of rice seedlings to salinity, osmotic stress, and abscisic acid treatment. In addition to reduced tolerance of gudk mutant plants to drought stress at vegetative stage, a significant reduction in grain yield was observed under well-watered and drought stress conditions at reproductive stage. Gene co-expression analysis supports the role of GUDK in regulating important biological processes both under control and stress conditions. Thus, our results suggest that GUDK has the potential to regulate grain yield both under favorable and unfavorable conditions. PMID:26633564

  15. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg-1. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: ? Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. ? Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. ? The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  16. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  17. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... remobilization of pre-anthesis stored assimilates from vegetative organs into grains was hardly significantly affected by fractions of topdressed nitrogen. Grain yield was the highest for fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%, which coincided with the highest plant nitrogen uptake and physiological and...... assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency resulting in higher grain yields and proper grain protein content in malting barley....

  18. Performance of Intercropping of Maize with Groundnut in Saline Area under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shalim Uddin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intercropping of groundnut with maize in saline area under rainfed condition was studied. The highest groundnut seed yield and maize grain yield were obtained from their respective sole crop. The highest groundnut equivalent yield of maize (2485 kg ha?1 obtained from T4. The highest land equivalent ratio (1.37 and groundnut yield was reduced from 18.4 to 41.46% depending on treatment. Grain yield of maize reduced from 26.67 to 54.28% depending on treatment. The highest marginal rate of return (779.15% was obtained from T5= groundnut (30×15 cm2 + maize (200×25 cm2.

  19. Perfilhamento, área foliar e produtividade do milho sob diferentes arranjos espaciais / Maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity under different spatial arrangement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Cleber, Schweitzer; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Amauri, Schmitt; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Clóvis Arruda de, Souza.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de variações no arranjo espacial de plantas sobre o perfilhamento, a área foliar e a produtividade do milho. Os experimentos foram implantados na primavera/ verão dos anos agrícolas 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro densidades [...] (três, cinco, sete e nove plantas por metro quadrado) e de três espaçamentos entre linhas (0,4, 0,7 e 1,0 m). Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF) e a produtividade de grãos do híbrido P30F53, além da contribuição dos perfílhos para esses caracteres. Em 2007/2008, não houve deficiência hídrica, o IAF na floração foi superior a 7 e os perfilhos contribuíram com 65% do IAF total, na menor densidade de plantas. Nesse ano, a produtividade de grãos (13,7 Mg ha-1) não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, e os perfilhos contribuíram com 44% da produtividade, na densidade de três plantas por metro quadrado. Em 2008/2009, houve restrição hídrica na pré?floração e no enchimento de grãos, o que diminuiu o perfilhamento e a contribuição dos perfilhos ao IAF. A produtividade de grãos, nesse ano, aumentou de 9,7 para 11,7 Mg ha-1 com o aumento na densidade de plantas, mas a contribuição dos perfilhos à produtividade foi menor. O perfilhamento aumenta a estabilidade fenotípica da produtividade de grãos frente a variações no arranjo de plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plant spatial arrangement on maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity. The experiments were carried out in the spring/summer of the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (three, five, s [...] even, and nine plants per square meter) and three row spacings (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 m). The leaf area index (LAI) and grain yield of hybrid P30F53 were assessed, as well as the tiller contribution to these characters. In 2007/2008, there was no water deficit, LAI values were higher than 7, and tillers contributed with 65% of total LAI at the lowest plant density. In this year, grain yield average (13.7 Mg ha-1) was not affected by treatments, and tillers contributed with 44% of total yield at the density of three plants per square meter. In 2008/2009, there was water deficit before flowering and during grain filling, which decreased tillering and tiller contribution to LAI. Grain yield in this year increased from 9.7 to 11.7 Mg ha-1 with increasing plant densities, but tiller contribution to grain yield was lower. Tillering increases phenotypic stability of grain productivity to variations in plant spatial arrangement.

  20. Onset of grain filling is associated with a change in properties of linker histone variants in maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajka, R.; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In maize kernel development, the onset of grain-filling represents a major developmental switch that correlates with a massive reprogramming of gene expression. We have isolated chromosomal linker histones from developing maize kernels before (11 days after pollination, dap) and after (16 dap) initiation of storage synthesis. Six linker histone gene products were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A marked shift of around 4 pH units was observed for the linker histone spot pattern after 2D-gel electrophoresis when comparing the proteins of 11 and 16 dap kernels. The shift from acidic to more basic protein forms suggests a reduction in the level of post-translational modifications of linker histones during kernel development. Analysis of their DNA-binding affinity revealed that the different linker histone gene products bind double-stranded DNA with similar affinity. Interestingly, the linker histones isolated from 16 dap kernels consistently displayed a lower affinity for DNA than the proteins isolated from 11 dap kernels. These findings suggest that the affinity for DNA of the linker histones may be regulated by post-translational modification and that the reduction in DNA affinity could be involved in a more open chromatin during storage synthesis.

  1. EFFECT OF COMPOST FROM BY-PRODUCT OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY ON CROP YIELD AND MICROELEMENT CONTENT IN MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Radziemska; Zbigniew Mazur

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of compost from fish waste with mineral and manure fertilization on the yield and chemical composition of the overground parts of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment comprised two series: I – composts at a dose of 1 g of compost per pot, and II – composts with 0.5 g of urea. The treatments were conducted on the following types of composts: compost 1: fish waste (80% d.m.), sawdust (20% d.m.); compost 2: fish waste (80% d.m.), straw (20% d....

  2. Metabolite Profiling of Maize Grain: Differentiation due to Genetics, Environment and Input System

    OpenAIRE

    Röhlig, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    A metabolite profiling approach for maize (Zea mays) based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was applied to the simultaneous detection, identification and quantification of a broad spectrum of non-polar (fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, fatty alcohols, sterols, hydrocarbons) and polar (sugars, sugar alcohols, organic and inorganic acids, amino acids, amines) constituents. The non-targeted method allowed the investigation of the influence of genetics (cultivar, genetic modific...

  3. The Influence of Forage Combination Maize Grain – Fodder Beet on Feeding Behaviour Duration for Intensively Farmed Coypu (Nutria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan B?n??ean-Dunea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the behaviour of one species, with interest in animal husbandry science represent a compulsory necessityfor the development and improvement of the breeding and exploiting technology for this species. The studies oncoypus behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, coypu breeding technology,animal welfare and, at the moment, this present great importance for animal protection. The biological materialstudied was consisted of adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard. The supervised indices were:feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet according to gender and time slot, theduration of one feeding sequence according to forage consumed, gender and time slot and the number of feedingsequences according to forage consumed, gender and time slot. For realising the purposed aim, each coypu wasmonitorized (video, individually, 24 hours a day. The duration of feeding behaviour when coypus are fed with maizegrain and fodder beet was 4921.63±472.64 seconds for males (5.69% of the behaviour al manifestations, and forcoypu females, the duration of feeding behaviour was 5450.00±297.94 seconds (6.30% of the behaviour almanifestations. The most intense manifestations of the feeding behaviour occurred in the time slot 08:00-14:00, andthe lowest intensity of the feeding behaviour manifestations occurred in the time slot 02:00-08:00. The average totalnumber of males feeding sequences if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet was 51.63 ± 5.54 sequencesand the average total number of females feeding sequences was 56.38 ± 2.48 sequences.

  4. Selection for Osmoregulation Gene to Improve Grain Yield of Wheat Genotypes under Osmotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eivazi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For identifying osmoreguulation (or differences in bread wheat genotypes, three experiments by using of randomized complete blocks design with five replications were carried out separately on 6 genotypes (Tabasi, Alvand, Shahi, Sabalan, Sardary and Roshan under normal, drought and salinity stresses. At earring stage, in order to studying osmotic stress on pollen grains, treatments of 30% PEG (control and 50% PEG with 10 mM KCl (osmotic stress were applied. All pollen grains of genotypes were been swollen at control treatment, but under osmotic stress except of Roshan pollen grain (due to accumulation of K+ ion was been shrinkage. Orthogonal analysis of variance showed significant differences for traits of grain yield and its components, soluble sugars, Na+, K+ accumulations. Under stress Roshan genotype had high accumulation of soluble sugars and K+. Increasing of grain yield due to or gene at Roshan than other genotypes under drought and salinity stresses were, respectively 18.14 and 38.80%. So, under drought and salinity stresses, identification of or allele and selection based on it in wheat breeding programs are strongly recommended.

  5. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive × additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  6. SEVERITY OF LEAF STREAK (Stenocarpella macrospora AND ITS RELATION WITH PATHOGEN INCIDENCE AND GERMINATION ON GRAINS OF COMMERCIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MAIZE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA GRANDIS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Stenocarpella macrospora (Sin. Diplodia macrospora is one of the pathogens associated with the stalk and ear rots complex, damping off and large foliar lesions in susceptible hybrids. The objective of this study was to correlate the severity of leaf streak (Stenocarpella macrospora with the pathogen incidence in grains, as well to evaluate the effect of this incidence on grain germination of different maize hybrids. For that purpose, a trial was carried out at the experimental field of Dow AgroSciences in Uberaba (MG. Sixteen hybrids in 2002/2003, and 20 in 2003/2004 were evaluated for leaf streak severity, under natural infection in the field, in a randomized complete block design with two replications, and experimental plot consisting of four 4m-long rows. The two central rows of each plot were graded for disease severity. After harvested, a grain sample (1Kg was taken from each plot to seed health (blotter test with freezing method and germination (germination roll method tests. In both experiments, results showed no positive correlation between disease severity and pathogen incidence on grains, suggesting that the high level of severity of the foliar phase of the disease cannot be taken as an indication of the incidence of the fungus on grains. A negative correlation between the incidence of the pathogen on grains and germination, and a positive correlation between pathogen incidence and the percentage of non-germinated grains were observed, indicating that S. macrospore affects the physiological quality of maize grain.

  7. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m?2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  8. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high quality protein Heterose em cruzamentos entre populações de milho de grãos brancos com alta qualidade protéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate heterosis and its components in 16 white grain maize populations presenting high quality protein. These populations were divided according to grain type in order to establish different heterosis groups. The crosses were carried out according to a partial diallel cross design among flint and dent populations. Seven agronomic traits were evaluated in three environments while four leaf diseases and incidence of corn stunt were evaluated in one. Least square procedure was applied to the normal equation X'Xbeta = X'Y, to estimate the model effects and their respective sum of squares. Among the heterosis components, in diallel analysis, significance for average heterosis in grain yield, number of days to female flowering and to all evaluated diseases was detected. Specific heterosis was significant for days to female flowering and resistance to Puccinia polysora. Results concerned to grain yield trait indicate that populations with superior performance in dent group, no matter what flint population group is used in crosses, tend to generate superior intervarietal hybrids. In decreasing order of preference, the dent type populations CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 and ZQP/B 101 and the flint type CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 and ZQP/B 102 are recommended to form composites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a heterose e seus componentes em 16 populações de milho de grãos brancos, de alta qualidade protéica. Estas populações foram divididas de acordo com o tipo de grão, para estabelecer grupos heteróticos diferentes. Os cruzamentos foram realizados entre populações dentadas e duras, seguindo o esquema dialélico parcial. Sete caracteres agronômicos foram avaliados em três locais, e quatro doenças foliares e a incidência de enfezamento, em um. O procedimento de quadrados mínimos foi aplicado à equação normal X'Xbeta = X'Y, para estimar os efeitos do modelo e suas respectivas somas de quadrados. Entre os componentes de heterose, na análise dialélica, detectou-se significância para heterose média em dias para o florescimento feminino e resistência a Puccinia polysora. As populações com performance superior no grupo dentado, independentemente da população dura usada no cruzamento, tendem a gerar híbridos intervarietais de produtividade superior. Na formação de compostos, são recomendadas as populações CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 e ZQP/B 101, do tipo dentado, e CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 e ZQP/B 102, do tipo duro, nesta ordem.

  9. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov Milovan; Saratli? Goran; Videnovi? Živorad; Staniši? Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid), optimal utilisat...

  10. Effects of Hydro-Priming Duration on Seedling Vigour and Grain Yield of Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (Talash, COS16 and Khomain were divided into four sub-samples, one of which was kept as control (non-primed, P1 and three other samples were soaked in distilled water at 20oC for 7 (P2, 14 (P3 and 21 (P4 hours and then dried back to initial moisture content. In the laboratory, the lowest mean germination time and the highest germination percentage and seedling dry weight were achieved with P2, which was not significantly different from P3. Mean time of seed germination for Khomain was significantly higher than that for Talash and COS16. In the field, 1000 grain weight of Khomain was significantly higher than that of other cultivars, but mean grains/plant, grains/m2, grain yield/plant and grain yield/m2 of COS16 and Talash were significantly higher than those of Khomain. Therefore, grains/plant was the most important yield component affecting grain yield of pinto bean cultivars. Hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours resulted in lower mean emergence time and higher seedling emergence percentage, grains/m2 and grain yield/m2, compared with P1 and P4. Grains/plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant were not significantly affected by hydro-priming. However, hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours improved grain yield per unit area indirectly through enhancing seedling establishment and grains/m2. Extended priming duration negatively affected laboratory and field performance of pinto bean cultivars.

  11. STUDIES ON GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR GRAIN YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Lingaiah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The D2 statistics is useful tool to assess genetic diversity among genotypes. It also provides qualitative measures of association between geographical and genetic diversity based on generalized distances. In the present study data on forty nine genotypes were subjected to D2 analysis, which revealed the presence of substantial amount of genetic variability among them. The pattern of distribution of genotypes into various clusters was random, suggesting that geographical and genetic diversity were not related. The experimental material was partitioned into eight clusters. Flag leaf area per plant contributed maximum towards genetic diversity followed by days to 50 per cent tasseling.

  12. Influence of Zinc Nutrition on Growth and Yield Behaviour of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Azeem Tariq; Shakeel A. Anjum; Mahmood A. Randhawa; Ehsan Ullah; Muhammad Naeem; Rafi Qamar; Umair Ashraf; Mubashar Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    ha-1 (Zn1), foliar application at vegetative stage (9 leaf stage) @ 1% ZnSO4 solution (Zn2) and foliar application at reproductive stage (anthesis) @ 1% ZnSO4 solution (Zn3) and one treatment was kept as a control, where zinc was not applied (Zn0). The experimental results showed substantial difference in all physiological and yield parameters except plant height and stem diameter. Statistically maximum grain yield (8.76 t·

  13. Evaluation of short stature mutants of Basmati-370 for yield and grain quality characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three short stature mutants were induced in an indica rice cultivar by gamma irradiation. The mutants were assessed for their yielding ability and grain quality characteristics. All the mutants out yielded the parent variety, Basmati-370. The increase in yield of the mutants ranged from 19.37% to 29.66%. DM-2 gave the highest yield (3587.96 kg/ha) among the mutants. As regards physical, cooking and eating quality characteristics, there was no significant difference in water absorption, volume expansion ratios and stickiness among the mutants and Basmati-370. However, Basmati-370 was scored best for flavour as this variety had strong aroma as compared to its mutants which were scored for moderately strong aroma. (authors)

  14. BRS Esteio: common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helton Santos, Pereira; Leonardo Cunha, Melo; Luís Cláudio de, Faria; Adriane, Wendland; Maria José, Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da, Costa; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; José Luis Cabrera, Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de, Carvalho; Válter Martins de, Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de, Melo; Antônio Félix da, Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli, Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza, Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa, Abreu; Cléber Moraes, Guimarães; Jaison Pereira de, Oliveira; José Aloísio Alves, Moreira; Maurício, Martins; Benedito Fernandes de, Souza Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 Brazilian States. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1, which is 8.1% higher than that of the contr [...] ol cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging, and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  15. Stability of Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield under Diverse Rainfed Ecologies of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asif, M.; S.Z.Mustafa; Asim, M (Muhammad); N.S.Kisana; M.Y. Mujahid; Ahmad, I.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen genotypes developed for rainfed areas of Pakistan viz., NR-155, 97C027, SN-6, PR-72, BWL-9736, NR-149, 96R37, DN-14, V-97005, 95C004, NR-178, CHAKWAL-97, SN-16, were evaluated for stability of grain yield under twelve diverse environments. The interaction between the genotypes and environments (G X E interaction) was used as an index to determine the yield stability of genotypes under all the environments. Both predictable (linear) and unpredictable (non-linear) portions of variation...

  16. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... discussed in relation to the variations of the resulting grain yield in the contrasting wheat cultivars....

  17. EFFECT OF STEM RUST INFECTION ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Asmmawy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To estimate grain yield losses due to stem rust, replicated experiments including twelve wheat cultivars i.e.  Gemmeiza 7, Gemmeiza 9, Gemmeiza 10, Gemmeiza 11, Sakha 61, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sids 12, Sids 13, Giza 168, Misr 1 and Misr 2 were evaluated for adult plant resistance at Sakha Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. The field experiment was surrounded by spreader area of highly susceptible varieties i.e. Morroco and Max inoculated with a mixture of stem rust races as a source of inoculum. Disease severity was recorded each 10 days and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and ranged from 100 to 475 in 2011/12 and 100 to 750 in 2012/13. It was found that, yield losses ranged between 2.47 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 2 to 6.29 % in the wheat cultivar Sids 12 during 2011/12, while during 2012/13 ranged from 1.96 % in the wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 7 to      8.21 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 1. High correlation was found between yield losses with disease severity and AUDPC.

  18. Efecto del fertirriego y labranza de conservación en propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de maíz / Effect of fertigation and conservation tillage on soil properties and maize yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel Ángel, Martínez Gamiño; Cesario, Jasso Chaverria; Esteban Salvador, Osuna Ceja; Luis, Reyes Muro; Jesús, Huerta Díaz; Benjamín, Figueroa Sandoval.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola primavera-verano de 2009-2011 se realizaron trabajos de investigación en el Campo Experimental San Luis del INIFAP con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del fertirriego y labranza de conservación en algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de maíz. Se evaluaron tres ni [...] veles de nitrógeno: 200, 300 y 400 kg ha-1 y dos para potasio: 100 y 200 kg ha-1. La preparación del suelo se realizó con el sistema de labranza de conservación. Se utilizó el maíz H-358. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Durante el desarrollo del cultivo se realizaron muestreos de planta para determinar la concentración de nutrientes en el tejido vegetal y generar las curvas de extracción de NPK. Se realizaron muestreos de suelo para determinar el porcentaje de materia orgánica y la biomasa microbiana. Se determinó la velocidad de infiltración y resistencia mecánica del suelo. Al final de cada ciclo, se evaluó el rendimiento de grano y sus componentes. Al aplicar la dosis tradicional de fertilización a través del riego por goteo y dosificada por etapa fenológica y con labranza de conservación se incrementó 35% el rendimiento de maíz en relación con la fertilización al suelo, riego por gravedad y labranza tradicional. Se obtuvieron las curvas de extracción de NPK, herramienta básica para realizar una adecuada fertilización, acorde a las necesidades del cultivo por etapa fenológica. Abstract in english During the spring-summer agricultural cycle of 2009-2011 research was conducted in the Experimental Station San Luis from INIFAP in order to evaluate the effect of fertigation and conservation tillage on soil properties and maize yield. Three levels of nitrogen were tested: 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 [...] and two for potassium: 100 to 200 kg ha-1. Land preparation was made with the system of conservation tillage. Corn H-358 was used. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. During the development of the crop plant samples were made to determine the concentration of nutrients in plant tissue and generate extraction curves of NPK. Soil samples were made to determine the percentage of organic matter and microbial biomass. The infiltration rate and soil strength was determined. At the end of each cycle, grain yield and its components were evaluated. When applying traditional doses of fertilization through drip irrigation and metered by phenological stage and with conservation tillage, maize yield increased 35% in relation to soil fertilization, irrigation by gravity and conventional tillage. Extraction curves NPK, were obtained; a basic tool for proper fertilization according to crop needs by phenological stage.

  19. The Effect of Different Densities and Interferences Periods of Sorghum on Contribution of Stem Reserves to Corn Grain Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHakiba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield component and determinate the contribution of stem reserves to corn yield under effect of different densities and interference periods of sorghum, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2002 on the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture Tabriz University. Experimental factors were sorghum interference at different periods (0,14,28,42 days after corn emergence and also during plant life corn with three densities (4,8,12 plants m-2. Characteristics of study were yield, yield component and the contribution of stem reserves to corn grain yield. The results showed that with increasing sorghum density and interference, corn yield components (except the number of grain rows were decreased, due to shading and competition between plants for using available resources. Maximum grain yield and grain number per ear was obtained at pure corn plantation. With increasing sorghum density and interference periods grain yield decreased, and maximum corn yield loss was 38%, which occurred at the highest sorghum density and interference. Dry matter remobilization and contribution of stem reserves were significantly influenced by sorghum densities and interferences in corn grain yield. The highest contribution of dry matter remobilization and stem reserves to corn yield was obtained at maximum density and complete interference of sorghum. The least contribution of reserves was shown in pure corn plantation. This might be related to shading and competition between plants for light and other resources.

  20. Reduced ozone by air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study considered effects of reduced [O3] on wheat yield. Open-top chamber charcoal filtered air treatments were compared with non-filtered treatments for field-grown wheat. 30 experiments meeting requirements were found, representing nine countries in North America, Europe and Asia. 26 experiments reported improved yield and 4 experiments reduced yield by filtration, a significant positive effect. Average yield improvement was 9%. Average daytime [O3] was reduced by filtration from 35 to 13 nmol mol-1. Filtration efficiency was 63% for O3 and 56% for SO2. For NOx it was observed that NO2 was reduced and NO increased by filtration. Thus, filters convert NO2 to NO. Most experiments reported low or very low [SO2] and [NOx]. Thus, O3 can be concluded to be the main phytotoxic component in the experiments. Elevated [NO2] was observed in one experiment. The conclusion is that current [O3] over large parts of the world adversely affect wheat yield. - Research highlights: ? Charcoal air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat. ? Ozone was the most important pollutant to reduce wheat yield. ? Charcoal filters remove O3, NO2 and SO2 but emit NO. - Reduced ozone in open-top chamber experiments improved wheat yield over wide geographic areas.

  1. Heritability and Genetic Advance of Grain Yield and its Related Traits in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Firouzian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to evaluate six genotypes of wheat and their seven segregating populations (F2 for heritability and genetic advance of yield and its related traits. A considerable amount of variability among genotypes for the traits studied indicated the usefulness of selection for these traits in the genetic material used for future improvement in wheat. Broad-sense heritability for plant height, spikelets per spike, spike density, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant ranged from 75.17 to 93.61%, 46.24 to 85.09%, 55.51 to 84.65%, 85.70 to 96.37% and 58.30 to 88.24%, respectively. The respective values of genetic advance for these traits ranged from 6.78 to 18.36, 1.39 to 4.67, 0.18 to 0.52, 3.84 to 8.85 and 1.77 to 4.50. Prevalence of fairly high estimates of heritability and genetic advance for grain yield in crosses like 3 WLRG/1-8 x WL-43 and Local White x 3 WLRG/1-12, suggested the potential use of these combinations in future breeding strategies.

  2. Effects of Foliar Micronutrient Application on Osmotic Adjustments, Grain Yield and Yield Components in Sunflower (Alster cultivar under Water Stress at Three Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghanbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of foliar micronutrient application under water stress at three stages of growth on proline and carbohydrate concentrations, grain yield and yield components of sunflower (Alster cultivar, a field experiment in split plot design with three replications was conducted in 2007. Alster cultivar was considered under water stress at three stages of growth (heading, flowering and grain filling as main plot and seven micronutrient treatments, Fe, Zn, Mn, Fe+Zn, Fe+Mn, Zn+Mn and Fe+Zn+Mn, as sub plots. Results showed, water stress at three stages of growth significantly decreased grain yield, biological yield, 1000 weight seeds, cap diameter and cap weight of sunflower (Alster cultivar. The impact of water stress was more pronounced when applied at grain filling. Use of foliar micronutrient increased grain yield in water stress. On the other hand, use of Mn foliar application had the highest positive effect on yield components and grain yield. Free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress at all of the three stages of growth. The highest concentration of these two components was found on the flowering stage. Foliar micronutrient also increased accumulation of the two components.

  3. Presowing stimulation of maize in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper information is given about the presowing stimulation of maize in Syria. For radiation treatment of the seeds 137 Cs source was used in 5-50 Gy dose range. to the experiments-between 1985 and 1988 significant increase in the grain yield was obtained with optimum dose. (author). 7 refs. 5 tabs

  4. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Dahmardeh

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L.) c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1) and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-...

  5. Improving grain yield and nitrogen fixation of common bean grown in an acrisol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of selected management practices such as the use of phosphate rock (PR), partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) and soil liming, on improving grain yields and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in an strongly acid Acrisol from Cuba. In Experiment 1 the agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR and FPA 50, a PAPR from Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 50% acidulation level were evaluated as P sources for the common bean genotypes, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa. In Experiment 2 the response of the CC 25-9N common bean genotype to the increasing application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1) of two P sources, i.e. triple super phosphate and C 40, was determined at two liming levels. C40 was a PAPR from the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 40% acidulation level. In Experiment 3 the effect of soil liming on grain yield and BNF of BAT 58, BAT 304, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390, Judia Roja Camagueyana (JRC) and Censa common bean genotypes was studied. The most effective P sources to increase grain yields of the studied bean genotypes were the water-soluble superphosphate in experiments 1 and 2. Both partially acidulated PR products, FPA 50 and C 40, showed intermediate agronomic effectiveness and they increased grain yields over the PR and control (without P) treatments. Soil liming increased grain yields and BNF of the common bean genotypes tested. Based on an economic analysis of profit and value/cost ratios, single superphosphate was the P source that gave the highest economic profit for all common bena genotypes while FPA 50 was efficient for DOR 390 and Censa. Lime application increased the economic profit of all bean genotypes. Genotype BAT 304 showed adaptability to soil acidity and gave the highest profit in limed soil. (author)

  6. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade / Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina, Dudienas; Gisèle M., Fantin; Aildson P., Duarte; Marcelo, Ticelli; Ivana M., Bárbaro; Rogério S., Freitas; Paulo C. L., Leão; Gerson, Cazentini Filho; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Angélica P., Pântano.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de [...] cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST) e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV) em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada). Abstract in english Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of culti [...] vars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different localities of São Paulo State, correlated to yield. A total of 50 simple and triple hybrids (HST) and 22 double hybrids and varieties of maize (HDV) in use by farmers were evaluated in 2005/2006 for their reaction to southern rust in six locations in western and north-central regions of São Paulo State. In the experiments with HST, the most resistant cultivars with the highest yields were: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 and Impacto. Among HDV, the most resistant ones presenting the highest yields were: 30S40 and AG 2040. Yield losses due to the severity of southern rust, assessed in the stage of pastry grain, ranged from 3.5%, for cultivars with approximately 2.5% of leaf area affected by the disease, to 20.3% for cultivars with 39% of the leaf area affected, compared to cultivars of higher resistance to the disease (1.4% affected leaf area).

  7. Estimation of characters association and direct and indirect effects of yield contributing traits on grain yield in exotic and Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Rangare N.R. et al.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the nature and magnitude of the degree of association between yield and its component characters and their direct and indirect effects on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The study evaluated forty exotic and Indian rice germplasm including one local check for their efficiency with respect to eleven yield and yield contributing characters from Kharif 2009 under normal conditions. Associated studies have indicated that for an improvement in gr...

  8. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield / Absorção foliar de cobre por plantas de milho: efeitos no crescimento e rendimento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Hidalgo, Barbosa; Luciane Almeri, Tabaldi; Fábio Rodrigo, Miyazaki; Márcio, Pilecco; Samir Oliveira, Kassab; Daísa, Bigaton.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Um leve aumento nos níveis de certos nutrientes pode causar um significante aumento no rendimento das culturas ou causar sintomas de fitotoxicidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da fertilização foliar com cobre (Cu) sobre o crescimento e rendimento do milho híbrido triplo DG [...] -501. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período entre dezembro de 2009 e abril de 2010, em sistema de plantio convencional. Quando as plantas encontravam-se com 6-8 folhas totalmente desenvolvidas, o Cu (0; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500 e 600g ha-1) foi aplicado via foliar. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Quando 50% das plantas apresentavam-se no período de florescimento, avaliaram-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro de colmo, altura da inserção da primeira espiga, área foliar e teor de clorofila. Na colheita, avaliaram-se o diâmetro e o comprimento da espiga, o rendimento e o peso de mil grãos. Houve redução linear na altura de plantas de milho e na altura de inserção da primeira espiga com o aumento das doses de Cu. Por outro lado, os dados de índice relativo de clorofila, área foliar, diâmetro e comprimento da espiga, peso de mil grãos e rendimento aumentaram quando foram utilizadas doses de Cu de até 100g ha-1 e diminuíram nas doses maiores. Portanto, o Cu aplicado via foliar em doses maiores que 100g ha-1 exerceu efeito tóxico às plantas de milho, com prejuízos no crescimento e no rendimento. Abstract in english A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu) on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried ou [...] t between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1) was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  9. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  10. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

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    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  11. Effects of Postponing N Application on Wheat Grain Yield, Protein Quality and Fertilizer-N use Efficiency in Low-Yield Field in Jianghan Plain

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    Xiao-yan Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 to 2010, the effects of postponing N application on wheat grain yield and process quality were studied in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain in wheat. The results were as follows. When the Topdressing fertilizer N (TN was postponed from tilling stage to jointing stage, the biomass and the SPAD value in flag leaf reduced, respectively. And grain yield, protein content in grain and stability time of paste, reduced as a result. When the topdressing fertilizer N was postponed from jointing stage to booting stage, the regularity of above index changed conversely. For the treatments with the same topdressing fertilizer date (jointing stage, the appropriate ratio of Basal dressing fertilizer (BNto topdressing fertilizer was 3:7, with high biomass, high SPAD value in flag leaf, high grain yield and high process quality as a result. The results also indicated that the right stage for more N in organ vegetative to be transferred to grain was jointing stage and the right ratio of BN to TN was 3:7, which was the very basis for high nitrogen fertilizer utilization. Based on the above results, it was suggested that to gain high grain yield and high process quality the appropriate date for topdressing fertilizer N in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain was jointing stage and the ratio of BN to TN was 3:7.

  12. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3--D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, K. F.; Ghorbani, F.; Spliid, N. H.; Nielsen, G. C.; Jørgensen, L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) can occur in cereals conjugatedto glucose and probably also to other sugars. These conjugates, which are often referred to as “masked mycotoxins”, will not be detected with routine analytical techniques. Furthermore, it is suspected that the parent......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n048) and artificially (n030) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n010). The samples were collected from the harves years 2006–2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37 % of the...

  13. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.; Spliid, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, G. C.; Jørgensen, L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) can occur in cereals conjugated to glucose and probably also to other sugars. These conjugates, which are often referred to as "masked mycotoxins", will not be detected with routine analytical techniques. Furthermore, it is suspected that the parent......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n = 10). The samples were collected from the harvest years 2006–2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37 % of...

  14. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8 X 8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P.0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  15. Variabilidade de genótipos de milho quanto à composição de carotenoides nos grãos Variability of maize genotypes for grain carotenoid composition

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    Wilton Soares Cardoso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a variabilidade quanto ao teor e perfil de carotenoides nos grãos de 134 genótipos de milho (Zea mays, com vistas à utilização em programas de biofortificação. Os materiais foram provenientes dos campos experimentais e do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG. São cultivares e híbridos comerciais, linhagens-elite e outros acessos escolhidos com base na coloração amarelo-alaranjada do endosperma. A quantificação do teor de carotenoides totais, carotenos e xantofilas mono-hidroxilada e di-hidroxilada dos grãos foi realizada por método cromatográfico-espectrofotométrico. As médias encontradas nos grãos foram 22,34µ gg-1 de carotenoides totais, 2,55µ gg-1 de carotenos, 3,86µ gg-1 de xantofilas mono-hidroxiladas e 15,93µ gg-1 de xantofilas di-hidroxiladas. Os genótipos foram agrupados em 18 grupos pelo método de Tocher. O germoplasma da Embrapa possui potencial para ser usado em programas de desenvolvimento de linhagens de milho biofortificadas, quanto ao total de carotenoides pró-vitamina A.The objective of this work was to characterize 134 maize (Zea mays genotypes, for carotenoids content and build a genetic profile to facilitate future breeding to increase grain nutritional value (biofortification. Seeds came from experimental fields and from the Banco Ativo de Germoplasma of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The genotypes were co mmercial hybrids, varieties, and inbred lines developed by the Embrapa biofortification program and other accessions, chosen for their yellow-orange endosperm color. Total grain carotenoids, carotenes, xanthophylls (monohydroxylates and dihydroxylates were determined by chromatographic-spectrophotometric methods. The detected averages were: 22.34µ gg-1 for total carotenoids, 2.55µ gg-1 for carotenes, 3.86µ gg-1 for monohydroxylated xanthophylls, and 15.93µ gg-1 for dihydroxylated xanthophylls. The genotypes variability was divided into 18 groups by the method of Tocher. The Embrapa germplasm has variability and potential for development of maize lines biofortified for total of provitamin A carotenoids.

  16. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  17. Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

  18. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT, days to silking (DTS, dry matter content (DMC, and dry matter yield (DMY were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area.

  19. Productividad de variedades precoces de maíz de grano amarillo para Valles Altos / Yellow maize grain of early season varieties' productivity for the Highlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita, Tadeo Robledo; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón; Israel, Arteaga Escamilla; Viridiana, Trejo Pastor; Mauro, Sierra Macías; Roberto, Valdivia Bernal; Benjamín, Zamudio González.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available México importa anualmente diez millones de toneladas de grano de maíz amarillo; por lo que se requiere incrementar la producción. El uso de semilla mejorada es un elemento clave, para alcanzar niveles competitivos en la producción. Una opción para atender esta demanda y aminorar las dificultades por [...] las condiciones limitantes del temporal, son las variedades de grano amarillo de ciclo corto, cuya disponibilidad en Valles Altos es escasa. En la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, se han generado variedades de maíz de grano amarillo, de ciclo precoz. En los últimos años se promueven variedades de grano amarillo en ambas instituciones (Oro Ultra C, Oro Plus D y V-53A, V-54A, V-55A), las dos últimas ya inscritas en el Catálogo Nacional de Variedades Vegetales (CNVV). En este trabajo se evaluaron 8 variedades en comparación con un testigo comercial, en tres experimentos, dos de ellos en el CEVAMEX, con fecha de siembra diferente. En el CEVAMEX, fecha de siembra 1, fue donde se obtuvo el mejor rendimiento (6 070 kg ha-1), similar estadísticamente al rendimiento medio de la FESC-UNAM (5 553 kg ha-1), en ambos casos en siembra de la segunda quincena de junio, pero diferentes estadísticamente a la media de CEVAMEX, fecha de siembra 2, en la primera quincena de julio (3 493 kg ha-1). Las variedades V-53 A, V-54 A, Oro Ultra 3 C y V-55 A, exhibieron en promedio los mejores rendimientos (6 157 kg -1, 6 112 kg ha-1, 5 843 kg ha-1, 5 405 kg ha-1, respectivamente), superiores estadísticamente a Amarillo Zanahoria. Abstract in english Mexico imports annually ten million tons of yellow maize grain; making necessary to increase its production. The use of improved varieties is a key element to achieve competitive levels of production. One option to meet this demand and lessen the difficulties by boundary conditions of rainfed is the [...] varieties of yellow grain of short cycle, whose availability is limited in the Highlands. At the School of Advanced Studies Cuautitlán, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock, varieties of yellow maize of early season cycle have been generated. In recent years yellow grain varieties have been promoted at both institutions (Oro Ultra C, Oro Plus D and V-53 A, V-54 A, V-55 A), the latter two already recorded in the National Catalogue of Plant Varieties (CNVV). In this study, 8 varieties were evaluated comparing them with a commercial control in three experiments, two in the CEVAMEX, with different planting dates. In the CEVAMEX, the planting date 1, had the best yield obtained (6 070 kg ha-1), statistically similar to the average return of the FESC-UNAM (5 553 kg ha-1), both cases planting in the second half of June, but statistically different to the average in CEVAMEX, planting date 2, in the first half of July (3 493 kg ha-1). The varieties V-53 A, V-54 A, Oro Ultra 3 C and V-55 A, showed on average the best yields (6 157 kg-1, 6 112 kg ha-1, 5 843 kg ha-1 and, 5 405 kg ha-1, respectively), statistically superior to Amarillo Zanahoria.

  20. Changes in Grain Yield and Associated Physiological Traits in Iranian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars Released During 1940-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study changes in morphophysiological traits of wheat cultivars released from 1940 to 2000 in Iran and to determine the association of these traits with grain yield, an RCBD experiment was conducted with 15 wheat cultivars released during past 60 years in Arsanjan (Fars province in 2006 and 2007. Results indicated that grain yield increased significantly during these 60 years (r=0.912, P<0.01. HI and BY increased significantly with increasing grain yield. The changes in photosynthesis rate were not significant during this period, but transpiration rate and stomotal conductance in recent cultivars increased significantly. Chlorophyll index also increased in new cultivars. Among yield components, grain number per ear increased significantly, but increase in ear number was not significant. Plant height decreased significantly in new cultivars. The results showed that during wheat breeding in Iran, increasing HI, grain number per ear, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and decreasing plant height had the highest role in wheat yield increase. The role of BY and ear number per area were lower in grain yield increase. It seems that present HI values are near the highest possible value, but the opportunity for increasing grain yield by mean of HI is still possible.

  1. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China. Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha?1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha?1, and decreased with 300 kg N ha?1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in maltingbarley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield and quality of malting barley in China farmers are recommended to fertilize with 150–209 kg N ha?1.

  2. Effects of the sowing density on the yield and the number of germinated seeds in seed maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovin Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The trials were carried out in the regular production of the seed maize ZP 680 at the agricultural estate "Nova Budu?nost" Žarkovac during 2001 and 2002. Sowing densities (71,400, 85,500, 99,900 plants ha"1 affected varying of yields (4.01, 4.38. 4.40 t ha"1. The 1000-seed weight decreased over increased densities (305.6, 2912, 282.5 g. Germination was even over densities (95.0, 94.9, 94.7 %. A greater number of germinated seeds per area unit (13,122,000, 15,022,000, 15,569,000 was obtained in greater densities. The percentile share of fractions in the weight was uniform over all sowing densities.

  3. Rendimiento, heterosis y depresión endogámica de cruzas simples de maíz / Yield, heterosis and inbreeding depression of single crosses of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nérida, Escorcia-Gutiérrez; José D, Molina-Galán; Fernando, Castillo-González; José A, Mejía-Contreras.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron en tres localidades las generaciones F1, F2 y F3 de las 45 cruzas simples posibles entre 10 líneas de maíz (Zea mays L.) con nueve o más autofecundaciones. Las líneas fueron derivadas en forma aleatoria del compuesto varietal 'Xolache' de la raza Chalqueño. Se estimaron los efectos de a [...] ptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de las líneas y los efectos de aptitud combinatoria específica (ACE) de las cruzas y con estos estimadores se construyó la estructura genética de las cruzas (Xij= µ + g i+ g j+ s ij). Con base en la estructura genética fue posible explicar el potencial de rendimiento, la heterosis y la depresión endogámica de cada cruza. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto, la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) fue alta en al menos una de sus líneas y la aptitud combinatoria específica (ACE) de las cruzas también fue alta. En las cruzas con rendimiento bajo, al menos una de sus líneas tuvo ACG baja y los efectos de ACE fueron negativos con alto valor absoluto. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto y heterosis alta participó cuando menos una línea de alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron positivos con valor absoluto alto. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto y heterosis baja participó cuando menos una línea de alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron cercanos a cero. En las cruzas con depresión endogámica alta, los efectos de ACE fueron positivos con valor absoluto alto, mientras que en las de baja depresión endogámica, las dos líneas tuvieron alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron cercanos a cero. Por tanto, los programas de mejoramiento genético de maíz por hibridación, debieran tener una base de líneas de alta ACG y alto rendimiento, en cuyas cruzas simples sería posible identificar las de mayor heterosis. Abstract in english Information was obtained from evaluating the F1, F2 and F3 of 45 single crosses among ten maize inbred lines with nine or more generations of selfing. Such inbred lines were randomly derived from the maize composite Xolache of the Chalqueño race. General and specific combining effects (GCA and SCA) [...] were estimated for lines and crosses, respectively and the genetic structure (Xij= µ + g i + g j + s ij) of each cross was constructed. Based on the genetic structure, it was possible to explain the potential yield, heterosis and inbreeding depression of each cross. High yielding crosses were those having at least one high general combining ability inbred line and high positive SCA effects. Reversely, low yielding crosses had at least a low GCA inbred line and high negative SCA effects. High yielding crosses with high heterosis had at least one high GCA inbred line and high positive SCA effects. On the other hand, high yielding crosses with low heterosis were those having at least one high GCA inbred line and low negative SCA effects. High yielding crosses with high inbreeding depression had at least a high GCA inbred line and high positive SCA effects. Reversely, high yielding crosses with low inbreeding depression had both inbred lines with high GCA and low positive or negative SCA effects. The most important inference derived from the genetic interpretation of the components of the genetic structure of single crosses is that any hybrid maize program should it have a base of high GCA inbred lines, and that by single crossing should be possible to identify those crosses presenting the highest heterosis.

  4. Does Exogenous Application of Kinetin and Spermine Mitigate the Effect of Seawater on Yield Attributes and Biochemical Aspects of Grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldesuquy, Heshmat S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of grain presoaking in kinetin ( 0.1 mM, spermine (0.3 mM and their interaction on yield components and biochemical aspects of yielded grains of wheat plants irrigated with 25% seawater . Seawater induced marked reduction in biochemical aspects of yielded grains especially carbohydrates content, nitrogenous constituents, total protein and nucleic acids contents as well as proline and organic acids (citric and keto-acids content. Conversely, seawater stress increased phosphorus and ions (Na+, K+ and Cl- content. Application of kinetin or spermine appeared to mitigate the effect of seawater stress on wheat yield and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with kinetin + spermine treatment.

  5. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Sun, Yang; Zhang, He; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2016-01-01

    DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether) and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride) have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012), using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958) at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68%) from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69%) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) (by 8.57% and 6.55%) from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs). In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other treatments. Compared to control, the bending strength of 3rd internode was increased by 14.47% in PCH-treated plants in 2011, increased by 18.40% in 2012, and the difference was significant. Puncture strength of 1st, 3rd and 5th internode was increased by 37.25%, 29.17% and 26.09% in 2011 and 34.04%, 25% and 23.68% in 2012, compared to control. Leaf area and dry weight per plant reduced significantly in CCC-treated plants, increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants from 2011 to 2012. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence improved with CCC and DCPTA application. Due to the additive effect of DCPTA and CCC, PCH showed the significant effect on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence. Compared to control, total enzyme activity (SOD, POD, CAT, APX and GR) and soluble protein content increased, malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content reduced in PCH-treated plants. The transportation of soluble sugar from leaf to kernel improved significantly at the late silking stage. The research provided the way for the further use of DCPTA and CCC into the production practice. PMID:26872260

  6. Effect of planting density, irrigation regimes, and maize hybrids with varying ear size on yield, and aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (maize, Zea mays L.) hybrids expressing the flexibility trait in ear size (number of kernels per ear) are marketed for ability to give higher yields under adverse conditions. Altered kernel number is associated with altered number of silk, a major route for infection of kernels by aflatoxin-pr...

  7. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering genotype × environment (GE interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares (TSS, and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm, and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  8. Prediction of Chinese per Capita Grain Yield Base on Residual Modification GM (1, 1 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To build effective grain yield prediction system and predict its trend scientifically, this study, on the basis of statistics, prognostics and agricultural economics, explains and functions grey system theory. As a new method, grey system still has many shortages. On the basis of comparison in correlative prediction, we propose GM (1, 1 grey prediction method by modifying ends to improve predictive precisions. Besides, combining with historic data during 2000-2009, predict, summary and propose the research future. Research indicates, whether theoretic basis or practice, grey model is more useful and convenient. It predicts the yield in future 5 years, the increasing speed will decrease. The increasing yield is 5-6 kilos per person, less than 8-10 kilos per person during 2003-2009. Surely, grain industry includes many son industries, such as rice, corn and wheat. The biggest son industry should be found to give different financial support, in order to eliminate errors. The innovation is to solve time responding function and incandesce equation of end residual sequence of GM (1, 1 model, to eliminate error. Besides, analyze practical examples to indicate its value in economic prediction and provide references for relative areas.

  9. A triple-scale dislocation-crystal plasticity simulation on yield point drop of annealed FCC ultrafine-grained metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annealed ultrafine-grained metals contain some grains with extremely low dislocation density, so that the critical resolved shear stress increases at the first stage of deformation due to the exhaustion of dislocation sources in a grain. In this paper, in order to express the increase of critical resolved shear stress, the conventional Bailey-Hirsh's relationship is extended on the basis of physical consideration for grain boundary that plays a role of dislocation source. A triple-scale dislocation-crystal plasticity FE simulation based on the above model, geometrically necessary crystal defects and the homogenization method is carried out for annealed FCC polycrystals with different initial grain size and initial dislocation density. Yield point drop and propagation of Lueders bands observed in macroscopic specimen with annealed FCC fine-grains are numerically reproduced. Moreover, macroscopic yielding of specimen and microscopic grain yielding are investigated in detail so as to clarify the initial yield behavior of annealed ultrafine-grained metals. It is also shown that plastic deformation is easy to be localized and the tensile ductility decreases as the grain size reduces. (author)

  10. A mathematical model of phloem sucrose transport as a new tool for designing rice panicle structure for high grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Motohide; Feugier, François Gabriel; Song, Xian-Jun; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Haruka; Ishiyama, Keiki; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Inari-Ikeda, Mayuko; Kitano, Hidemi; Satake, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world. Numerous quantitative trait loci or genes controlling panicle architecture have been identified to increase grain yield. Yet grain yield, defined as the product of the number of well-ripened grains and their weight, is a complex trait that is determined by multiple factors such as source, sink and translocation capacity. Mechanistic modelling capturing capacities of source, sink and transport will help in the theoretical design of crop ideotypes that guarantee high grain yield. Here we present a mathematical model simulating sucrose transport and grain growth within a complex phloem network. The model predicts that the optimal panicle structure for high yield shows a simple grain arrangement with few higher order branches. In addition, numerical analyses revealed that inefficient delivery of carbon to panicles with higher order branches prevails regardless of source capacity, indicating the importance of designing grain arrangement and phloem structure. Our model highlights the previously unexplored effect of grain arrangement on the yield, and provides numerical solutions for optimal panicle structure under various source and sink capacities. PMID:25516572

  11. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Milling Quality Characters of Two Line Rice Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mahalingam and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. India and the materials for thisstudy consisted of three TGMS lines viz., TS 29, TS 6 and GD 98013 and 11 testers viz., ADT 39, ADT 41, Pusa Basmathi 1,Basmathi 370, Improved White ponni, AD 98028, GEB 24, ADT 43, ADT 45, Taroari Basmathi and Jeeraga samba. Crossing wasdone according to clipping and churning method in L X T fashion. Based on the nature of combing ability inferred from line xtester analysis, three cross combinations viz, TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 were selectedfor generation mean analysis study. The scaling tests indicated the presence of epitasis for all the characters and there fore sixparameters model was followed to estimate the various gene action. The scales A and C are negatively significant in all thecrossed viz., TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for grains per panicle and hundred grainsweight. The scale B is negatively non significant for grains per panicle and hundred grains weight in all the three crosses. Thecrosses TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 showed positively significant A and C scales forgrain yield. The mean effect m was significantly positive and greater than all other effects in all the three crosses viz., TS 29 /ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for productive tillers, hundred grain weights, graim yield, hulling percent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. A significant additive x dominance (j effect was recorded in TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 crosses for grain yied and hulling per cent A significant additive x dominance (j was observed in TS29 / ADT 41 cross (panicle length and milling per cent. The (h and (l effects took opposite signs in all the three crossesindicating the involvement of duplicate dominant epistatic kinds of interaction for productive tillers, hundred grains weight, grainyield, hulling per cent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. In general , both additive and non-additive gene effects appear toall eight characters studied. Therefore, improvement of these traits appears to beset with difficulties as simple selection techniqueswill not be able to fix superior lines in the early segregating generations. Postponement of selection of superior lines to latergenerations in pedigree breeding will be effective.

  12. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH?(+) and NO?(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  13. The role of cattle manure in enhancing on-farm productivity, macro- and micro-nutrient uptake, and profitability of maize in the Guinea savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, A.C.; Diels, J.; Schulz, S.; Oyewole, B.D.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    An on-farm trial was conducted in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, over a period of five years, with the objectives of quantifying the effects on maize of applying cattle manure in combination with synthetic fertilizer with regard to soil characteristics, yield, plant nutrition and profitability. Maize grain yield was significantly increased by the annual application of cattle manure, compared to maize receiving an equal amount of N through synthetic fertilizer, but only from the third...

  14. Long-term effects of conventional and reduced tillage systems on soil condition and yield of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rátonyi, Tamás; Széles, Adrienn; Harsányi, Endre

    2015-04-01

    As a consequence of operations which neglect soil condition and consist of frequent soil disturbance, conventional tillage (primary tillage with autumn ploughing) results in the degradation and compaction of soil structure, as well as the reduction of organic matter. These unfavourable processes pose an increasing economic and environmental protection problem today. The unfavourable physical condition of soils on which conventional tillage was performed indicate the need for preserving methods and tools. The examinations were performed in the multifactorial long-term tillage experiment established at the Látókép expe