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Sample records for maize grain yield

  1. DISTRIBUITION AND POPULATION OF PLANTS AND MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

    DURVAL DOURADO NETO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the effect of plant population (30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha-1, under two width rows (0.40 and 0.80 m, on the grain yield of three maize genotypes with open (AG 1051, semi-erect (AG 7575 and erect (DKB 911 leaf architecture, a field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil between November 20th, 2000 and April 10th, 2001. According to the results: a in high population (90,000 plants ha-1, the reduction of width row (from 0.80 m to 0.40 m increases grain yield on the open-leaf-architecture genotype, and b, until 60,000 plants ha-1, regardless of genotype, the grain yield is crescent with an increase in plant population. With the plant population increasing from 60,000 to 90,000 plants ha-1, the grain yield: a increases in the erect-leaf-architecture genotype, b stabilizes on the semi-erect-leaf-architecture genotype, c stabilizes under reduced spacing (0.40 m, and decreases under spacing of 0.80 m in the open-leaf-architecture genotype.

  2. Agronomic Characters, Yield Components and Grain Yield Evaluation of 11 New Hybrid Maize Prospective Genotypes

    Budi Setyawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second important commodity after rice in Indonesia. As of  2015, more than 3 million tons of maize grain still need to be imported. It is caused by productivity of maize which remains low due to the lowness proportion of hybrid maize seed. In addition to a single cross, threeway cross seed is still necessary as alternatives for farmers rather than open pollinated cultivar ones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grain yield of 11 prospective genotypes utilizing BISI 18 and Sukmaraga as control cultivars. Randomized block design (RBD with three replications was adopted. The study was carried out in the dry season 2015. The result of this study showed that at 95% confidence level (a=0.05, prospective genotype SSUSX48274 performed significantly better than BISI 18 and Sukmaraga, while others yielded significantly better than Sukmaraga, but equal to BISI 18. All new prospective genotypes could be included in the  multilocation trial in order to release superior varieties.

  3. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  4. Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya

    Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

  5. Inheritance of Grain Yield in a Half-Diallel Maize Population

    ÜNAY, Aydın; BASAL, Hüseyin; KONAK, Cahit

    2004-01-01

    Inheritance of grain yield, heterosis and combining ability were investigated in maize populations obtained from half-diallel crossing among 9 inbred parental lines. General and specific combining ability effects were significantly different among parental lines. The grain yield was under the dominance gene effect. The parents W 552 and DNB were considered suitable according to their yield capacities and general combining ability effects. The midparent heterosis values ranged from 46.10% (H.9...

  6. Genetic Diversity and Correlation for Grain Yield and Quality Traits in Local Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Sali ALIU; Imer RUSINOVCI; FETAHU, Shukri; Rozman, Ludvik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity and correlation analysis among yield and quality traits in 20 local maize populations. The study of variation included the quantity of grain yield, and quality traits such as protein, oil and starch content in grain. Results showed that there were significant differences among the populations. The mean grain yield of all populations was 79.33 g plant-1 and the highest in �GBK-7� (105.13 g plant-1). Protein and oil contents ranged betw...

  7. Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates

    Damir Fabijanac

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L. grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002 maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400. Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May and delayed (about two weeks later sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

  8. Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates

    Darko Grbeša

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L. grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002 maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400. Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May and delayed (about two weeks later sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

  9. Influence of row spacing reduction on maize grain yield in regions with a short summer

    Sangoi Luís; Ender Márcio; Guidolin Altamir Frederico; Almeida Milton Luiz de; Heberle Pedro Canísio

    2001-01-01

    The interest in reducing maize row spacing in the short growing season regions of Brazil is increasing due to potential advantages such as higher radiation use efficiency. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of row spacing reduction on grain yield of different maize cultivars planted at different dates. The trial was conducted in Lages, in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during 1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons, in a split-split plot design. Early (October 1st) and nor...

  10. Sowing date effects on grain yield components for different maize genotypes

    Shoot dry weight of maize (Zea mays L.) depends on the amount of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the crop (IPAR). The present work was conducted to analyze the variation in shoot dry weight production and its partitioning to reproductive sinks when seasonal changes of temperature and solar radiation occur during the growing cycle of the crop. Four commercial hybrids were grown at 8 plants m-2 on four sowing dates (20 Aug., 20 Sept., 20 Oct., and 20 Nov.) at Rojas (34 degrees 08'S, 60 degrees 59' W), Argentina, on a silty clay loam soil (Typic Argiudoll) during 1990-1991 and 1991-1992, with no water or nutrient restrictions. Shoot dry weight at physiological maturity was associated with the amount of IPAR, with radiation use efficiency before silking (4.14 g MJ-1) higher than after silking (2.45 g MJ-1). Grain yield was correlated with shoot dry weight at physiological maturity, resulting in a stable (0.46 +/- 0.02) harvest index. Shoot dry weight at silking showed a significant relationship with final grain number (r2 = 0.52, n = 32) as well as with grain yield (r2 = 0.55, n = 32). Ear dry weight at silking was associated with grain yield particularly for prolific hybrids (r2 = 0.64, n = 16). Provided postsilking conditions do not limit assimilate supply to the grains, shoot dry weight at silking could be considered a good grain yield predictor. In temperate regions, maize potential productivity seems to be more limited by the amount of solar radiation available around silking (determinant of grain set) than during grain filling (determinant of grain weight). Early and intermediate sowings tend to best utilize solar radiation for grain production

  11. Dissecting Maize Productivity: Ideotypes Associated with Grain Yield under Drought Stress and Well-watered Conditions

    Jill E.Cairns; Ciro Sanchez; Mateo Vargas; Raziel Ordo(n)ez; Jose Luis Araus

    2012-01-01

    To increase maize (Zea mays L.) yields in drought-prone environments and offset predicted maize yield losses under future climates,the development of improved breeding pipelines using a multi-disciplinary approach is essential.Elucidating key growth processes will provide opportunities to improve drought breeding progress through the identification of key phenotypic traits,ideotypes,and donors.In this study,we tested a large set of tropical and subtropical maize inbreds and single cross hybrids under reproductive stage drought stress and well-watered conditions.Patterns of biomass production,senescence,and plant water status were measured throughout the crop cycle.Under drought stress,early biomass production prior to anthesis was important for inbred yield,while delayed senescence was important for hybrid yield.Under well-watered conditions,the ability to maintain a high biomass throughout the growing cycle was crucial for inbred yield,while a stay-green pattern was important for hybrid yield.While new quantitative phenotyping tools such as spectral reflectance (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index,NDVI) allowed for the characterization of growth and senescence patterns as well as yield,qualitative measurements of canopy senescence were also found to be associated with grain yield.

  12. Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)

    Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

  13. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  14. The Effects of Weeding Regimes and Maize Planting Density on Quantity of Management and Grain Yields

    The effect of four weeding regimes: weed free, herbicide use, two times hand cultivation at week three and eight after emergency and any two planting densities: Low planting density of 10 plants per m2, high planting density of 21 plants per m2 were evaluated on maize H511. A 4x2 factorial blocked design was used. Thinning done at 112 DAP interaction effect was not significant; weeding regime was significant while planting density was highly significant. Herbicide use regime had highest mean dry matter yield of thinnings of 13.82 t/ha. High planting density showed the highest mean dry matter yield of thinning of 15.2 t/ha while low planting density showed the lowest of 8.7 t/ha. The treatment interaction on stover dry matter was not significant, while planting density and weeding regimes were significant. Two times hand cultivation gave the highest stover dry matter forage yield of 19.4 t/ha while weedy regime gave the least yield of 10.2t/ha. Low planting density which gave 11.1 t/ha. Hand cultivation-2 times had the highest grain dry matter yield of 5.03t/ha, while weedy regime had the least of 1.93t/ha. Low planting density had the highest grain dry matter yield of 4.9t/ha, while high planting density had the least yield of 2.4t/ha

  15. Effect of Seed Distribution and Population on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield

    Bee Khim Chim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize planting is normally accomplished by hand in the developing world where two or more seeds are placed per hill with a heterogeneous plant spacing and density. To understand the interaction between seed distribution and distance between hills, experiments were established in 2012 and 2013 at Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB and Efaw Agronomy Research Stations, near Stillwater, OK. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications and 9 treatments and a factorial treatment structure of 1, 2, and 3 seeds per hill using interrow spacing of 0.16, 0.32, and 0.48 m. Data for normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR, grain yield, and grain N uptake were collected. Results showed that, on average, NDVI and IPAR increased with number of seeds per hill and decreased with increasing plant spacing. In three of four site-years, planting 1 or 2 seeds per hill, 0.16 m apart, increased grain yield and N uptake. Over sites, planting 1 seed, every 0.16 m, increased yields by an average of 1.15 Mg ha−1 (range: 0.33 to 2.46 Mg ha−1 when compared to the farmer practice of placing 2 to 3 seeds per hill, every 0.48 m.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Correlation for Grain Yield and Quality Traits in Local Maize (Zea mays L.

    Sali ALIU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity and correlation analysis among yield and quality traits in 20 local maize populations. The study of variation included the quantity of grain yield, and quality traits such as protein, oil and starch content in grain. Results showed that there were significant differences among the populations. The mean grain yield of all populations was 79.33 g plant-1 and the highest in �GBK-7� (105.13 g plant-1. Protein and oil contents ranged between 11.02 to 13.02% and 2.56 to 5.57%, respectively and starch content varied from 68.58 to 70.92%. First two canonical discriminant functions were significant and the relevance of the first two discriminant functions justifying 95.80% variability among populations. There were also big differences regarding phenotypic correlations. Study suggests that the quality traits are phenotypically and genotypically highly variable and therefore very useful for breeding program.

  17. Effect of subsoil tillage depth on nutrient accumulation, root distribution, and grain yield in spring maize

    Hongguang Cai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of subsoiling depth on root morphology, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K uptake, and grain yield of spring maize. The results indicated that subsoil tillage promoted root development, increased nutrient accumulation, and increased yield. Compared with conventional soil management (CK, root length, root surface area, and root dry weight at 0–80 cm soil depth under subsoil tillage to 30 cm (T1 and subsoil tillage to 50 cm (T2 were significantly increased, especially the proportions of roots in deeper soil. Root length, surface area, and dry weight differed significantly among three treatments in the order of T2 > T1 > CK at the 12-leaf and early filling stages. The range of variation of root diameter in different soil layers in T2 treatment was the smallest, suggesting that roots were more likely to grow downwards with deeper subsoil tillage in soil. The accumulation of N, P, and K in subsoil tillage treatment was significantly increased, but the proportions of kernel and straw were different. In a comparison of T1 with T2, the grain accumulated more N and P, while K accumulation in kernel and straw varied in different years. Grain yield and biomass were increased by 12.8% and 14.6% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment. Although no significant differences between different subsoil tillage depths were observed for nutrient accumulation and grain yield, lodging resistance of plants was significantly improved in subsoil tillage to 50 cm, a characteristic that favors a high and stable yield under extreme environments.

  18. Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya

    Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

  19. Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits

    CONG YANG; LEI ZHANG; AIMIN JIA; TINGZHAO RONG

    2016-06-01

    Grain yield (GY) is one of the most important and complex quantitative traits in maize (Zea maysL.) breeding practice.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY and three kernel-related traits were detected in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs).One hundred and seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 168 insertion/deletion polymorphism markers (Indels) were usedto genotype RILs. Eight QTLs were found to be associated with four yield-related traits: GY, 100-kernel weight (HKW),10-kernel length (KL), and 10-kernel length width (KW). Each QTL explained between 5.96 (qKL2-1) and 13.05 (qKL1-1)per cent of the phenotypic variance. Notably, one common QTL, located at the marker interval betweenbnlg1893andchr2-236477(chromosomal bin 2.09) simultaneously controlled GY and HKW; another common QTL, at bin 2.03 was simulta-neously responsible for HKW and KW. Of the QTLs identified, only one pair of significant epistatic interaction involved inchromosomal region at bin 2.03 was detected for HKW; no significant QTL ×environment interactions were observed. Theseresults provide the common QTLs and for marker-assisted breeding

  20. Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits.

    Yang, Cong; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Aimin; Rong, Tingzhao

    2016-06-01

    Grain yield (GY) is one of the most important and complex quantitative traits in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding practice. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY and three kernel-related traits were detected in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). One hundred and seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 168 insertion/deletion polymorphism markers (Indels) were used to genotype RILs. Eight QTLs were found to be associated with four yield-related traits: GY, 100-kernel weight (HKW), 10-kernel length (KL), and 10-kernel length width (KW). Each QTL explained between 5.96 (qKL2-1) and 13.05 (qKL1-1) per cent of the phenotypic variance. Notably, one common QTL, located at the marker interval between bnlg1893 and chr2- 236477 (chromosomal bin 2.09) simultaneously controlled GY and HKW; another common QTL, at bin 2.03 was simultaneously responsible for HKW and KW. Of the QTLs identified, only one pair of significant epistatic interaction involved in chromosomal region at bin 2.03 was detected for HKW; no significant QTL × environment interactions were observed. These results provide the common QTLs and for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27350665

  1. Effects of shading on spike differentiation and grain yield formation of summer maize in the field

    Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J.; Jin, Libin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on tassel and ear development and yield formation of three summer maize hybrids Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking stage (R1) to physiological maturity stage (R6) (treatment S1), from the sixth extended leaf stage (V6) to R1 (treatment S2) and from seeding to R6 (treatment S3). Shading had no significant effect on the time from seeding to shoot emergence (VE); however, subsequent growth and development were delayed with shading beyond this point. The differentiation time of both tassel and ear delayed, and female spike (tassel) floret differentiation, sexual organ formation time, and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) were lengthened. After shading, the total number of floret, silk, and fertilization floret reduced significantly; the number of abortive seeds increased, and the total setting percentage among different treatments showed that CK>S2>S1>S3; and the total setting percentages in S1, S2, and S3 of ZD958 were 44, 72, and 15 % respectively. The total floret number of tassel primordium differentiation, fertility rate, and seed setting rate of florets in S3 treatment was the minimum; kernels per ear decreased seriously and single ear setting percentage was only 16 %; although floret degeneration number of S2 during ear differentiation stages increased and floret fertility rate reduced than that of CK, fertilization flower seed production increased and abortive seed decreased after canceling shading. Aborted kernel of S1 increased and kernel dry weight reduced, resulting in a significant decrease of kernel number per ear and kernel weight, and the grain abortive rate of 40-62 %. In conclusion, shading changed the growth and development process and caused infertility of tassel and ear; tassel branches decreased

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress.

    Ali, Fawad; Kanwal, Naila; Ahsan, Muhammmad; Ali, Qurban; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan. PMID:26798554

  3. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress

    Fawad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010–2012. Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i to construct seed yield equation and (ii to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%. Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P<0.05 with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate. The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight. Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.

  4. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  5. Effect of Microelements and Selenium on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme, Malondialdehyde Activity and Grain Yield Maize (Zea mays L.

    Masoud MASHHADIAKBAR BUJAR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using and microelements (with and without using as sub plots. The result indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde content under water deficit stress increased, but grain yield was reduced. The highest grain yield was obtained from optimum irrigation, while in the case of with water deficit stress at V8 stage it was non significant. Selenium spray increased activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme, malondialdehyde content of leaves in V8, R2 and R4 stages and also grain yield. Application of microelements increased the leaves superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content. Selenium and microelements spray under water deficit stress conditions during vegetative growth and dough stage increased grain yield in comparison to not spraying elements under water stress conditions. The present results also showed that by using selenium and microelements under water stress can obtain acceptable yield compared to not using these elements.

  6. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    Lovince Asimwe; Abiliza Kimambo; Germana Laswai; Louis Mtenga; Martin Weisbjerg; Jorgen Madsen; John Safari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary treatments namely hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and maize meal with molasses (MMMO). Ad ...

  7. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively

  8. Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance for grain yield and grain dry matter content in maize using AFLP markers associated with QTL.

    Schrag, T A; Melchinger, A E; Sørensen, A P; Frisch, M

    2006-10-01

    Prediction methods to identify single-cross hybrids with superior yield performance have the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid breeding programs. Our objectives were to (1) identify marker loci associated with quantitative trait loci for hybrid performance or specific combining ability (SCA) in maize, (2) compare hybrid performance prediction by genotypic value estimates with that based on general combining ability (GCA) estimates, and (3) investigate a newly proposed combination of the GCA model with SCA predictions from genotypic value estimates. A total of 270 hybrids was evaluated for grain yield and grain dry matter content in four Dent x Flint factorial mating experiments, their parental inbred lines were genotyped with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Markers associated significantly with hybrid performance and SCA were identified, genotypic values and SCA effects were estimated, and four hybrid performance prediction approaches were evaluated. For grain yield, between 38 and 98 significant markers were identified for hybrid performance and between zero and five for SCA. Estimates of prediction efficiency (R (2)) ranged from 0.46 to 0.86 for grain yield and from 0.59 to 0.96 for grain dry matter content. Models enhancing the GCA approach with SCA estimates resulted in the highest prediction efficiency if the SCA to GCA ratio was high. We conclude that it is advantageous for prediction of single-cross hybrids to enhance a GCA-based model with SCA effects estimated from molecular marker data, if SCA variances are of similar or larger importance as GCA variances. PMID:16896712

  9. Effect of presowing gamma irradiation of seeds on the growth, development and yield of maize grain and green mass

    The experiment was carried out during the 1982-1983 period with maize hybrids Px-20, Kn-611 and H-708 irradiated with 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 R. Gamma irradiation of the seeds had no unidirectional effect on the germinative power, laboratory and field germinating ability, volume of the root system (up to day 20 after germination), height of plants and cobbing, structural elements of the cobs and plants. Presowing seed germination with the three hybrids did not increase the grain yield neither that of the green mass and the dry matter. Under 500 R irradiation of the H-708 hybrid a reliable difference in the green mass yield was obtained only in 1982. 2 tabs., 8 refs

  10. Changes in Grain Yield of Rice and Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Paddy Fields after Application of Organic Fertilizers Made from Maize Straw

    MA Yi-hu; GU Dao-jian; LIU Li-jun; WANG Zhi-qin; ZHANG Hao; YANG Jian-chang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China, to study the effects of organic fertilizers made from maize straw on rice grain yield and the emission of greenhouse gases. Four organic fertilizer treatments were as follows:maize straw (MS), compost made from maize straw (MC), methane-generating maize residue (MR), and black carbon made from maize straw (BC). These organic fertilizers were applied separately to paddy fields before rice transplanting. No organic fertilizer was applied to the control (CK). The effects of each organic fertilizer on rice grain yield and emission of greenhouse gases were investigated under two conditions, namely, no nitrogen (N) application (0N) and site-specific N management (SSNM). Rice grain yields were significantly higher in the MS, MC and MR treatments than those in CK under either 0N or SSNM. The MS treatment resulted in the highest grain yield and agronomic N use efficiency. However, no significant difference was observed for these parameters between the BC treatment and CK. The changes in the emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), or nitrous oxide (N2O) from the fields were similar among all organic fertilizer treatments during the entire rice growing season. The application of each organic fertilizer significantly increased the emission of each greenhouse gas (except N2O emission in the BC treatment) and global warming potential (GWP). Emissions of all the greenhouse gases and GWP increased under the same organic fertilizer treatment in the presence of N fertilizer, whereas GWP per unit grain yield decreased. The results indicate that the application of organic fertilizer (MS, MC or MR) could increase grain yield, but also could enhance the emissions of greenhouse gases from paddy fields. High grain yield and environmental efficiency could be achieved by applying SSNM with MR.

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

  12. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF. PMID:20136000

  13. Stability Performance of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry-Phenotyped Kernel Minerals Concentration and Grain Yield in Maize in Different Agro-Climatic Zones.

    Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna

    Full Text Available Deficiency of iron and zinc causes micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger, which severely affects ~25% of global population. Genetic biofortification of maize has emerged as cost effective and sustainable approach in addressing malnourishment of iron and zinc deficiency. Therefore, understanding the genetic variation and stability of kernel micronutrients and grain yield of the maize inbreds is a prerequisite in breeding micronutrient-rich high yielding hybrids to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. We report here, the genetic variability and stability of the kernel micronutrients concentration and grain yield in a set of 50 maize inbred panel selected from the national and the international centres that were raised at six different maize growing regions of India. Phenotyping of kernels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed considerable variability for kernel minerals concentration (iron: 18.88 to 47.65 mg kg(-1; zinc: 5.41 to 30.85 mg kg(-1; manganese: 3.30 to 17.73 mg kg(-1; copper: 0.53 to 5.48 mg kg(-1 and grain yield (826.6 to 5413 kg ha(-1. Significant positive correlation was observed between kernel iron and zinc within (r = 0.37 to r = 0.52, p < 0.05 and across locations (r = 0.44, p < 0.01. Variance components of the additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI model showed significant genotype and genotype × environment interaction for kernel minerals concentration and grain yield. Most of the variation was contributed by genotype main effect for kernel iron (39.6%, manganese (41.34% and copper (41.12%, and environment main effects for both kernel zinc (40.5% and grain yield (37.0%. Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE biplot identified several mega environments for kernel minerals and grain yield. Comparison of stability parameters revealed AMMI stability value (ASV as the better representative of the AMMI stability parameters. Dynamic stability

  14. Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance in maize using haplotype blocks associated with QTL for grain yield.

    Schrag, Tobias A; Maurer, Hans Peter; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Peleman, Johan; Frisch, Matthias

    2007-05-01

    Marker-based prediction of hybrid performance facilitates the identification of untested single-cross hybrids with superior yield performance. Our objectives were to (1) determine the haplotype block structure of experimental germplasm from a hybrid maize breeding program, (2) develop models for hybrid performance prediction based on haplotype blocks, and (3) compare hybrid performance prediction based on haplotype blocks with other approaches, based on single AFLP markers or general combining ability (GCA), under a validation scenario relevant for practical breeding. In total, 270 hybrids were evaluated for grain yield in four Dent x Flint factorial mating experiments. Their parental inbred lines were genotyped with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Adjacent marker loci were combined into haplotype blocks. Hybrid performance was predicted on basis of single marker loci and haplotype blocks. Prediction based on variable haplotype block length resulted in an improved prediction of hybrid performance compared with the use of single AFLP markers. Estimates of prediction efficiency (R(2)) ranged from 0.305 to 0.889 for marker-based prediction and from 0.465 to 0.898 for GCA-based prediction. For inter-group hybrids with predominance of general over specific combining ability, the hybrid prediction from GCA effects was efficient in identifying promising hybrids. Considering the advantage of haplotype block approaches over single marker approaches for the prediction of inter-group hybrids, we see a high potential to substantially improve the efficiency of hybrid breeding programs. PMID:17323040

  15. Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China

    BAI Jin-shun; CAO Wei-dong; XIONG Jing; ZENG Nao-hua; GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of more efifcient management systems is crucial to achieving high grain yields with high nitrogen use efifciency (NUE). February Orchid-spring maize rotation system is a newly established planting system with the beneifts of ground cover and potential wind erosion in northern China. A ifeld experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with reduction of chemical fertilizers (INTEGRATED) on spring maize yield, N uptake, ammonium volatilization, and soil residual mineral N in northern China. Compared to farmers’ traditional fertilization (CON), integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizers (INTEGRATED) increased maize grain yield and biomass by 9.9 and 10.2%, respectively. The 0–100 cm soil residual Nmin at harvest was decreased by 58.5% and thus nitrogen use efifciency was increased signiifcantly by 26.7%. The nitrogen balance calculation further demonstrated that the INTEGRATED approach performed better than CON with lower apparent nitrogen loss (decreased by 48.9%) which evidenced by the ammonium volatilization of top-dressing fertilizer was decreased by 31.1%, the Nmin movement to the deeper soil layers was reduced, and the apparent nitrogen leaching loss nearly equal to 0 under the INTEGRATED treatment. Therefore, in northern China, integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizers is an efifcient management approach for improving maize yields and NUE simultaneously.

  16. The Effect of Rainfall Characteristics and Tillage on Sheet Erosion and Maize Grain Yield in Semiarid Conditions and Granitic Sandy Soils of Zimbabwe

    Adelaide Munodawafa

    2012-01-01

    In semiarid regions, rainfall is one of the primary factors affecting soil erosion and crop production under rain-fed agriculture. The study sought to quantify the effect of rainfall characteristics on sheet erosion and maize grain yield under different tillage systems. It was carried out under semiarid conditions and infertile sandy soils of Zimbabwe. Rainfall amount and intensity were recorded every 24 hours, while sheet erosion was measured from four tillage systems (Conventional Tillage (...

  17. Metabolite Profiles of Maize Leaves in Drought, Heat, and Combined Stress Field Trials Reveal the Relationship between Metabolism and Grain Yield.

    Obata, Toshihiro; Witt, Sandra; Lisec, Jan; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Yousfi, Salima; Araus, Jose Luis; Cairns, Jill E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-12-01

    The development of abiotic stress-resistant cultivars is of premium importance for the agriculture of developing countries. Further progress in maize (Zea mays) performance under stresses is expected by combining marker-assisted breeding with metabolite markers. In order to dissect metabolic responses and to identify promising metabolite marker candidates, metabolite profiles of maize leaves were analyzed and compared with grain yield in field trials. Plants were grown under well-watered conditions (control) or exposed to drought, heat, and both stresses simultaneously. Trials were conducted in 2010 and 2011 using 10 tropical hybrids selected to exhibit diverse abiotic stress tolerance. Drought stress evoked the accumulation of many amino acids, including isoleucine, valine, threonine, and 4-aminobutanoate, which has been commonly reported in both field and greenhouse experiments in many plant species. Two photorespiratory amino acids, glycine and serine, and myoinositol also accumulated under drought. The combination of drought and heat evoked relatively few specific responses, and most of the metabolic changes were predictable from the sum of the responses to individual stresses. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between levels of glycine and myoinositol and grain yield under drought. Levels of myoinositol in control conditions were also related to grain yield under drought. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models very well explained the variation of grain yield via the combination of several metabolites. These results indicate the importance of photorespiration and raffinose family oligosaccharide metabolism in grain yield under drought and suggest single or multiple metabolites as potential metabolic markers for the breeding of abiotic stress-tolerant maize. PMID:26424159

  18. Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize

    In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm2. Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency (15NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ℃) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

  19. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    M. Temesgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX. Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS and without subsoiling (ST were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV. Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season−1, the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season−1, the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha−1 and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m−3 followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season−1, T=178 mm-season−1, Y=1840 kg-ha−1, WPET=0.60 kg-m−3 and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season−1,T=158 mm

  20. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  1. Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test-cross populations of maize

    One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU1 population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS test crosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. In second studied population the highest value of coefficient of correlations also was found between grain yield and kernel row number, but that relation was negative. Path coefficient analysis provides more information among variables than do correlation coefficients. Because of that goal of this study also was founding the direct and indirect effects of morphological traits on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for ear height, in both studied populations. Plant height, in both test cross populations, kernel row number and oil content, at B73 test crosses, has high significant undesirable effect on grain yield. (author)

  2. Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency

    Akhilesh Mishra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L. based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria sole, pea (Pisum sativum L. sole, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. sole, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. mend. Fiori and Paol. sole, maize + potato (1:1,maize + mustard (1:1, maize + toria (1:2, maize + pea (1:2, maize + linseed (1:2 and maize + toria (1:2, were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Maize + potato system recorded higher yield attributes and grain yield of maize followed by maize + pea than sole stand of maize. potato was showed most compatible intercrop planted with winter maize as it gave higher maize-equivalent yield, land-equivalent ratio, productivity, monetary returns and lowered weed population, weed dry-biomass and highest weed-control efficiency under irrigated conditions of central Uttar Pradesh. Pea was the next best intercrop with winter maize.

  3. Economic effectiveness of irradiation with gamma rays on maize grains

    Gamma irradiation of maize grains before sowing increses the yield and improves the quality of agricultural produce. The positive results consist in the net income from silage maize from 45 to 85 per ha and from the grain maize from 85 to 109,9 per ha; the level of raw protein from the silage maize with 11,30% and from the grain maize with 6 to 12%; the level of feed units from the silage maize with 5 to 13% and from grain maize with 6 to 12%. Such direct effect in the same time is a stimulating one and raises the effectiveness of the animal production due to the better feeding of animals

  4. Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.

    Avat Shekoofa

    Full Text Available Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva; Antonio Saraiva Muniz; Anny Rosi Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé Porto; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; Antonio Nolla; Ivan Grannemann

    2011-01-01

    The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was s...

  6. Soil water extraction, water use, and grain yield by drought tolerant maize on the Texas High Plains

    Anticipated water shortages pose a challenge to the sustainability of maize (Zea mays L.) production on the Texas High Plains. Adoption of drought tolerant (DT) hybrids is a critical management strategy for maize production under water limited conditions. However, limited information is available co...

  7. Meat yield and quality of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses/maize grain with agro-processing by-products in 90 days feedlot period

    Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A E; Laswai, G;

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding molasses or maize grain with agro-processing by-products on yield and quality of meat from Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSZ) cattle. Forty five steers aged 2.5 to 3.0 years with 200 +/- 5.4 kg body weight were allocated into five dietary......) and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were determined on M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Steers fed on HFMO diet had higher (P < 0.05) nutrient intake (86.39 MJ/d energy; 867 g/d CP), weight gain (919 g/d) and half carcass weight (75.8 kg) than those fed other...

  8. Tillage and straw mulching impacts on grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in Northern Huang-Huai-Hai Valley

    Zhiqiang Tao; Congfeng Li; Jingjing Li; Zaisong Ding; Jie Xu; Xuefang Sun; Peilu Zhou; Ming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A two-year field experiment (2012–2013) was conducted to investigate the effects of two tillage methods and five maize straw mulching patterns on the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize (Zea mays L.) in the northern Huang–Huai–Hai valley of China. Compared to rotary tillage, subsoil tillage resulted in decreases in water consumption by 6.3–7.8% and increases in maize yield by 644.5–673.9 kg ha−1, soil water content by 2.9–3.0%, and WUE by 12.7–15.2%. Chopped straw mulching led to higher yield, soil water content, and WUE as well as lower water consumption than prostrate whole straw mulching. Mulching with 50%chopped straw had the largest positive effects on maize yield, soil water content, and WUE among the five mulching treatments. Tillage had greater influence on maize yield than straw mulching, whereas straw mulching had greater influence on soil water content, water consumption, and WUE than tillage. These results suggest that 50%chopped straw mulching with subsoil tillage is beneficial in spring maize production aiming at high yield and high WUE in the Huang–Huai–Hai valley.

  9. Tillage and straw mulching impacts on grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in Northern Huang–Huai–Hai Valley

    Zhiqiang; Tao; Congfeng; Li; Jingjing; Li; Zaisong; Ding; Jie; Xu; Xuefang; Sun; Peilu; Zhou; Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A two-year field experiment(2012–2013) was conducted to investigate the effects of two tillage methods and five maize straw mulching patterns on the yield, water consumption,and water use efficiency(WUE) of spring maize(Zea mays L.) in the northern Huang–Huai–Hai valley of China. Compared to rotary tillage, subsoil tillage resulted in decreases in water consumption by 6.3–7.8% and increases in maize yield by 644.5–673.9 kg ha-1, soil water content by 2.9–3.0%, and WUE by 12.7–15.2%. Chopped straw mulching led to higher yield,soil water content, and WUE as well as lower water consumption than prostrate whole straw mulching. Mulching with 50% chopped straw had the largest positive effects on maize yield, soil water content, and WUE among the five mulching treatments. Tillage had greater influence on maize yield than straw mulching, whereas straw mulching had greater influence on soil water content, water consumption, and WUE than tillage. These results suggest that 50% chopped straw mulching with subsoil tillage is beneficial in spring maize production aiming at high yield and high WUE in the Huang–Huai–Hai valley.

  10. 重金属胁迫后效对玉米产量的影响%Later Effects of Various Heavy Metal Stress on Maize Grain Yields in Wheat-Maize Rotation Systems

    聂胜委; 黄绍敏; 张水清; 张巧萍; 郭斗斗

    2013-01-01

    以不添加重金属的土壤为对照(CK),5种重金属分别以2种梯度添加量1(Cd1、Pb1、Cr1、Hg1、As1);2( Cd2、Pb2、Cr2、Hg2、As2)添加到土壤中,研究在大田条件下经过小麦1季或小麦-玉米-小麦3季作物种植后,重金属胁迫后效对玉米产量的影响。结果表明,5种重金属处理的玉米穗轴质量、生物产量与CK持平或高于CK,其中Hg2、Cd2、Hg1、As2处理玉米穗轴质量显著高于CK;玉米穗轴质量、单穗籽粒质量、经济系数在同一重金属不同质量浓度间均表现为:高质量浓度>低质量浓度;经过小麦1季种植后,重金属( Cr1除外)处理玉米籽粒产量高于CK,其中Cd1、Pb1、Hg1处理玉米籽粒产量较高,分别达到了8276.7,8059.9,7879.5 kg/hm2,而且Cd1、Pb1处理显著高于CK (6675.5 kg/hm2)。%In this article,five heavy metals were added into the soil with gradient addition amount (Cd1,Pb1, Cr1,Hg1,As1;Cd2,Pb2,Cr2,Hg2,As2),and the later effects of five heavy metals (Cd,Pb,As,Hg,Cr) stress on maize grain yields after wheat planted one season and wheat-maize-wheat planted three seasons ,were analyzed .The results showed that weight of corncobs and biomass under five heavy mentals stress treatments were not lower than that of CK treatment;and weight of corncobs under Hg2,Cd2,Hg1,As2 treatments were significantly higher than that of CK treatment .For the same heavy metal ,weight of axis,weight of grain yield per plant ,economical coefficient values were all higher in higher dose than lower dose .After wheat planted one season , maize grain yields under heavy mental stress treatments ( except Cr1 treatment ) were higher compared with that under CK treatment ,maize grain yields were higher under Cd1 (8 276.7 kg/ha),Pb1 (8 059.9 kg/ha),and Hg1 (7 879.5 kg/ha) treat-ments,especially under Cd1,Pb1 stress,significantly higher than CK (6 675.5 kg/ha) treatment.

  11. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  12. Effects of the Alternatively Interspaced Furrow Irrigation on Maize Root Distribution and Grain Yield, and Its Water-saving Benefits

    LIANG Zong-suo; KANG Shao-zhong; SHAO Min-gan; DENG Xi-ping; PAN Yin-ghua

    2001-01-01

    A test of three types of irrigation was carried out in the oasis area of the arid region in Minqin County for the study of the effects of the controllable alternatively root-partitioned irrigation (CARI) on corn ( Zea mays L. ) growth, root distribution, and the water-saving benefits. The research results showed that the alternatively interspaced furrow irrigation (AIFI) could significantly increase the water use efficiency of irrigation. The water use efficiency of the FI was 2.6 - 2.7kg/m3 and that of the AIFI reached more than 4.0kg/m3. The total water use efficiency of the AIFI reached more 2.98 kg/m3. Although the kernel yields of the AIFI remained to be more than 8000kg/ha in the two years, the irrigated water amounts declined from 3250m3/ha to 1575m3/ha. Thus the AIFI could save irrigation water by more than 33.3%, but did not severely reduce the corn yields. The wetting-drying alternation of the AIFI could stimulate the root growth, increase the root density and enhance the balanced root distribution; the dryness of partial root zone formed by the AIFI stimulated the roots to form the root signals to regulate the stomata openness, reduce the evaporation through the clearances among the plants, raise the evaporation efficiency and save the irrigation water.

  13. Influence of Seed Size on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Three Maize Genotypes

    Aman Ullah Chaudhry; M. Ikram Ullah

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size on maize (Zea mays L.) performance. Among three genotypes under study the seed size categories and their interaction showed non significant effect on yield, yield components, photo biomass production and quality of maize under Faisalabad agro-meteorological conditions. All the parameters including germination, number of plants per plot, plant height, number of cobs per plant, number of rows per cob, number of grains p...

  14. Climate Change and Maize Yield in Iowa

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output from six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10–20% by the end of the 21st century. PMID:27219116

  15. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  16. Yields and Yield Components of Maize (Zea Mays L. and Soybean (Glycine Max as Affected by Different Tillage Methods

    Kvaternjak Ivka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the experiment station of the Krizevci College of Agriculture, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max grown in rotation under five different methods of tillage were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of maize and soybean. The results and the determined number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean show that more favorable conditions for germination are in variants where ploughing performed in the autumn (variants C, D and E. During a four-year study, the minimum number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean was found in variant A. The dry season in panicle stage of maize in 2006 has lowered yields compared to 2008, and the drought in 2007 during the seed-filling period reduced the yield and the 1000 kernel weight of soybean compared with 2009 in all variants of tillage methods. The highest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant B. During 2006, with the unfavorable weather conditions, the lowest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant E with intensive tillage treatment. The highest yield of soybean was recorded in variant E, but there were no statistically significant differences compared to variants with the reduction of additional tillage interventions (variant B, C and D. With respect to maize grain and soybean seed yield, variant A was the lowest. Considering the achieved yields of maize grain, there is a possibility of reducing additional tillage interventions, whilst for achieving higher yield of soybean seed intensive tillage is recommended.

  17. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.

    Boćanski Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis requires the study of combining abilities of potential parents. In view of this, the objective of this paper was to study combining abilities and determine the mode of inheritance and gene effects for the main agronomic character, grain yield, and its components, kernel row number and kernel number per row. Six inbred lines were used in the study, three of which originated in the U.S., while the other three were developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Kernel row number was inherited by superdominance, partial dominance, complete dominance and intermediacy. The mode of inheritance of kernel number per row and grain yield was superdominance. Additive gene action had the greatest influence on the expression of kernel row number, while the other two traits were influenced the most by nonadditive gene.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Nutrition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism at Late Growing Stage and Grain Yield Formation in Spring Maize

    2000-01-01

    Study on the relationship between grain yield formation and metabolism of carbon and nitrogen as influenced by N and K nutrition level during maturation was carried out through field experiments and biochemistry analyses. The results confirmed that it was necessary to maintain a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant N supplies for root at late growing stages. The soluble protein content, RuBPC and PEPC activities in leaves, harvest index(HI) and harvest index of nitrogen (HIN)increased obviously with appropriate N and K application rate, which accelerated C and N translocation from vegetative parts to grain, enhanced photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant(but not excessive)N supply for root during late growing period.

  19. Tillage, Residue, Fertilizer and Weed Management on Phenology and Yield of Spring Maize in Terai, Nepal

    Saugat Dahal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of developing crop management technologies that reduce the yield gap of maize (Zea mays L. in Nepal, a study was carried-out to determine whether the grain yield of maize could be manipulated through tillage, residue, and nutrient and weed management practices. The effect of tillage (conventional and no tillage, residue (residue retained and residue removed, fertilizer (recommended doses of fertilizer and farmers’ doses of fertilizer and weed management practices (herbicide use and manual weeding on phenology and grain yield of maize were investigated under maize-rice cropping system in Rampur, Nepal during 2013. The experimental results revealed that no tillage had significant effect on grain yield (6.64 Mg ha-1 and phenological parameters like days to silking, physiological maturity and seed fill duration. Similarly, residue retained treatment had significant effect on grain yield (7.02 Mg ha-1 and phenological parameters. Research dose of fertilizer had significant effect on phenological parameters and grain yield (8.42 Mg ha-1. However, weed management factor did not influence significantly on grain yield and phenological parameters. The grain yield increased in no tillage by 23.19% over conventional tillage, residue retained by 39.84% over residue removed, recommended doses of fertilizer by 132.60% over farmer dose of fertilizer. Thus, no tillage, residue retention, recommended doses of fertilizer and use of herbicide for weed management can be alternative technologies for sustainable higher grain yield.

  20. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting grain yield and its components of maize both in single-and two-locus levels

    YAN Jianbing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yiqin; ZHENG Yonglian; SUBHASH Chander; LI Jiansheng

    2006-01-01

    By adding thirty-one markers in the previous linkage map, a new genetic linkage map containing 205 markers was constructed, spanning a total of 2305.4 cM with an average interval of 11.2 cM. The genotypic errors in the whole genome were detected by the statistical method and removed manually. The precision of the linkage map was improved significantly. Main and epistatic QTL were detected by R/qtl, and main QTL were confirmed and refined by multiple interval mapping (MIM). Finally, MIM detected seven QTL for rows number, and five QTL for each grain yield, kernels per row and 100-kernel weight. The contribution to genetic variations of QTL varied from 35.3% for grain yield to 61.5% for rows number. Only kernels per row exhibited significant epistatic interactions between QTL. Twenty-four epistatic QTL were detected which distributed on almost all the ten chromosomes. About two-third epistatic QTL were observed between main QTL and another locus, which had no significant effects. These results indicate rather clearly that there are a number of QTL affecting trait expressions, not directly but indirectly through interactions with other loci. Thus, epistatic QTL effects may play a crucial role, if not more important than main QTL effects, in the genetic variation for the measured traits in present study.

  1. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  2. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas

  3. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumon...

  4. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

    Nikolić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  5. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  6. Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido

    Mércio Luiz Strieder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m, two hybrids (Penta and Flash and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 × 2 × 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.A redução do espaçamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuição entre plantas na área e pode incrementar a produtividade de grãos. Os benefícios da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas na produtividade de grãos de híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo

  7. Tillage, Residue, Fertilizer and Weed Management on Phenology and Yield of Spring Maize in Terai, Nepal

    Saugat Dahal; Tika Bahadur Karki; Lal Prasad Amgain; Birendra Kumar Bhattachan

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing crop management technologies that reduce the yield gap of maize (Zea mays L.) in Nepal, a study was carried-out to determine whether the grain yield of maize could be manipulated through tillage, residue, and nutrient and weed management practices. The effect of tillage (conventional and no tillage), residue (residue retained and residue removed), fertilizer (recommended doses of fertilizer and farmers’ doses of fertilizer) and weed management practices (herbicide u...

  8. Maize growth and yield in Peshawar under changing climate

    Global climate change is consequence of accumulating greenhouse gases (Carbon) at lower atmosphere which might affects crops growth and yield. Maize is an important summer cereals, grown on considerable area in Pakistan every year. We, therefore, study the delay sowing response with changing climate on maize. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design. Sowing was done from June 8 to July 24, 2010 with ten days intervals. Mazie (cv. Azam) was planted in rows at 0.75 m distance in NS orientations. Crop was raised under the uniform recommended cultural practices. Data regarding days to emergence, tasseling and maturity showed a consecutive decrease when so wing was delayed form June 08 onwards. However, the crop life cycle (i.e. vegetative and reproductive durations) initially remained uniform but expanded for late sowing dates (July). Delay sowing showed an increase in the leaf area index with an abrupt decline for the late sown crop. Nonetheless, plant stand at harvest remained static during the growth for all sowing dates. A stable to moderate reduction was noticed in ear length (cm) when sowings was delayed from Jun 08 onwards. Grain rows cob/-1 did not influence by the delay sowing in the season. Moreover, delay sowing did not show any significant (P<0.05) change for the grain number. However, thousand grains weight was initially remained stable but declined (P<0.05) by delay in sowing. Biological yield, dry matter and grains yield (g m/sup -2/) revealed almost a similar decreasing trend when sowing was delayed. Dry matter to grain yield relationship was linear (r/sup 2/ = 0.95) and revealed a mean loss of 1.65 g m/sup 2/ when sowing delayed from June 08 to July 24 in the season. Radiation use efficiency (RUE), the growth function, was also declined by the delay in sowing. We inferred that losses in leaf area indices, ear length and grain weights were basis of the

  9. Fungal Diversity of Maize (Zea Mays L. Grains

    Gulbis Kaspars

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is becoming more and more important crop for dairy farming as forage and as substrate for biogas production. The mycotoxin producing fungi can spoil feed, reduce cattle productivity and cause health problems. The aim of this research was to study the mycoflora of maize grains in order to clarify the fungal composition and verify the presence of potential mycotoxin producing fungi. The grain samples were collected from different maize hybrid performance trial in Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of Latvia University of Agriculture in 2014. The fungi from 14 genera were isolated from surface sterilized grains. The most abundant were Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. Mycotoxin producing fungi are present in maize grain mycoflora, and there is a risk that maize production can contain mycotoxins.

  10. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  11. High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.

    Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2012-01-24

    Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

  12. Impact of contour hedgerows on maize yields in the Philippines

    Shively, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper investigates the impact of contour hedgerows on maize yields. The author applies and agricultural production function to assess data from upland Philippine maize farms and hedgerows of double rows of the nitrogen-fixing species Desmodium rensonii and Flemengia macrophylla. Although the findings show a positive long term impact on maize yields, the short term impact of hedgerows is negative; they reduce land available for cultivation and decrease productivity...

  13. Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe

    In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

  14. The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat

    Ivica Kisić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

  15. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    Wolf, J. [Department of Theoretical Production Ecology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Diepen, C.A. [DLO the Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined. Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also assessed. The various climate change scenarios used appear to yield considerably different changes in yield, both for each location and for the EU as a whole. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the grain yield of Nigerian Zea mays and Arachis hypogaea

    As a follow-up to our earlier investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on the germination and growth of certain Nigerian agricultural crops, the present study sought to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the grain yield of Zea mays (maize) and Arachis hypogaea (groundnut). The seeds were planted after irradiation without the application of fertiliser. The results show that for maize, grain yield for irradiated samples is increased to levels above the unirradiated yield at doses up to about 250 Gy with the optimum yield occurring at 150 Gy. The corresponding increase for groundnut is observed at doses up to about 930 Gy with optimum yield at a dose of 300 Gy. Inhibition in yield was observed to set in at a dose greater than 250 Gy for maize and 930 Gy for groundnut. The actual relationship between mean yield of these crops and gamma radiation dose was obtained using sixth-degree polynomial equations. (note)

  17. Selection on uniformity and yield stability in maize

    Živanović Tomislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, both the introduction of double-cross hybrids and use of single crosses have caused the increase in grain yield and significantly improved agricultural practice. Nowadays, the uniformity of crops is regarded as an advantage of modern agriculture, since the uniformity of products is crucial in global market. Thus, uniformity of crop maturation provides both planning and efficient mechanized harvest. F1 single-cross hybrids of maize, which is an allogamous species, not only exploit heterosis, but also impose homogeneity. Basically, the uniformity of hybrids has been regarded as their crucial advantage. There are two aspects of hybrid maize uniformity: (i genetic homogeneity and (ii genetic stability. Genetic homogeneity refers to presence of identical genotypes, whereas genetic stability refers to phenotypic uniformity (homeostasis in different environments. At present, yield performance of inbreds has not advanced as rapidly as performance of hybrids, especially in stressful environments. Focusing on inbred productivity combined with stability may be more appropriate strategy in the future. Poor farmers are not able to employ superior genotypes because they require considerable financial investment and farmers survive not due to high yield in good seasons, but due to enduring extreme ones. Breeding process may create genotypes in favorable seasons when genetic variance is maximal and environmental influence is minimal, which should be followed by breeding for different environments. The aim of such breeding are, most probably, genotypes intended for a specific set of conditions which, in fact, represents a convergence of two strategies of plant breeding. One should probably bear in mind the strategy of both yield improvement and survival of farmers in extreme conditions without decreasing yield of best genotypes, especially those adapted only to favorable conditions. Solution to this problem should be: financial (best

  18. Effects of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties

    The study was conducted during the fall of 1991 and 1992 at Al-Latyfia Experimental Station to determine the effect of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties. Five doses were used in addition to control. A factorial experiment with randomized complete block design in three replications was used in the study. Results revealed that there was significant difference between varieties in plant and ear height in 1992. However, differences between varieties were also significantly affected by most yield component characters. Low doses significantly affected plant height, weight of 500 kernels in 1991, and kernel row number in 1992. Grain yield was affected significantly in 1991 and 1992 by low doses. Results showed that 2.0 krad was the most useful low dose to increase grain yield, whereas there was no significant effect between varieties in grain yield. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Eficiência da irrigação em rendimento de grãos e matéria seca de milho Irrigation efficiency for grain and dry matter yields of maize crop

    João Ito Bergonci

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da irrigação e o efeito do déficit hídrico sobre o rendimento de grãos e o acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea de uma cultura de milho. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, durante quatro anos agrícolas, de 1993/94 a 1996/97. Utilizando um delineamento experimental em faixas com aspersores em linha, foram aplicados cinco níveis de irrigação, da capacidade de campo à ausência de irrigação. Os rendimentos de grãos foram crescentes com aumentos no nível de irrigação até 80% da dose necessária para a capacidade de campo; a máxima eficiência da irrigação foi obtida entre 60 e 80% e esteve associada a déficits hídricos durante o período crítico da cultura, alcançando 40 kg ha-1 mm-1. Por outro lado, a maior eficiência da irrigação para produção de matéria seca da parte aérea foi obtida com déficits hídricos prolongados durante o período de crescimento exponencial da cultura. Reduções no rendimento de grãos, causadas por déficit hídrico, estiveram relacionadas com a redução do número de grãos por espiga e por metro quadrado, já que o peso médio de grãos não foi afetado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation, as well as the effect of water deficits, upon the grain yield and on the aerial biomass production by a maize crop. A field experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil, during four crop seasons, from 1993/94 to 1996/97. Using a line source sprinkler design, the crop was submitted to five levels of irrigation, ranging from field capacity to rainfed conditions. Increasing grain yields were observed as the water supply increased up to 80% of the level necessary for field capacity; the highest efficiency of irrigation was promoted between 60 and 80% levels and it was obtained when the water

  20. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento. Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos.The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with

  1. Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties

    Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

  2. Yield responses of maize as influenced by supplemental foliar applied phosphorus under drought stress

    Zahoor Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a grave threat to cereals production including maize. A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar applied phosphorus @ 8 kg ha-1 at 8th leaf stage on yield and yield components of four maize hybrids i.e two drought tolerant (6525, 32B33 and two drought sensitive (Hycorn and 31P41 under normal and water stress conditions. RCBD with factorial arrangement were employed to lay out the experiment with a net plot size of 4.75 m x 5 m with three replication at research area of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. The foliar applied phosphorus @ 8 kg ha-1 at 8th leaf stage of maize significantly affect the yield and yield parameters in both drought tolerant and sensitive hybrids. The water stress decreased the 1000-grain weight (21.2%, grain yield (21.3% and biological yield (22.4% as compared to normal irrigation. The both drought tolerant hybrids of maize (6525 and 32B33 performed better than drought sensitive hybrids (Hycorn and 31P41 under normal and water stress conditions.

  3. Occurrence of Fusarium species in maize grains for silage

    Krnjaja V.; Lević J.; Stanković S.; Bijelić Z.; Mandić V.; Stojanović Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Grain samples of two maize hybrids, medium early (ZP434) and late maturity (ZP704), collected during harvest in 2008 were investigated for contamination by fungi. Grains were plated on agar media and grown fungi were identified by morphological macroscopic and microscopic characteristics on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and synthetic nutrient agar (SNA). Species of the genus Fusarium were the most common in both hybrids, and their presence amounted to 33.89% (...

  4. A genetic base of utilisation of maize grain as a valuable renewable raw material for bioethanol production

    Semenčenko Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. Many studies have shown that the kernel composition and starch structure of maize are highly influenced by genetic background of the maize. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch, which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production. This study was conducted with aim to understand how different genetic background affects bioethanol yield and other fermentation properties of the selected maize genotypes in the process of maize grain- based bioethanol production. Twenty seven maize hybrids, including genotypes of standard chemical composition as well as specialty maize hybrids such as popping, waxy, white kernel and red kernel hybrids, developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, were investigated in this study. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w obtained for hybrid ZP 611k after 48 h of fermentation and the highest by genotype ZP 434 (8.96% w/w. A very significant positive correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation, as well as volumetric productivity (48h (r=0.67. Between bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation and soft endosperm content in kernel of the investigated ZP maize hybrids a very significant positive correlation was assessed (r=0.66. Higher overall bioethanol yields have been obtained from genotypes containing higher starch and lower protein and lipid contents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  5. Maize yield response to water supply and fertilizer input in a semi-arid environment of Northeast China.

    Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Fasheng; Hao, Liang; Cong, Peifei; Liu, Zuoxin

    2014-01-01

    Maize grain yield varies highly with water availability as well as with fertilization and relevant agricultural management practices. With a 311-A optimized saturation design, field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2009 to examine the yield response of spring maize (Zhengdan 958, Zea mays L) to irrigation (I), nitrogen fertilization (total nitrogen, urea-46% nitrogen,) and phosphorus fertilization (P2O5, calcium superphosphate-13% P2O5) in a semi-arid area environment of Northeast China. According to our estimated yield function, the results showed that N is the dominant factor in determining maize grain yield followed by I, while P plays a relatively minor role. The strength of interaction effects among I, N and P on maize grain yield follows the sequence N+I >P+I>N+P. Individually, the interaction effects of N+I and N+P on maize grain yield are positive, whereas that of P+I is negative. To achieve maximum grain yield (10506.0 kg · ha(-1)) for spring maize in the study area, the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 930.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 304.9 kg · ha(-1) and 133.2 kg · ha(-1) respectively that leads to a possible economic profit (EP) of 10548.4 CNY · ha(-1) (CNY, Chinese Yuan). Alternately, to obtain the best EP (10827.3 CNY · ha(-1)), the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 682.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 241.0 kg · ha(-1) and 111.7 kg · ha(-1) respectively that produces a potential grain yield of 10289.5 kg · ha(-1). PMID:24465896

  6. Sensitivity of CERES-Maize yield simulation to the selected weather data

    Sensitivity analysis of selected weather data runs after successful parametrization and validation of the CERES-Maize simulation model. Estimation of the potential yield has been carried out during the long term experiment (1980-1997) as well as the estimation of influence of meteorological parameters on the simulation results for the water-limited yield. 10 % under and over stimulation of global radiation and precipitation as well as increasing and decreasing temperature by 1 deg C on simulated potential and water-limited yield have been done. In most of the years, air temperature underestimation resulted in a higher simulated grain yield and overstimulation shown a lower yield for water limited level. Overestimation of precipitation during wet days in growing period of the maize leads to an increase of amount of water available for the plant and to increase the yield. Underestimation of global radiation by 10 % resulted in a decline in simulated grain yield from -8.8 to -9.9 %. The overestimation caused increase of the yield from 7.8 to 10 %. Overestimation by 10 % resulted in a slight underestimation of the yield in low yielding years and underestimation of global radiation by 10 % in overestimation of the yield. The effect was opposite in high yielding years

  7. Response of Grain Weight of Maize to Variety, Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the response of grain weight of maize to variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factional layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15cm and evaluated for the grain weight. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety which produced yield of 2.1 tha-1 in 2008 and 2.3 tha-1 in 2009 was superior. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for farmers who prefer local varieties in maize production. (ii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizers for increased grain weight of maize should apply 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10. (iii Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

  8. Effect of tillage system on soil properties and yield of Oba 98 maize variety in Zaria

    A. Namakka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria loses significant amount of soil, organic matter and plant nutrients to the continuous tilling of soil for various crop production. This leads to declining and stagnation of crop yields. Three year field trials were conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons at the experimental farm of Institute for Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Lat. 11° 11' N: Long 7° 38' E: 686 m above sea level to investigate the effect of tillage system on soil chemical properties, physical properties and grain yield of Oba 98 maize variety. The treatments consisted of six tillage systems laid out in Complete Randomize Block Design and replicated five times. The parameters measured included soil chemical properties such as ions concentrations and Cation Exchange Capacity, soil textural class, soil bulk density and grain yield of the maize under test. The results obtained indicated that GPx (Glyphosate followed by Primextra Gold and PPx (Paraquat followed by Primextra Gold tillage systems enhanced soil nutrients with higher Cation Exchange Capacity, highest cations and anions concentrations due to organic matter accumulation in the soil, improved soil structure that resulted to better grain yield of maize. The two types of tillage systems will therefore help in reducing the effect of soil degradation through frequent tilling and also improved soil aggregate and fertility as a result of organic matter accumulation on the soil surface.

  9. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  10. Mulch Induced Eco-physiological Growth and Yield of Maize

    Awal, M. A.; M.A.H. Khan

    2000-01-01

    Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on growth, dry matter partitioning, earliness, yield attributes and yield of maize were studied. All mulches except sawdust significantly influenced the SLA, CGR, NAR and DM partitioning, but with no apparent effect on RGR. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches hastened the tasseling, silking and maturity time by 6, 8 and 8 days respectively and produced double the amount of biological and economic yield as compared to the contro...

  11. Dynamics of incidence and frequency of populations of Fusarium species on stored maize grain

    Krnjaja V.; Lević J.; Tomić Z.; Nešić Z.; Stojanović Lj.; Trenkovski S.

    2007-01-01

    Production and providing of high quality maize grain are of primary importance for livestock production since maize is the main component of livestock feed. Contamination with fungi not only diminishes the quality of grain, but some fungi species can produce highly toxic compounds known as mycotoxins. Considering that maize is economically the most important grown plant in Serbia, content and intensity of frequency of these pathogen fungi species are investigated in maize stored in the storag...

  12. Response of Maize (Zea mays L. Grown for Grain After the Application of Sewage Sludge

    Grażyna SZYMAŃSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the agricultural use of sewage sludge in corn for grain, in the year of application and follow up effect after one and two years after its application. The study was conducted on the variety PR39G12 on the field after the 5-year monoculture corn. Sewage sludge was used in accordance with the Directive of Minister of Environment allowing application of 10 t dry mater per ha-1 once every five years. Fertilization with sludge of maize grown for grain did not cause differences in the growth and development of plants, compared to mineral fertilized objects, as well as did not exceed the limit value for heavy metals content in above-ground plant parts. Maize grown using sewage sludge yielded higher than the objects fertilized with mineral, especially in conditions of extreme drought, which occurred in 2006. Beneficial effect of sewage sludge was maintained in the next two years after application and stabilized the grain yield of maize.

  13. Have Biotech Seeds Increased Maize Yields?

    Xu, Zheng; David A. Hennessy; Moschini, GianCarlo

    2010-01-01

    Corn yield is determined by soils, weather, seed used and other technology choices. Global population and per capita income growth trends as well as demand from the energy sector have placed great stress on cropland use. Global cropland acres and/or yield per acre will need to increase. Whether new seed technologies have enhanced corn yield is a controversial issue. We study U.S. county corn yields 1964-2008, controlling for location effects, fertilization technologies and weather. We find ev...

  14. The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations

    Dragićević Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy and inorganic phosphorus (Pi and soluble proteins among 28 maize populations, consisted into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-phytic populations, with the aim to determine the potential of enhancing the P profile of maize plants and high grain yield through selection. The highest genetic variability of Pi and Pphy content in leaves was expressed in group with intermediate Pphy content in grain. Meanwhile, leaves of low-phytic populations were characterized with low Pphy, too (averagely 18% and high content of soluble proteins (averagely 15% in relation to high- and intermediate-phytic populations. Additionally, the lowest genetic variability of protein content was also noticeable in leaves of low-phytic populations. Positive correlation between Pi and protein content was observed in leaves of low- and high-phytic populations. The negative correlation between Pphy and Pi was detected in maize grain, but correlation was significant only in intermediate-phytic group. The highest, but not significant, average yield was observed in group of low-phytic populations, as well as its relative high genetic variability. That indicates that development of high yielding genotypes with lower phytate in grain is reasonable, and could be potentially useful in enhancing the sustainability and decreasing of environmental impact in agricultural production.

  15. Proteomic identification of genes associated with maize grain-filling rate.

    Xining Jin

    Full Text Available Grain filling during the linear phase contributes most of the dry matter accumulated in the maize kernel, which in turn determines the final grain yield. Endosperms and embryos of three elite maize hybrids (Zhengdan 958, Nongda 108, and Pioneer 335 were sampled 17, 22, 25, and 28 days after pollination, during the linear phase of grain filling, for proteomic analysis to explore the regulatory factors critical for grain filling rate. In total, 39 and 43 protein spots that showed more than 2-fold changes in abundance at P<0.01 between any two sampling stages in the endosperm and embryo were analyzed by protein mass spectrometry. The changing patterns in expression index of these proteins in the endosperm were evenly distributed, whereas up-regulation patterns predominated (74% in the embryo. Functional analysis revealed that metabolism was the largest category, represented by nine proteins in the endosperm and 12 proteins in the embryo, of the proteins that significantly changed in abundance. Glycolysis, a critical process both for glucose conversion into pyruvate and for release of free energy and reducing power, and proteins related to redox homeostasis were emphasized in the endosperm. Additionally, lipid, nitrogen, and inositol metabolism related to fatty acid biosynthesis and late embryogenesis abundant proteins were emphasized in the embryo. One protein related to cellular redox equilibrium, which showed a more than 50-fold change in abundance and was co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for grain yield on chromosome 1, was further investigated by transcriptional profile implying consistent expression pattern with protein accumulation. The present results provide a first step towards elucidation of the gene network responsible for regulation of grain filling in maize.

  16. Proteomic identification of genes associated with maize grain-filling rate.

    Jin, Xining; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2013-01-01

    Grain filling during the linear phase contributes most of the dry matter accumulated in the maize kernel, which in turn determines the final grain yield. Endosperms and embryos of three elite maize hybrids (Zhengdan 958, Nongda 108, and Pioneer 335) were sampled 17, 22, 25, and 28 days after pollination, during the linear phase of grain filling, for proteomic analysis to explore the regulatory factors critical for grain filling rate. In total, 39 and 43 protein spots that showed more than 2-fold changes in abundance at Psampling stages in the endosperm and embryo were analyzed by protein mass spectrometry. The changing patterns in expression index of these proteins in the endosperm were evenly distributed, whereas up-regulation patterns predominated (74%) in the embryo. Functional analysis revealed that metabolism was the largest category, represented by nine proteins in the endosperm and 12 proteins in the embryo, of the proteins that significantly changed in abundance. Glycolysis, a critical process both for glucose conversion into pyruvate and for release of free energy and reducing power, and proteins related to redox homeostasis were emphasized in the endosperm. Additionally, lipid, nitrogen, and inositol metabolism related to fatty acid biosynthesis and late embryogenesis abundant proteins were emphasized in the embryo. One protein related to cellular redox equilibrium, which showed a more than 50-fold change in abundance and was co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for grain yield on chromosome 1, was further investigated by transcriptional profile implying consistent expression pattern with protein accumulation. The present results provide a first step towards elucidation of the gene network responsible for regulation of grain filling in maize. PMID:23527170

  17. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl in stored maize grains

    14C-pirimiphos-methyl (specific activity 16.36 mCi/mmol (1 Ci = 37 GBq)) was applied to maize grains at a concentration of 5 mg/kg using the procedures described in the FAO/IAEA Model Protocol, Annex I, these Proceedings. After treatment, the maize was stored at ambient temperature (20-35 deg. C) in jute sacks lined with polythene. The surface (water soluble) and methanol extractable residues were investigated over a period of 8 months. There was a gradual increase in the methanol extractable residues and a corresponding decrease in the surface residues over the storage period. At the end of this time, the total extractable residue was 56% of the applied dose. For technical reasons no data were available for the residues bound within the grain tissues. Four types of local diet were prepared from the treated maize, these being: akple, roasted akple, kenkey and banku; some reduction in the extractable residues was observed as a result of the cooking process. (author)

  18. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  19. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  20. 连续施氮对冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系产量和氮素吸收与利用的影响%Effects of Continuous Nitrogen Application on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System

    司贤宗; 王宜伦; 韩燕来; 刘蒙蒙; 谭金芳

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系高产、稳产,合理施用氮肥提供依据.[方法]研究了连续施氮对冬小麦-夏玉米产量、经济效益、氮肥吸收利用效率和土壤无机氮的影响.[结果]施氮使冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系显著增产,2个轮作周期分别增产17.76%~30.32%、22.24%~46.63%;施氮量660.0 kg/hm2在2个轮作周期的产量均最高,分别为23 391.19和23 444.35 kg/hm2,经济效益和产投比较佳,氮肥利用率分别为22.2%和30.7%,农学效率分别为8.3 kg/kg和11.3kg/kg.施氮量540.0和660.0 kg/hm2的氮肥利用率和农学效率均无显著差异.2个轮作周期后,施氮量540.0 kg/hm2的0~40 cm土壤无机氮积累量与试验前基本平衡.[结论]该试验条件下,综合产量、效益、氮肥效率及土壤无机氮平衡考虑,高产冬小麦-夏玉米轮作体系适宜施氮量为625.3~660.0 kg/hm2.%This study aimed to achieve high yield and stable yield of winter wheat-summer maize rotation system and provide basis for rational application of nitrogen fertilizer.[Method] Effects of continuous nitrogen application on grain yield,economic profit,nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency,and soil inorganic nitrogen accumulation in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system were investigated.[Result] Nitrogen application could significantly increase the yield of the winter wheatsummer maize rotation system,which increased by 17.76%-30.32% and 22.24%-46.63% in two rotation cycles,respectively.The yield of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the maximum in two rotation cycles with nitrogen application amount of 660.0 kg/hm2,which reached respectively 23 391.19 and 23 444.35kg/hm2,the yield and economic benefit were the highest,the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was 22.2% and 30.7%,the agronomic efficiency was 8.3 and 11.3 kg/kg.However,the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency and agronomic efficiency between nitrogen application amount of

  1. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  2. Yields and Yield Components of Maize (Zea Mays L.) and Soybean (Glycine Max) as Affected by Different Tillage Methods

    Kvaternjak Ivka; Kisić Ivica; Birkás Marta; Špoljar Andrija; Marenčić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    At the experiment station of the Krizevci College of Agriculture, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max) grown in rotation under five different methods of tillage were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of maize and soybean. The results and the determined number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean show that more favorable conditions for germination are in variant...

  3. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    Brdar Milka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the final grain dry weight, rate and duration of grain filling were important parameters in differentiating among cultivars grain filling curves. The yield was positively correlated with number of grains/m2, grain weight and grain filling rate, and negatively correlated with grain filling duration. Correlation between grain weight and rate of grain filling was positive. Grain filling duration was negatively correlated with grain filling rate and number of grains/m2. The highest yield on three year average had medium late Mironovska 808, by the highest grain weight and grain filling rate and optimal number of grains/2 and grain filling duration.

  4. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  5. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  6. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  7. Effects of saline stress on growth and crop yield of different maize (Zea mays) genotypes

    E. M. Gurbanov; Molazem, D.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of saline stress ( NaCl ) on yield and vegetative characteristics of eight maize cultivars were studied. The cultivars K3615/1, S.C704, B73, S.C302, Waxy, K3546/6, K3653/2, and Zaqatala were cultivated in two plots of the Astara region: one was with normal soil and the other – with salty one. Salinization reduced the plant height, ear length, ear diameter, number of plant leaves, stem diameter, number of rows in an ear, number of grains in a row, and dry plant mass in all cultivars. M...

  8. Field Studies on the Relationship between Fusarium verticillioides and Maize (Zea mays L.: Effect of Biocontrol Agents on Fungal Infection and Toxin Content of Grains at Harvest

    Paola Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is a staple food for the majority of the world's population. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg (Teleomorph: Gibberella moniliformis Wineland; synonym: F. moniliformis is both a saprophyte and a parasite of maize and can also be found as an endophyte. The presence of this fungus in maize constitutes an imminent risk due to its ability to produce fumonisins, mycotoxins with proven carcinogenic effects. The present work investigated biocontrol activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Microbacterium oleovorans against F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin B1 production in field-grown maize during four consecutive growing seasons. Treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens consistently reduced F. verticillioides inoculum and fumonisin content of harvested grains. F. verticillioides count and fumonisin levels correlated negatively with rainfall regimes; however, none of these parameters showed significant correlation with yields. Treatment with these biocontrol agents may improve phytosanitary quality of the grains and reduce toxicological risk in the maize agroecosystem.

  9. The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM applied every second year on maize grown for grain

    Anna Nogalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (MBM is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L. grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year, and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years. Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

  10. Mycotoxins in small grains and maize: old problems, new challenges.

    Miller, J David

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews the challenges relating to chronic contamination of small grains and maize with deoxynivalenol and related compounds, fumonisin and the use of ensiled cereals in cool dairy areas. Uncertainties in the tolerable daily intakes for deoxynivalenol and fumonisin are discussed as they have the potential to affect current regulatory limits. In addition, climate change is resulting in more extreme rainfall and drought events which favour formation of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, respectively. The development and refinement of models for predicting mycotoxin accumulation from weather data will become an essential tool for managing these events. Such models are also important for providing timely food aid to developing countries, which experience increased occurrence of acute toxicities, especially in children. Chronic contamination of silage in some areas with some Penicillium toxins deserves more attention in terms of their economic effects and possible implications for the purity of milk. PMID:18286412

  11. The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain

    Vančetović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

  12. Effect of Planting Methods and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Component of Fodder Maize

    Mohammad Mashreghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is Effect of planting methods and plant density, on yield and yield component of fodder maize. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits agricultural crop production. More than 8 million hectare of world fields involved saline soils. Effect of different planting methods and plant density on yield and yield components of fodder maize studied during 2011 growth season. KSC704 variety of fodder maize planted in rural district of Abravan at south east of Mashhad. Main plots belonged to three levels of planting method (Furrow planting, ridge planting and double rows of planting on ridge. Sub plots belonged to three levels of plant density (90,000; 110,000 and 130,000 plant/ha. A split plot experiment conducted base on randomized complete design with three replications. Results showed that different planting methods had significant effect on fodder yield, ear weight, quality index and leaf area index of plants. Furrow planting with 130,000 plant density, produced the highest fodder yield by mean of 56.33 t/ha.

  13. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  14. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  15. Study on Fluctuation of Grain Yield in China’s Major Grain Producing Areas

    2011-01-01

    By using the statistical data of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas from 1949 to 2008,and fluctuation theory,the historical process and main cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas are analyzed.The results of research show that the grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas grows in unstable fluctuation,with high-frequency fluctuation cycle and regular length;the amplitude of fluctuation,on the whole,is moderate,with not strong stability;the fluctuation of grain yield has correspondence,reflecting the N-shape developmental trend of grain production at present;the fluctuation of grain yield has gradient characteristics;in the process of comparison of grain yield,the average growth rate annually of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas is higher than that of the national average,but the relative fluctuation coefficient is also higher than that of the national average.From five aspects,namely natural disaster,agricultural policy,production input,grain price and grain circulation,the cause of fluctuation of grain yield in China’s major grain producing areas is analyzed,and measures of preventing and arresting super-long fluctuation of grain yield are put forward.Firstly,stick to strict farmland protection system,and strive to promote farmland quality;secondly,strengthen infrastructure construction of grain production and beef up the ability of preventing natural disaster;thirdly,quicken the pace of agricultural technology and establish robust technology supporting system;fourthly,lay stress on innovation of agricultural organization system and provide implementation path and vehicle for application of agricultural technology measures;fifthly,perfect disaster precaution system and grain market system,and strengthen the ability of preventing risk of grain production.

  16. Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal

    Jiban Shrestha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E was highly significant and genotypes (G and genotype x environment interaction (GEI were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

  17. Effect of Controlled-release Urea Combined with Common Urea on the Grain Yields of Summer Maize and Distribution of Soil Ammonium and Nitrate Content%控释掺混肥对夏玉米产量及土壤硝态氮和铵态氮分布的影响

    李伟; 李絮花; 唐慎欣; 李海燕; 刘旭凤; 彭强

    2011-01-01

    通过田间试验研究释放期60 d的水基包膜尿素与普通尿素常规施肥用量下不同比例配合追施对夏玉米产量、肥料利用率、氮肥农学利用率、氮肥偏生产力、氮素收获指数、氮素积累量及0-60 cm土壤硝铵态氦含量动态分布的影响.结果表明:各控释掺混处理对夏玉米的产量、肥料利用率、氮肥农学利用率、氮肥偏生产力及氮素收获指数较常规施肥都有不同程度的提高,以控氮比50%处理最佳,产量和氮肥利用率分别比对照的提高9.43%和24.69%,达到显著水平;各控释掺混处理0-60 cm土壤都保持较高的硝态氮含量,至后期较常规施肥的略高,满足了玉米的生长.玉米各时期土壤铵态氮含量大致以高控氮比处理的含量高,差异不明显,但显著高于常规施肥处理的.控氮比50%处理更适合本区域玉米生产.%Field experiment were carried out on grain yield of summer maize to determine the effect of different proportions of water-base controlled-release coated urea of 60 d release duration combined with conventional urea as topdressing on nitrogen utilization, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, nitrogen partial productivity, nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen accumulation. Dynamic distribution of nitrate content in soil was also studied. The findings indicated that the treatment of controlled-release urea combined with conventional urea (CRUCU)was remarkably higher than the ones used urea alone in various degree in maize yield, fertilizer utilization, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, productivity and nitrogen partial nitrogen harvest index, and the treatment used 50% controlled-release coated urea was superior to other ones. Its yield was increased by 9. 43% than the treatment used urea alone, while nitrogen utilization was 24. 69%. Both differences reached significant level. The nitrate nitrogen content of treatment of CRUCU was sufficient in 0 - 60 cm depth in soil layer throughout the later growth

  18. Study of Yield Combining Ability and Genetic Relationship Among Exotic Tropical, Subtropical Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbreds and Temperate Maize Inbreds in China

    FAN Xing-ming; TAN Jing; YANG Jun-yun; LIU Feng; HUANG Bi-hua; HUANG Yun-xiao

    2002-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationship between tropical maize (Zea mays L), germplasm and temperate maize germplasm is of great value to maize breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the combining ability and genetic relationship of 25 inbreds extracted from five tropical maize populations and a land race, with four temperate maize inbreds (Huangzaosi, Mo17, B73 and Dan 340). The 25 tropical inbreds were crossed with the four temperate inbreds and evaluated. Lines from Suwan1 and POP28 had high general combining ability (GCA) for grain yield. The lines from POP32 (ETO) had the highest special combining ability (SCA) with B73; the average SCA value of the 5 lines was 879 kg/ha. The lines from Suwan1had the second-highest SCA (584 kg/ha) with Huangzaosi. The lines from Suwan1 had the greatest relative heterosis (20%) with B73, followed by the lines from POP32 (ETO) with B73 (19%). Five heterotic patterns have been identified from this study: Suwan1 × Reid, ETO × Reid, POP28 × Reid, POP28 × Ludahonggu, and Suwan1 × Lancaster.

  19. Within-leaf nitrogen allocation in adaptation to low nitrogen supply in maize during grain-filling stage

    Xiaohuan eMu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application and high N (180 kg N ha−1 in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that optimization of N allocation within leaves is a key adaptive mechanism to maximize Pn and crop productivity when N is limited during the grain-filling stage in maize under low-N conditions.

  20. Maize Yield Response to Fertilizer and Profitability of Fertilizer Use Among Small-Scale Maize Producers in Zambia

    Xu, Zhiying; Govereh, Jones; Black, J. Roy; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-year nationwide survey data is used to estimate maize yield response functions and determine profitability of fertilizer use by small-scale farmers in Zambia. There has been a dearth of empirical studies on economics of fertilization in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we identify major methodological issues arising from using survey data and estimate maize yield response functions for small-scale rural households that have various management practices and soil condition...

  1. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    Elżbieta Czembor

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated. Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  2. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  3. Effect of different mulching materials on maize growth and yield in conservation agriculture systems of sub-humid Zimbabwe

    W. Mupangwa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of conservation agriculture (CA for smallholders increased the competition for crop residues between crop and livestock enterprises of the mixed smallholder farming system. Smallholders practicing CA have resorted to using grass and leaf litter in addition to available crop residues. The effect of these different mulching materials on maize (Zea mays L. growth and yield is not well documented in smallholder CA systems of southern Africa. A two-year experiment was run in 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons to evaluate the effect of maize residues, grass (Hyparrhenia filipendula (L. Stapf. and leaf litter that farmers are currently using and residues from leguminous species, sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea L. and Tephrosia (Tephrosia vogelii ((Hook f. on maize nitrogen (N uptake, growth and yield. Significant differences in soil water content across treatments were only observed during March in 2012/13 season. Maize residues retained more soil water and Tephrosia had the lowest soil water content when seasonal rainfall pattern was erratic. Grass and Tephrosia treatments had the lowest chlorophyll content. Conventional ploughing, maize residues and leaf litter had similar chlorophyll content which was significantly higher than grass and Tephrosia treatments. At a site with higher initial soil fertility conventional ploughing treatment out yielded the other treatments by 727–1265 kg ha−1. With more degraded sandy soil conventional practice had 119–430 kg ha−1 more maize grain than the CA treatments. With adequate fertilization, the mulching materials have a similar effect on maize growth in basins and direct seeding. Further studies on different application rates of mulching materials and mineral N fertilizer, and nutrient release patterns of these residues are critical in order to better understand soil fertility management under smallholder CA systems.

  4. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  5. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  6. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  7. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful post-harvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (...

  8. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  9. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.. Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA, NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P<0.05. The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM, or PEG (15% significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  10. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  11. Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize

    Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

  12. Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids

    Karoline Guedes Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha. There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

  13. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Luís Sangoi

    2006-06-01

    investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar.The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1, medium (S2, high (S3 and very high (S4 management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1 to 13,848 (S4kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1 to 2,937,00 (S4R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  14. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing....... Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play a...

  15. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  16. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  17. IMPACT OF OZONE ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD

    Grain sorghum(sorghum vulgare Pers.) is an important animal feed crop, and it is sometimes planted as a substitute for field corn. Although sorghum is grown in areas of the central and southern U.S. where potentially damaging concentrations of 03 exist, no data are available rega...

  18. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    Xinpeng Xu

    Full Text Available Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L. were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT, farmers' practice (FP, a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  19. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers’ practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies. PMID:26484543

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of grain maize production: An analysis of factors causing variability.

    Boone, Lieselot; Van Linden, Veerle; De Meester, Steven; Vandecasteele, Bart; Muylle, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Nemecek, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-05-15

    To meet the growing demand, high yielding, but environmentally sustainable agricultural plant production systems are desired. Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess the environmental impact of these agricultural systems. However, the impact results are very diverse due to management decisions or local natural conditions. The impact of grain maize is often generalized and an average is taken. Therefore, we studied variation in production systems. Four types of drivers for variability are distinguished: policy, farm management, year-to-year weather variation and innovation. For each driver, scenarios are elaborated using ReCiPe and CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment) to assess the environmental footprint. Policy limits fertilisation levels in a soil-specific way. The resource consumption is lower for non-sandy soils than for sandy soils, but entails however more eutrophication. Farm management seems to have less influence on the environmental impact when considering the CEENE only. But farm management choices such as fertiliser type have a large effect on emission-related problems (e.g. eutrophication and acidification). In contrast, year-to-year weather variation results in large differences in the environmental footprint. The difference in impact results between favourable and poor environmental conditions amounts to 19% and 17% in terms of resources and emissions respectively, and irrigation clearly is an unfavourable environmental process. The best environmental performance is obtained by innovation as plant breeding results in a steadily increasing yield over 25 years. Finally, a comparison is made between grain maize production in Flanders and a generically applied dataset, based on Swiss practices. These very different results endorse the importance of using local data to conduct LCA of plant production systems. The results of this study show decision makers and farmers how they can improve the

  1. Genome-wide association study and pathway level analysis of tocochromanol levels in maize grain

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocochromanols, are the major lipid-soluble antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. Given that individual tocochromanols differ in their degree of vitamin E activity, variation for tocochromanol composition and content in grain from among divers...

  2. [Effect of the prolamins in maize (Zea mays L.) grain on tortilla texture].

    Sánchez, F C; Salinas, M Y; Vázquez, C M G; Velázquez, C G A; Aguilar, G N

    2007-09-01

    The prolamins (zeins) are the main storage proteins in the maize grain. There are limited investigations related to their participation on tortilla texture. For determining their effect, normal (6) and Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (6) genotypes were used. The chemical variables comprised prolamins, amylose and starch in whole grain and endosperm. Viscosity of the raw endosperm flour was determined as well as the tortilla texture, expressed in terms of tension force and elongation. Prolamin content in the normal maizes was 64 % higher than that in the QPMs. It was not observed any relationship between prolamin content and flour viscosity. The prolamin content was not related with tortilla hardness, measured as the tension force to rupture the tortilla, but a negative correlation was observed with tortilla elongation. The tortillas with the best texture characteristics were from H-161 nomal maize and H-143 QPM maize, both genotypes showed the smallest grain in its respective gruop. According to the results obtained in the present work, a high prolamin content in maize grain could be affecting tortilla elongation. PMID:18271409

  3. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  4. Effect of Nitrogen Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Rainfed Wheat and Maize in Northwest China

    DANG Ting-Hui; CAI Gui-Xin; GUO Sheng-Li; HAO Ming-De; L.K.HENG

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment with four treatments and four replicates in a randomized complete block design was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, of Northwest China from 1998 to 2002. The local cropping sequence of wheat, wheat-beans, maize, and wheat over the 4-year period was adopted. A micro-plot study using 15N-labelled fertilizer was carried out to determine the fate of applied N fertilizer in the first year. When N fertilizer was applied wheat (years 1, 2 and 4) and maize (year 3) grain yield increased significantly (P < 0.05) (> 30%), with no significant yield differences in normal rainfall years (Years 1, 2 and 3) for N application at the commonly application rate and at 2/3 of this rate. Grain yield of wheat varied greatly between years, mainly due to variation in annual rainfall.Results of 15N studies on wheat showed that plants recovered 36.6%-38.4% of the N applied, the N remained in soil (0-40cm) ranged from 29.2% to 33.6%, and unaccounted-for N was 29.5%-34.2%. The following crop (wheat) recovered 2.1%-2.8% of the residual N from N applied to the previous wheat crop with recovery generally decreasing in the subsequent three crops (beans, maize and wheat).

  5. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  6. Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity yield and N2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize crop

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kuyper, T.W.; Leeuwis, C.; Abekoe, M.K.; Cobbinah, J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N-2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent mai

  7. THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

    Henry De-Graft Acquah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

  8. Variability of pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. originating from maize and wheat grains

    Sonja Tančić; Slavica Stanković; Jelena Lević

    2009-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti), originating from maize kernels (61) and wheat grains (32), were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest...

  9. A Novel Remote Sensing Approach for Prediction of Maize Yield Under Different Conditions of Nitrogen Fertilization.

    Vergara-Díaz, Omar; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara A; Masuka, Benhildah; Hornero, Alberto; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Cairns, Jill E; Araus, José L

    2016-01-01

    Maize crop production is constrained worldwide by nitrogen (N) availability and particularly in poor tropical and subtropical soils. The development of affordable high-throughput crop monitoring and phenotyping techniques is key to improving maize cultivation under low-N fertilization. In this study several vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) digital images at the leaf and canopy levels are proposed as low-cost tools for plant breeding and fertilization management. They were compared with the performance of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measured at ground level and from an aerial platform, as well as with leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and other leaf composition and structural parameters at flowering stage. A set of 10 hybrids grown under five different nitrogen regimes and adequate water conditions were tested at the CIMMYT station of Harare (Zimbabwe). Grain yield and leaf N concentration across N fertilization levels were strongly predicted by most of these RGB indices (with R (2)~ 0.7), outperforming the prediction power of the NDVI and LCC. RGB indices also outperformed the NDVI when assessing genotypic differences in grain yield and leaf N concentration within a given level of N fertilization. The best predictor of leaf N concentration across the five N regimes was LCC but its performance within N treatments was inefficient. The leaf traits evaluated also seemed inefficient as phenotyping parameters. It is concluded that the adoption of RGB-based phenotyping techniques may significantly contribute to the progress of plant breeding and the appropriate management of fertilization. PMID:27242867

  10. A Novel Remote Sensing Approach for Prediction of Maize Yield Under Different Conditions of Nitrogen Fertilization

    Vergara-Díaz, Omar; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara A.; Masuka, Benhildah; Hornero, Alberto; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Prasanna, Boddupalli M.; Cairns, Jill E.; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Maize crop production is constrained worldwide by nitrogen (N) availability and particularly in poor tropical and subtropical soils. The development of affordable high-throughput crop monitoring and phenotyping techniques is key to improving maize cultivation under low-N fertilization. In this study several vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) digital images at the leaf and canopy levels are proposed as low-cost tools for plant breeding and fertilization management. They were compared with the performance of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measured at ground level and from an aerial platform, as well as with leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and other leaf composition and structural parameters at flowering stage. A set of 10 hybrids grown under five different nitrogen regimes and adequate water conditions were tested at the CIMMYT station of Harare (Zimbabwe). Grain yield and leaf N concentration across N fertilization levels were strongly predicted by most of these RGB indices (with R2~ 0.7), outperforming the prediction power of the NDVI and LCC. RGB indices also outperformed the NDVI when assessing genotypic differences in grain yield and leaf N concentration within a given level of N fertilization. The best predictor of leaf N concentration across the five N regimes was LCC but its performance within N treatments was inefficient. The leaf traits evaluated also seemed inefficient as phenotyping parameters. It is concluded that the adoption of RGB-based phenotyping techniques may significantly contribute to the progress of plant breeding and the appropriate management of fertilization. PMID:27242867

  11. An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition

    Stevanović Milan; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana; Dragičević Vesna; Camdžija Zoran; Filipović Milomir; Veličković Nevena; Stanković Goran

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during...

  12. Micronutrient and functional compounds biofortification of maize grains.

    Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos E; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Rombaldi, César Valmor

    2015-01-01

    Maize, in addition to being the main staple food in many countries, is used in the production of hundreds of products. It is rich in compounds with potential benefits to health, such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and minerals that act as cofactors for antioxidant enzymes. Many of these compounds have been neglected thus far in the scientific literature. Nevertheless, deficiencies in the precursors of vitamin A and some minerals, such as iron and zinc, in maize, in association with the great genetic variability in its cultivars and our genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic knowledge of this species make targeted biofortification strategies for maize promising. This review discusses the potential of the main microconstituents found in maize with a focus on studies aimed at biofortification. PMID:24915397

  13. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Jelena Vancetovic; Sladjana Zilic; Sofija Bozinovic; Dragana Ignjatovic-Micic

    2014-01-01

    Blue maize (Zea mays L.) is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile sta...

  14. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  15. Association of Duration and Rate of Grain Filling with Grain Yield in Temperate Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Grain filling is a crucial factor that determines grain yield in crops since it is the final process directly associated with crops' yield performance. Grain filling process can be characterized by the interaction of rate and duration of grain filling. This study was conducted, using 16 temperate japonica rice genotypes, with aims to (1) seek variations in grain filling duration and rate on area basis, (2) compare the contribution of grain filling duration and rate to grain yield, and (3) examine the influence of temperature and solar radiation for effective grain filling on grain yield in relation to grain filling duration and rate

  16. Improving yield and nitrogen nutrition of maize (zea mays, L) through azotobacterization and sulphur fertilization

    The experiment was conducted in plastic pots each, containing 20 kg soil to study the effect of sulphur (20, 40, 60 kg S/ha) and azotobacter inoculation alone and in combination on the yield and nutrition of maize (cv. Azam). A basal dose of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and potash (K/sub 2/O) at 40, 80, 40 kg/ha was applied to each pot. The results revealed that increasing rates of sulphur application significantly improved the total biomass yield by 31.4 to 34.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 61.0 to 65.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. The effect of sulphur application in improving the total biomass and biomass N yield of maize was statistically at par with that of azotobacter inoculation alone. Application to sulphur at all the applied levels along with azotobacter inoculation further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 66.0 to 70.0 percent and total biomass N yield by 99.0 to 104.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. Azotobacterization of maize in the presence of sulphur fertilization further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 24.1 to 29.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 13.0 to 17.0 percent as compared to control receiving azotobacter alone. Inoculation of maize with azotobacter alone or in combination with sulphur markedly stimulated the azotobacter population in the root rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil sulphur alone had no effect in stimulating the azotobacter population in the rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil of maize plant. Azotobacterization of maize alone or in the presence of sulphur fertilization significantly improved the maize height. (author)

  17. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be

  18. Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index

    Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

  19. Soil physical characteristics and yield of wheat and maize as affected by mulching materials and sowing methods

    Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Anwar-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Ghafoor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical degradation due to agriculture activity is a pressing issue in Pakistan causing reduction in crop yields. The study was conducted to assess the effects of two sowing methods and two mulching materials on soil physical characteristics and yields of wheat and maize during 2008-10 at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results showed that Bed sowing method along with wheat straw mulch increased Leaf Area Index of wheat by 5 to 16%, and of maize by 4 to 14% compared with other treatments. This treatment also produced maximum 1000-grain weight (50.5 g of wheat and maize (439.2g as compared to flat sowing method where no mulch was applied. The highest grain yields of wheat (5017 kg ha-1 and maize (10.6 Mg ha-1 were recorded in Bed sowing + wheat straw mulch plots. Bed sowing alone decreased bulk density by 4% at 0-15 cm soil depth and 13.7% less soil penetration resistance (788.2 kPa was noted. About 23.0% higher soil organic carbon contents (4.2 g kg-1 at 0-15 cm soil depth, 39.1% higher field saturated hydraulic conductivity (24.3 mm hr-1 and 14.2% higher infiltration rate (58.5 mm hr-1 were recorded compared to flood irrigated flat sowing. Furrow irrigated raised bed technique was found to be environment friendly in combination with farm manure compared to wheat straw having enhanced soil organic carbon contents.

  20. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    Li Quanqi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS, the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P<0.05 increased with increased SMBS, primarily in the 3 spikes leaves. With improved SMBS, both the grain yield and RUE increased in all the treatments. These results indicate that winter wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops.

  1. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  2. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  3. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  4. Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize

    Robert Idziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L. and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effective weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1 and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1 with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO and ammonium nitrate (AMN adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1 and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively.

  5. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    means PM can increase the yield potential of spring maize in water limited condition. From the result the field experiment, the grain yield under PM ranged from 6556 to 12615 kg/ha, being 803 to 3616 kg/hm-2 higher than no mulching (CK); and the WUE under plastic mulch ranged from 18.3 to 33.5 kghm-2mm-1, significantly higher than the CK in most of the experiment years (17.5-23.6 kghm-2mm-1). The ET for PM was higher than that of the CK (significance in 2009 and 2011), while it also increased the root biomass in soil, over consumed soil water and improved soil structure increased rainfall infiltration in fallow period. The result shows that the stored water by PM was 12 to 56 mm higher than the CK in the seven experiment years. So after seven years of cultivation, no significant difference was observed between treatments for the soil water storage in 0-6 m soil profile, which means that plastic film mulch can not only increase maize yield, but also is sustainable in the respect of soil water.

  6. Temporal rainfall patterns with water partitioning impacts on maize yield in a freeze-thaw zone

    Hao, Fanghua; Chen, Siyang; Ouyang, Wei; Shan, Yushu; Qi, Shasha

    2013-04-01

    SummaryUnderstanding all components of the water balance, especially temporal rainfall patterns, is essential to optimize water use in rain-fed agriculture area. The effect of temporal rainfall patterns on water balance, evapotranspiration (ET), and crop growth was evaluated by considering root water extraction of plants in a rain-fed maize field. Soil water contents at depths of 15, 30, 60, and 90 cm were measured daily in 2-year growth seasons. A soil water balance approach was applied to estimate changes in daily soil water storage. For the detailed water partitioning of the water balance and root water extraction, the soil-water-atmosphere-plant (SWAP) model with water and crop modules was applied. Results suggested that the main depths of root water uptake occurred in the top 60 cm soil layer. Crop transpiration (T) can reach a level above 40% of the total water consumption during all growth stages, and its reduction was mainly due to the dry condition of soil. The crop yield in 2010 was 1125 kg ha-1 higher than that in 2011, although the rainfall amount in that year was 132 mm less than the rainfall amount in 2011. The water use efficiency (WUE) was also higher in 2010. Therefore, the influence of temporal rainfall patterns was clearly more important than rainfall amounts (water partitioning into evaporation (E), T, and soil water content). Growing season T/ET can be a potential parameter for maize productivity. The field can be irrigated at pivotal growth stages under dry conditions to obtain the optimal effect in improving WUE and increasing grain yield. The SWAP model was a useful tool to analyze water partitioning in the freeze-thaw zone.

  7. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  8. PHENOTYPIC GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OSCULTIVARS

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield as well as adaptability level of several domestic soybean cultivars. The trials were conducted on three locations in the region of the eastern Croatia (Osijek, Brijest, Donji Miholjac in the period from 1998-2002 and involved 14 soybean cultivars. Tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. They belong to maturity groups 0, 0-I and I according to vegetation period length. Two parameters are used in the analysis of yield stability and cultivar adaptability: portion of variance of genotype x environment interaction of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2 GxE and regression coefficient (bi. Obtained results indicated significant differences in level and stability of grain yield as well as level of cultivar adaptability. Six of the 14 tested cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Smiljana, Kuna, Anica and Tisa had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Other tested cultivars had unstable grain yield and narrow (specific adaptability.

  9. Improving sustainable intensification of cereal-grain legume cropping systems in the savannahs of West Africa: Quantifying residual effects of legumes on maize, enhancing P mobilization by legumes and studying long-term Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics

    Improved cereal-grain-legume systems, allowing farmers to use their land productively on a continuous basis, are being rapidly developed and adopted by small-scale farmers in the West African Moist Savannah. This paper summarizes work on several issues related to the improvement of productivity and sustainability of these intensified systems. A first study looked at the sustainability of several legume-maize cropping systems in a 5-year field trial at Sekou, Benin. Fairly low maize yields were found in continuous maize cropping systems (maize/maize), poor response to N fertilizer beyond 45 kg N ha-1, and no evidence that P and K were limiting crop yield. Over the last 5 years of the trial, maize/Mucuna relay cropping gave consistently a 2000 kg ha-1 yield increase relative to maize/maize cropping, and most of this yield gain was preserved even when Mucuna residues were removed from the plots when planting the next year's maize crop. Some yield gain, although far less than with maize/Mucuna, was observed in the maize/pigeon pea system. The maize/cowpea system offered no maize yield gain over maize/maize cropping. In a second study, enhanced isotopic methods to determine the plant available P allowed us to test the hypothesis that certain legume accessions can mobilize sparingly-available P. In one out of the 3 West-African Moist Savannah soils studied, we found that cowpea could access sparingly soluble soil P that is unavailable to maize. This mobilization of P was only observed when P deficiency occurred. These results confirm the P efficiency of some legume genotypes, which may lead to benefits of improved P availability by the incorporation of legumes in rotation systems. A third study, involving a 16-year continuous-cropping field experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria, provided information on long-term changes in soil organic matter carbon (SOC) contents in savannah soils with sandy top soil. In the control treatments with continuous maize and cowpea cropping without

  10. Changes in drought tolerance in maize associated with fifty years of breeding for yield in the US Corn Belt [Zea mays L.

    Understanding the changes underlying past breeding progress may help to focus research efforts and accelerate future genetic gains. The major abiotic stress affecting maize production on a worldwide basis is drought. We addressed the improvements in drought tolerance over a 50-year period of hybrid breeding by evaluating, under targeted stress conditions, a set of 18 Pioneer-brand hybrids that had been released during the 1953-2001 period. Stress treatments were designed as overlapping windows of water deficit covering the pre-flowering to late grain filling development stages. Data were collected on grain yield, yield components and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) and were analyzed using a linear mixed model approach. Genetic gain was measured as the slope of the regression of the trait on the year of hybrid release. Significant, positive genetic gains of varying magnitude were observed for grain yield in all windows of stress evaluated. The largest genetic gains for grain yield were observed under conditions of full irrigation and severe flowering stress. ASI and barrenness, especially under stress at flowering, were significantly reduced by selection. Though flowering remains the most susceptible stage to drought in maize, selection has reduced its negative effects and susceptibility during early grain filling is now of similar importance in many modern hybrids. Yield under drought at flowering has more than kept pace with the increase in yield potential because of the emphasis breeders have placed on improved floral synchrony

  11. Effects of Controlled and Slow Release Fertilizers on the N Utilization and Grain Yield in Summer Maize Under Different Plant Densities%不同种植密度下缓/控释肥施肥量对夏玉米氮利用和籽粒产量影响

    姜雯; 张倩; 张洪生

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of controlled and slow release fertilizers on the N utilization and grain yield in summer maize under different plant densities, medium and high rates of controlled and slow release fertilizer (i.e. 750 kg/hm2, 975 kg/hm2) were applied under medium and high plant densities (6.75×104, 8.25 × 104 plant/hm2), summer maize cultivar‘Zhengdan 958’was used for this study. The treatment of 750 kg/hm2 controlled and slow release fertilizer level under medium plant density (6.75×104 plant/hm2) was as control. The effect of controlled and slow release fertilizer on the N concentration in either individual plant organ or total plant was insignificant. However, the increase supply of controlled and slow release obviously deceased the plant bare rate by 20.0% compared with the medium supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer, especially under high plant density (decrease by 27.0%), and the average ear weight increased by 12.4%. Although the effect of controlled and slow release fertilizer on grain yield was insignificant, the average yield of high supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer under high plant density was increased by 15.0%, 19.4%compared with control, and medium supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer under the same plant density, and the economic efficiency was also increased by 12.3%compared with control. It is thus concluded that high supply of controlled and slow release fertilizer (975 kg/hm2) under the high plant density (8.25 × 104 plant/hm2) could further increase the grain yield and economic efficiency.%为了探明缓释肥施肥量对夏玉米氮积累利用和籽粒产量的影响,以夏玉米品种‘郑单958’为材料,在不同种植密度水平(6.75×104株/hm2、8.25×104株/hm2)下,以当地传统施肥量(750 kg/hm2)为对照,增加缓释肥施肥量(975 kg/hm2)进行比较研究。结果表明:缓/控释肥施肥量对夏玉米各器官及全株氮含量、氮利

  12. Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).

    Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

    2014-11-15

    The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, peffect on yield under any combination of options. Moreover, higher yields projected for the ideotype implicate more crop residues to be incorporated into the soil, which are positively correlated with the SOC sequestration and negatively with N leaching. The crop N uptake is expected to be adequate in view of higher rate of soil mineralization; the N fertilization rate of 400 kg N ha(-1) will involve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. PMID:24913890

  13. Climate Change, Risk and Grain Yields in China

    Rainer Holst; Xiaohua Yu; Carola Grn

    2013-01-01

    Adopting Just and Pope (1978, 1979) style yield functions, this paper proposes a method to analyze the impacts of regional climate change on grain production in China. We find that changes in climate will affect grain production in North and South China differently. Specifically, it emerges that a 1°C increase in annual average temperature could reduce national grain output by 1.45%(1.74%reduction in North China and 1.19%reduction in South China), while an increase in total annual precipitation of around 100 mm could increase national grain output by 1.31%(3.0%increase in North China and 0.59%reduction in South China).

  14. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  15. Effect of Shading During Grain Filling on the Physicochemical Properties of Fresh Waxy Maize

    LU Da-lei; SUN Xu-li; WANG Xin; YAN Fa-bao; LU Wei-ping

    2013-01-01

    Grain physicochemical properties determine the table quality of fresh waxy maize. Two waxy maize varieties, Suyunuo 5 (shading tolerant) and FHN003 (shading sensitive), were used to estimate the effect of shading (plants received 30%less radiation than control) during grain filling (from 0 d to 23 d after pollination) on physicochemical properties of fresh waxy maize grain. Shading decreased the grain fresh weight of Suyunuo 5 and FHN003 by 8.4 and 19.1%, respectively. Shading increased the grain water content of FHN003, whereas that of Suyunuo 5 was not affected. In both varieties for shading treatment, soluble sugar, starch and protein contents were decreased, whereas zein content was increased. The changes in globulin, albumin and glutenin contents under shading were variety dependent. In both varieties, shading decreasedλmax, iodine binding capacity and the percentage of large starch granules (diameter>17μm) but increased crystallinity. The results of rapid visco analysis showed that the viscosity characteristics (except for pasting temperature) of both varieties were decreased by shading;however, FHN003 was more severely affected than Suyunuo 5. Under shading,ΔHret and%R were decreased in both varieties, whereas the changes in ΔHgel and transition temperatures were variety dependent. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness were decreased in both varieties. Significant differences in physicochemical characteristics were observed between the two varieties.

  16. Impact of spatial-temporal variations of climatic variables onsummer maize yield in North China Plain

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Wang, E; Hengsdijk, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summer maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the dominant crops in the North China Plain (NCP). Itsgrowth is greatly influenced by the spatial-temporal variation of climatic variables, especially solar radiation, temperature and rainfall. The WOFOST (version 7.1) model was applied to evaluate the impact of climatic variability on summer maize yields using historical meteorological data from 1961to 2000. The model was calibrated and validated using data from field experiments conducted duringthe perio...

  17. LONG-TERM SELECTION EXPERIMENTS OR TRANSGENICS FOR COMPOSITION TRAITS OF MAIZE GRAIN?

    D. Šimić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long-term interest in developing maize strains that have improved grain composition. This interest has been recently intensified as a result of increased demands on value-added food/feed production, but also because of burgeoning biofuel production. The most important grain composition traits in maize are starch, oil and protein concentrations, but mineral composition is turning into attractive research area because of newly established biofortification programs. Enhancing iron and zinc concentrations in maize grain through breeding (biofortification has great potential to alleviate mineral deficiency that afflicts more than one-third of world’s population. As part of a biofortification project in maize at the Agricultural institute Osijek, two temperate maize elite dent inbred lines having significantly different mineral concentrations were crossed in order to commence genetic studies. There are two important questions when quantitative traits such as grain concentrations are to be improved by breeding. Firstly, what is selection response of composition traits and secondly, how many genes are involved. Initial attempts to answer these questions used the methods of quantitative genetics. Both realized and expected progressive selection responses for all composition traits provided evidence that these traits are controlled by many genes. Estimates of effective number of genetic factors controlling starch, oil and protein ranged from 10 to 178 with oil having fewer factors than starch and protein. Mapping experiments revealed several significant quantitative trait loci (QTL supporting quantitative genetic estimates. In our experiment, we estimated eight effective genes for iron concentration. The number for zinc concentration is not conclusive because of violating some assumptions of the method leading to systematic underestimation of the true number of loci. Big phenotypic changes for mineral composition traits, therefore

  18. Combining abilities for maize stem antibiosis, yield loss and yield under infestation and no infestation with pink stem borer

    Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Vales, M I; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    1999-01-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. Little is known about combining ability for antibiosis and tolerance to this pest. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to estimate general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal effects for stem damage traits, yield, and yield loss by a complete diallel of 10 inbreds and to determine the most useful trait for evaluating the level of defense ...

  19. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological ......A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro...... by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...... of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding....

  20. Production potential and yield gaps of summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    WANG Tao; LU Changhe; YU Bohua

    2011-01-01

    Crop potential productivity is a key index of scientifically appraising crop production and land population-supporting capacity.This study firstly simulated the potential and waterlimited yield of summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region using WOFOST model with meteorological data of 40 years,and then analyzed yield gaps between the actual and potential yield based on statistical data at county level.The potential and water-limited yield of summer maize in the BTH region is 6854-8789 kg/hm2 and 6434-8741 kg/hm2,and the weighted average for whole region is 7861 kg/hm2 and 7185 kg/hm2,respectively.The simulated yields gradually decrease from northeast to southwest with changes in climatic conditions particularly temperature and precipitation.Annual variation of potential yield is higher in the central and southern parts than the northeastern part.Compared to potential yield,the water-limited yield has higher coefficient of variation (CV),because of precipitation effects.The actual yield of summer maize was 2537-8730 kg/hm2,regionally averaged at 5582 kg/hm2,about 70% of the potential yield,implying that the region has room to increase the yield by improving crop management and irrigation systems.

  1. Trends of Yield and Soil Fertility in a Long-Term Wheat-Maize System

    YANG Xue-yun; SUN Ben-hua; ZHANG Shu-lan

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of the wheat-maize rotation is important to China’s food security. Intensive cropping without recycling crop residues or other organic inputs results in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients, and is assumed to be non-sustainable. We evaluated the effects of nine different treatments on yields, nitrogen use efifciency, P and K balances, and soil fertility in a wheat-maize rotation system (1991-2010) on silt clay loam in Shaanxi, China. The treatments involved the application ofrecommended dose of nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), nitrogen and potassium (NK), phosphorus and potassium (PK), combined NPK, wheat or maize straw (S) with NPK (SNPK), or dairy manure (M) with NPK (M1NPK and M2NPK), along with an un-treated control treatment (CK). The mean yields of wheat and maize ranged from 992 and 2 235 kg ha-1 under CK to 5962 and 6894 kg ha-1 under M2NPK treatment, respectively. Treatments in which either N or P was omitted (N, NK and PK) gave signiifcantly lower crop yields than those in which both were applied. The crop yields obtained under NP, NPK and SNPK treatments were statistically identical, as were those obtained under SNPK and MNPK. However, M2NPK gave a signiifcant higher wheat yield than NP, and MNPK gave signiifcant higher maize yield than both NP and NPK. Wheat yields increased signiifcantly (by 86 to 155 kg ha-1 yr-1) in treatments where NP was applied, but maize yields did not. In general, the nitrogen use efifciency of wheat was the highest under the NP and NPK treatments; for maize, it was the highest under MNPK treatment. The P balance was highly positive under MNPK treatment, increasing by 136 to 213 kg ha-1 annually. While the K balance was negative in most treatments, ranging from 31 to 217 kg ha-1 yr-1, levels of soil available K remained unchanged or increased over the 20 yr. SOM levels increased signiifcantly in all treatments. Overall, the results indicated that combinations of organic manure and

  2. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Jelena Vancetovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue maize (Zea mays L. is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1, total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01, with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

  3. Grain and tortilla quality in landraces and improved maize grown in the highlands of Mexico.

    Vázquez-Carrillo, Gricelda; García-Lara, Silverio; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Bergvinson, David J; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    The maize produced in the highlands of Mexico (>2,400 masl) is generally not accepted by the flour and masa and tortilla industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain quality and tortilla properties of maize landraces commonly grown in the highlands of Mexico and compare them with improved germplasm (hybrids). Germplasm analysis included 11 landraces, 32 white hybrids, and six yellow hybrids. Grain quality was analyzed for a range of physical and chemical factors, as well as for alkaline cooking quality. Landrace grains tended to be heterogeneous in terms of size, hardness and color. All landraces had soft-intermediate grains with an average flotation index (FI) of 61%. In contrast, hybrid grains were homogenous in size and color, and harder than landrace grains, with a FI of 38%. Protein, free sugars, oil and phenolic content in landraces were higher than in the hybrids. Significant correlations were found between phenolic content and tortilla color (r= -0.60; ptortilla industry, while all the hybrids evaluated fulfilled the requirements of this industry. PMID:21611770

  4. The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies

    Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least

  5. The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize

    Deletić Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Yield and Soil Fertility for a Winter Wheat-Maize System in Jiangsu, China

    JIANG Dong; H. HENGSDIJK; DAI Ting-Bo; W. de BOER; JING Qi; CAO Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping with different soil fertility management schemes, and 3) identify reasons for yield trends observed in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, over a 20-year period. There were eight treatments applied to both wheat and maize seasons: a control treatment (C); three inorganic fertilizers, that is, nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); and addition of farmyard manure (FYM) to these four treatments, that is,M, MN, MNP, and MNPK. At the end of the experiment the MN, MNP, and MNPK treatments had the highest yields,about 7 t wheat ha-1 and 7.5 t maize ha-1, with each about i t ha-1 more than the NPK treatments. Over 20 years with FYM soil organic matter increased by 80% compared to only 10% with NPK, which explained yield increases. However,from an environmental and agronomic perspective, manure application was not a superior strategy to NPK fertilizers.If manure was to be applied, though, it would be best applied to the wheat crop, which showed a better response than maize.

  7. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    Camila Agnes Lumi Abe; Carla Bertechini Faria; Fausto Fernandes de Castro; Sandra Regina de Souza; Fabiane Cristina dos Santos; Cleiltan Novais da Silva; Dauri José Tessmann; Ione Parra Barbosa-Tessmann

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precip...

  8. Heritability studies for grain yield and yield components in F3 segregating generation of spring wheat

    Heritability estimates provide information about the extent of which a particular genetic character to be transmitted to the successive generations. Heritability studies were conducted in four F3 segregating populations originated through cross combinations of 6 wheat varieties/advanced lines i.e., Sarsabz, Soghat-90, Marvi-2000, SI-91195, SD-1200/14 and IB-25/99 at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam during 2004-05. Genetic variance, environmental variance, heritability percentage in broad sense and genetic advance were estimated for different grain yield and yield contributing traits. The highest heritability (83.09%) associated with genetic advance (55.39) for grain yield was observed in cross combination of Marvi-2000 x Soghat-90 followed by Marvi-2000 x SI-91195 (80.0%; GA: 39.9), revealed good parental combination for effective selection for high yielding plants in segregating population. (author)

  9. Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide

    The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

  10. Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the U.S. Midwest.

    Lobell, David B; Roberts, Michael J; Schlenker, Wolfram; Braun, Noah; Little, Bertis B; Rejesus, Roderick M; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-05-01

    A key question for climate change adaptation is whether existing cropping systems can become less sensitive to climate variations. We use a field-level data set on maize and soybean yields in the central United States for 1995 through 2012 to examine changes in drought sensitivity. Although yields have increased in absolute value under all levels of stress for both crops, the sensitivity of maize yields to drought stress associated with high vapor pressure deficits has increased. The greater sensitivity has occurred despite cultivar improvements and increased carbon dioxide and reflects the agronomic trend toward higher sowing densities. The results suggest that agronomic changes tend to translate improved drought tolerance of plants to higher average yields but not to decreasing drought sensitivity of yields at the field scale. PMID:24786079

  11. Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region

    T. Kahraman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirdağ, Lüleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, Kızıltan95, Aydın 93 and Altın 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

  12. Response on yield and nutritive value of two commercial maize hybrids as a consequence of a water irrigation reduction

    Antonio Gallo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated in a practical farm condition the response of two commercial maize hybrids (maturity class FAO rating 700 grown for silage production on chemical composition and digestibility of whole maize plant as consequence of a severe water irrigation reduction. Based on different irrigation applications, water restricted (WR and fully irrigated (FI plots received 50 and 200 mm of irrigation water, respectively. A split-plot factorial arrangement in a randomised complete block design with two main plots (WR and FI and two sub-plots (hybrid A and B with 12 replications/ treatment was performed. Studied parameters were dry matter (DM yield, harvest index (HI, chemical composition, rumen in situ DM and neutral detergent fibre disappearance (DMD and NDFD, respectively, indigestible NDF (iNDF, 7h in vitro starch degradability (7hIVSD and net energy (NE for lactation content. Total DM and grain yields, HI and chemical composition differed (P<0.05 between FI and WR crops and only slight differences were recorded between hybrids. When compared to FI plants, WR had lower starch and higher fibre contents (P<0.05. Higher DMD (59.2 vs 56.4% DM and NDFD (61.0 vs 58.4% NDFOM were measured for FI with respect to WR crops, whereas iNDF was about 36% higher (P<0.05 in WR than FI. Lastly, WR plants had a lower NE content than FI plants (P<0.05. Our research showed that a drastic reduction in water irrigation negatively affected whole plant yield, chemical composition and nutrient availability of forage maize.

  13. SPEIPM-based research on drought impact on maize yield in North China Plain

    MING Bo; GUO Yin-qiao; TAO Hong-bin; LIU Guang-zhou; LI Shao-kun; WANG Pu

    2015-01-01

    The calculation method of potential evapotranspiration (PET) was improved by adopting a more reliable PET estimate based on the Penman-Monteith equation into the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) in this study (SPEIPM). This improvement increased the applicability of SPEI in North China Plain (NCP). The historic meteorological data during 1962–2011 were used to calculate SPEIPM. The detrended yields of maize from Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Beijing, and Tianjin provinces/cities of NCP were obtained by linear sliding average method. Then regression analysis was made to study the relationships between detrended yields and SPEI values. Different time scales were applied, and thus SPEIPM was mentioned as SPEIPMk-j (k=time scale, 1, 2, 3, 4,…, 24 mon;j=month, 1, 2, 3,..., 12), among which SPEIPM3-8 relfected the water condition from June to August, a period of heavy precipitation and vigorous growth of maize in NCP. SPEIPM3-8 was highly correlated with detrended yield in this region, which can effectively evaluate the effect of drought on maize yield. Additional y, this relationship becomes more signiifcant in recent 20 yr. The regression model based on the SPEI series explained 64.8%of the variability of the annual detrended yield in Beijing, 45.2%in Henan, 58.6%in Shandong, and 54.6%in Hebei. Moreover, when SPEIPM3-8 is in the range of–0.6 to 1.1,–0.9 to 0.8 and–0.8 to 2.3, the detrended yield increases in Shandong, Henan and Beijing. The yield increasing range was during normal water condition in Shandong and Henan, where precipitation was abundant. It indicated that the ifeld management matched wel with local water condition and thus al owed stable and high yield. Maize yield increase in these two provinces in the future can be realized by further improving water use efifciency and enhancing the stress resistance as wel as yield stability. In Hebei and Beijing, the precipitation is less and thus the normal water condition cannot meet

  14. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7

  15. Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

  16. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.

    Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

  17. [Predicting the impact of climate change in the next 40 years on the yield of maize in China].

    Ma, Yu-ping; Sun, Lin-li; E, You-hao; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will significantly affect agricultural production in China. The combination of the integral regression model and the latest climate projection may well assess the impact of future climate change on crop yield. In this paper, the correlation model of maize yield and meteorological factors was firstly established for different provinces in China by using the integral regression method, then the impact of climate change in the next 40 years on China's maize production was evaluated combined the latest climate prediction with the reason be ing analyzed. The results showed that if the current speeds of maize variety improvement and science and technology development were constant, maize yield in China would be mainly in an increasing trend of reduction with time in the next 40 years in a range generally within 5%. Under A2 climate change scenario, the region with the most reduction of maize yield would be the Northeast except during 2021-2030, and the reduction would be generally in the range of 2.3%-4.2%. Maize yield reduction would be also high in the Northwest, Southwest and middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River after 2031. Under B2 scenario, the reduction of 5.3% in the Northeast in 2031-2040 would be the greatest across all regions. Other regions with considerable maize yield reduction would be mainly in the Northwest and the Southwest. Reduction in maize yield in North China would be small, generally within 2%, under any scenarios, and that in South China would be almost unchanged. The reduction of maize yield in most regions would be greater under A2 scenario than under B2 scenario except for the period of 2021-2030. The effect of the ten day precipitation on maize yield in northern China would be almost positive. However, the effect of ten day average temperature on yield of maize in all regions would be generally negative. The main reason of maize yield reduction was temperature increase in most provinces but precipitation decrease in a few

  18. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Eduardo Zavaschi; Letícia de Abreu Faria; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Carlos Antonio da Costa Nascimento; Thiago Augusto de Moura; Diego Wyllyam do Vale; Fernanda Latanze Mendes; Marcos Yassuo Kamogawa

    2014-01-01

    A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea trea...

  19. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  20. Effect of self-purging pyrolysis on yield of biochar from maize cobs, husks and leaves.

    Intani, Kiatkamjon; Latif, Sajid; Kabir, A K M Rafayatul; Müller, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, biochar was produced from maize residues (cobs, husks, leaves) in a lab-scale pyrolysis reactor without using a purging gas. The physicochemical properties of biomass and biochar were analysed. Box-Behnken design was used to optimise operational conditions for biochar yields. Multivariate correlations of biochar yields were established using reduced quadratic models with R(2)=0.9949, 0.9801 and 0.9876 for cobs, husks and leaves, respectively. Biochar yields were negatively correlated with the temperature, which was significantly influenced by the exothermic reactions during the pyrolysis of maize residues. The heating rate was found to have the least effect on biochar yields. Under optimal conditions, the maximum biochar yields from cobs, husks and leaves were 33.42, 30.69 and 37.91%, respectively. The highest biochar yield from maize leaves was obtained at a temperature of 300°C, a heating rate of 15°C/min and a holding time of 30min. PMID:27395002

  1. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil.

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Bass, Adrian M; Nelson, Paul N; Bird, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10 t ha(-1) biochar (B)+F; 3) 25 t ha(-1) compost (Com)+F; 4) 2.5 t ha(-1) B+25 t ha(-1) Com mixed on site+F; and 5) 25 t ha(-1) co-composted biochar-compost (COMBI)+F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the δ(15)N and δ(13)C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N2O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar-compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems. PMID:26590867

  2. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  3. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination

  4. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  5. MAIZE YIELD AND ITS STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN ROMANIAN DANUBE PLAIN

    Alexandru COCIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed crop management systems need to be optimized to provide more resilient options in order to cope with projected climatic scenarios which are forecasting a decrease in mean precipitation and more frequent extreme drought periods in the Eastern Romanian Danube Plain. This research, carried out in the period of 2011-2014, had as main purpose the determination of influence of tillage practices and residue management on rainfall use efficiency, maize yield and its stability, in order to evaluate the advantages of conservation agriculture (CA in the time of stabilization of direct seeding effects, in comparison with traditional chisel tillage. The maize grain yields are presented for each crop management practices, as follows: (1 chisel tillage, retained crop residues being chopped and incorporated (ciz; (2 zero tillage, retained crop residue chopped and kept on the field in short flat condition (rvt; (3 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in short root-anchored condition (1/2rva, and (4 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in tall root-anchored condition (1/1rva. In 2012, a year with prolonged drought during vegetative growth, yield differences between zero tillage with short root-anchored residue retention (1/2rva and chisel tillage with residue incorporation (ciz were positive, up to 840 kg ha-1. In average over 2011-2014, conservation agriculture (CA practices had a yield advantage over traditional chisel tillage practice. Zero tillage with residue retention used rainfall more efficiently so suggesting that it is a more resilient agronomic system than traditional (conventional practices involving chisel tillage with residue incorporation.

  6. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors...

  7. Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) Grown for Grain After the Application of Sewage Sludge

    Grażyna SZYMAŃSKA; SULEWSKA, Hanna; ŚMIATACZ, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the agricultural use of sewage sludge in corn for grain, in the year of application and follow up effect after one and two years after its application. The study was conducted on the variety PR39G12 on the field after the 5-year monoculture corn. Sewage sludge was used in accordance with the Directive of Minister of Environment allowing application of 10 t dry mater per ha-1 once every five years. Fertilization with sludge of maize grown for ...

  8. Relationship between grain yield and quality in rice germplasms grown across different growing areas

    Xu, Quan; Chen, Wenfu; Xu, Zhengjin

    2015-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are two major foci of rice breeding. In this study, Chinese regional rice test data provide us the unique opportunity to analyze the relationship between yield and quality in rice, because China has an unusually wide range of rice cultivars. We analyzed the relationships between grain yield, yield components, and grain quality of 300 rice germplasms. Japonica was superior in both yield and quality compared with indica. A high setting rate improved the head rice ra...

  9. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize ( Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  10. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2015-11-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  11. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy. PMID:24851925

  12. In-Season Root-Zone Nitrogen Management Strategies for Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in High-Yielding Maize Production in China

    MENG Qing-Feng; CHEN Xin-Ping; ZHANG Fu-Suo; CAO Ming-Hui; CUI Zhen-Ling; BAI Jin-Shun; YUE Shan-Chao; CHEN Su-Yi; T.M(U)LLER

    2012-01-01

    Many recently developed N management strategies have been extremely successful in improving N use efficiency.However,attempts to further increase grain yields have had limited success.Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at four sites to evaluate the effect of an in-season root-zone N management strategy on maize (Zea mays L.).According to the in-season root-zone N management,the optimal N rate (ONR) was determined by subtracting measured soil mineral N (NH4+-N and NO3--N) in the root zone from N target values.Other treatments included a control without N fertilization,70% of ONR,130% of ONR,and recommended N rate (RNR) by agronomists in China that have been shown to approach maize yield potentials.Although apparent N recovery for the ONR treatment was significantly higher than that under RNR in 2007,grain yield declined from 13.3 to 11.0 Mg ha-1 because of an underestimation of N uptake.In 2008,N target values were adjusted to match crop uptake,and N fertilization rates were reduced from 450 kg N ha- 1 for RNR to 225 to 265 kg N ha-1 for ONR.High maize yields were maintained at 12.6 to 13.5 Mg ha-1,which were twice the yield from typical farmers'practice.As a result,apparent N recovery increased from 29% to 66%,and estimated N losses decreased significantly for the ONR treatment compared to the RNR treatment.In conclusion,the in-season root-zone N management approach was able to achieve high yields,high NUE and low N losses.

  13. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat.

    Rebetzke, G J; Bonnett, D G; Reynolds, M P

    2016-04-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned-awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38-7.93 t ha(-1)) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned-awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (-5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains ('screenings') to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced screenings. PMID

  14. Improving Spring Maize Yield Estimation at Field Scale by Assimilating Time-Series HJ-1 CCD Data into the WOFOST Model Using a New Method with Fast Algorithms

    Zhiqiang Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Field crop yield prediction is crucial to grain storage, agricultural field management, and national agricultural decision-making. Currently, crop models are widely used for crop yield prediction. However, they are hampered by the uncertainty or similarity of input parameters when extrapolated to field scale. Data assimilation methods that combine crop models and remote sensing are the most effective methods for field yield estimation. In this study, the World Food Studies (WOFOST model is used to simulate the growing process of spring maize. Common assimilation methods face some difficulties due to the scarce, constant, or similar nature of the input parameters. For example, yield spatial heterogeneity simulation, coexistence of common assimilation methods and the nutrient module, and time cost are relatively important limiting factors. To address the yield simulation problems at field scale, a simple yet effective method with fast algorithms is presented for assimilating the time-series HJ-1 A/B data into the WOFOST model in order to improve the spring maize yield simulation. First, the WOFOST model is calibrated and validated to obtain the precise mean yield. Second, the time-series leaf area index (LAI is calculated from the HJ data using an empirical regression model. Third, some fast algorithms are developed to complete assimilation. Finally, several experiments are conducted in a large farmland (Hongxing to evaluate the yield simulation results. In general, the results indicate that the proposed method reliably improves spring maize yield estimation in terms of spatial heterogeneity simulation ability and prediction accuracy without affecting the simulation efficiency.

  15. Deficit hídrico e produtividade na cultura do milho Water deficit and yield in maize crop

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto do deficit hídrico, no rendimento de grãos de milho, e a eficácia da irrigação em todo ciclo e, especificamente, no florescimento. Os dados foram obtidos em dez anos de experimentação, durante os quais doses variáveis de irrigação foram aplicadas por um sistema de aspersão, localizado no centro da área experimental. Foram calculados balanços hídricos, tendo como variáveis a água precipitada (chuva e irrigação e a evapotranspiração máxima do milho. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão para 27 condições hídricas, relacionando-se rendimento de grãos com deficit hídrico e razão evapotranspiração real sobre evapotranspiração máxima (ETr/ETm. A maior redução na produção ocorre em conseqüência do deficit hídrico na polinização, formação do zigoto e desenvolvimento inicial do grão, numa relação quadrática. Nesse período, a razão ETr/ETm explica quase 80% das variações na produção de grãos, que se estabiliza acima de uma razão de 0,7. A irrigação aumenta e estabiliza a produção do milho; doses de rega de aproximadamente 60% daquela necessária para elevar a umidade do solo à capacidade de campo aumentam a eficiência de uso da irrigação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of water deficit on maize grain yield, as well as the irrigation effectiveness, considering all the crop cycle and, specifically, the flowering period. Data were collected during ten years in several experiments, in which variable doses of irrigation were applied by an aspersion system located in the center of the experimental area. Water balances were calculated, and the precipitated water (rainfall and irrigation and the maximum evapotranspiration of the maize were considered as inputs. Models of regression for 27 water conditions were adjusted, relating grain yield to water deficit and actual evapotranspiration to maximum evapotranspiration ratio (ETr

  16. An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.

    Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

  17. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    Adilson Deitos; Emmanuel Arnhold; Freddy Mora; Glauco Vieira Miranda

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051) in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield...

  18. Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan

    Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

  19. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  20. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  1. Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L. stover

    de Leon Natalia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Results Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Conclusion Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

  2. Effect of Different Fertilization Practices on Yield of a Wheat-Maize Rotation and Soil Fertility

    2002-01-01

    A 15-year field experiment was carried out in Henan Province, China, to study the effects of different fertilization practices on yield of a wheat-maize rotation. Fertilizers tested contained N alone (N), N plus P (NP) or plus P and K (NPK), all with or without manure (M). Different long-term fertilization practices affected the yields under the rotation system of wheat and maize differently and the effects on yields was in a general trend of MNPK>MNP>MN>NPK>NP>M>N>the control. The average contribution rate of soil fertility to the highest yield was 37.9%, and the rest 62.1% came from fertilizer applications. The yield effects of the chemical fertilizers were in the order of N>P>K and were increased by application of manure.Balanced fertilization with multielement chemical fertilizers and manure can be effective in maintaining growth in agricultural production. Combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure also increased the content of soil organic matter.

  3. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Massimo Blandino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  4. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  5. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

  6. Studies on Maximum Yield of Wheat and Other Small Grains in Controlled Environments

    Salisbury, F. B.; Albrechtsen, R. S.; Campbell, W. F.; Dewey, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Maximum yield of wheat and perhaps other small grains under controlled environmental conditions; cultivars, photosynthesis, nutrient levels, and humidity and plant water potential; promoting grain maturation; cross gradient chamber design; and single celled clonal multiplication of wheat plants are outlined.

  7. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F1 and F2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F1 and segregation in F2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F1, suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F1 was observed. In the F2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F2, a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  8. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  9. Effects of Short Exposures to Spinosad-Treated Wheat or Maize on Four Stored-Grain Insects

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...

  10. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure

  11. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice

    Prashant Vikram; B P Mallikarjuna Swamy; Shalabh Dixit; Jennylyn Trinidad; Ma Teresa Sta Cruz; Maturan, Paul C.; Modesto Amante; Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM) to estimate the significance of pl...

  12. Simulating the yield impacts of organ-level quantitative trait loci associated with drought response in maize: a "gene-to-phenotype" modeling approach.

    Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Tardieu, François; McLean, Greg; Welcker, Claude; Hammer, Graeme L

    2009-12-01

    Under drought, substantial genotype-environment (G x E) interactions impede breeding progress for yield. Identifying genetic controls associated with yield response is confounded by poor genetic correlations across testing environments. Part of this problem is related to our inability to account for the interplay of genetic controls, physiological traits, and environmental conditions throughout the crop cycle. We propose a modeling approach to bridge this "gene-to-phenotype" gap. For maize under drought, we simulated the impact of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling two key processes (leaf and silk elongation) that influence crop growth, water use, and grain yield. Substantial G x E interaction for yield was simulated for hypothetical recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across different seasonal patterns of drought. QTL that accelerated leaf elongation caused an increase in crop leaf area and yield in well-watered or preflowering water deficit conditions, but a reduction in yield under terminal stresses (as such "leafy" genotypes prematurely exhausted the water supply). The QTL impact on yield was substantially enhanced by including pleiotropic effects of these QTL on silk elongation and on consequent grain set. The simulations obtained illustrated the difficulty of interpreting the genetic control of yield for genotypes influenced only by the additive effects of QTL associated with leaf and silk growth. The results highlight the potential of integrative simulation modeling for gene-to-phenotype prediction and for exploiting G x E interactions for complex traits such as drought tolerance. PMID:19786622

  13. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  14. Genetic variability for carotenoid content of grains in a composite maize population

    Volmir Kist

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local maize (Zea mays L. varieties are cultivated by small-scale farmers in western Santa Catarina (SC State, in southern Brazil. These small areas frequently present many problems related to biotic and non-biotic stresses, which have limited the economic output and income of the farmers. Production from local varieties for human consumption would be an alternative way of improving income and stimulating on farm conservation. The genetic variability of the total carotenoid content (TCC of kernels in a local maize population was evaluated for their economic exploitation potential as biofortified food. Two independent samples of 96 half-sib families (HSF plus four checks were evaluated in two groups of experiments in western SC and each one was carried out in two environments. They were set out in a 10 × 10 partially balanced lattice with three replications per location; plots consisted of one row, 5.0 m long with 1.0 m between rows. TCC ranged from 11 to 23 µg g-1, averaging ≈16 µg g-1 in the pooled analysis over the two sets. The local composite population exhibited genetic variability in order to increase the TCC of grains in the second cycle of selection by the convergent-divergent scheme.

  15. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities.

    Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; Faria, Carla Bertechini; de Castro, Fausto Fernandes; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases. PMID:26198227

  16. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    Camila Agnes Lumi Abe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  17. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  18. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wiand S2GxY indicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  19. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wi and S2GxYindicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  20. GROWTH AND MASS SPECTROMETRY PROFILE OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA PIGMENT GROWN IN MAIZE GRAIN EXTRACT

    Sagarika Devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria species are common saprophytes found in a variety of habitats as ubiquitous agents of decay. Alternaria spp. produces about sixty different secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, growth and production of pigment from Alternaria alternata was studied in maize grain extract at pH 4-9. The reddish brown pigment was extracted, estimated and partially purified by fractionation. Through mass spectrometry, major constituents of pigment from Alternaria alternata such as Tenuazoic acid (m/z 198, Stemphyperylenol (m/z 253, Alterperylenol (m/z 351, Alternariol (m/z 259.200, Altenuene (m/z 292, Alternarienoic acid (m/z 279.35 and Alternariol 5 methyl ether (m/z 273.20 were identified. The bio-prospecting of these secondary metabolites in industrial applications is also discussed.

  1. Attempts to combine high yield and increased grain protein in wheat

    The best mutant obtained in our programme (TW-1) has given grain yields ranging from 80 to 92% of the parent cultivar Kalyan Sona and has consistently shown an increase in grain protein content of about two percentage points. A hybridization programme was therefore initiated to obtain selections with yield potential equal or better than that of Kalyan Sona and with increased grain protein content. Transgressive segregation for plant height, spike length and days to flowering was observed in the F2 generation of a cross between the parent Kalyan Sona and the high-protein mutant. Selections in the F2 generation were made on the basis of grain yield components and grain protein per cent and have been studied up to the F4. Most of the selections in F4 were between the two parents for both grain yield and grain protein content. (author)

  2. Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin

    Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the

  3. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between ‑25 and ‑2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha‑1year‑1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  4. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

    SHUKRI FETAHU; SLI ALIU; IMER RUSINOVCI; FETAH ELEZI; KEMAJL BISLIMI; AVNI BEHLULU; QENDRIM SHABANI

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH), it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB), with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y), at Experimental Farm (EF), Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and d...

  5. Low dose gamma radiation on maize seed and its effect on plant growth and yield

    Seed or plant treatment with ionizing radiations, at certain doses can promote an increase and/or germination acceleration, greater plant development, an agricultural production increase, etc. Radiation doses used to obtain these stimuli do not provoke alteration on the genetic patrimony, because generally the dose level is very low. Low doses of gamma radiation have been reported to induce useful effects in rice, wheat, corn, tomato, radish, etc. which resulted in improved germination and higher yields. The present work is aimed to examine the effects of 60Co gamma radiation on maize seeds, on its development and crop production

  6. Effects of different organic materials on forage yield and quality of silage maize (Zea mays L.)

    NAZLI, Recep İrfan; KUŞVURAN, Alpaslan; İNAL, İlker; DEMİRBAŞ, Ahmet; TANSI, Veyis

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at the experimental area of the Field Crops Department of Çukurova University (37°01'N, 35°18'E) in the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons to determine the effects of sole or combined applications of 3 organic materials (poultry litter, cattle manure, and leonardite) with supplemental inorganic fertilizer on the forage yield and quality of silage maize. The field trial was arranged in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications. Poultry litter (PL) and...

  7. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  8. The Effect of Three Common Grain Drills on Dryland Wheat Yield

    A Heidari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field experiment (2004-2007 was conducted on a silty clay loam soil at Tajarak Research Station of Hamedan to determine proper grain drill for wheat in Hamedan dryland areas. In this study, three grain drills including: Hamedani Barzegar; Sahalan Kesht; and Kesht Gostar with wheat seed broadcasting and disking were used. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. In laboratory, the precision of metering device and the amount of seed damage by metering mechanism were measured. At the end of growth season (harvesting time, crop yield and the associated parameters (spike per m2, number of grain per spike, wheat kernel were determined. Results showed that planting methods did not affect wheat grain yield significantly. However, wheat grain yield was significantly higher for Kesht Gostar grain drill than the other two machines in two drier years. Mean wheat grain yield was 1224 kg ha–1. Mean wheat grain yield was the greatest (1275 kg ha-1 for Kesht Gostar and the least (1174 Kg ha-1 for Hamedani Barzegar grain drill. Mean straw yield was not affected by planting methods. Mean wheat straw yield was the greatest (2349 kg ha-1 for Hamedani Barzegar grain drill, and the least (2009 Kg ha-1 for the combination of seed broadcasting and disking. The amounts of rainfall during growing season strongly influenced wheat grain and straw yields. Mean wheat grain yield was 1572 Kg ha-1 and 1026 Kg ha-1 in wet year and dry years, respectively. This study showed that a wide range of grain drills is adaptable for dryland wheat cropping system for the semiarid Hamedan areas.

  9. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  10. Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years

    Wang, Xiaobin; Cai, Dianxiong; Grant, Cynthia; Hoogmoed, Willem B.; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012, using the Chinese statistical yearbooks. We estimate the major factors influencing yield by regression analysis. Results show that fertilizer indices were 40 % for Northeast China, 36 % for East C...

  11. Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions

    Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

  12. Nutrient uptake requirements with increasing grain yield for rice in China

    CHE Sheng-guo; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Yan-ting; YUAN Liang; LIN Zhi-an; HU Shu-wen; SHEN Bing

    2016-01-01

    Improved estimates of nutrient requirements for rice (Oryza sativaL.) in China are essential to optimize fertilization regulation for increasing grain yields and reducing the potential of environmental negative inlfuences, especialy under high-yielding intensive systems. A database involving rice grain yields, nutrient concentrations and accumulations colected from on-ifeld station experiments in the literatures published from 2000 to 2013 in China was developed to understand the relationships between grain yields and plant nutrient uptakes, and to quantify nutrient requirements for different yield levels. Considering al data sets, rice grain yield ranged from 1.4 to 15.2 t ha–1 with the mean value of 7.84 t ha–1, andca. 10.4% of yield observa-tions were higher than the yield barrier level of 10 t ha–1. N requirement to produce one ton grain was 21.10 kg for the yield range 10 t ha–1, respectively. Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) requirements showed increasing trends, from 3.51 and 19.87 kg per t grain for 10.0 t ha–1 range. In conclusion, nutrient requirement varied with increasement of grain yield, and N, P and K presented various response trends, increasing, declining or stagnating, which would be of great beneift for improving fertilizer strategies.

  13. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ► Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ► More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ► Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ► New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

  14. Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield

    Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

  15. Water Consumption and Maize Yield for Alternative Furrow Irrigation in Western Heilongjiang Province

    SUN Aili; LI Yuexing; WEI Yongxia

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at less and un-uniform distribution rainfall problems, the serious draught in spring, low crop production and water efficiency in sandy soil area of Heilongjiang Province, the experiment of alternative furrow irrigation was conducted in Dumeng County in 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to find the water consumption law and its influence on maize yield. The results showed that the highest water consumption was during the heading stage and the highest daily consumption of water was during the filling stage. The stimulation effect of alternative furrow irrigation on yield was obvious in the that the seedling was 38.85 mm; the jointing was 108.11 mm; the heading was 124.39 mm; the filling was 88.96 mm; the milk was 60.21 mm; and the harvesting was 47.89 mm.

  16. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  17. Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Grain Yield in Spring Wheat Cultivated under Different Water Regimes

    2007-01-01

    In C3 plants, carbon isotope discrimination (△) has been proposed as an indirect selection criterion for grain yield. Reported correlations between △ and grain yield however, differ highly according to the analyzed organ or tissue, the stage of sampling, and the environment and water regime. In a first experiment carried out in spring wheat during two consecutive seasons in the dry conditions of northwest Mexico (Ciudad Obregon, Sonora), different water treatments were applied,corresponding to the main water regimes available to spring wheat worldwide, and the relationships between △ values of different organs and grain yield were examined. Under terminal (post-anthesis) water stress, grain yield was positively associated with △ in grain at maturity and in leaf at anthesis, confirming results previously obtained under Mediterranean environments. Under early (pre-anthesis) water stress and residual moisture stress, the association between grain △ and yield was weaker and highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing. No correlation was found between △ and grain yield under optimal irrigation. The relationship between △ and grain yield was also studied during two consecutive seasons in 20 bread wheat cultivars in the Ningxia region (Northern China), characterized by winter drought(pre-anthesis water stress). Wheat was grown under rainfed conditions in two locations (Guyuan and Pengyang) and under irrigated conditions in another two (Yinchuan and Huinong). In Huinong, the crop was also exposed to salt stress.Highly significant positive associations were found between leaf and grain △ and grain yields across the environments.The relationship between △ and yield within environments highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing, the quantity and distribution of rainfall during the growth cycle, the presence of salt in the soil, and the occurrence of irrigation before anthesis. These two experiments

  18. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Jelena Vančetović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSSS and Iodent. A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a dinstinctive genetic group (Unknown. In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR. Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p<0.01. The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain (ΔG for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74% followed by protein (10.14%. Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected ΔG for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to ΔG values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality.

  19. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  20. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  1. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  2. Plant density and mineral nitrogen fertilization influencing yield, yield components and concentration of oil and protein in soybean grains

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are few studies on the interaction between soybean plant density and nitrogen fertilization. This research aimed to assess the effect of mineral nitrogen associated to different plant densities on yield, yield components and oil and protein concentrations of soybean grains. Two experiments were conducted in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, with randomized complete block design, in a split plots scheme, with six replications. Four sowing densities (150, 300, 440 and 560 thousand viable seeds∙ha–1 were allocated in the plots, and two nitrogen levels (0 and 45 kg N∙ha–1, applied at V2, using ammonium sulfate were allocated in the subplots. There was no interaction between soybean plant density and the application of mineral nitrogen on yield, yield components and oil and protein concentrations in soybean grains. Higher plant population reduced the number of pods per plant and the contribution of branch sinks to the grain yield, but the effects on yield differed among the growing seasons. The mineral nitrogen fertilization did not increase yield and protein and oil concentrations in the grains, thus it was unnecessary.

  3. Effect of solar radiation and temperature on grain number definition in maize

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of solar radiation and temperature regime between emergence and silking on the crop development rate and the number of grain per growing rate unit of the crop, and the relationships of such parameters with the grain yield of corn hybrids. The experiments were carried out in the years 1994/95 to 1996/97, using the commercial hybrids C-901, XL-560, and XL-678 in 1994/95 and the hybrids C-901, XL-212, and XL-370 in the remaining years. The treatments consisted of sowing dates from September to December, in 1994/95, and from August to December, in 1995/96 and 1996/97. High dry matter accumulation was observed when there was high incidence of solar radiation during the period between emergence and flowering. However, as the mean air temperature exerts effect on the duration of that period, the growth rate during such period was more associated to temperature than to solar radiation. The effect of the temperature was inversely proportional to the number of grains per unit of growing rate in this period, possibly due to the longer time for solar radiation interception. As a result of the association between temperature and radiation, the photothermal coefficient was positively associated with the grain yield. (author)

  4. Variability parameters for yield components of different progeny types in an F3 maize population

    Stojković Slaviša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of F3 population 2002-30, created in the Department of Maize, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. At first, about 150 plants of the studied population were selfed and simultaneously crossed with the tester 1491x1496, in order to get complementary S1 and HS progenies. After the harvest, 41 progenies of each type were selected by the random sample method for the trials carried out in Aleksinac, Leskovac, and Kruševac, as three studied environments, in RCB design. Genetic variances were significantly higher in S1 progenies, with the exception of root and stalk lodged plants percent and grain number per row, where these differences were not significant. Phenotypic variances followed the same tendency. The obtained values of broad-sense heritability were significantly higher in S1 than in HS progenies. Low heritability values were calculated only for root and stalk lodged plants percent. Cluster analysis did not show any greater difference between S1 and HS progenies, neither in distances nor in group definition, although there were significant differences between them in genetic variances. However, one can see a lower degree of distances between HS progenies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31054: The development of new technologies of small grains cultivation on acid soils using contemporary biotechnology

  5. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  6. QTL identification of grain protein concentration and its genetic correlation with starch concentration and grain weight using two populations in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Yuling Li; Yanzhao Wang; Mengguan Wei; Xuehui Li; Jiafeng Fu

    2009-04-01

    Protein is one of the three main storage chemical components in maize grains, and is negatively correlated with starch concentration (SC). Our objective was to analyse the influence of genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for protein concentration (PC) and to reveal the molecular genetic associations between PC and both SC and grain weight (GWP). Two hundred and eighty-four (Pop1) and 265 (Pop2) F2:3 families were developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred GY220 and two normal maize inbreds 8984 and 8622 respectively, and were genotyped with 185 and 173 pairs of SSR markers. PC, SC and GWP were evaluated under two environments. Composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiple interval mapping (MIM) methods were used to detect single-trait QTL for PC, and multiple-trait QTL for PC with both SC and GWP. No common QTL were shared between the two populations for their four and one PC QTL. Common QTL with opposite signs of effects for PC and SC/GWP were detected on three marker intervals at bins 6.07–6.08, 8.03 and 8.03–8.04. Multiple-traits QTL mapping showed that tightly-linked QTL, pleiotropic QTL and QTL having effects with opposite directions for PC and SC/GWP were all observed in Pop1, while all QTL reflected opposite effects in Pop2.

  7. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants

    The effects of fast neutrons from a 252Cf source in the fluence range 105–108 n/cm2 on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2×106 n/cm2 increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5–1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na+ in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ decreased. - Highlights: • Irradiation of wheat grains with neutrons (low fluence ∼102 n/cm2) considerably increases the grain yield throughout three subsequent generations. • The irradiation also remarkably increases total chlorophyll concentration in the higher plant, which results in higher concentrations of sugars and crude protein. • The irradiation also increases salt tolerance of the plants

  8. Effect of pre-sowing gamma irradiation and microelement seed treatment on maize yield

    Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to study the joint application of gamma irradiation and microelement treatment. The microelement treatment consisted in soaking the seeds for 24 hours in combined solution of H3BO3, CuSO4, ZnSO4, MnSO4 (0.01% each). The yield and growth of plants have not been affected considerably by the sequence of irradiation and microelement treatment. From the experimental data it can be concluded that under the testing conditions, in the majority of the cases, the fresh weight and growth of the young plants of the MvSC 530 maize hybrid, changed positively on the influence of treatment with gamma irradiation prior to sowing (1000 rad) and microelement solution. However, an enhanced depression in weight and length was caused by the treatment with 7000 rad. (author)

  9. Impact of Phosphorus Levels and Seed Rates on Growth and Yield of Late Sown Maize on High Elevation in Swat, Pakistan

    After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is required by the plants relatively in large quantity and is the second most important crop nutrient that increases productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). An experiment on effect of different P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ levels and seed rates on growth and yield of late sown maize cv. Baber on high elevation during kharif season, was conducted at Farmer Field School, Swat, Pakistan during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Sowing was done one month late (July 15) than the optimum time of sowing. Optimum time of sowing on high elevation in Swat, Pakistan starts from May 15 to June 15. Four levels of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/(0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and four seed rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha/sup -1/) were used. A subplot size of 3m x 4.5m was used. Each subplot was consisted of six rows having 75 cm row-to-row distance with row length of 3 m. Sowing of 40 kg seed ha/sup -1/ treated with 75kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ gave optimum cob length (19 cm), plant height (179.19 cm), 1000 grain weight (192.83 g) and grain yield (2712 kg ha/sup -1/). While maximum grain cob/sup -1/(375 ) was given by 30 kg seed ha/sup -1/ treated with 75 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. On the basis of the above results, among the tested seed rate 40 kg ha/sup -1/ treated with 75 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is recommended for late sowing on high elevation under the agro-ecological conditions of Swat valley. (author)

  10. GRAIN AND OIL YIELD OF SINGLE-CROSS AND THREE-WAY CROSS OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Anto Mijić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower breeding program at the Agricultural Institute Osijek is aimed at creating hybrids with high genetic potential for grain and oil yield and with improved agronomical traits. Achieved grain and oil yields of 30 new (single-cross and three-way cross OS hybrids in comparison with standard hybrids (Apolon and Šokac, during 2006 and 2007 at location Osijek (Croatia are presented in this paper. The experiments were set up in randomized complete block design (RCBD and analyzed traits were grain and oil yield. The highest grain yield (for both years of the research was achieved with hybrids OS-H-271 S and OS-H-35 T (above 5 t ha-1, and oil yield with hybrids OS-H-35 T, OS-H-K3 T and OS-H-271 S (above 2 t ha-1. On the average, three-way cross hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to single-cross hybrids. Experimental hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to registered OS sunflower hybrids, indicating a genetic advance in domestic sunflower hybrids breeding.

  11. Contribution of Cereal-Legume association to the yield and grain quality of cereals

    A study on the mixed cereal-legume cultivation in different planting patterns was undertaken for two consecutive years. The aim was to investigate the contribution of the association of legumes towards yield and grain quality of cereal crops. The data indicated that the association of legumes in different planting pattern with sorghum affected the yield and grain quality of sorghum. During both the years of study, the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern significantly increased the grain yield of sorghum, as compered with single rows (60 cm apart) and triple row strips (30/120 cm). The grain yield of sorghum decreased when sorghum was associated with mungbean or guar, but the additional harvest of intercrops increased the total productivity. The difference in grain yield between the treatment means of interaction was non-significant. Moreover, in the first year of study, protein content of sorghum grain was not significantly affected by the planting pattern, but in the second year of study, double and triple row strips planting pattern significantly increased the grain protein content (respectively, 9.41% and 9.345%) of sorghum, as compared with single row planting pattern (protein content of 9.19%). Sorghum grain protein content of 9.51 and 9.49% produced in association with mungbean was significantly more than the grain protein content of sorghum alone or sorghum grown in the association with guar during 1999 and 2000, respectively. Increase in grain protein content of sorghum, when associated with mungbean, was attributed to the N transfer from companion mungbean to sorghum. It may be concluded from the results obtained that sorghum + mungbean association in the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern can efficiently utilize the available resources to improve the grain quality and overall production of sorghum-based cropping system. (author)

  12. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha−1 reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha−1 and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha−1 (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha−1. With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha−1, Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21. PMID:26565992

  13. Remote Sensing and Modeling Methods for Crop Grain Yield Assessment

    Monitoring crop condition and yields at regional scales using satellite imagery from operational satellites remains a challenge for the developed and developing countries. Imagery from the MODIS sensor onboard NASA’s TERRA and ACQUA satellites offer an excellent opportunity for daily coverage at 25...

  14. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  15. Wheat Grain Yield and Protein Content as Influenced by Sodium Bisulfite

    WANG Xian-ze; ZHANG Shu-qin; TIAN Ji-chun; ZHAO Shi-jie

    2002-01-01

    Two wheat varieties with similar yield and significantly different protein content were chosen to study the effect of foliage spraying sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) at low concentration to wheat plants receiving different levels of nitrogen on nitrate reduction along with yield and protein content of grain, so as to discuss the relationship between carbon metabolism and nitrogen metabolism, and find out the intrinsic mechanism of grain yield and protein content formation. The results showed that spraying NaHSO3 at grain-filing stage increased the yield of grain, but declined the capacity of nitrate reduction, which might result in decrease of protein content in the end. Whether receiving NaHSO3 or not, the variety with high protein content had higher final protein level and nitrate reduction capacity than that with low protein content.

  16. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages

    Křen, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2014), s. 221-227. ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2014

  17. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    S. K. Jain and P. R. Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of nine parents and one standard check GJ-39 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. Both additive and non additive genetic effects were present in the material under study. However the ratio of σ2gca/ σ2sca suggested that the preponderance of non additive gene action in expression of all the characters under study. Out of the nine parents GJ-39, GFS-5, CSV-15, SSV 84 and SPV 2113 identified as good general combiner for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant and other agronomical traits. The hybrid SPV 2110 x GFS 5 and GFS 5 x GJ 39 for grain yield/plant and hybrid CSV 15 x SSV 84, SPV 2113 x SPV 1616 and SPV 2110 x GFS 5 for dry fodder yield/plant exhibited higher magnitude of positive significant specific combining ability effect with highest standard heterosis and per se performance. These hybrids were also found suitable for two or three yield contributing traits. In general, close association between specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis was observed among the best hybrids identified on the basis of specific combining ability effects for grain and dry fodder yield.

  18. Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    S. K. Jain and P. R. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Thirty six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of nine parents and one standard check GJ-39 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for all the characters. Both additive and non additive g...

  19. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    Raphael Rossi Silva; Giovani Benin; Juliano Luiz de Almeida; Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca; Claudemir Zucareli

    2014-01-01

    Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115) were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and Ju...

  20. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

    Acciaresi, Horacio A.; M. S. Zuluaga

    2006-01-01

    The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays) has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn...

  1. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    Cuero, R.G.; Smith, J.E.; Lacey, J.

    1987-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16/sup 0/C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 25/sup 0/C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 25/sup 0/C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 16/sup 0/C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions.

  2. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 160C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 250C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 250C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 160C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions

  3. Weed Control and Grain Yield in Double-Cropped Soybean

    Milena Simić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different herbicide combinations: control (1, alachlor+linuron (2, and alachlor+linuron+imazethapyr (3 were investigated in double-cropped soybean grown in two row spacing variants, 38 cm and 76 cm, under conventional tillage (CT or no-tillage (NT. In trials conducted on a sandy loam soil at Zemun Polje, high weediness had a negative effect of on the yield of double-cropped soybean, especially at the higher row spacing tested and with no-tillage.Regression and correlation data revealed a dependence of weediness in double-cropped soybean on tillage system and herbicide combination, and dependence of soybean yield on tillage system.

  4. The Impact of Climate Change on Maize Yield and Farmers’ Adaptation Options:Evidence from Three Provinces of China

    Jiliang; MA; Weisheng; KONG

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the question that whether farmers can adjust better to climate change in the short-term than in long-term by using panel data models and long difference models respectively.We find that short term weather shocks are less detrimental to maize yield than the long-term climate changes,which can be seen as the evidences of adaptations.For adaptation options,we find farmers choose to decrease maize planting area or enlarge the irrigation inputs to cope with the increase of extreme heat days;when there are more precipitations,farmers will increase the input of fertilizer or labor.

  5. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Folberth, C.; Yang, H.; Gaiser, T.; Liu, J; X. Wang; Williams, J.; Schulin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Much of Africa is among the world's regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronom...

  6. Grain Yield Prediction of Henan Province Based on Spatio-temporal Regression Model

    2011-01-01

    By using correlation analysis method,regression analysis method and time sequence method,we combine time and space,to establish grain yield spatio-temporal regression prediction model of Henan Province and all prefecture-level cities.At first,we use the grain yield in prefecture-level cities of Henan in the year 2000 and 2005,to establish regression model,and then taking the grain yield in one year as independent variable,we predict the grain yield in the fifth year afterwards.Taking the dependent variable value as independent variable again,we predict the grain yield at an interval of the same years,and based on this,predict year by year forward until the year we need.The research shows that the grain yield of Henan Province in the year 2015 and 2020 is 59.849 6 and 67.929 3 million t respectively,consistent with the research results of other scholars to some extent.

  7. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice

    Vikram, Prashant; Swamy, B. P. Mallikarjuna; Dixit, Shalabh; Trinidad, Jennylyn; Sta Cruz, Ma Teresa; Maturan, Paul C.; Amante, Modesto; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM) to estimate the significance of pleiotropy effects. Results indicated towards possible linkages between the drought grain yield QTLs with co-locating flowering and/or plant height QTLs. Linkages of days to flowering and plant height were eliminated through a marker-assisted breeding approach. Drought grain yield QTLs also showed interaction effects with flowering QTLs. Drought responsiveness of the flowering locus on chromosome 3 (qDTY3.2) has been revealed through allelic analysis. Considering linkage and interaction effects associated with drought QTLs, a comprehensive marker-assisted breeding strategy was followed to develop rice genotypes with improved grain yield under drought stress. PMID:27018583

  8. Selection for Silage Yield and Composition Did Not Affect Genomic Diversity Within the Wisconsin Quality Synthetic Maize Population

    Lorenz, Aaron J.; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Silva, Renato Rodrigues; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage is forage of high quality and yield, and represents the second most important use of maize in the United States. The Wisconsin Quality Synthetic (WQS) maize population has undergone five cycles of recurrent selection for silage yield and composition, resulting in a genetically improved population. The application of high-density molecular markers allows breeders and geneticists to identify important loci through association analysis and selection mapping, as well as to monitor changes in the distribution of genetic diversity across the genome. The objectives of this study were to identify loci controlling variation for maize silage traits through association analysis and the assessment of selection signatures and to describe changes in the genomic distribution of gene diversity through selection and genetic drift in the WQS recurrent selection program. We failed to find any significant marker-trait associations using the historical phenotypic data from WQS breeding trials combined with 17,719 high-quality, informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Likewise, no strong genomic signatures were left by selection on silage yield and quality in the WQS despite genetic gain for these traits. These results could be due to the genetic complexity underlying these traits, or the role of selection on standing genetic variation. Variation in loss of diversity through drift was observed across the genome. Some large regions experienced much greater loss in diversity than what is expected, suggesting limited recombination combined with small populations in recurrent selection programs could easily lead to fixation of large swaths of the genome. PMID:25645532

  9. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  10. [Effects of cultivation patterns on the radiation use and grain yield of winter wheat].

    Wang, Yue-chao; Li, Chuan-xing; Dai, Xing-long; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hua-ying; He, Ming-rong

    2015-09-01

    Taking winter wheat cultivar 'Tainong 18' as test material, this paper set three treatments, local farmer's traditional cultivation pattern (FP), super high yield pattern (SH) and high yield high efficiency pattern ( HH) to investigate the effects of cultivation patterns on the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR), PAR use efficiency (RUE), dry matter (DM) accumulation, harvest index (HI), grain yield and fertilizers' partial factor productivity (PFP) in 2012-2013. The results showed that IPAR, RUE and DM accumulation of the total growth stage and grain yield under SH pattern were significantly higher than those under FP pattern. IPAR of the total growth stage under HH pattern was lower than that under FP pattern, but RUE, DM accumulation and HI were significantly higher than that under FP pattern, so grain yield was higher than that under FP pattern. The grain yields under HH pattern were respectively decreased by 3.8% and 2.8% under high and low fertility levels compared that under SH pattern, while the PFP of N, P and K under HH pattern were averagely 26.4%, 68.5% and 92.6% higher than those under SH pattern, respectively. In conclusion, HH pattern, with the characteristics of 'reducing fertilizer', 'increasing planting density' and 'delaying sowing date', was the recommended cultivation pattern under the condition similar to this experiment balancing the grain yield, radiation use and fertilizer use. PMID:26785552

  11. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  12. Yield and combining ability of maize cultivars under different ecogeographic conditions

    Adilson Deitos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and combining ability of maize cultivars (AG4051, AL30,AL25, D270, D170, and AG1051 in contrasting environments. The trials were conducted in the growing season 2002/2003,in Viçosa, Capinópolis and Florestal, state of Minas Gerais. The effects of hybrids were significant by the F test, as well astreatments x environments, hybrid combinations x environments, and controls x environments. This indicates the possibilityof increasing the yield in these regions by capitalizing on the genotype x environment interaction, by selecting and recombiningcultivars for each site. Among the cultivars and their hybrid combinations, AG1051 and AG4051 x AL30, respectively,performed best in the mean of the three locations. The most indicated combinations for each site were: AG4051 X AL30 andAL30 X D270 in Viçosa, AG4051 X AL25 and AL30 X D170 in Florestal and, D170 x AG4051 and AL25 x D270 inCapinópolis.

  13. Targeting Hormone-Related Pathways to Improve Grain Yield in Rice: A Chemical Approach.

    Hiroaki Tamaki

    Full Text Available Sink/source relationships, regulating the mobilization of stored carbohydrates from the vegetative tissues to the grains, are of key importance for grain filling and grain yield. We used different inhibitors of plant hormone action to assess their effects on grain yield and on the expression of hormone-associated genes. Among the tested chemicals, 2-indol-3-yl-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (PEO-IAA; antagonist of auxin receptor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor improved grain yield in a concentration dependent manner. These effects were also dependent on the plant developmental stage. NDGA and AIB treatments induced an increase in photosynthesis in flag leaves concomitant to the increments of starch content in flag leaves and grains. NDGA inhibited the expression of ABA-responsive gene, but did not significantly decrease ABA content. Instead, NDGA significantly decreased jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine. Our results support the notion that the specific inhibition of jasmonic acid and ethylene biosynthesis resulted in grain yield increase in rice.

  14. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Liu Qi-Hua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L. production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effect worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  15. The Respons of Bread Wheat Genotypes in Different Drought Types I. Grain Yield, Drouhgt Tolerance and Grain Yield Stability

    AYRANCI, Ramazan; SADE, Bayram; SOYLU, Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine bread wheat genotypes with high yield potential and stability under controlled field conditions which resembled drought types exist in different plant growth stages in the Central Anatolia Region.This study was conducted using split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with four replications, the main plots were five drought treatments (D1: the general drought that represents the long term drought in region, D2:drought from the initia...

  16. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  17. Do maize models capture the impacts of heat and drought stresses on yield? Using algorithm ensembles to identify successful approaches.

    Jin, Zhenong; Zhuang, Qianlai; Tan, Zeli; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Zheng, Bangyou; Melillo, Jerry M

    2016-09-01

    Stresses from heat and drought are expected to increasingly suppress crop yields, but the degree to which current models can represent these effects is uncertain. Here we evaluate the algorithms that determine impacts of heat and drought stress on maize in 16 major maize models by incorporating these algorithms into a standard model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), and running an ensemble of simulations. Although both daily mean temperature and daylight temperature are common choice of forcing heat stress algorithms, current parameterizations in most models favor the use of daylight temperature even though the algorithm was designed for daily mean temperature. Different drought algorithms (i.e., a function of soil water content, of soil water supply to demand ratio, and of actual to potential transpiration ratio) simulated considerably different patterns of water shortage over the growing season, but nonetheless predicted similar decreases in annual yield. Using the selected combination of algorithms, our simulations show that maize yield reduction was more sensitive to drought stress than to heat stress for the US Midwest since the 1980s, and this pattern will continue under future scenarios; the influence of excessive heat will become increasingly prominent by the late 21st century. Our review of algorithms in 16 crop models suggests that the impacts of heat and drought stress on plant yield can be best described by crop models that: (i) incorporate event-based descriptions of heat and drought stress, (ii) consider the effects of nighttime warming, and (iii) coordinate the interactions among multiple stresses. Our study identifies the proficiency with which different model formulations capture the impacts of heat and drought stress on maize biomass and yield production. The framework presented here can be applied to other modeled processes and used to improve yield predictions of other crops with a wide variety of crop models. PMID:27251794

  18. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease in......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate the...

  19. Effects of soil type, vertical root distribution and precipitation on grain yield of winter wheat

    In Abashiri in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, grain yields of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Hokushin) in the western area, with umbric andosol or dystric cambisol soil type, are lower and unstable compared to those in the eastern area, with mostly haplic andosol soil type. The aim of this study was to evaluate yield differences between the eastern and western areas. The vertical root distribution of wheat plants was examined over two seasons in farmers' fields in both areas by a wall profile method. Plants grown in the western area had shallower root systems than those grown in the eastern area. Poor soil porosity and high soil penetration resistance suppressed the vertical distribution of root systems in umbric andosol and dystric cambisol. Grain yields were not always correlated with the amount and distribution of the root system. Grain yield in the 2004/2005 season was not correlated with root depth index, whereas it was positively correlated in the 2005/2006 season. During the period from heading to maturity (mid June to late July) over the two seasons, grain yield was associated with precipitation more than with temperature and total solar radiation. In the 2005/2006 season, during the late growing stage of wheat, precipitation was extremely low and soils were very dry. The difference in grain yield between the eastern and western areas was significant and negatively related to precipitation during the period from heading to maturity. Significant correlations of yield with sunshine duration and solar radiation from the heading stage to maturity were observed only on haplic andosol. The results suggest that the major factor controlling yearly changes in the difference in grain yield of winter wheat between the eastern and western areas is the difference in photosynthetic ability, which is based on rooting depth and water supply in response to solar radiation during the late growing stage

  20. Combining ability for grain yield and other related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Anil Kumar Yadav and Anil Sirohi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability for grain yield and other related characters was studied in 36 F1s along with 15 parents (12 lines and three testers which were evaluated in a completely Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications during rabi 2005-06.The results indicated that among various lines, line HD 2687 was identified as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield per plant, whereas, Line UP 2338 appeared as a good general combiner for the characters, plant height, tillers per plant, spikelets per ear, spike length, grains per ear and 1000-grain weight. Line 35th IBWSN-4 for days to maturity and harvest index; Line 35th IBWSN-14 for days to maturity, grains per ear and grain yield per plant; 10th HTWYT-47 for days to heading, days to maturity, tillers per plant and grains per ear; 11th HRWYT-7 for the characters spike length, 1000- grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant and 4th IAT-49 for tillers per plant, plant height and harvest index were identified as good general combiners. Lines 20th SAWSN-18, CPAN 3004 and RD 1008 were identified as good general combiners for days to heading, tillers per plant and biological yield per plant, respectively. Tester PBW 373 emerged as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading and biological yield per plant, whereas, Tester PBW 502 appeared as a good general combiner for the tillers per plant. Out of 36 cross combinations, nine crosses viz. UP 2338/ PBW 502, 4th IAT-49 / PBW 502,11th HRWYT-16/ PBW 343,10th HTWYT-47/ PBW 343, RD 1008/ PBW 373 , 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502, 20th SAWSN-18/ PBW 343, 35th IBWSN-4/ PBW 502 and CPAN 3004/ PBW 373 emerged with significant positive sca effects for grain yield per plant. The parents involved in these crosses are average x average general combiners and or poor x average combiners except in cross 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502 (3.14, which involved good x average general combiners

  1. Investigating the implications of meteorological indicators of seasonal rainfall performance on maize yield in a rain-fed agricultural system: case study of Mt. Darwin District in Zimbabwe

    Mushore, Terence; Manatsa, Desmond; Pedzisai, Ezra; Muzenda-Mudavanhu, Chipo; Mushore, Washington; Kudzotsa, Innocent

    2016-06-01

    The study focuses on the impacts of climate variability and change on maize yield in Mt. Darwin District. The rainfall and temperature data for the period under study that is from 1992 to 2012 were obtained from Meteorological Services Department of Zimbabwe at daily resolution while crop yield data were obtained from Department of Agricultural, Technical and Extension Services (AGRITEX) and Zimbabwe Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) at seasonal/yearly resolution. In order to capture full rainfall seasons, a year was set to begin on 1 June and end on 31 July the next year. Yearly yield, temperature and rainfall data were used to compute time series analysis of rainfall, temperature and yield. The relationship between temperature, rainfall, quality of season (start, cessation, dry days, wet days and length) and yield was also investigated. The study also investigated the link between meteorological normal and maize yield. The study revealed that temperature is rising while rainfall is decreasing with time hence increasing risk of low maize yield in Mt. Darwin. Correlation between maize yield was higher using a non-linear (R 2 = 0.630) than a linear regression model (R 2 = 0.173). There was a very high correlation between maize yield and number of dry days (R = -0.905) as well as between maize yield and length of season (R = 0.777). We also observed a strong correlation between percentage normal rainfall and percentage normal maize yield (R 2 = 0.753). This was also agreed between rainfall tessiles and maize yield tessiles as 50 % of the seasons had normal and above normal rainfall coinciding with normal and above normal maize yield. Of the 21 seasons considered, only one season had above normal rainfall while maize yield was below normal. The study concluded that there is a strong association between meteorological normal and maize yield in a rain-fed agricultural system. Climate information remains crucial to agricultural productivity hence the need to train farmers to

  2. Genetic Association between Grain Yield of Bread Wheat and Carbon Isotope Discrimination under Drought in Morocco

    The capacity of the wheat plant to discriminate against the carbon-13 isotope during photosynthesis, in favor of the lighter carbon-12 isotope, has been found to correlate with grain yield in many studies. This hypothesis was tested under four contrasting environments in Morocco during 2003-2006 using three sets of elite wheat genotypes. Significant positive correlations were found between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ) and grain yield, and were higher under more water stressed environments at Douyet and Jemaa Sahim, indicating that high Δ is associated with high yield under drought stress. Selection based on yield appeared to have indirectly acted on Δ as well, since the correlation was significant and remained relatively unchanged across years of selection. This indicates a possible genetic linkage between yield and Δ. Also, transgressive segregation occurred for most agronomic and physiological traits, including Δ, offering a potential genetic variation for selection. At the molecular level, CID was found to be linked to a molecular marker at the gwm095 region of chromosome 2A, and to a thousand kernel weight marker at the gwm071 region, distant by 20-30 cent Morgan (cM). A poor QTL associated with grain yield was detected at chromosome 5A, similar to the one detected at CIMMYT in Obregon (Mexico) and northern Australia. From these results, it can be concluded that CID may be used as a new selection criterion to enhance wheat grain yield potential under drought in Morocco. (author)

  3. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased...

  4. Screening survey of co-production of fusaric acid, fusarin C, and fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 by Fusarium strains grown in maize grains

    Han, Z.; Tangni, E. K.; Huybrechts, B.; Munaut, Françoise; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Wu, A.; A. Callebaut

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium species isolated from Belgian maize were screened for their ability to produce fusarin C, fusaric acid, fumonisins B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 in maize grains. First, cultivation of Fusarium species in Myro liquid medium allowed overcoming the shortage of the standard of fusarin C on the market. All Fusarium verticillioides produced much higher contents of mycotoxins in Myro compared to Fusarium graminearum or Fusarium venenatum. The optimization of the LC-MS/MS method resulted in low limi...

  5. Genetic Dissection of QTL Associated with Grain Yield in Diverse Environments

    Junli Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. breeding programs strive to increase grain yield; however, the progress is hampered due to its quantitative inheritance, low heritability, and confounding environmental effects. In the present study, a winter wheat population of 159 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was evaluated in six trials under rainfed, terminal drought, and fully-irrigated conditions, over four years. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL mapping was conducted for grain yield main effect (GY and the genotype × environment interaction (GEI effect. A total of 17 QTL were associated with GY and 13 QTL associated with GEI, and nine QTL were mapped in the flanking chromosomal regions for both GY and GEI. One major QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2, explaining up to 22% of grain yield, was identified in all six trials. Besides the additive effect of QTL associated with GY, interactions among QTL (QTL × QTL interaction, QTL × environment, and QTL × QTL × environment were also observed. When combining the interaction effects, QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2 along with other QTL explained up to 52% of the variation in grain yield over the six trials. This study suggests that QTL mapping of complex traits such as grain yield should include interaction effects of QTL and environments in marker-assisted selection.

  6. Yield and quality of maize grown on a loamy soil amended with natural chabazite zeolitite

    Dario Di Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The agronomic use of natural zeolite is widely supported by several works. However, almost all are focused on the application of the clinoptilolite as slow plant-nutrient fertilizer and soil conditioner. Our study describes the first comprehensive study on the effects of a Italian chabazite-bearing zeolitite (rocks containing more than 50% of zeolites on a maize cultivation. The objective was to determine the effects of applying zeolitite on (i Zea mays yield and quality, under two irrigation regimes and (ii check if it can improve the efficiency of urea fertilization on a loamy soil in an open experimental field of Italy. The production and quality of the corn grown in the traditional way was compared with that of the plots treated with two different amounts of zeolitite (4 and 8 Kg/m2 and each treatment was monitored both in irrigated and not-irrigated conditions. The measurements of chlorophyll and those related to the morphological features of the plants show suffering conditions of the corn plants in not-irrigated conditions. Furthermore we show that the plants grown with zeolitite and fertilized with less urea have produced the same amounts of corn plants fertilized with traditional contents of urea.

  7. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26803502

  8. 冗余器官去除对高产夏玉米产量形成的影响%Effects of Removing Redundant Organs on Yield Formation of High-yielding Summer Maize

    王磊; 杜雄; 崔彦宏; 党红凯; 李科江; 贺振营; 于秀艳

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the actual conflict between "population"and "individual quality"on increasing the maize yield,during summer maize seasons from 201 3 to 201 4 (June -early October)a field experiment was con-ducted to study the effects of removing redundant organs on yield and photosynthesis of high-yielding summer maize,and the objectives of this study was to search out a new method to harmonize the relationship between maize"population"and "individual quality",conventional maize planting as control.The results showed that removing tassel and lower leaves increased the net photosynthetic rate and maximum grain-filling rate,and promoted matter transport from vegetative organs to grains.Tassel removal could improve light distribution in canopy.Lower leaves removal may prolong grain-filling period and decrease water consumption or relief water-stress in dry year.Compared with the control,in 201 3(rainy year)tassel removal,leaves removal and tassel &leaves removal could increase grain yield by 1 2.3%,2.6% and 3.0% respectively;in 201 4 (dry year)leaves removal and tassel &leaves removal in-creased yield by 6.1 % and 8.8%,but tassel removal had no effect on yield.Furthermore,with redundant leaves re-moval the water consumption was decreased by 34.5 -42.5 mm,water use efficiency was increased by 1 4.3% -1 7.2% compared with the control.So tassel removal and lower leaves removal should be regarded as a new method to further increase grain yield of high-yielding summer maize.%针对高产夏玉米进一步提高产量存在的“群体数量”和“个体质量”的现实矛盾,于2013-2014年度采用大田试验,以常规种植为对照,研究了不同冗余器官去除对夏玉米产量和光合特性的影响,旨在探索在“群体数量”的基础上进一步提高“个体质量”的方法。结果表明,去除雄穗和下部叶片提高了玉米穗位叶净光合速率和最大籽粒灌浆速率,促进了营养器官干物质向籽粒的转移,

  9. Grain yield losses in wheat by Russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia (mordvilko)

    Eight wheat cultivars were sown at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to evaluate their response to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Significant variability was observed among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and yield losses. Cultivar V-2707 was the least infested with the aphid (6.3 aphids/tiller) giving maximum grain yield (4638 kg/ha), with cultivar V-2047 the second best with 6.43 aphids/ tiller infestation and grain yield of 4206 kg/ha. Commercial cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Punjab-96) were heavily infested with 14.4 and 12.6 aphids/tiller, respectively, and yielded 2245 and 2490 kg/ha harvest, respectively. Aphid population increased up to the fourth week of March and then declined. Aphid infestation resulted in 3.96 to 7.36% yield loss. The cultivar V-2707 was later released for general cultivation, under the name of Punjab-1. (author)

  10. Phenotypic stability for grain-yield in mungbean (vigna radiata L. wilczek)

    Phenotypic stability for grain-yield was studied for ten mungbean genotypes under seven environments. Significant differences among the genotypes and environments for grain-yield indicated a great deal of variability among the genotypes as well as environments under study. Both predictable (linear) and unpredictable (non-linear) portion of genotype environment interaction (GEl) were found to be equally important for determining the stability of yield. The regressions (bi) were not significantly different from linearity therefore, stability of the individual genotype was predicted on the basis of mean yield performance (xi) and deviation from regression (S/sup 2/di). The genotypes M-6 and YC-3960 (A 88) were found to be the most stable and high yielders. The genotypes VC 3960 (A 89) and NM 98 had also high yield-potential but these were better responsive to favourable environments. (author)

  11. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  12. 施用缓释肥料对夏玉米产量的影响试验%Effects of Slow Release Fertilizer on the Yield of Summer Maize

    张培苹

    2014-01-01

    采用田间试验,研究了施用缓释肥料对夏玉米产量及经济效益影响。结果表明:施用缓释肥料能显著提高夏玉米的产量和经济效益。与常规施肥相比,施用缓释肥料可使夏玉米每667m2增产45kg,经济效益提高89元。进一步研究表明,缓释肥料促进玉米增产的主要原因是增加了玉米的穗长,从而提高了穗粒数。%Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of slow release fertilizer on the yield and economic benefits of summer maize. The results showed that the application of slow release fertilizer could significantly increase the yield of summer maize and economic benefits. Compared with conventional fertilization,the application of slow release fertilizer made the yield increase of 45kg per 667m2 and eco-nomic benefits increase of 89 yuan.Further studies showed that the main reason of slow release fertilizer for maize yield was increased by corn ear length,thus improved the number of ear grain.

  13. Soil Fertility, Phosphorus Fractions, and Maize Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure and Single Superphosphate.

    Ojo, A O; Adetunji, M T; Okeleye, K A; Adejuyigbe, C O

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on a slightly acidic alfisol. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at 0, 5 t ha(-1), 10 t ha(-1), 15 t ha(-1), and 20 t ha(-1) in combination with SSP at 0, 15 kg P ha(-1), 30 kg P ha(-1), 45 kg P ha(-1), and 60 kg P ha(-1), which was replicated three times. The pH and organic C were significantly increased by the application of PM alone while available P was highly increased by the sole application of SSP. Plant tissue P was significantly increased with the application of 30 kg P ha(-1) while the largest grain yield was obtained when PM at 20 t ha(-1) was combined with SSP at 60 kg P ha(-1). The buildup of organic P was observed when PM was applied at 15 t ha(-1) while the combination of the two treatments increased residual P and Fe-P. However, P occlusion was effectively reduced with the sole application of PM. Organic P and residual P however had a strong positive relationship with the grain yield. Comparing the sole and combined application of the treatments, the combined application was more effective for most of the parameters observed. PMID:27347532

  14. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Yu Tian; Bo Guan; Daowei Zhou; Junbao Yu; Guangdi Li; Yujie Lou

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended pri...

  15. Huitlacoche yield in some maize varieties in the Mediterranean region of Turkey

    Mehmet Aydoğdu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huitlacoche is the Aztecs name given to the smut galls on ears of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis [(DC Corda.]. It is known as maize mushroom, and it has been considered a delicacy and in Mesoamerica. The aim of the present study was to determine the responses of some maize varieties to the growth of the fungus in order to evaluate the prospect production of these smutty ears as a maize mushroom. A 2-year study was conducted in the Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2010 and 2011. Inoculations were performed by injecting inoculum into the ear through the silk channel of plants in plots. Each treatment had control plots. Average ear-gall (huitlacoche severity and incidence of all the varieties were at the rates of 4.0 and 41.6%, respectively. However, the highest severity of ear-gall (6.5 and incidence (60.6% were found in Karadeniz Yıldızı flint maize variety; colossal smutty ears were formed in the maize cultivars. This study showed that certain maize cultivars (flint corn and dent corn can be used efficiently in the production of huitlacoche.

  16. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    Singh, Bhupinder, E-mail: bsingh@iari.res.i [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Datta, P.S. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  17. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  18. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times

  19. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurev, Ivan, E-mail: yiywork@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times.

  20. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of 15N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha-1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha-1, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha-1, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  1. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  2. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  3. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components

    Lin Wang; Fa Cui; Jinping Wang; Li Jun; Anming Ding; Chunhua Zhao; Xingfeng Li; Deshun Feng; Jurong Gao; Honggang Wang

    2012-12-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  4. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Developing strategies to collect and use cellulo sic biomass for bio energy production is important because those materials are not used as human food sources. This study compared corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies on a 50 ha Clarion- Nicol let-Webster soil Association site near Emmetsburg, Iowa, USA. Surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm) were analyzed after each harvest to monitor soil organic carbon (Soc), ph, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) changes. Grain yields in 2008, before the stover harvest treatments were imposed, averaged 11.4 Mg ha-1. In 2009, 2010, and 2011 grain yields averaged 10.1, 9.7, and 9.5 Mg ha-1, respectively. Although grain yields after stover harvest strategies imposed were lower than in 2008, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Four-year average stover collection rates ranged 1.0 to 5.2 Mg ha-1 which was 12 to 60% of the above-ground biomass. Soc showed a slight decrease during the study, but the change was not related to any specific stover harvest treatment. Instead, we attribute the Soc decline to the tillage intensity and lower than expected crop yields. Overall, these results are consistent with other Midwestern USA studies that indicate corn stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1

  5. Increased maize yield using slow-release attapulgite-coated fertilizers

    Guan, Yu; Song, Chao; Gan, Yantai; Li, Feng-Min

    2014-01-01

    International audience Slow-release fertilizers could improve the productivity of field crops and reduce environmental pollution. So far, no slow-release fertilizers are suited for maize cultivation in semiarid areas of China. Therefore, we tested attapulgite-coated fertilizers. Attapulgite-coated fertilizers were prepared by dividing chemical fertilizers into three parts according to the nutrient demand of maize in its three main growth stages and coating each part with a layer of attapul...

  6. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize......, each previous long-term treatment with soil tillage and cover crop was sub-divided into two, one with perennial ryegrass as cover crop and one without cover crop. The maize was sown in 2009 and 2010 and fertilized with 140 kg N ha-1. The objectives were to determine the effects on leaching of i......) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping...

  7. The comparative analysis based on maize integrated QTL map and meta-analysis of plant height QTLs

    WANG Yi; YAO Ji; ZHANG Zhengfeng; ZHENG Yonglian

    2006-01-01

    1201 published maize QTLs conferring for 68 traits were collected and imported into local CMap software to construct an integrated QTL map, which can be used for marker-mining, QTL localization, gene cloning and marker-assisted selection. The maize integrated QTL map showed that maize QTLs for various traits usually clustered in all chromosomes. 22 plant height QTLs of maize were co-linear with 64 plant height QTLs of rice, 43 grain yield QTLs of maize were co-liner with 7 grain yield QTLs of rice. 127 plant height QTLs of maize were refined by means of "overview" analysis. At last, 40 "real" QTLs were identifed. A substantial number of candidate quantitative trait genes for plant height of maize were found. These results established an important bioinformatics platform for extracting most of maize QTL information.

  8. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    Enrico Francia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination. Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and late grain filling phases, to dissect the effect on yield traits of the growth phases. Relationships between agrometeorological variables, grain yield (GY and its main components (GN and GW were also investigated by correlation. Results firstly gave a clear indication of the involvement of water consumption in determining GY and GW (r2=0.616, P=0.007 and r2=0.703, P=0.005, respectively calculated from sowing to the early grain filling period, while GN showed its highest correlation with the total photothermal quotient (PQ calculated for the same period (r2=0.646, P=0.013. With the only exception of total PQ calculated during the vegetative period, all significant correlations with GY were associated to water-dependent agrometeorological parameters. As a second result, the NT segregating population allowed us to weight the amount of interaction due to genotypes over environments or to environments in relation to genotypes by a GGE analysis; 47.67% of G+GE sum of squares was explained by the first two principal components. Then, the introduction of genomic information at major barley genes regulating the length of growth cycle allowed us to explain patterns of adaptation of different groups of NT lines according to the variants (alleles harbored at venalization (Vrn-H1 in combination with earliness (Eam6 genes. The superiority of the lines carrying the Nure allele at Eam6 was confirmed by factorial ANOVA testing the four possible haplotypes obtained combining

  9. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Helton Santos Pereira; Leonardo Cunha Melo; Luís Cláudio de Faria; Adriane Wendland; Maria José Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa; Adriano Stephan Nascente; José Luis Cabrera Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho; Válter Martins de Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de Melo; Antônio Félix da Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa Abreu

    2013-01-01

    BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  10. Determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments

    Enrico Francia; Alessandro Tondelli; Fulvia Rizza; Franz W. Badeck; Thomas, William T. B.; Fred van Eeuwijk; Ignacio Romagosa; A. Michele Stanca; Nicola Pecchioni

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of barley grain yield in drought-prone Mediterranean environments have been studied in the Nure x Tremois (NT) population. A large set of yield and other morpho-physiological data were recorded in 118 doubled-haploid lines of the population, in multi-environment field trials (18 site-year combination). Agrometeorological variables have been recorded and calculated at each site too. Four main periods of barley development were considered, vegetative, reproductive early and lat...

  11. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain...

  12. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  13. The Relationship of Red and Photographic Infrared Spectral Data to Grain Yield Variation Within a Winter Wheat Field

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Two band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated within field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained approximately 64 percent of the within field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five week time window existed from stem elongation through antheses in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

  14. Effects of Aerated Irrigation on Leaf Senescence at Late Growth Stage and Grain Yield of Rice

    ZHU Lian-feng; Yu Sheng-miao; JIN Qian-yu

    2012-01-01

    With the japonica inbred cultivar Xiushui 09,indica hybrid combinations Guodao 6 and Liangyoupeijiu as materials,field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the effects of aerated irrigation on leaf senescence at late growth stage and grain yield of rice.The dissolved oxygen concentration of aerated water evidently increased and decreased at a slow rate.The soil oxidation-reduction potential under aerated irrigation treatment was significantly higher than that of the CK,contributing to significant increases in effective panicles,seed setting rate and grain yield.In addition,the aerated irrigation improved root function,increased superoxide dismutase activity and decreased malondialdehyde content in flag leaves at post-flowering,which delayed leaf senescence process,prolonged leaf functional activity and led to enhanced grain filling.

  15. Canopy warming caused photosynthetic acclimation and reduced seed yield in maize grown at ambient and elevated [CO2 ].

    Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Drag, David W; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-11-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and attendant increases in growing season temperature are expected to be the most important global change factors impacting production agriculture. Although maize is the most highly produced crop worldwide, few studies have evaluated the interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and temperature on its photosynthetic physiology, agronomic traits or biomass, and seed yield under open field conditions. This study investigates the effects of rising [CO2 ] and warmer temperature, independently and in combination, on maize grown in the field throughout a full growing season. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was used to target atmospheric [CO2 ] to 200 μmol mol(-1) above ambient [CO2 ] and infrared heaters to target a plant canopy increase of 3.5 °C, with actual season mean heating of ~2.7 °C, mimicking conditions predicted by the second half of this century. Photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, leaf water potential components, and developmental measurements were collected throughout the season, and biomass and yield were measured at the end of the growing season. As predicted for a C4 plant, elevated [CO2 ] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Canopy warming caused a large shift in aboveground allocation by stimulating season-long vegetative biomass and decreasing reproductive biomass accumulation at both CO2 concentrations, resulting in decreased harvest index. Warming caused a reduction in photosynthesis due to down-regulation of photosynthetic biochemical parameters and the decrease in the electron transport rate. The reduction in seed yield with warming was driven by reduced photosynthetic capacity and by a shift in aboveground carbon allocation away from reproduction. This field study portends that future warming will reduce yield in maize, and this will not be mitigated by higher atmospheric [CO2 ] unless appropriate adaptation traits can be introduced

  16. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ► We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ► The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ► Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ► Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical

  17. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg-1. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: → Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. → Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. → The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  18. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  19. Grain yield and quality responses of tropical hybrid rice to high night-time temperature

    Shi, W.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Xie, F.; Schmidt, R.C.; Jagadish, K.S.V.

    2016-01-01

    High temperature has a pronounced effect on grain yield and quality in rice. Climate change has increased night temperature more than day temperature in many parts of the world. How rice responds to high night-time temperature (HNT) is largely unknown. This study presents the first effort to assess

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  1. Grain yield and agronomic traits in soybean according to crop rotation systems

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop rotation systems (CRS on soybean yield and agronomic characteristics were evaluated from 1996/1997 to 2010/2011 at Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo (RS, Brazil. Four soil management systems (SMS were compared, namely: 1 no tillage, 2 minimum tillage, 3 conventional tillage using a disk plow and a disk harrow, and 4 conventional using a moldboard and a disk harrow - and three CRS: system I (wheat/soybean, system II (wheat/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum and system III (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean and common vetch/corn or sorghum. This is a split-plot, randomized, complete block design with three replications. SMS were assigned in the main plot and CRS systems in the split-plots. This work addressed only data on crop rotation systems. There were no significant differences between the CRS for number of grains per plant, 1,000 grain weight and first pod height in soybean. The crop rotation for a summer, with corn or sorghum, propitiates a higher soybean yield compared with the other systems and monoculture soybean. The combination of conservation systems (no tillage and minimum tillage and CR resulted in a higher soybean yield. The lowest grain yield and grain weight per plant were obtained in monoculture soybean.

  2. Use of a crop climate modeling system to evaluate climate change adaptation practices: maize yield in East Africa

    Moore, N. J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.; Thornton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is dominated by small-scale farmers and is heavily depend on growing season precipitation. Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic- induced warming including the Indian Ocean sea surface significantly influences precipitation in East Africa. East Africa is a useful region to assess impacts of future climate because of its large rainfall gradient, large percentage of its area being sub-humid or semi-arid, complex climatology and topography, varied soils, and because the population is particularly vulnerable to shifts in climate. Agronomic adaptation practices most commonly being considered include include a shift to short season, drought resistant maize varieties, better management practices especially fertilizer use, and irrigation. The effectiveness of these practices with climate change had not previously been tested. We used the WorldClim data set to represent current climate and compared the current and future climate scenarios of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs) including a wetter (CCSM) and drier (HadCM3) GCM downscaled to 6 km resolution. The climate data was then used in the process-based CERES maize crop model to simulate the current period (representing 1960- 1990) and change in future maize production (from 2000 to 2050s). The effectiveness of agronomic practices, including short duration maize variety, fertilizer use and irrigation, to reduce projected future yield losses due to climate change were simulated. The GCMs project an increase in maximum temperature during growing season ranging from 1.5 to 3°C. Changes in precipitation were dependent on the GCM, with high variability across different topographies land cover types and elevations. Projected warmer temperatures in the future scenarios accelerated plant development and led to a reduction in growing season length and yields even where moisture was sufficient Maize yield changes in 2050 relative to the historical period were highly varied, in excess of +/- 500 kg

  3. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  4. Does Exogenous Application of Kinetin and Spermine Mitigate the Effect of Seawater on Yield Attributes and Biochemical Aspects of Grains?

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy; Baka, Zakaria A.; Mickky, Bardees M.

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of grain presoaking in kinetin (0.1 mM), spermine (0.3 mM) and their interaction on yield components and biochemical aspects of yielded grains of wheat plants irrigated with 25% seawater. Seawater induced marked reduction in biochemical aspects of yielded grains especially carbohydrates content, nitrogenous constituents, total protein and nucleic acids contents as well as proline and organic acids (citric and keto acids) contents. Converse...

  5. Components of genetic variance and degree of dominance for grain and fodder yields in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    D.Shivani and Ch. Sreelakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis for grain and fodder yield in sorghum genotypes using six generation means indicated the major role of additive genetic effects (d) for days to maturity and grain yield in both the crosses viz., EP 82 x CRS 1 and CSV 14R x SPV 1375. The cross EP 82 x CRS 1 indicated additive variance for plant height and grain yield while the cross CSV 14 R x SPV 1375 for days to maturity, plant height, panicle length, test weight and grain yield. Among the epistatic components of genetic var...

  6. EFFECT OF STEM RUST INFECTION ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS IN EGYPT

    Mamdouh A. Asmmawy; Walid M. El-Orabey; Mohamed Nazim; Atef A. Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To estimate grain yield losses due to stem rust, replicated experiments including twelve wheat cultivars i.e.  Gemmeiza 7, Gemmeiza 9, Gemmeiza 10, Gemmeiza 11, Sakha 61, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sids 12, Sids 13, Giza 168, Misr 1 and Misr 2 were evaluated for adult plant resistance at Sakha Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. The field experiment was su...

  7. Wheat Grain Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-Term Fertilization Experiment on the Loess Plateau

    HAO Ming-De; FAN Jun; WANG Quan-Jiu; DANG Ting-Hui; GUO Sheng-Li; WANG Ji-Jun

    2007-01-01

    To provide a scientific basis for sustainable land management,a 20-year fertility experiment Was conducted in Changwu County,Shaanxi Province,China to investigate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers on wheat grain yield and yield stability on the Loess Plateau using regression and stability analysis.The experiment consisted of 17fertilizer treatments.containing the combinations of different N and P levels,with three replications arranged in a randomized complete block design.Nitrogen fertilizer was applied as urea,and P was applied as calcium superphosphate.Fertilizer rates had a large effect on the response of wheat yield to fertilization.Phosphorus,combined with N,increased yield significantly(P≤0.01).In the unfertilized control and the N or P sole application treatments,wheat yield had a declining trend although it was not statistically significant.Stability analysis combined with the trend analysis indicated that integrated use of fertilizer N and P was better than their sole application in increasing and sustaining the productivity of rainfed winter wheat.

  8. Effect of Irrigation Water on Corn Grain Yield in Ankara Conditions

    YILDIRIM, Y. Ersoy; KODAL, Süleyman

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in Ankara conditions in order to determine corn yield response to water. When 50% of available water content in root zone is consumed in the control treatment, irrigation water was applied to the other treatments with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 125%, 150%, 175% and 200% of those applied into check plots. As a result, applications of ex-cessive water was not increased grain yields at the important level. Yield response factor (k y ) for total growing period were found a...

  9. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability. PMID:27173225

  10. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  11. The role of ENSO in determining climate and maize yield variability in the U.S. cornbelt

    Phillips, Jennifer; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Cane, Mark; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1999-06-01

    Recent advances in understanding the role of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in climate variability present opportunities for improving efficiency in agricultural production. We investigated the relationships between ENSO, climate and maize yields in the U.S. cornbelt, using both observed data and crop simulations. Using a time-series of sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) from the NINO3 region of the Pacific Ocean and historical records of temperature and precipitation spatially averaged across 51 mid-western climate divisions from 1950 to 1995, we ran linear correlation tests at three different lags. Northern hemisphere wintertime SSTAs were significantly correlated with air temperature at the 95% level of confidence in both the previous (r=-0.32) and following (r=0.41) summer, but had opposite signs. Correlations with precipitation were significant only in the summer preceding the ENSO event (r=0.31). Detrended maize yield for the same area and time period was also significantly related to SSTAs in the winter after harvest, with a correlation coefficient of 0.39, indicating that ENSO accounts for 15% of interannual maize yield variability in the cornbelt. Crop growth simulations at seven sites across the region suggest that water stress in July and August is the primary cause of lowered corn yield in La Niña years, but shortened grainfill period due to higher temperatures is also important. The benefits of El Niño-related rainfall and cooler temperatures are less pronounced than the negative impacts of warmer and dryer La Niñas. However, advance warning of both ENSO phases may present opportunities for improved crop management in the cornbelt.

  12. Combining Ability and Parent-Offspring Correlation of Maize (Zea may L.) Grainβ-Carotene Content with a Complete Diallel

    LI Run; CAO Mo-ju; XIAO Lan-hai; WANG Jing; LU Yan-li; RONG Ting-zhao; PAN Guang-tang; WU Yuan-qi; TANG Qi-lin; LAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has become a worldwide problem. Biofortified foods can potentially be an inexpensive, locally adaptable, and long-term solution to dietary-nutrient deficiency. In order to improve theβ-carotene content in maize grain by breeding and minimize vitamin A deficiency, a complete diallel cross was designed with eight inbred lines of maize, and 64 combinations were obtained in this study. The experimental combinations were planted in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, respectively, with a random complete block design. Theβ-carotene contents in the grains of the experimental materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the tested materials, the effect difference of general combining ability of theβ-carotene content was significant;however, the effect difference of the special combining ability and the reciprocal effect were not significant. Theβ-carotene content of maize grain was not influenced significantly by the cross and the reciprocal cross. There was a significant correlation about theβ-carotene content in the maize grains between the F1 and their parents. The combinations with high β-carotene content were obviously influenced by the environment, and the mean value ofβ-carotene content for the experimental materials planted in Ya’an of Sichuan was higher than that planted in Yuanjiang of Yunnan, with the results being significant at the 0.01 level.

  13. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive × additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  14. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Hossein SABOURI; Babak RABIEI; Maryam FAZLALIPOUR

    2008-01-01

    In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants), F1 (30 plants) and F2 generations (492 individuals) were evaluated at the Rice Research institute of Iran (RRII) during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base) and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient) as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  15. Yield component analysis and recombinative heterosis of complex characters in QPM maize

    A.Thanga Hemavathy, N.Subbaraman, S.M.Ibrahim and K.Balaji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Component analysis is the analysis of variation of complex character based on the variation of its components. For assessing the variation,components should be arranged in ontogenetical order. This allows determination of the mutually independent contributions of the components tothe variation of complex character. Component analysis provides the necessary data for the exploitation of recombinative heterosis in plantbreeding. Recombinative heterosis is the phenomenon where in, the progeny value of a complex character exceeds the mid parental value as aresult of the multiplicative relationship between the complex character and its component traits. It is suggested that this form of heterosis may bean important cause of specific combining ability. As such, it may be involved in the heterosis of complex characters in F1 hybrids and in thehybrid- vigor encountered in interspecific hybrid populations. It is demonstrated how recombinative heterosis may be explained by a quantitativegenetical model involving additive inheritance of the component traits. Current study was focused to predict progeny performance for thecomplex character from parental data for the component traits. This requires regression of individual components on the preceding primarycharacters. The contribution of the coefficient for yield component C3 (single seed weight to variance of log yield was maximum in the parentsCML 189, UMI 814, CML 145, UMI 524, CML 141 followed by the coefficient C2 (number of kernels per row which was maximum in theparents UMI 427 and UMI 814. In the present investigation, 35 hybrid combinations were tested for progeny prediction value. Application of thisprocedure revealed that among the 35 crosses, five crosses exceeded the predicted mid parental value. The predicted values can serve as a basisfor the selection of promising combinations. The crosses that exhibited higher values for grain yield per plant was predicted in the combination ofCML 142 x UMI

  16. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  17. 美国高产优质青贮玉米杂交种的选育%Breeding Maize Hybrids for High Silage Yield and Quality

    XU Wen-wei; 徐国良; 李淑华; XUE Yin-gen; 才卓

    2011-01-01

    总结粮饲兼用型、多叶型和棕色中脉型3种类型青贮玉米杂交种的特点.介绍青贮玉米产量和饲料营养价值的评价指标和方法,比较不同类型的青贮玉米种质资源的饲料营养价值和目前美国市场上最新的青贮玉米杂交种的农艺性状和品质性状.2010年美国德克萨斯州青贮玉米区域参试杂交种生物产量和干物质产量分别达78 210 kg/hm2和27 370 kg/hm2,淀粉含量平均为40.9%,中性洗涤纤维平均36.4%,总可消耗营养平均为75%.%Maize silage is an important source of forage. Superior hybrids should yield well, have high silage quality, and be adapted to local environments. Dual-type hybrids can be used for grain and silage production. They are usually taller and later in maturity and have a higher percentage of tropical germplasm than the typical temperate grain hybrids. Leafy hybrids have 9-12 leaves above the top ear due to a dominant gene(Lfyl). They usually have tall flexible stalks, thinner stalk rinds, wider leaves, soft and white cobs, and softer kernels. Silage-specific brown midrib hybrids have higher silage digestibility. Breeding for brown midrib hybrids takes more efforts because brown midrib trait is recessive and the two parent lines must be homozygous for a particular recessive gene. In 2010, the Texas state silage maize performance tests involved 28 hybrids at Halfway and 33 hybrids at Etter. The top yielding hybrid produced 78 210 kg/ha of silage yield and 27 370 kg/ha of dry matter. Silage quality was assayed with the NIR method. The tested hybrids had, on average based on the dry matter, 40.9% starch, 36.4% NDF, and 75% TDN.

  18. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

  19. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  20. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  1. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  2. Use of Major Quantitative Trait Loci to Improve Grain Yield of Rice

    GUO Long-biao; YE Guo-you

    2014-01-01

    Further improvement of rice productivity remains a challenge. Breeding is perceived as an important option to increase rice yield. However, the genetic progress of grain yield in most rice breeding programs was slow in the last decades. Although great progress in rice genomics and molecular biology has been achieved, the effect of such technological innovations on rice breeding is far small. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) for a few target quantitative trait loci (QTLs) has significant effects in improving qualitative traits, such as disease resistance. The success of MAS has therefore motivated breeders to identify and use major QTLs for yield and yield component traits. In this review, we summarized the recent methods in QTL identification, including novel statistical methods for linkage and association mapping, special population types, and whole-genome sequencing. We reviewed the successful application of marker-assisted gene introgression and gene pyramiding to improve grain yield and discussed the design of efficient MAS schemes to further increase the success rate of breeding programs. The use of well-characterized major QTLs through introgression and gene pyramiding is proven effective in improving grain yield, particularly yield under abiotic stress. Major QTLs that are stable across genetic background and growing environments are often found in less adapted germplasms, such as landraces and wild relatives. Advanced backcross QTL analysis and introgression lines, which integrate QTL discovery and utilization, are important methods for exploiting major QTLs contained in such germplasms. Next-generation sequencing substantially increases mapping resolution and accelerates the identification of casual genes underlying major QTLs. Practical guidelines derived from theoretical and empirical studies are given to guide the design of efficient marker-assisted gene introgression and pyramiding schemes.

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Maize Yield and Its Components Under Different Water Treatments at Flowering Time

    Gui-He Lu; Yi-Rong Zhang; Jing-Rui Dai; Ji-Hua Tang; Jian-Bing Yan; Xi-Qing Ma; Jian-Sheng Li; Shao-Jiang Chen; Jian-Cang Ma; Zhan-Xian Liu; Li-Zhu E

    2006-01-01

    Drought or water stress is a serious agronomic problem resulting in maize (Zea mays L.) yield loss throughout the world. Breeding hybrids with drought tolerance is one important approach for solving this problem. However, lower efficiency and a longer period of breeding hybrids are disadvantages of traditional breeding programs. It is generally recognized that applying molecular marker techniques to traditional breeding programs could improve the efficiency of the breeding of drought-tolerant maize. To provide useful information for use in studies of maize drought tolerance,the mapping and tagging of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield and its components were performed in the present study on the basis of the principle of a mixed linear model. Two hundred and twenty-one recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of Yuyu 22 were grown under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. In the former treatment group, plants were well irrigated, whereas those in the latter treatment group were stressed at flowering time.Ten plants of each genotype were grown in a row that was 3.00 m×0.67 m (length×width). The results show that a few of the QTL were the same (one additive QTL for ear length, two additive QTL and one pair of epistatic QTL for kernel number per row, one additive QTL for kernel weight per plant), whereas most of other QTL were different between the two different water treatment groups. It may be that genetic expression differs under the two different water conditions. Furthermore, differences in the additive and epistatic QTL among the traits under water-stressed conditions indicate that genetic expression also differs from trait to trait.Major and minor QTL were detected for the traits,except for kernel number per row, under water-stressed conditions. Thus, the genetic mechanism of drought tolerance in maize is complex because the additive and epistatic QTL exist at the same time and the major and minor QTL all contribute to phenotype under water

  4. Effects of the sowing density on the yield and the number of germinated seeds in seed maize

    Jovin Predrag; Rošulj Milorad; Tolimir Miodrag; Milenković Jasmina

    2005-01-01

    The trials were carried out in the regular production of the seed maize ZP 680 at the agricultural estate "Nova Buducnost" Zarkovac during 2001 and 2002. Sowing densities (71,400, 85,500, 99,900 plants ha"1) affected varying of yields (4.01, 4.38. 4.40 t ha"1). The 1000-seed weight decreased over increased densities (305.6, 2912, 282.5 g). Germination was even over densities (95.0, 94.9, 94.7 %). A greater number of germinated seeds per area...

  5. The Influence of Forage Combination Maize Grain – Fodder Beet on Feeding Behaviour Duration for Intensively Farmed Coypu (Nutria

    Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the behaviour of one species, with interest in animal husbandry science represent a compulsory necessityfor the development and improvement of the breeding and exploiting technology for this species. The studies oncoypus behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, coypu breeding technology,animal welfare and, at the moment, this present great importance for animal protection. The biological materialstudied was consisted of adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard. The supervised indices were:feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet according to gender and time slot, theduration of one feeding sequence according to forage consumed, gender and time slot and the number of feedingsequences according to forage consumed, gender and time slot. For realising the purposed aim, each coypu wasmonitorized (video, individually, 24 hours a day. The duration of feeding behaviour when coypus are fed with maizegrain and fodder beet was 4921.63±472.64 seconds for males (5.69% of the behaviour al manifestations, and forcoypu females, the duration of feeding behaviour was 5450.00±297.94 seconds (6.30% of the behaviour almanifestations. The most intense manifestations of the feeding behaviour occurred in the time slot 08:00-14:00, andthe lowest intensity of the feeding behaviour manifestations occurred in the time slot 02:00-08:00. The average totalnumber of males feeding sequences if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet was 51.63 ± 5.54 sequencesand the average total number of females feeding sequences was 56.38 ± 2.48 sequences.

  6. Application of organic matter and biofertilizer to improve growth and yield of maize on soil damaged by volcanic ash of Mount Kelud in East Java

    S. Hardianita; R.M. Bosas; Y. Nuraini

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud in 2014 damaged some agricultural areas grown with maize in Malang of East Java. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of organic fertilizers and biological fertilizers on growth and yield of maize on soils damaged by volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud. A pot experiment was conducted in the glasshouse of Balitkabi, Kendalpayak, Malang from July 2014 to February 2015. The treatments tested in this study were combinations ...

  7. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore...... meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p <0...... between crop types. All analyzed models had large unexplained variation between mixing effects, indicating that the variables retrievable from the published studies explained only a minority of the differences among mixtures and trials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  8. Effects of Nitrogen on Grain Yield, Nutritional and Processing Quality of Wheat for Different End Uses

    ZHU Xin-kai; GUO Wen-shan; ZHOU Jun-liang; HU Hong; ZHANG Ying; LI Chun-yan; FENG Chao-nian; PENG Yong-xin

    2003-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen on grain yield, nutritional quality and processing quality of wheat for different end uses were studied in Yangzhou from 2000 to 2002. Increasing N application amount and/or the ratio of topdressing N after elongation stage could raise grain yield, protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation, falling number, development time and stability time. To produce strong-gluten and medium-gluten wheat, the suitable ratio of basis : tillering: elongation: booting N fertilizer was 3: 1: 3 : 3 or 5: 1 : 2: 2with 180 - 240 kg N ha-1. To produce weak-gluten wheat, the ratio of basis: tillering: elongation N fertilizer should be 7 : 1: 2 with 180 kg N ha-1 and 240 × 104 ha-1 seedlings.

  9. Relationship between the yield contributing characters in cowpea for grain purpose [vigna unguiculata ( l. Walp

    R.Usha kumari, K.S .Usharani, R.Suguna, and C.R. Anandakumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted using fourteen genotypes of cowpea collected from different states in India to study the nature ofgenotypic association between the eight yield contributing characters and direct and indirect effects of the different characters onyield. The study revealed that the days to maturity, number of branches per plant and number of pods per plant showed positivesignificant correlation with seed yield. Path coefficient analysis exhibited days to fifty per cent flowering, plant height, pods perplant showed positive direct effect on yield except days to maturity, branches per plant, seeds per pod and hundred seed weightwhich showed negative direct effects. The characters plant stand at harvest and pods per plant exhibited moderate direct effects onyield. The implications of the results revealed that selection can be done for days to maturity, number of branches per plant andnumber of pods per plant for improving the grain yield in cowpea.

  10. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days, an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1, upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  11. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Liu Qi-Hua; Wu Xiu; Li Tian; Ma Jia-Qing; Zhou Xue-Biao

    2013-01-01

    As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effect worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics ...

  12. Grain yield of corn at different population densities and intercropped with forages

    José M. do Nascimento; Carlos E. A. Furlani; Carlos A. Chioderoli; Renata F. de Queiroz; Rafael S. Bertonha; Fabio A. Cavichioli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The no-tillage system optimizes agricultural areas, maintaining the supply of straw and promoting crop rotation and soil conservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sowing quality and grain yield of corn intercropped with three forage species of the Urochloa genus associated with two corn population densities. The experiment was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP), in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 x 3 facto...

  13. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Veneraldo Pinheiro; Luís F. Stone; José A. F. Barrigossi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments we...

  14. Maize and wheat yield improvement on small-scale farms in Uasin Gishu district: (I) The diagnosis of causes of low and declining yields (II) Proposed interventions to the identified constraint(s)

    Maize and wheat yields have been declining over the years in Uasin Gishu district. The average yields for maize and wheat from small-scale farms are 4200 and 1655 kg ha4, respectively (Hassan and Mwangi, 1991). The most popular and commonly used fertilizer for maize and wheat production in this area is di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Acid soils caused by application of DAP has been suspected as one of the major constraints to production of these crops in the region. However, work in the same region on the influence of DAP on soil pH has indicated no effect (Ogola and Oduor, 1993). It is also suspected that poor soil fertility in general (soil fertility depletion) and degraded soils (low organic matter content soils) are constraints to maize and wheat production in the district. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITY ON AGRONOMIC TRAITS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE IN THE MAIZE IBM POPULATION

    Mario Franić; Maja Mazur; Mirna Volenik; Josip Brkić; Andrija Brkić; Domagoj Šimić

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a vital process in plant physiology. Performance index is an indicator of plant vitality and is used as a main parameter in chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Plant density is an important factor in maize production that can affect grain yield. Objective of this paper was to estimate the effect of plant density on agronomic traits and photosynthetic efficiency in the maize IBM population. The results showed a decrease in grain yield per plant basis (20 plants per plot) i...

  16. EFFECT OF STEM RUST INFECTION ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS IN EGYPT

    Mamdouh A. Asmmawy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To estimate grain yield losses due to stem rust, replicated experiments including twelve wheat cultivars i.e.  Gemmeiza 7, Gemmeiza 9, Gemmeiza 10, Gemmeiza 11, Sakha 61, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sids 12, Sids 13, Giza 168, Misr 1 and Misr 2 were evaluated for adult plant resistance at Sakha Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. The field experiment was surrounded by spreader area of highly susceptible varieties i.e. Morroco and Max inoculated with a mixture of stem rust races as a source of inoculum. Disease severity was recorded each 10 days and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and ranged from 100 to 475 in 2011/12 and 100 to 750 in 2012/13. It was found that, yield losses ranged between 2.47 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 2 to 6.29 % in the wheat cultivar Sids 12 during 2011/12, while during 2012/13 ranged from 1.96 % in the wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 7 to      8.21 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 1. High correlation was found between yield losses with disease severity and AUDPC.

  17. Reduced ozone by air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat

    This study considered effects of reduced [O3] on wheat yield. Open-top chamber charcoal filtered air treatments were compared with non-filtered treatments for field-grown wheat. 30 experiments meeting requirements were found, representing nine countries in North America, Europe and Asia. 26 experiments reported improved yield and 4 experiments reduced yield by filtration, a significant positive effect. Average yield improvement was 9%. Average daytime [O3] was reduced by filtration from 35 to 13 nmol mol-1. Filtration efficiency was 63% for O3 and 56% for SO2. For NOx it was observed that NO2 was reduced and NO increased by filtration. Thus, filters convert NO2 to NO. Most experiments reported low or very low [SO2] and [NOx]. Thus, O3 can be concluded to be the main phytotoxic component in the experiments. Elevated [NO2] was observed in one experiment. The conclusion is that current [O3] over large parts of the world adversely affect wheat yield. - Research highlights: → Charcoal air filtration consistently improved grain yield in wheat. → Ozone was the most important pollutant to reduce wheat yield. → Charcoal filters remove O3, NO2 and SO2 but emit NO. - Reduced ozone in open-top chamber experiments improved wheat yield over wide geographic areas.

  18. Screening survey of co-production of fusaric acid, fusarin C, and fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ by Fusarium strains grown in maize grains.

    Han, Z; Tangni, E K; Huybrechts, B; Munaut, F; Scauflaire, J; Wu, A; Callebaut, A

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium species isolated from Belgian maize were screened for their ability to produce fusarin C, fusaric acid, fumonisins B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 in maize grains. First, cultivation of Fusarium species in Myro liquid medium allowed overcoming the shortage of the standard of fusarin C on the market. All Fusarium verticillioides produced much higher contents of mycotoxins in Myro compared to Fusarium graminearum or Fusarium venenatum. The optimization of the LC-MS/MS method resulted in low limits of detection and quantification for fusarin C, fusaric acid, FB1, FB2 and FB3 determination in maize grains. Its application for screening the potential toxin production ability evidenced that the concentrations of the analytes were significantly increased at various levels when F. verticillioides strains were cultivated in maize grains and reached 441 mg kg(-1) for fusaric acid, 74 mg kg(-1) for fusarin C, 1,301 mg kg(-1) for FB1, 367 mg kg(-1) for FB2 and 753 mg kg(-1) for FB3. PMID:25270005

  19. Grain yield of corn at different population densities and intercropped with forages

    José M. do Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The no-tillage system optimizes agricultural areas, maintaining the supply of straw and promoting crop rotation and soil conservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sowing quality and grain yield of corn intercropped with three forage species of the Urochloa genus associated with two corn population densities. The experiment was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP, in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme with four replicates. The treatments consisted of two corn densities (55,000 and 75,000 plants ha-1 intercropped with three forages (Urochloa brizantha, Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa ruziziensis sown between rows of corn in the V4 stage. The following corn variables were analysed: mean number of days for emergence, longitudinal distribution, grain yield, initial population and final population. There were differences between corn populations (p < 0.1 and the intercropping of corn with the species U. brizantha and U. ruziziensis promoted the best results, which permitted concluding that the cultivation of corn at the population density of 75,000 plants ha-1 intercropped U. brizantha and U. ruziziensis promoted better sowing quality and, consequently, higher grain yields.

  20. Biomass yield development of early, medium and late Maize varieties under a future climate in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Degener, J. F.; Kappas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Lower Saxony, with a total land area of about 46 500 km2, constitutes one of the most important agricultural areas in Germany and thus within Europe. Roughly one third of its agricultural area is used for maize cultivation and as of today only few information exist on how a future changing climate will affect its local growing conditions. Thus the newly developed carbon-based crop model BioSTAR and a high-resolution regional climate data-set (Wettreg) were used to evaluate the change in biomass yields of an early, medium and late maize variety. The climate input data is based on the SRES A1B scenario, with a potential fertilization effect or better still, an increased water use efficiency due to rising CO2 levels, taken into account. The biomass yield for all varieties was calculated for each year from 2001 until 2099 on a total of 91 014 sites. The results suggest clearly differentiated development paths of all varieties. All three show a significant positive trend until the end of the century. However the medium variety shows a statistical significant decline of 5% during the first 30 years and only a slight recovery towards +5% around the century's end. The late variety has the clearest and strongest positive trend, with partially more than 30% increase of biomass yields around the end of the century or +25% mean increase in the last three decades. The early variety can be seen as in-between, with no negative but also not an as strong positive development path. All varieties have their strongest increase in yields after the mid of the 21st century. Statistical evaluation of these results suggests that the shift from a summer rain to a winter rain climate in Germany will be the main limiting factor for all varieties. In addition summer temperatures will become less optimal for all maize crops. Only if the plants can supply themselves sufficiently with water outside of the increasingly dry summer months, when also temperatures are much more favorable, an increase

  1. Effect of radiation and temperature on germination of maize grain during storage

    Germination of maize (Zea mays L.) was studied in this investigation. Which was reduced at 2-4 KGray. A marked reduction in germination was apparent at higher doses. Germination was apparently unaffected at low doses, i.e. 0.5 KGray, but seedling survival diminished as the level of treatment increased. The germination percentage ranged from 99-30% at the end of the year. It was observed that reduction in seed viability depends on its moisture content and radiation dose. The incubation temperature plays insignificant role in seed germination

  2. Variability parameters for yield components of different progeny types in an F3 maize population

    Stojković Slaviša; Deletić Nebojša; Aksić Miroljub; Beković Dragoljub; Đurić Vladan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of F3 population 2002-30, created in the Department of Maize, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. At first, about 150 plants of the studied population were selfed and simultaneously crossed with the tester 1491x1496, in order to get complementary S1 and HS progenies. After the harvest, 41 progenies of each type were selected by the random sample method for the trials carried out in Aleksinac, Leskovac, and...

  3. Effect of Volfertile Controlled-Release Fertilizer on Maize Yield and Its Components%沃夫特控释肥用量对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响

    王珍珍; 鲁欣欣; 杨锦忠; 李凤涛; 苑兆鲁

    2014-01-01

    Through 3-year plot experiments in field , the effects of different application rate of Volfertile controlled-release fertilizer on yield and its components of maize were studied under monoseeding conditions . The results showed that the application of controlled -release fertilizer increased the spikes per unit area , grain number of per spike and 1 000-grain weight , so the maize yield was increased , too;the suitable appli-cation rate of controlled-release fertilizer was about 682 kg/hm2 .%通过3年大田小区试验,研究了单粒播种条件下沃夫特控释肥不同用量对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响。结果表明,施用控释肥能显著提高单位面积穗数、穗粒数和千粒重,显著提高玉米产量;适宜施肥量为682 kg/hm2左右。

  4. Effect of Volfertile Controlled-Release Fertilizer on Maize Yield and Its Components%沃夫特控释肥用量对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响

    王珍珍; 鲁欣欣; 杨锦忠; 李凤涛; 苑兆鲁

    2014-01-01

    通过3年大田小区试验,研究了单粒播种条件下沃夫特控释肥不同用量对玉米产量及其构成因素的影响。结果表明,施用控释肥能显著提高单位面积穗数、穗粒数和千粒重,显著提高玉米产量;适宜施肥量为682 kg/hm2左右。%Through 3-year plot experiments in field , the effects of different application rate of Volfertile controlled-release fertilizer on yield and its components of maize were studied under monoseeding conditions . The results showed that the application of controlled -release fertilizer increased the spikes per unit area , grain number of per spike and 1 000-grain weight , so the maize yield was increased , too;the suitable appli-cation rate of controlled-release fertilizer was about 682 kg/hm2 .

  5. Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)

    Different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) originating from Central and South Europe were grown from June to September 1994 for 16 weeks in two greenhouses covered with different UVB-absorbing (280-320 nm) plastic foils. Using the ambient UVB radiation level of a southern location (Portugal, 38.7oN) in one of the greenhouses as an enhanced radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse, an increase of about 12% of UVB was simulated. Six of the eight cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 18.9% at all developmental stages under increased UVB. In contrast to this, the fresh and dry weight as well as the leaf area was reduced under UVB only at early developmental stages, but with ongoing development the UVB stressed plants caught up. The total content of absorbing compounds of the maize cultivars was completely unaffected by UVB. A flowering delay up to a maximum of 5 days was observed under higher UVB in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay in the cob development the yield decreased to 27.7% under higher UVB at the first harvest after 12 and 14 weeks, whereas at the second harvest after 14 and 16 weeks yield reduction levelled off. (Author)

  6. Improving grain yield and nitrogen fixation of common bean grown in an acrisol from Cuba

    Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of selected management practices such as the use of phosphate rock (PR), partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) and soil liming, on improving grain yields and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in an strongly acid Acrisol from Cuba. In Experiment 1 the agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR and FPA 50, a PAPR from Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 50% acidulation level were evaluated as P sources for the common bean genotypes, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa. In Experiment 2 the response of the CC 25-9N common bean genotype to the increasing application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1) of two P sources, i.e. triple super phosphate and C 40, was determined at two liming levels. C40 was a PAPR from the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 40% acidulation level. In Experiment 3 the effect of soil liming on grain yield and BNF of BAT 58, BAT 304, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390, Judia Roja Camagueyana (JRC) and Censa common bean genotypes was studied. The most effective P sources to increase grain yields of the studied bean genotypes were the water-soluble superphosphate in experiments 1 and 2. Both partially acidulated PR products, FPA 50 and C 40, showed intermediate agronomic effectiveness and they increased grain yields over the PR and control (without P) treatments. Soil liming increased grain yields and BNF of the common bean genotypes tested. Based on an economic analysis of profit and value/cost ratios, single superphosphate was the P source that gave the highest economic profit for all common bena genotypes while FPA 50 was efficient for DOR 390 and Censa. Lime application increased the economic profit of all bean genotypes. Genotype BAT 304 showed adaptability to soil acidity and gave the highest profit in limed soil. (author)

  7. The use of phenotypic correlations and factor analysis in determining characters for grain yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Toker, Cengiz; Ilhan Cagirgan, M

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of factor analysis in determining characters for yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate yield criteria in chickpea using phenotypic correlations and factor analysis. Factor 1 composed of biological yield, reaction to ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr.), plant height, grain yield and harvest index. Factor 2 consisted of branches and pods per plant. Factor 3 encompassed of only the grain weight. The total factors explained 92.9% of the total variance caused in the characters. The grain yield was positively and statistically significant correlated with biological yield, harvest index, plant height, branches and pods per plant, while it was negatively and statistically significant related with reaction to ascochyta blight and grain weight. Biological yield, harvest index, plant height and reaction to ascochyta blight instead of many selection criteria should previously be evaluated in selection to increase the grain yield in chickpea breeding programs. Pods per plant should be handed together with and branches per plant. Apart from the other selection criteria, the grain weight should solely be evaluated to select large grained genotypes. PMID:15198713

  8. Effects of Storage Losses and Grain Management Practices on Storage: Evidence from Maize Production in Benin

    Kadjo, Didier; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob E.; Alexander, Corinne E.; Tahirou, Abdoulaye

    2013-01-01

    This study uses nationally representative data from 360 farm households in Benin to estimate how access to storage technologies and storage losses from insects affects a smallholder African farmer’s decision to hold grain from production, in an environment of high price variability. We find that access to storage chemicals increases the average amount stored by 196 kilograms with results approaching statistical significance. Farmers who use plastic bags store 293 kilograms less grain on avera...

  9. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  10. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.;

    2015-01-01

    were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture......, salt and urea. Both hay and concentrate were fed ad libitum and with free access to drinking water for 90 days. Feed intake, body weights and carcass characteristics were recorded. The daily total dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day) was greater (P... for finishing TSZ cattle in feedlots with formulations based on molasses being superior over those based on maize meal, and hominy feed being superior over rice polishing. A combination of molasses and hominy feed (HFMO) could be used successfully as an alternative to maize meal in finishing TSZ cattle...

  11. Effects of Postponing N Application on Wheat Grain Yield, Protein Quality and Fertilizer-N use Efficiency in Low-Yield Field in Jianghan Plain

    Xiao-yan Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 to 2010, the effects of postponing N application on wheat grain yield and process quality were studied in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain in wheat. The results were as follows. When the Topdressing fertilizer N (TN was postponed from tilling stage to jointing stage, the biomass and the SPAD value in flag leaf reduced, respectively. And grain yield, protein content in grain and stability time of paste, reduced as a result. When the topdressing fertilizer N was postponed from jointing stage to booting stage, the regularity of above index changed conversely. For the treatments with the same topdressing fertilizer date (jointing stage, the appropriate ratio of Basal dressing fertilizer (BNto topdressing fertilizer was 3:7, with high biomass, high SPAD value in flag leaf, high grain yield and high process quality as a result. The results also indicated that the right stage for more N in organ vegetative to be transferred to grain was jointing stage and the right ratio of BN to TN was 3:7, which was the very basis for high nitrogen fertilizer utilization. Based on the above results, it was suggested that to gain high grain yield and high process quality the appropriate date for topdressing fertilizer N in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain was jointing stage and the ratio of BN to TN was 3:7.

  12. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2012-01-01

    . Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1, and...... decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results...... yield and quality of malting barley in China farmers are recommended to fertilize with 150–209 kg N ha−1....

  13. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    A 8x8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P=0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  14. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    A 8 X 8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P.0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  15. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes.

    W Tadesse

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011-2012 at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W ranged from 13.6-16.1% and 217.6-375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B, wPt4680 (4A, wPt3509 (5A, wPt8183 (6B, and wPt0298 (2D were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA's International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations.

  16. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Omar; Vergara-Diaz; Shawn; C.Kefauver; Abdelhalim; Elazab; Maria; Teresa; Nieto-Taladriz; José; Luis; Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen(Warrior/Ambition),against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red,Green, Blue(RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity.RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust(R2= 0.581 and R2= 0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI(R2= 0.118 and R2= 0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  17. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Omar Vergara-Diaz; Shawn C. Kefauver; Abdelhalim Elazab; Maria Teresa Nieto-Taladriz; José Luis Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition), against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2=0.581 and R2=0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2=0.118 and R2=0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7%of the yield losses.

  18. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Omar Vergara-Diaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition, against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2 = 0.581 and R2 = 0.536, respectively, far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2 = 0.118 and R2 = 0.128, respectively. In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  19. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T2 found to be higher. However, treatment T6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Grain Sorghum Yield in the Ogallala Aquifer Region, USA

    Paul, G.; Anandhi, A.; Prasad, P.; Staggenborg, S. A.; Gowda, P. H.; Rice, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Ogallala aquifer region consists of 232 counties spread over 8 states of United States is facing declining water levels and deteriorating water quality which in turn affects the crop production in these counties. Coupled with the water stress, the changing climatic conditions also has adverse effects on crop production. The objectives of this study was to generate the future scenarios of grain sorghum production in the Ogallala region for plausible future climates. Three RCM's participating in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), used in this study are Canadian RCM (CRCM), Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) and the Hadley Regional Model (HRM3). The RCMs were nested within the AOGCMs for the current period 1971-2000 and for the future period 2041-2070 for A2 emission scenario. Grain sorghum yield were simulated across the study region using the CERES-Sorghum model program available in the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) crop simulation model suite. Daily data on rainfall, solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature generated from the RCM were used as meteorological inputs in the current analysis. Grain sorghum hybrid 'Pioneer 8333' planting date and density were set at 5 June and 160,000 plants per hectare respectively. Simulation results show a decrease in the yield of grain sorghum for A2 emission scenario without considering effects of elevated carbon dioxide and changes in genetics. Results of the study provide critical information needed to help decision/policy makers to device long-term strategies to cope with impacts of climate change and variability on water use and crop production for the Ogallala aquifer region.

  1. Grain yield response and stability indices in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Francis Abayomi Showemimo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum is mainly grown in the Semi-Arid Tropic of the world, particularly under rain fed conditions. It forms the most staple food crop for millions of people in these areas. Sorghum production is highly influenced by the environment where it is grown, thus, the genotype by environment interaction is highly significant when breeding for specific adaptation. This study is aimed at identifying suitable genotypes for release to farmers in Nigeria and for further genetic manipulations. Grain yield performances and stability indices for twenty diverse sorghum genotypes evaluated for three years (1998-2000 at five locations in the savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. The environments, genotypes, genotype x environment interaction, genotype x environment (linear and deviation from regression component significant were highly significantly different. Genotypic means and linear regression coefficient (b-value were used to measure production response, while deviation from regression (s2d, coefficient of determination (r2 and ecovalence (W were used as stability indices. The highest yielding sorghum genotype was NR 71168 (3.02 t/ha while NR 71138 had the least average grain yield (0.63 t/ha. Based on stability indices, NR 71156, NR 71158, NR 71165, NR 71167, NR 71168 and NR 71182 were desirable, stable and adapted to wide range of environments in the savanna agro-ecologies. These genotypes may be released to farmers for cultivation.

  2. Prediction of Chinese per Capita Grain Yield Base on Residual Modification GM (1, 1 Model

    Yang Yang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To build effective grain yield prediction system and predict its trend scientifically, this study, on the basis of statistics, prognostics and agricultural economics, explains and functions grey system theory. As a new method, grey system still has many shortages. On the basis of comparison in correlative prediction, we propose GM (1, 1 grey prediction method by modifying ends to improve predictive precisions. Besides, combining with historic data during 2000-2009, predict, summary and propose the research future. Research indicates, whether theoretic basis or practice, grey model is more useful and convenient. It predicts the yield in future 5 years, the increasing speed will decrease. The increasing yield is 5-6 kilos per person, less than 8-10 kilos per person during 2003-2009. Surely, grain industry includes many son industries, such as rice, corn and wheat. The biggest son industry should be found to give different financial support, in order to eliminate errors. The innovation is to solve time responding function and incandesce equation of end residual sequence of GM (1, 1 model, to eliminate error. Besides, analyze practical examples to indicate its value in economic prediction and provide references for relative areas.

  3. Presowing stimulation of maize in Syria

    In the paper information is given about the presowing stimulation of maize in Syria. For radiation treatment of the seeds 137 Cs source was used in 5-50 Gy dose range. to the experiments-between 1985 and 1988 significant increase in the grain yield was obtained with optimum dose. (author). 7 refs. 5 tabs

  4. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Milling Quality Characters of Two Line Rice Hybrids

    L. Mahalingam and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. India and the materials for thisstudy consisted of three TGMS lines viz., TS 29, TS 6 and GD 98013 and 11 testers viz., ADT 39, ADT 41, Pusa Basmathi 1,Basmathi 370, Improved White ponni, AD 98028, GEB 24, ADT 43, ADT 45, Taroari Basmathi and Jeeraga samba. Crossing wasdone according to clipping and churning method in L X T fashion. Based on the nature of combing ability inferred from line xtester analysis, three cross combinations viz, TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 were selectedfor generation mean analysis study. The scaling tests indicated the presence of epitasis for all the characters and there fore sixparameters model was followed to estimate the various gene action. The scales A and C are negatively significant in all thecrossed viz., TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for grains per panicle and hundred grainsweight. The scale B is negatively non significant for grains per panicle and hundred grains weight in all the three crosses. Thecrosses TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 showed positively significant A and C scales forgrain yield. The mean effect m was significantly positive and greater than all other effects in all the three crosses viz., TS 29 /ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for productive tillers, hundred grain weights, graim yield, hulling percent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. A significant additive x dominance (j effect was recorded in TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 crosses for grain yied and hulling per cent A significant additive x dominance (j was observed in TS29 / ADT 41 cross (panicle length and milling per cent. The (h and (l effects took opposite signs in all the three crossesindicating the involvement of duplicate dominant epistatic kinds of interaction for productive tillers

  6. Effect of Different Row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Yield Characteristics of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Bornova Ecological Conditions

    GEREN, Hakan; KAVUT, Yaşar Tuncer; ALTINBAŞ, Metin

    2015-01-01

    his study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings (17.5 cm, 35 cm, 52.5 cm, 70 cm) on the grain yield and some other yield characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under T

  7. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.;

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) can occur in cereals conjugated to glucose and probably also to other sugars. These conjugates, which are often referred to as "masked mycotoxins", will not be detected with routine analytical techniques. Furthermore, it is suspected that the parent......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n = 10). The samples were collected from the harvest years 2006–2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37 % of...

  8. THE EFFECTS OF WET BREWER’S GRAIN WHOLE PLANT MAIZE MIXTURE SILAGES ON FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY IN LAMBS

    Fisun Koc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine some quality characteristics and nutrient digestibility of wet brewers grain with whole plant maize mixture silages. Treatments were wet brewers grain, 25% + 75% whole plant maize (mixture 1 and %50 wet brewers grain + %50 whole plant maize (mixture 2. Relating to silage fermentation analysis of pH, ammonia nitrogen, water soluble carbohydrate, organic acids (lactic, acetic and butyric acid and microbiological analyses were carried out. Digestion rate of crude nutritive matters of silages was determined by classical digestive experiments. Dry matter, crude protein, NH3-N, lactic acid content and pH value of the silages were found respectively as 23.3, 26.4, 25.4, 24.7%; 22.3, 7.4, 10.6, 14.3%; 1.9, 0.5, 0.9, 1.0 g/kg DM; %1.0, 2.5, 2.1, 1.8; 4.1, 3.8, 3.9, 3.8 for the group of wet brewers grain, whole plant maize, mixture 1 and mixture 2, (P<0.01. Dry matter, crude protein digestibility were determined as 65.0, 70,5, 70,0, 67,10%; 71.5, 55.8, 58,7, 62.3%, respectively. The results indicated that WBG is a suitable by-product for ensiling and, when ensiled with WPM as a mixture, it improved fermentation quality and stability against aerobic deterioration.

  9. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.

    Andersen Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT, days to silking (DTS, dry matter content (DMC, and dry matter yield (DMY were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area.

  10. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  11. Effect of planting density on root lodging resistance and its relationship to nodal root growth characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Liu, Shengqun; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Fulai;

    2012-01-01

    Increase of planting density has been widely used to increase grain yield in maize. However, it may lead to higher risk of root lodging hence causing significant yield loss of the crop. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of planting density on maize nodal root growth...

  12. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  13. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai;

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...

  14. Effects of the sowing density on the yield and the number of germinated seeds in seed maize

    Jovin Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The trials were carried out in the regular production of the seed maize ZP 680 at the agricultural estate "Nova Budućnost" Žarkovac during 2001 and 2002. Sowing densities (71,400, 85,500, 99,900 plants ha"1 affected varying of yields (4.01, 4.38. 4.40 t ha"1. The 1000-seed weight decreased over increased densities (305.6, 2912, 282.5 g. Germination was even over densities (95.0, 94.9, 94.7 %. A greater number of germinated seeds per area unit (13,122,000, 15,022,000, 15,569,000 was obtained in greater densities. The percentile share of fractions in the weight was uniform over all sowing densities.

  15. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia

    Marta Silva Lopes; Didem Saglam; Mutlu Ozdogan; Matthew Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain fil ing, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68%of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could stil improve GY in a wide range of environ-ments. However, in Iranian sites, tal er genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain fil ing. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  16. The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations

    Dragićević Vesna; Kovačević Dragan; Sredojević Slobodanka; Dumanović Zoran; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and solu...

  17. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha-1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  18. Various irrigation cycles effect on grain yield, proline and adaptive metabolits in some wheat genotypes

    Mahdi Zare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress globally affects the growth and production of plants. Wheat is an important crop whose research in this aspect is highly noticeable related to food quality. In recent study, the effects of two different irrigation cycles (weekly (control and 15-day irrigation on leaf proline, carbohydrate, N, P, K accumulation and grain yield of three wheat genotypes (Chamran, Dehdasht and Kohdasht were evaluated at the field of Agriculture Research Station of Borazjan, Bushehr state, Iran, during 2011-2012 growing season. Experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The results demonstrated that different irrigation cycles and wheat genotype effects were significant on leaf proline, carbohydrate, K leaf accumulation and grain yield. This finding suggested that Dehdasht genotype could be considered as more resistance genotype against drought condition than Kohdasht and Chamran genotypes. In arid condition which water is limited and dry land farming is necessary, Kohdasht could be selected as a tolerance genotype to water deficiency. Accumulation of proline and carbohydrates was also considered as osmotic adjustment in response to drought stress condition.

  19. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    Naveen Kumar eKalagatur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO on growth and zearalenone (ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 of OSEO was determined to be 8.5µg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 µg/mL and 1800 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 µg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 µg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13 revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  20. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Yongchao Wang

    Full Text Available DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012, using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958 at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68% from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69% and thousand kernel weight (TKW (by 8.57% and 6.55% from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs. In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other

  1. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Sun, Yang; Zhang, He; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2016-01-01

    DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether) and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride) have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012), using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958) at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68%) from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69%) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) (by 8.57% and 6.55%) from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs). In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other treatments

  2. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content, Hectoliter Weight and Yield Variations of Wheat Grain as Aff ected by Cropping Intensity

    Zlatko Svečnjak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns over the potential environmental hazards of intensive agriculture have renewed an interest in the low-input nitrogen (N fertilization practices for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. A two-year study (2001 and 2002 was conducted to determine the infl uence of cropping intensity, namely the low-N (67 kg N ha-1 and high-N (194 kg N ha-1 input levels on the grain N and phosphorus (P content, phytate-P (phytic acid and its salts, hectoliter weight and grain yield of three bread wheat cultivars widely grown in Croatia. Growing conditions significantly affected grain yields averaging 6641 kg ha-1 in the fi rst growing season and 8295 kg ha-1 in the following year. Despite an associated increase in the 1000-grain weights, the use of the low-N fertilization brought about a significant decrease in grain yield, hectoliter weight and grain N content in all cultivars by an average of 18.1%, 1.5% and 22.6%, respectively, when compared to the high-N fertilization level. The reductions in grain N content were consistent in both years regardless of variations in grain yields among three tested cultivars. Grain N content under the low-N fertilization averaged 17.1 g kg-1 only, which may limit its use for breadmaking. In contrast, grain P content was not affected by N fertilization or growing season and averaged 4.70 g kg-1 across all treatments. Absolutely small, but significant differences existed among cultivars for total grain P content, of which about 80% was in the form of phytate-P. A negative correlation between the 1000-grain weight and P content was found because of tendency toward lower P content in heavier grains. When compared to the high-N input, the low-N fertilization practices for wheat crop were associated with a significant decrease in grain yield and grain N content in all cultivars, but had no effect on grain P content regardless of cultivar.

  3. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and

  4. Application of organic matter and biofertilizer to improve growth and yield of maize on soil damaged by volcanic ash of Mount Kelud in East Java

    S. Hardianita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud in 2014 damaged some agricultural areas grown with maize in Malang of East Java. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of organic fertilizers and biological fertilizers on growth and yield of maize on soils damaged by volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud. A pot experiment was conducted in the glasshouse of Balitkabi, Kendalpayak, Malang from July 2014 to February 2015. The treatments tested in this study were combinations of three mixtures of soil and volcanic ash (90%:10%, 80%:20%, and 70%:30%, and two doses of biofertilizer (25 and 35 kg / ha. Each treatment was added with 5 t organic matter/ha. A total of 10 kg of each mixture of soil and volcanic ash was placed in a 15 kg plastic pot. Each treatment received 100 kg inorganic fertilizer / kg containing 15% N, 15% P, and 15% K. Three seeds of maize (NK33 variety were planted in each pot and thin to one plant after one week. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks. The results showed that application of organic matter and biofertilizer did not significantly improve fertility of soil mixed with volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud. Yield of maize was not significantly improved by the application of organic matter and biofertilizer on soil mixed with volcanic ash. The contents of carbohydrates and proteins in maize seeds were also not affected by application of organic matter and biofertilizer.

  5. Statistical analysis of the relationship between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation across Inner Mongolia, North China

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Limin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Exploring possible relationships between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation under climate change is fundamental to science-based decision for food security in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR). To determine the relationship of maize yield with precipitation variables across IMAR during 1960-2012, we selected 11 precipitation indices of rainy season and divided IMAR into four sub-regions—west, middle, east, and northeast using principal component analysis and K-means clustering methods. Results show that climate-induced maize yield is more sensitive to precipitation variability in the west and middle IMAR. The most important precipitation factor that limits maize yield is moderate precipitation days in these two sub-regions. Moreover, west and middle Inner Mongolia was dominated by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season. Furthermore, the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle has the significant influence on the rainy-season precipitation in the west and middle IMAR.

  6. Influence of High Temperature Stress on Net Photosynthesis, Dry Matter Partitioning and Rice Grain Yield at Flowering and Grain Filling Stages

    L Guo-hua; WU Yong-feng; BAI Wen-bo; MA Bao; WANG Chun-yan; SONG Ji-qing

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is recognized to increase the frequency and severity of extreme temperature events. At flowering and grain filling stages, risk of high temperature stress (HTS) on rice might increase, and lead to declining grain yields. A regulated cabinet experiment was carried out to investigate effects of high temperature stress on rice growth at flowering and grain-filling stages. Results showed that no obvious decrease pattern in net photosynthesis appeared along with the temperature rising, but the dry matter allocation in leaf, leaf sheath, culm, and panicle all changed. Dry weight of panicle decreased, and ratio of straw to total above ground crop dry weight increased 6-34%from CK, which might have great effects on carbon cycling and green house gas emission. Grain yield decreased significantly across all treatments on average from 15 to 73%. Occurrence of HTS at flowering stage showed more serious influence on grain yield than at grain filling stage. High temperature stress showed negative effects on harvest index. It might be helpful to provide valuable information for crop simulation models to capture the effects of high temperature stress on rice, and evaluate the high temperature risk.

  7. Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter for Two Growth Stages to Assess Grain Yield of Malaysian Rice (Oryza sativa

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Proper yield management in rice influences grain quality and quantity. Nitrogen site-specific management is also effective on final product of crops because excessive nitrogen application at any growth stage can reduce yield and increase disease incidence. In contrast, suboptimal nitrogen levels at discrete growth stages may substantially reduce plant productivity. The nitrogen status at specific growth stages may be used for estimating supplemental nitrogen requirements and yield potential. The SPAD chlorophyll meter is a quick and non-destructive tool used for directly measuring leaf chlorophyll and indirectly assessing the proportional parameter of leaf, plant nitrogen status and finally, grain yield. Approach: Describing within-field variability in a typical Malaysian paddy field was conducted to show the temporal variability of SPAD readings and also grain yield. Furthermore, the study aimed to introduce the rice growth stage which SPAD readings show higher relationship with grain yield. SPAD readings data was collected at two different growth stages (55 DAT and 80 DAT using a Minolta SPAD 502. Grain yield was then collected at the end of the season to compare results with SPAD values. Results: Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of parameters and also their relationship. Conclusion: Variability maps of the aforementioned parameters were generated. Increasing of SPAD values with growth stage could be observed in this study. SPAD readings taken at 55 DAT had a better relationship to grain yield than those taken at 80 DAT; therefore assessment of grain yield status is better to be done at 55 DAT.

  8. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  9. Effects of location and year on grain yield and its components in wheat genotypes developed from seed irradiation treatment

    Eight mutant lines derived from gamma ray treatments and their parental cultivar sokha 69 of bread wheat were evaluated for grain yield per feddan, straw yield per feddan, harvest index, spike length, spike yield and weight of 1000-kernels at two locations (El-Fayoum and Inshas) in two seasons, 1991/92 and 1992/93. Significant effects of location on yield and yield components were found and the year significantly affects all the studied traits except grain yield per feddan. A significant location genotype interaction was detected for spike length, 1000-kernel weight and straw yield per feddan. In addition, year genotype interaction was significant in weight of 1000-kernels, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference among genotypes over all environments for spike length, 1000-kernel weight, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. However, these did not reflect significant effect on grain yield per feddan over all environments because it has a highly compensation ability. Meanwhile, mutant L12-1 exhibited significantly higher straw yield than sokha 69, when averaged over two seasons at El-Fayoum. Mutant L19-1 gave higher weight of 1000-kernels, spike length and harvest index than the other genotypes at low-yielding location (Inshas). It seems to be stable over a wide range of environments. 3 tabs

  10. Long-term effects of conventional and reduced tillage systems on soil condition and yield of maize

    Rátonyi, Tamás; Széles, Adrienn; Harsányi, Endre

    2015-04-01

    As a consequence of operations which neglect soil condition and consist of frequent soil disturbance, conventional tillage (primary tillage with autumn ploughing) results in the degradation and compaction of soil structure, as well as the reduction of organic matter. These unfavourable processes pose an increasing economic and environmental protection problem today. The unfavourable physical condition of soils on which conventional tillage was performed indicate the need for preserving methods and tools. The examinations were performed in the multifactorial long-term tillage experiment established at the Látókép experiment site of DE MÉK. The experiment site is located in the Hajdúság loess ridge (Hungary) and its soil is loess-based calcareous chernozem with deep humus layer. The physical soil type is mid-heavy adobe. The long-term experiment has a split-split plot design. The main plots are different tillage methods (autumn ploughing, spring shallow tillage) without replication. In this paper, the effect of conventional and reduced (shallow) tillage methods on soil conditions and maize yield was examined. A manual penetrometer was used to determine the physical condition and compactedness of the soil. The soil moisture content was determined with deep probe measurement (based on capacitive method). In addition to soil analyses, the yield per hectare of different plots was also observed. In reduced tillage, one compacted layer is shown in the soil resistance profile determined with a penetrometer, while there are two compacted layers in autumn ploughing. The highest resistance was measured in the case of primary tillage performed at the same depth for several years in the compacted (pan disk) layer developed under the developed layer in both treatments. The unfavourable impact of spring shallow primary tillage on physical soil conditions is shown by the fact that the compaction of the pan disk exceed the critical limit value of 3 MPa. Over the years, further

  11. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH₄(+) and NO₃(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  12. Soil Texture and Cultivar Effects on Rice (Oryza sativa, L. Grain Yield, Yield Components and Water Productivity in Three Water Regimes.

    Fugen Dou

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water regime/soil condition (continuous flooding, saturated, and aerobic, cultivar ('Cocodrie' and 'Rondo', and soil texture (clay and sandy loam on rice grain yield, yield components and water productivity using a greenhouse trial. Rice grain yield was significantly affected by soil texture and the interaction between water regime and cultivar. Significantly higher yield was obtained in continuous flooding than in aerobic and saturated soil conditions but the latter treatments were comparable to each other. For Rondo, its grain yield has decreased with soil water regimes in the order of continuous flooding, saturated and aerobic treatments. The rice grain yield in clay soil was 46% higher than in sandy loam soil averaged across cultivar and water regime. Compared to aerobic condition, saturated and continuous flooding treatments had greater panicle numbers. In addition, panicle number in clay soil was 25% higher than in sandy loam soil. The spikelet number of Cocodrie was 29% greater than that of Rondo, indicating that rice cultivar had greater effect on spikelet number than soil type and water management. Water productivity was significantly affected by the interaction of water regime and cultivar. Compared to sandy loam soil, clay soil was 25% higher in water productivity. Our results indicated that cultivar selection and soil texture are important factors in deciding what water management option to practice.

  13. Genetic gains for grain yield in two selection phases of a wheat breeding program

    Evaluation and selection of experimental lines over several environments is critical component of wheat breeding programs before release of cultivars to growers. Fifteen-year (1989-90 to 2004-05) data from three consecutive trials (A, B and Micro plot) of the Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak (Nowshera) were analyzed as two independent selection phases to estimate selection differentials, genetic gains and realized heritability for grain yield. Wheat lines tested in A-trials ranged from 108 to 378 year/sup -1/ with selection intensity of 10 to 30% vs 72 to 198 year/sup -1/ in B-trials with selection intensity of 6 to 22%. Selection differentials and genetic gains were positive for each pair of years during the 15 year period. Averaged across 15-years, mean selection differential, genetic gain and realized heritability were 8.9 vs 5.3%, 6.0 vs 7.2%, and 0.63 vs 0.56 under Phase-I and Phase-II, respectively indicating more selection efficiency in Phase-I. The selected wheat lines out yielded the check cultivars throughout the 15 ear period in A-trials, while the checks surpassed the selected lines in 12 of the 15-years in B-trials. An upward trend in grain yield ha/sup -1/ was generally followed by a decline both under A and B-trials. The statistical procedure used is effective for estimating genetic improvement for important traits in multi-stage crop breeding programs. (author)

  14. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  15. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars.

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI) and performance (PI) indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves is correlated with

  16. Yield analysis in gamma ray induced advance generation mutants of short grain aromatic non-Basmati rice

    Yield analysis was made in a population comprising 18 advance generation (M4) morphologically distinct induced mutants along with their two mother genotypes, derived from Gobindabhog, a popular short grain aromatic non-basmati rice variety of West Bengal. The estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight, harvest index, grain yield and flag leaf length; and low for days to flower, panicle length, plant height, panicle number, spikelet number, spikelet fertility (per cent), grain number, test weight. The estimates of heritability in broad sense were very high for days to flower, flag leaf angle, plant height, spikelet fertility per cent, test weight, flag leaf length and straw weight moderate for grain number, spikelet number, harvest index, grain yield and panicle length; and low for panicle number. The estimates of genetic advance as per cent of mean were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight and harvest index; and low for the remaining characters. The results of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance revealed flag leaf angle, grain number, straw weight and grain yield per plant would be useful traits for selection

  17. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil

  18. Estimation of heterosis for grain yield and quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata L.

    M. C. Dagla, R. N. Gadag, O. P. Sharma, Narendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to estimate heterosis for yield and biochemical quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays var. sacharata crosses. Forty five hybrids using diallel mating design excluding reciprocals were generated. These hybrids along with their ten parents and one standard check (Madhuri were grown at IARI, New Delhi during kharif-2008 in randomized block design (RBD. Estimation of heterosis over standard check (HSC ‘Madhuri’, mid-parent (HMP, and better parent (HBP was calculated. The significant heterosis over standard check for grain yield was found in five crosses, and for sugar content in twelve crosses out of forty five. The HMP for grain yield was found in eighteen crosses and for sugar content in nine crosses. The HMP for grain yield and sugar content was found in IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142. One cross IPSA-6137 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for protein content and grain yield. One cross IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139 showed HMP for sugar content and protein content. The HBP was observed in IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136, IPSA-6136 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6138 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6139 × IPSA-6140 and IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6141 for sugar content and IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6137, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6141, IPSA-6134 × IPSA-6142, IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6139, IPSA-6140 × IPSA-6142, and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 for grain yield. Two crosses IPSA-6135 × IPSA-6136 and IPSA-6141 × IPSA-6142 have the HBP for grain yield and sugar content. One cross IPSA 6137 × IPSA 6139 showed the HBP for protein and grain yield.

  19. Simulating the Yield Impacts of Organ-Level Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Drought Response in Maize: A “Gene-to-Phenotype” Modeling Approach

    Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C.; Tardieu, François; McLean, Greg; Welcker, Claude; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2009-01-01

    Under drought, substantial genotype–environment (G × E) interactions impede breeding progress for yield. Identifying genetic controls associated with yield response is confounded by poor genetic correlations across testing environments. Part of this problem is related to our inability to account for the interplay of genetic controls, physiological traits, and environmental conditions throughout the crop cycle. We propose a modeling approach to bridge this “gene-to-phenotype” gap. For maize un...

  20. Herbicidal control of parthenium weed in maize

    Two years experiments were conducted using randomized complete block (RCB) design, having eight treatments, replicated four times to find their impact on maize, parthenium and associated weeds. The treatments consisted of 6 herbicides, viz., Aatrax (atrazine) at the rate 1.0, Buctril super (bromoxynil+MCPA) 60 EC at the rate 0.80, Dual gold (s-metolachlor) 960 EC at the rate 1.92, Sencor extra (metribuzin) at the rate 2.0, Primextra gold 720 SC (atrazine+s-metolachlor), at the rate 1.50 Stomp (pendimethalin) 330 EC at the rate 1.50 kg. a.i. ha/sub -1/, hand weeding and a control. Data showed that weed density was significantly influenced by application of various herbicides in maize. Fresh weed biomass (g m/sup -2/) was reduced in plots where Primextra gold and Dual gold were sprayed followed by hand weeding. Weed mortality (%) was significantly influenced by application of different herbicides, whereas year effect remained similar for weed mortality. Higher weed mortality was observed in Primextra gold treated plots, followed by hand weeding and Dual gold which were statistically at par. Long stature maize plants were recorded in hand weeding and Primextra gold treated plots, whereas short stature plants were found in control plots. Number of grains ear-1 was significantly increased by application of herbicides and higher numbers of grains were recorded in Primextra gold and hand weeded plots. Thousand grain weight was significantly increased by herbicides and hand weeding. Application of herbicides significantly influenced biological and grain yields of maize. The effect of year was found non-significant for both grain and biological yields. Control plots resulted in lower grain and biological yield. Overall results indicated that application of Primextra gold as pre-emergence could provide good control of parthenium weed and associated weeds in maize. (author)

  1. Genetic Basis for Variation in Wheat Grain Yield in Response to Varying Nitrogen Application

    Mahjourimajd, Saba; Taylor, Julian; Sznajder, Beata; Timmins, Andy; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rengel, Zed; Khabaz-Saberi, Hossein; Kuchel, Haydn; Okamoto, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a major nutrient needed to attain optimal grain yield (GY) in all environments. Nitrogen fertilisers represent a significant production cost, in both monetary and environmental terms. Developing genotypes capable of taking up N early during development while limiting biomass production after establishment and showing high N-use efficiency (NUE) would be economically beneficial. Genetic variation in NUE has been shown previously. Here we describe the genetic characterisation of NUE and identify genetic loci underlying N response under different N fertiliser regimes in a bread wheat population of doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between two Australian genotypes (RAC875 × Kukri) bred for a similar production environment. NUE field trials were carried out at four sites in South Australia and two in Western Australia across three seasons. There was genotype-by-environment-by-treatment interaction across the sites and also good transgressive segregation for yield under different N supply in the population. We detected some significant Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with NUE and N response at different rates of N application across the sites and years. It was also possible to identify lines showing positive N response based on the rankings of their Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUPs) within a trial. Dissecting the complexity of the N effect on yield through QTL analysis is a key step towards elucidating the molecular and physiological basis of NUE in wheat. PMID:27459317

  2. Effect of N Fertilization on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat and Apparent N Losses

    CUI Zhen-Ling; CHEN Xin-Ping; LI Jun-Liang; XU Jiu-Fei; SHI Li-Wei; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2006-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to winter wheat is a common problem on the North China Plain. To determine the optimum fertilizer N rate for winter wheat production while minimizing N losses, field experiments were conducted for two growing seasons at eight sites, in Huimin County, Shandong Province, from 2001 to 2003. The optimum N rate for maximum grain yield was inversely related to the initial soil mineral N content (Nmin) in the top 90 cm of the soil profile before sowing. There was no yield response to the applied N at the three sites with high initial soil mineral N levels (average 212 kg N ha-1). The average optimum N rate was 96 kg N ha-1 for the five sites with low initial soil Nmin (average 155 kg N ha-1) before sowing. Residual nitrate N in the top 90 cm of the soil profile after harvest increased with increasing fertilizer N application rate. The apparent N losses during the wheat-growing season also increased with increasing N application rate. The average apparent N losses with the optimum N rates were less than 15 kg N ha-1,whereas the farmers' conventional N application rate resulted in losses of more than 100 kg N ha-1. Therefore, optimizing N use for winter wheat considerably reduced N losses to the environment without compromising crop yields.

  3. Oat grain yield under nitrogen uses in an eucalyptus intercropping system in Subtropical Brazil

    Leonardo Deiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agronomic practices adequacy plays a key role in the integrated crop-livestock systems development. The objective of this study was to determine how the phytomass accumulation, yield compounds and oat (Avena sativa L. cv. IPR 126 yield were influenced by nitrogen levels (12 and 80 kg N ha-1 at five equidistant positions between two adjacent eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden double line tracks [20 m (4 m x 3 m] in intercropping system (IS and traditional no-till agriculture (without trees in subtropical Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a split-block in a randomized block design with four replicates. At the end of the oat cycle, there was compensation for the lower spikelets per panicle number by the greater grain per spikelet number, and for higher harvest indexes where oat accumulated less phytomass in environments with high interspecific interaction. The nitrogen levels increase the oat yield differently at positions relative to the trees in the IS. Therefore different nitrogen levels should be used at those distances to increase nitrogen use efficiency inside IS in subtropical Brazil.

  4. The Effect of Tillage System and Rimsulfuron Application on Weed Flora, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM Root Colonization and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of tillage system and rimsulfuron application on weed flora and growth of maize (Zea mays L. Mitic F1 at a site with no history of pesticide use for the last 5 years. A randomized complete block design was employed with three replicates per treatment (conventional tillage without rimsulfuron application (control, no-tillage with rimsulfuron application (NT+Rim and conventional tillage with rimsulfuron application (CT+Rim. The lowest leaf area index, dry weight and yield of maize were recorded in NT+Rim plots. In addition, the highest soil bulk density was determined in NT+Rim plots. Moreover, the rimsulfuron application resulted in significant reduction in the root growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization. The lowest root biomass, root length density, root surface and AM root colonization was found in CT+Rim plots. The lowest weed number and biomass was also observed at CT+Rim plots. Sustainability yield index (SYI shown that the maize crop is more stable under conventional tillage compared with no-tillage. Our results indicated that root growth was reduced significant by rimsulfuron application but statistically significant lower maize yield was obtained in no-tillage system.

  5. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  6. Monte-Carlo simulation of yield effect under singular seeding strategy in maize based on Voronoi diagrams%基于Voronoi图的单粒播玉米产量效果的蒙特卡罗模拟

    韩仲志; 曹红波; 高鸿雁; 于艳; 杨锦忠

    2015-01-01

    Maize precision planting with single seeding that saves labor costs for thinning seedlings is becoming one of the most popular technical innovations in China’s maize production. Compared with conventional planting, i.e. multiple seeds per hill to tackle the problem of seedling emergence rate less than 100%, which ensures at least one seedling per hill by planting adequate seeds, what are land patches with missing seedlings under planting one seed per hill like? What variation will occur to maize yields? What seeding strategies should be adopted for high maize yields? These are still open questions. The paper put forward a new computer simulation procedure of planting one seed per hill to plant maize. The procedure consisted of 4 key parts. Firstly, Monte-Carlo simulation of binomial distributions was applied to mimic the number of missing seedlings in cornfields. Secondly, a patch of land with missing plants was partitioned among its surrounding seedlings in the way showed as Voronoi diagrams. Thirdly, for the plant occupying a given area of land, its grain yield was computed using a mathematically identical transformation based on the parabola equation, which was extensively used to relate crop yield to plant density for maize. Lastly, the maize crop yield was evaluated as the sum of individual grain yield per hectare. The simulated results, with seedling emergence rates from 75% to 95%, showed that the number of the patches with missing plants in the field varied with seedling emergence rate following an unimodal curve (R2=0.996), with the maximum fleck number of 7.5 per 100 hills at the emergence rate of 82.3%. The patch size decreased with the increasing of seedling emergence rate in a negative exponential function pattern (R2=0.994). Planting one seed per hill reduced maize yield by 0.06%-16.78%, and the reduction rate displayed the steady falling trend with the increasing of emergence rate. For single seeding, Strategy II outweighed Strategy I in the crop

  7. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L.) Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (II) Fumonisin Incidence on Kernels

    2009-01-01

    Planting maize under no-tillage is an increasing farming practice for sustainable agriculture and sound environmental management. Although several studies on yield of no-till maize have been done, there is few information about the effect of tillage on fumonisin contamination. The present study was done to determine the effect of notillage and conventional tillage with two rates of nitrogen on fumonisin content in kernels of continuous maize. Average grain contamination with fumonisins B1 and...

  8. Growth, grain yield and calcium, potassium and magnesium accumulation in common bean plants as related to calcium nutrition

    Lucas da Silva Domingues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the plant growth and grain yield characteristics and the accumulation of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the leaves and grains of common bean cultivars grown with different calcium concentrations in the nutrient solution. Two experiments were conducted with nutrient solutions in a soilless system in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, five calcium concentrations (1.10, 1.65, 2.20, 2.75 and 3.30 mmol L-1 and three common bean cultivars (Iraí, BRS Expedito and Carioca were evaluated. Higher calcium concentrations (2.20, 2.75, 3.30, 3.85, 4.40 and 4.95 mmol L-1and two common bean cultivars (BRS Expedito and Carioca were tested in the second experiment. Dry mass of the shoot and root, grain yield and calcium accumulation in the leaves and grains increased linearly in common bean plants supplied with calcium concentrations between 2.20 and 4.95 mmol L-1. The high calcium concentration did not reduce the accumulation of calcium, potassium and magnesium in the leaves and grains. Common bean plants grown with high calcium concentrations present higher dry mass of the shoot and root, high grain yield and high calcium concentration in the leaves and grains.

  9. Influence of sowing date on the growth and grain yield performance of wheat varieties under rainfed condition

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of high yielding varieties against varying sowing dates under rainfed conditions during winter 2008-9 at Adaptive Research Farm, Bhaun, Chakwal. Treatments were four sowing dates, viz. D1 (October 15), D2 (October 30) D3 (November 15), D4 (November 30),and five varieties, viz GA 2002, Chakwal 50, Farid 2006, Wafaq 2001 and Sehar 2006. Sowing dates, varieties and interaction of sowing dates and varieties remained significant on plant height, spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike and grain yield (kg ha-1). The results showed that wheat variety Chakwal 50 sown on October 30 produced maximum grain yield, followed by sehar 2006 sown on same date. Yields were reduced by 17.4% 17.2% and 26.2% from the crop planted on November 15 , November 30 and October 15, respectively, as compared with the crop planted on October 30. As far as varietal comparison is concerned, yields were reduced by 19.7%, 21.5%, 12.4% and 3.2%, by wheat varieties GA 2002, Farid 2006, Wafaq 2001 and Sehar 2006, respectively, as compared with wheat variety Chakwal 50. Interactive effect of sowing date and wheat varieties also remained significant on grain yield (kg ha-1). All planted varieties showed maximum grain yield when planted on October 30. Wheat variety Chakwal 50 sown on October 30 produced maximum grain yield (5684 kg ha-1)followed by Sehar 2006 sown on the same date (5183 kg ha-1). (author)

  10. Effect of Ascorbic Acid Foliar Application on Yield, Yield Component and several Morphological Traits of Grain Corn under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Aria DOLATABADIAN; Seyed Ali Mohammad MODARRES SANAVY; Kamal Sadat ASILAN

    2010-01-01

    In order to study effect of ascorbic acid foliar application on morphological traits, yield and yield components of grain corn under conditions of water stress, an experiment was conducted in Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran in 2006 growing season. Experimental design was RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) and treatments were sat in split-split plot arrangement. Water deficit stress treatment with three levels (no stress, vegetative phase stress and reproductive phase stress) was...

  11. Creation of a high-yielding recombinant maize hybrid for the production of a microbicide to prevent HIV-1 transmission

    Eugenia Barros; Sydney W. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use conventional breeding to increase the production in maize of the human monoclonal antibody 2G12, known to have potential therapeutic properties in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. The recombinant antibody, together with a fluorescent marker, was introduced into two South African high-performing maize elite inbred lines by crossing them with a transgenic maize line that had been transformed with the monoclonal antibody 2G12. The effect of breeding to produ...

  12. Quantitative Assessment of the Impact of China’s Direct Grain Subsidies on Grain Yield--Based on the Empirical Analysis of Panel Data Pertaining to 29 Provinces in the Period 2004-2007

    2012-01-01

    We build the influence function empirical model of China’s grain production at the present stage in view of the factors influencing direct grain subsidies,using Cobb-Douglas production function model.And we estimate the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield,using the panel data pertaining to 29 provinces in the period 2004-2007;comparatively analyze the validity and limitation of policy factors of direct grain subsidies on China’s grain yield.The results show that at the present stage,the elasticity coefficient of impact of China’s direct grain subsidies on grain yield is 0.002 3,and under the existing subsidy system and level,direct grain subsidies play a positive role in increasing grain yield,but the role is limited;the elasticity coefficient of impact of the food price on grain yield is much larger than that of impact of direct grain subsidies on grain yield.Therefore,the government should strengthen and improve direct grain subsidy policies;in the mean time,pay full attention to the use of market mechanism to consolidate the basic role of the food price in promoting food security to a great extent.

  13. Influences of the radiation supply on assimilation rate and grain yield of broad bean

    During 3 years a field experiment was carried out at two sites with different soil conditions to study distribution of 14CO2 labelled assimilation products in single plants of broad bean. One part of the plants was shaded to simulate the light conditions within a stand of broad beans. The plant tops remained always free of shading. (1) The shedding of influorescences and young pods was reduced on the more favourable soil conditions corresponding to a higher grain yield. The assimilation rate of the plants on the better soil was increased too. (2) Shading reduced the assimilation rates at the two sites on the average by 48%, enhanced the shedding of inflorescences and young pods and decreased the mean yield by 41%. (3) The assimilation products of the plant top moved predominantly into the generative organs. However, leaves below the top did not supply an essential amount of assimilates to the top. (4) Inflorescences and young pods, organs endangered to be dropped, received assimilates in particular from the adjoining leaves. (5) It seems that the shedding of inflorescences and pods depends on the assimilation capacity of these leaves

  14. GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia

    Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1. Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05 and (P < 0.001 for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001, but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL and Location x Years (LY were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM IN CONTINUOUS MAIZE

    Marija Ivezić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is considered to be one of the most important and potentially most severe pest of maize worldwide. The pest was detected in Croatia for the first time in 1995. Since then it has been spread over all areas with maize production in Croatia. The economically most efficient and preventive control measure is crop rotation and growing maize hybrids that show tolerance to WCR. The trials were settled in the area near Dubosevica where in 2002 and 2003 the economic damages caused by WCR were up to 80%. The aim of this investigation is to determine damages on maize root caused by WCR and loss in grain yield on commercial maize hybrids in continuous farming. Pheromone traps, type Csal♀m♂N®, were used in order to monitor WCR population dynamics. In the period of two months, 366 WCR adult beetles in total were captured. Root damage was evaluated according to Iowa Node Injury Scale and grain yield was measured and corrected to 14% moisture. Furthermore, the plant lodging, as a consequence of larval feeding, was assessed. The results have shown that root damage for hybrid Bc 5982 was 1.15, and 0.73 damage was on Pr 35p 12 roots. The grain yield obtained from hybrid Bc 5982 was 11.7 t/ha, and Pr 35p 12 had 12.3 t/ha. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant differences in root damage and losses in grain yield between the two investigated hybrids. Results of this investigation indicate that growing maize for 2 to 3 years in continuous farming, in the same field, would not cause economically significant loss in maize gain yield.

  16. Changes to soil water content and biomass yield under combined maize and maize-weed vegetation with different fertilization treatments in loam soil

    Lehoczky Éva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially during early developmental stages, competition with weeds can reduce crop growth and have a serious effect on productivity. Here, the effects of interactions between soil water content (SWC, nutrient availability, and competition from weeds on early stage crop growth were investigated, to better understand this problem. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using long-term study plots on loam soil in Hungary. Plots of maize (Zea mays L. and a weed-maize combination were exposed to five fertilization treatments. SWC was observed along the 0–80 cm depth soil profile and harvested aboveground biomass (HAB was measured.

  17. 玉米机械化密植增产种植模式试验研究%Experimental Research on Maize Yield-increase Plantation Model of Mechanized Compact Planting

    张旭

    2012-01-01

    Filed experiment was conducted with the aim of increasing maize yields and taping maize yield increasing potential. Various forms of compact maize plantation were compared in terms of maize plant properties, factors on yields, and operation feasibility in a bid to determine suitable maize plantation models for Liaoning.%玉米生产在粮食生产中具有举足轻重的地位。以提高辽宁省玉米产量、挖掘玉米增产潜能为目的进行田间试验,对比几种玉米机械化密植增产种植模式对玉米植株性状、产量的影响及其可操作性,确定适合辽宁地区玉米生产实际的种植模式。

  18. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  19. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  20. Effects of Tillage Practices on Water Consumption, Water Use Efifciency and Grain Yield in Wheat Field

    ZHENG Cheng-yan; YU Zhen-wen; SHI Yu; CUI Shi-ming; WANG Dong; ZHANG Yong-li; ZHAO Jun-ye

    2014-01-01

    Water shortage is a serious issue threatening the sustainable development of agriculture in the North China Plain, with the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as its largest water-consuming crop. The effects of tillage practices on the water consumption and water use efifciency (WUE) of wheat under high-yield conditions using supplemental irrigation based on testing soil moisture dynamic change were examined in this study. This experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2010, with ifve tillage practice treatments, namely, strip rotary tillage (SR), strip rotary tillage after subsoiling (SRS), rotary tillage (R), rotary tillage after subsoiling (RS), and plowing tillage (P). The results showed that in the SRS and RS treatments the total water and soil water consumptions were 11.81, 25.18%and 12.16, 14.75%higher than those in SR and R treatments, respectively. The lowest ratio of irrigation consumption to total water consumption in the SRS treatment was 18.53 and 21.88%for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 growing seasons, respectively. However, the highest percentage of water consumption was found in the SRS treatment from anthesis to maturity. No signiifcant difference was found between the WUE of the lfag leaf at the later iflling stage in the SRS and RS treatments, but the lfag leaf WUE at these stages were higher than those of other treatments. The SRS and RS treatments exhibited the highest grain yield (9 573.76 and 9 507.49 kg ha-1 for 3-yr average) with no signiifcant difference between the two treatments, followed by P, R and SR treatments. But the SRS treatment had the highest WUE. Thus, the 1-yr subsoiling tillage, plus 2 yr of strip rotary planting operation may be an efifcient measure to increase wheat yield and WUE.

  1. Soil chemical properties and maize yield under application of pig slurry biofertilizer

    Marcelo E. Bócoli; José R. Mantovani; José M. Miranda; Douglas J. Marques; Adriano B. da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Organic materials subjected to a process of anaerobic digestion in a digester produce biofertilizer that can be used in agriculture as nutrient source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pig slurry biofertilizer on soil chemical properties and on corn yield and nutrient concentrations in leaves and kernels. The experiment was conducted in the field from November 2012 to April 2013, and was arranged in a randomized block design with seven treatments and four rep...

  2. Screening for drought tolerance: comparison of maize hybrids under water deficit condition

    Qurban Ali; Muhammad Ahsan,; Saif-ul-Malook; Naila Kanwal; Fawad Ali; Arfan Ali; Wazir Ahmed; Muhammad Ishfaq; Muhammad Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maize is an important cereal crop, grown throughout the globe for human food and livestock feed, but biotic and abiotic factors had shown adverse effects on biomass and grain yield. Changing climatic conditions have imposed drought (water scarcity) as a major problem to combat with yield losses and biomass in maize and other cereals. Methods: The prescribed study was conducted to evaluate F1 hybrids at seedling subject to 45% moisture level. The data was recorded and subjected...

  3. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Babulicová Mária; Gavurníková Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget®; H2 mineral fertilisation only) were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 2010–2013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, g...

  4. Effect of Indigenous Nitrogen Supply of Soil on the Grain Yield and Fertilizer-N Use Efficiency in Rice

    LIU Li-jun; XU Wei; TANG Cheng; WANG Zhi-qin; YANG Jian-chang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of application of N fertilizer on wheat on the grain yield and N use efficiency (FNUE) of rice in the wheat-rice rotation system, as well as on the soil fertility were studies. N-fertilizer application on wheat significantly increased total N,ammonium-N and nitrate-N contents in paddy field, resulting in high indigenous N supply of soil (INS). Compared with low INS, the effect of N rate on the grain yield of rice was reduced significantly, and FNUE was decreased under high INS. These results indicated that high INS was one of the main reasons for the low FNUE in rice.

  5. Components of genetic variance and degree of dominance for grain and fodder yields in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    D.Shivani and Ch.Sreelakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis for grain and fodder yield in sorghum genotypes using six generation means indicated the major role of additive genetic effects (d for days to maturity and grain yield in both the crosses viz., EP 82 x CRS 1 and CSV 14R x SPV 1375. The cross EP 82 x CRS 1 indicated additive variance for plant height and grain yield while the cross CSV 14 R x SPV 1375 for days to maturity, plant height, panicle length, test weight and grain yield. Among the epistatic components of genetic variance, the fixable additive x additive component (i was significant for almost all the traits except, days to 50% flowering in the cross EP 82 x CRS 1 and fodder yield in the cross CSV 14 R x SPV 1375. The characters exhibiting significant and positive additive genetic effects invariably were accompanied by additive x additive (i interaction effects for plant height in the cross EP 82 x CRS1. However, the presence of positive and significant additive x additive interactions along with additive genetic effects for test weight in the cross EP 82 x CRS1 indicate the predominance of interaction component rather than their direct influence. Additive as well as additive x additive interaction effects with duplicate epistasis were observed in the cross EP 82 x CRS1 for plant height. Grain yield exhibited significant dominance variance in the cross CSV 14R x SPV 1375. Fodder yield exhibited significant dominance and dominance x dominance interactions in the cross CSV 14R x SPV 1375

  6. 春旱对春玉米产量的影响试验研究%Field experiment study into influence of spring drought on maize yield

    马树庆; 王琪; 于海; 徐丽萍; 张铁林

    2012-01-01

    将分级土壤水分胁迫试验与分期播种田间试验相结合,研究了春旱对春玉米产量的影响。结果表明,玉米播种出苗期间耕层土壤含水量与玉米产量的关系是二次函数关系。春季土壤水分胁迫对玉米产量的影响很明显,在田间持水量以下,土壤湿度每下降1个百分点,单产下降7%左右,耕层有效水量每减少10 mm,单产下降14%左右。文章还确定了玉米春旱的土壤水分分级指标。土壤水分对产量的影响指标和模式可以用于开展玉米春旱程度评估和预报,也可用于确定抗旱灌水量。%This paper studies the influence of spring drought on maize yield based on the combination tests of soil water stress test and field test of seeding trials.Results show that during the corn planting and emerging periods,the relationship between soil water content and corn yield follows a quadratic function.Spring water stress of soil on maize yield is very obvious.In field water capacity,soil humidity declied by 1 percentage points each,maize yield will be reduced by about 7%;soil effective water reduction for every 10 mm,per unit area yield will drop about 14%.The article also identified maize drought index of soil moisture.The influence of soil moisture decrease on the corn yield was quantitatively studied.The indicator and mode of soil moisture influence on maise yield can be used for developing the assessment and prediction of maize spring drought,and can also be used to determine drought-resistant irrigation content.

  7. Effect of compost and slow-release fertilizers addition on soil biochemistry and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Angélica Bautista-Cruz; Gricel Cruz Domínguez; María de las Nieves Rodríguez Mendoza; Rafael Pérez Pacheco; Celerino Robles

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bokashi (B, a fermented compost), slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and their combined application on mycorrhizal colonization (MC), soil invertase, cellulase, acid (AcP) and alkaline (AlP) phosphatases activities and maize ( Zea mays L.) yield was investigated in terrace (TS) and valley (VS) soils in Oaxaca, Mexico. A complete randomized design, seven fertilizer treatments and four replications were used: unamended control (C); conventional fertilization (90-46-00 NPK...

  8. Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality but increases crop yields in a sub-humid tropical maize-based system

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Ndabamenye, T.; Terano, Y.; Ayuke, F.O.; Pulleman, M M

    2015-01-01

    Soil macrofauna such as earthworms and termites are involved in key ecosystem functions and thus considered important for sustainable intensification of crop production. However, their contribution to tropical soil and crop performance, as well as relations with agricultural management (e.g. Conservation Agriculture), are not well understood. This study aimed to quantify soil macrofauna and its impact on soil aggregation, soil carbon and crop yields in a maize-soybean system under tropical su...

  9. Effect of Ascorbic Acid Foliar Application on Yield, Yield Component and several Morphological Traits of Grain Corn under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Aria DOLATABADIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of ascorbic acid foliar application on morphological traits, yield and yield components of grain corn under conditions of water stress, an experiment was conducted in Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran in 2006 growing season. Experimental design was RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design and treatments were sat in split-split plot arrangement. Water deficit stress treatment with three levels (no stress, vegetative phase stress and reproductive phase stress was allocated to main plots. Ascorbic acid was used at two time (vegetative phase and reproductive phase and four concentration (0, 50, 100 and 150 mgl-1 as sub plots and sub-sub plots, respectively. The results demonstrated that water deficit stress and ascorbic acid foliar application had significant effect on upon traits. Water deficit stress significantly decreased dry or fresh weight of plants at two growing phases, but leaf area was just decreased due to water deficit stress at vegetative phase. Regarding yield and yield components, a significant decrease was observed when plants were water stressed. It�s notable that final yield was more affected when plants were stressed at reproductive phase than those were stressed at vegetative phase. Ascorbic acid foliar application increased stem and leaf dry weight and leaf fresh weight. In addition, an increase was observed in grain weight when plants were treated by 150 mgl-1 ascorbic acid at two growing phases and no stress and vegetative stress. The highest infertile grains were observed in reproductive stress and without ascorbic acid plots while ascorbic acid foliar application led to increase of grain fertility. In general, these results suggests that ascorbic acid foliar application decreases adverse effects of water deficit stress and improves growth and production at normal and stressed conditions.

  10. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles is illustrated on time series of all grain yields in Russia for the last 119 years. Phase portrait of this time series is illustrated in twodimension space. As a result, the phase portrait consists of 22 frequently unstable quasicycles which tottality forms a strange attractor. Quasicycles have quantitative (length and quality (configuration characteristics. Their combination defines very important characteristic called trend-stability. Phase analysis is a powerful form of analysis of time series to assess cyclic recurrence and is a tool for pre-forecasting analysis. Fuzzy sets' mathematical apparatus is also used in this article. An algorithm of formation of fuzzy sets' quasicycles' length is also presented here. Quasicycles' statistics are presented in tables, geometric patterns and in the form of fuzzy sets

  11. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  12. Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought.

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Naidu, Shawna L; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-02-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO2] (550 micromol mol(-1)) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (-34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  13. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage¹

    José Alan de Almeida Acosta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: 1 quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in hairy vetch; 2 estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; 3 quantification of 15N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two-year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification or Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Brazilian Soil Classification, at a mean annual temperature of 18 ºC and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m. Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N, with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m. The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha-1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha-1, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha-1, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage.

  14. Effect of {sup 15}n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    Almeida Acosta, Jose Alan de [Drakkar Solos, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Silva, Leandro Souza da, E-mail: tamado@smail.ufsm.b, E-mail: leandro@smail.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Soil Dept.; Neergaard, Andreas de; Vinther, Mads, E-mail: adn@life.ku.d [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Silveira Nicoloso, Rodrigo da, E-mail: rodrigo.nicoloso@cnpsa.embrapa.b [Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of {sup 15}N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha{sup -1} N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha{sup -1} of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch {sup 15}N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha{sup -1}, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha{sup -1}, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  15. EVALUATION OF GRAIN YIELD STABILITY, RELIABILITY AND CULTIVAR RECOMMENDATIONS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FROM KAZAKHSTAN AND SIBERIA

    Gómez HUGO FERNEY; ALEXEI, Morgounov; Abugalieva AIGUL

    2007-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to determine the stability and adaptability patterns of a set of 40 promising spring wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan and Siberia evaluated in a multievironment yield trial across 22 environments. Some of the most widely known parametric stability parameters were used as well as the less frequently cited reliability index (I). Grain yield correlated significantly and positively with the stability parameters b and S2 and the reliability index (I); but did not c...

  16. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl). The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1) potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2) maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or...

  17. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling. Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuva de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Application in Different Wheat Growth Stages on the Floret Development and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat

    ZHU Yun-ji; WANG Chen-yang; GUO Tian-cai; CUI Jin-mei; XIA Guo-jun; LIU Wan-dai; WANG Yong-hua

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out on the effect of nitrogen application in different wheat growth stage on the floret development, the photosynthetic rate, the yield and its components of winter wheat. The result indicated that nitrogen application in the pistil-stamen primordium formation stage and the tetrad formation stage of wheat growth prolonged the duration of floret development, promoted the balance growth of floret and reduced the floret decadence number, thus increased the grain number per spike. Nitrogen application in the middle and in the late stages of wheat development increased the photosynthetic ability of the plant leaves in the later stage, and also lengthened the peak of grain filling stage, thus enhanced the grain weight and yield of wheat significantly.

  19. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice

    Deyong Ren; Li Zhu; Zhenyu Gao; Guojun Dong; Guangheng Zhang; Longbiao Guo; Dali Zeng; and Qian Qian; Yuchun Rao; Liwen Wu; Qiankun Xu; Zizhuang Li; Haiping Yu; Yu Zhang; Yujia Leng; Jiang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Moderate plant height and successful establish-ment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull-like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was ex-pressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1-green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes.

  20. The impacts of future climate and carbon dioxide changes on the average and variability of US maize yields under two emission scenarios

    The United States is the largest producer of maize in the world, a crop for which demand continues to rise rapidly. Past studies have projected that climate change will negatively impact mean maize yields in this region, while at the same time increasing yield variability. However, some have questioned the accuracy of these projections because they are often based on indirect measures of soil moisture, have failed to explicitly capture the potential interactions between temperature and soil moisture availability, and often omit the beneficial effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on transpiration efficiency. Here we use a new detailed dataset on field-level yields in Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois, along with fine-resolution daily weather data and moisture reconstructions, to evaluate the combined effects of moisture and heat on maize yields in the region. Projected climate change scenarios over this region from a suite of CMIP5 models are then used to assess future impacts and the differences between two contrasting emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). We show that (i) statistical models which explicitly account for interactions between heat and moisture, which have not been represented in previous empirical models, lead to significant model improvement and significantly higher projected yield variability under warming and drying trends than when accounting for each factor independently; (ii) inclusion of the benefits of elevated CO2 significantly reduces impacts, particularly for yield variability; and (iii) net damages from climate change and CO2 become larger for the higher emission scenario in the latter half of the 21st century, and significantly so by the end of century. (paper)

  1. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  2. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  3. 耐密型玉米种植密度与产量及其相关性状的关系研究%Researches on Relationship Between Planting Density and Yield Traits of High Density Tolerance Maize

    周成; 王鹏文

    2011-01-01

    以耐密型玉米品种郑单958为试验材料,采用单因素随机区组设计,在田间种植条件下,研究了耐密型玉米产量及其性状与种植密度的关系。结果表明,在天津地区,以郑单958为代表的耐密型玉米夏播的最佳密度为4850株/667m2。在本文研究密度范围内,玉米的产量随着密度的增大而增加;当密度达到一定程度之后,随着密度的增加,产量反而下降。种植密度对百粒重的影响较明显,其次是影响秃尖长、行粒数、穗粒数,而对穗长、穗粗、穗行数和株高影响不明显。密度增加使百粒重、穗粒数、行粒数成一次线性模式下降,而产量和秃尖长则随密度的增加而呈先减小后增加的二次线性曲线模式变化。%In this paper, selecting the high density tolerance maize Zhengdan958 as the test materials, an experimental design with a single factor and randomized blocks was used to study the relationship between the planting density and the yield traits of high density tolerance maize under the field planting conditions. The results indicate that the best summer planting density for high density tolerance maize varieties represented by Zhengdan958 was 4 850 plants/667 m2 in Tianjin. Among the range of planting density in this study, the yield increased with the increase of the planting density, but the yield decreased as the planting density increased when the planting density reached a certain level. Planting density has a very obvious influence on lO0-kemel weight, and then the length of bare ear, grain number per row, grain number per ear. The planting density makes no notable impact on the ear length, the ear diameter, the row number per ear and the height of plant. The planting density increase made lO0-kemel weight, grain number per ear and grain number per row decrease following the linear falling relation, while the yield and length of bare ear decreased firstly and then increased

  4. The effect of farm yard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer on yield of maize on small scale farms

    A trial to investigate the effect of methods and levels of farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer appliction was carried out at two sites in Njoro. Manure at 6 tons/ha, 3 tons/ha +63 kg DAP/ha were compared with 130 kg DAP/ha. Methods of application included placing manure in planting hole, furrows and broadcasting. The trial was laid down in a split plot arrangement in RCBD. Methods of manure application formed the main plots while levels of manure formed the sub plots. Methods of application of manure did not differ significantly in terms of grain yield. However yields from different levels of manure differed significantly from each other. There were also significant interaction between the manure