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Sample records for maize grain yield

  1. Effect of different proportions of exotic germplasm on grain yield and grain moisture in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Nastasi? Aleksandra; Ivanovi? Mile; Stojakovi? Milisav; Stanisavljevi? Dušan; Treski? Sanja; Mitrovi? Bojan; Draži? Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Two main questions in programs introgressing exotic maize germplasm into temperate materials are the choice of available exotic sources to work with, and the proportion of exotic germplasm that should be incorporated into adapted germplasm. The objective of this study was to compare effects of different proportions of tropical maize inbred line NC298 in hybrids male parent on grain yield and grain moisture content, using method of orthogonal polynomials. Me...

  2. DISTRIBUITION AND POPULATION OF PLANTS AND MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURVAL DOURADO NETO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the effect of plant population (30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha-1, under two width rows (0.40 and 0.80 m, on the grain yield of three maize genotypes with open (AG 1051, semi-erect (AG 7575 and erect (DKB 911 leaf architecture, a field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil between November 20th, 2000 and April 10th, 2001. According to the results: a in high population (90,000 plants ha-1, the reduction of width row (from 0.80 m to 0.40 m increases grain yield on the open-leaf-architecture genotype, and b, until 60,000 plants ha-1, regardless of genotype, the grain yield is crescent with an increase in plant population. With the plant population increasing from 60,000 to 90,000 plants ha-1, the grain yield: a increases in the erect-leaf-architecture genotype, b stabilizes on the semi-erect-leaf-architecture genotype, c stabilizes under reduced spacing (0.40 m, and decreases under spacing of 0.80 m in the open-leaf-architecture genotype.

  3. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  4. Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

  5. Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Nzuve, F.; Githiri, S.; Mukunya, D. M.; Gethi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize is an important staple crop for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa. The crop grows in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study was performed to analyze the genotype-by-environment (G×E) interaction for grain yield of fourty two single cross hybrids grown in three environments located at different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. The maize genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2006 and 2007. Grain yield data of the sing...

  6. IMPACTS OF LIMING BY DOLOMITE ON THE MAIZE AND BARLEY GRAIN YIELDS

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    Mirta Rastija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a five year experiment the effect of liming on maize and spring barley grain yields and maize nutrient status were examined. The field trial with application of increasing rates of dolomite (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 containing 56% CaO and 40% MgO was conducted on the very acid soil with pH (KCl 3.78 on the location in the central Croatia (45°30’ N, 17°11’ E. Maize crops were grown during 2003-2005 and 2007, whereas spring barley was grown in 2006. Soil chemical properties and maize leaf nutrient concentrations were evaluated after the second year of trial. Liming raised the soil pH by 2.62 pH units and AL-P2O5 by 5.65 mg 100 g-1 and increased crops yield in all years. There were no statistically confirmed differences between treatments with 10 and 15 t ha-1 dolomite for maize yields, while barley grain yield significantly increased only at the highest dolomite rate. Liming also improved maize nutritional status and increased P, Ca, Mg and Mo concentration and decreased high Mn content to the adequate range.

  7. Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2013-12-01

    Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants. PMID:23926950

  8. Grain yield of maize varieties of different maturity groups under marginal rainfall conditions

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    Oluwaranti A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the yield performance of different maturity groups of maize varieties at different planting dates under the marginal rainfall conditions of the rainforest ecology of Nigeria and identify the high yielding ones. The maize varieties were evaluated on five and three different planting dates in 2001 and 2005 late cropping seasons respectively. Seven planting dates were used in 2002 and 2006 early cropping seasons. All plantings were done at a weekly interval. Data were obtained on grain yield and yield components. Grain yield and yield components decreased as planting was delayed in the late seasons while in the early seasons they showed contrasting trend. To obtain optimum yield for the maturity classes evaluated, the varieties must be planted about the end of August or first week of September for the late season and about the middle of April in the early season. At the optimum planting date TZEE- WSRBCs and ACR 90 POOL16-DT with grain yield of 3.8 tons ha-1 and 6.4 tons ha-1 were the highest yielding varieties in 2001 and 2002 respectively. In 2005 late cropping season, TZECOMP3DT (1.7 tons/ha was the highest yielding while in 2006 early cropping seasons, ACR 95 TZECOMP4C3 (4.37 tons/ha was the highest yielding variety.

  9. Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

  10. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Melchinger Albrecht E; Schrag Tobias A; Thiemann Alexander; Fu Junjie; Scholten Stefan; Frisch Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays...

  11. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  12. High congruency of QTL positions for heterosis of grain yield in three crosses of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Chris C; Dhillon, Baldev S; Utz, H Friedrich; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2010-01-01

    The genetic basis of heterosis in maize has been investigated in a number of studies but results have not been conclusive. Here, we compare quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping results for grain yield, grain moisture, and plant height from three populations derived from crosses of the heterotic pattern Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic x Lancaster Sure Crop, investigated with the Design III, and analyzed with advanced statistical methods specifically developed to examine the genetic basis of mid-parent heterosis (MPH). In two populations, QTL analyses were conducted with a joint fit of linear transformations Z (1) (trait mean across pairs of backcross progenies) and Z (2) (half the trait difference between pairs of backcross progenies) to estimate augmented additive and augmented dominance effects of each QTL, as well as their ratio. QTL results for the third population were obtained from the literature. For Z (2) of grain yield, congruency of QTL positions was high across populations, and a large proportion of the genetic variance (~70%) was accounted for by QTL. This was not the case for Z (1) or the other two traits. Further, almost all congruent grain yield QTL were located in the same or an adjacent bin encompassing the centromere. We conclude that different alleles have been fixed in each heterotic pool, which in combination with allele(s) from the opposite heterotic pool lead to high MPH for grain yield. Their positive interactions very likely form the base line for the superior performance of the heterotic pattern under study. PMID:19911156

  13. Effects of Maize Density and Sowing Pattern on Weed Suppression and Maize Grain Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Simi?; Lidija Stefanovi?

    2007-01-01

    Plant competition in its basic sense can be defined as competition for resources such as light, water and nutrients. The intensity of crop competition, especially competition of row crops such as maize, mostly depends on population density and plant arrangement. A better use of maize plant density and row spacing may be one way of developing crops that would be more competitive against weeds. An IWM programme should attempt to exploit effectively the competitive ability of crops in suppressin...

  14. VARIATION ON MAIZE GREEN EARS AND GRAIN YIELD IN RESPONSE TO WEED COMPETITION

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    PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify whether maize cultivars behave differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars AG 405, AG 2060, BA 8517, BA 9513, DKB 435 and EX 6005, applied to the plots, underwent the following treatments: without weeding and two weedings (22 and 41 days after planting. Only ten weed species were found in the experiment, many of which were gramineae. There was no difference among cultivars in relation to the number of weeds m-2. The number of weeds in the weeded plots (70.0 m-2 was superior to the one of the no-weeded plots (32.8 m-2. The cultivars only differed in grain yield when the weeds were controlled, with BA 8517 cultivar standing out as being superior. Therefore, the cultivars presented different reductions in grain yield with the presence of weeds suggesting that some (AG 405, BA 9513 and EX 6005 are more competitive than others against weeds. The weeds reduced green ears yield, in addition to 16 of the 26 evaluated characteristics, including some traits of the stalk, leaves, tassel, ear and grain.

  15. INTERCEPTATION OF PHOTOSSINTETIC ACTIVE RADIATION AND GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE UNDER HIGH PLANT DENSITY

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    ROBÉLIO LEANDRO MARCHÃO

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of light attenuation (PAR in maize hybrids, cultivated under different population densities in narrow row spacing (0,45 m. An experiment was installed to evaluate six hybrids (A 2555, A 2288, AG 9010, AG 6690, P 30F88 and Valent, cultivated in five plant densities (40, 53, 71, 84 and 97 thousand plants for hectare, in Goiânia, Goiás state, in the growing season 2002/2003. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plot, arranged in a 6x5 factorial with four replicates. The interceptation of photossintetic active radiation was evaluated measuring photon flux density: above the canopy, in the height of the ear, and in soil surface. The results showed a positive correlation between grain yield and light attenuation. The increment on plant density in narrow row spacing resulted in a greater absorption of PAR, and consequently enhancements in grain yield. In these conditions, the results also showed that the light attenuation on maize canopy occurs in the superior part of the canopy, above the ear height.

  16. Grain yield stability of single cross maize (Zea mays L. hybrids over three different environments

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    S. Arulselvi and B. Selvi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to determine the grain yield performance of seventy two single cross maize hybrids, theirnine parents and one commercial check across three seasons (Summer, Kharif and Rabi of the year 2006 at the Departmentof Millets, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The design lay out was a randomized blocks design with threereplications. The additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI analysis indicated that the grain yieldperformance of maize genotypes were mainly due to genotypes and environmental interaction. The first two principalcomponent axis (IPCA I and IPCA II were significant (p<0.01 and cumulatively contributed to entire degrees of freedomavailable for interaction component. The biplot 1 and 2 were constructed using genotype and environmental mean andscores. Among parents, UMI 432 was found to be higher yielder and stable across environments. The single crosses namelyUMI 79 x UMI 176, UMI 79 x UMI 57, UMI 79 x UMI 936 (w, UMI 79 x UMI 285, UMI 176 x UMI 102, UMI 176 x UMI936 (w, UMI 432 x UMI 176, UMI 467 x UMI 57 and UMI 57 x UMI 102 were identified as stable yielder acrossenvironments in addition to higher yield. These hybrids can be recommended for all the three seasons for cultivation.

  17. Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

  18. Genetic Diversity and Correlation for Grain Yield and Quality Traits in Local Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Ludvik ROZMAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity and correlation analysis among yield and quality traits in 20 local maize populations. The study of variation included the quantity of grain yield, and quality traits such as protein, oil and starch content in grain. Results showed that there were significant differences among the populations. The mean grain yield of all populations was 79.33 g plant-1 and the highest in ?GBK-7? (105.13 g plant-1. Protein and oil contents ranged between 11.02 to 13.02% and 2.56 to 5.57%, respectively and starch content varied from 68.58 to 70.92%. First two canonical discriminant functions were significant and the relevance of the first two discriminant functions justifying 95.80% variability among populations. There were also big differences regarding phenotypic correlations. Study suggests that the quality traits are phenotypically and genotypically highly variable and therefore very useful for breeding program.

  19. Relationship between Distance to Flow Accumulation Lines and Spatial Variability of Irrigated Maize Grain Yield and Moisture Content at Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Da Silva, Jose? Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of yield variability factors is an important issue in order to obtain information that allows the delineation of areas with stable yield patterns for application of precision agriculture techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of yield and grain moisture content at harvest with their distance to flow accumulation lines, based on 3-yr data of centre-pivot irrigated maize crop in Southern Portugal. Yield data were collect...

  20. Effect of sowing date on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production for maize

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    Zlatko Sve?njak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High moisture ear and grain production of maize (Zea mays L. hasadvantages in comparison with dry grain production because longer maturity hybrids might be grown and there are no grain drying costs. A two year study was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture experimental field Maksimir to evaluate the effect of delayed sowing dates on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production when compared to optimum sowing date. Maize hybrids belonging to the maturity groups FAO 200 (PR39K38 and 300 (PR38P05 were sown at optimum (early May and two delayed sowing dates (middle May and early June and grown under intensive cropping system.When compared to optimum sowing date, grain and ear yield significantly decreased with delayed sowing dates despite the fact that grown hybrids reached physiological maturity before the first autumn frosts. These yield reductions at delayed sowing dates were mainly associated with fewer grains per ear, and partly due to lighter 1000-grain weights. Both hybrids resulted in similar ear yield; however, a longer maturity hybrid (PR38P05 had larger grain yields than a shorter-maturity hybrid (PR39K38 because the latter hadsignificantly smaller shelling index (82,1 % than the former one (87,0 %. Sowing date and growing conditions showed no significant effect on grain protein and oil contents. Hybrids also had similar grain protein content, whereas PR38P05 had absolutely small, but significantly higher grain oil content than PR39K38. Thus, delayed sowing of the maize hybrids of FAO 200 - 300 maturity groups might occur into early June with no effect on grain quality, but with significant yield losses when compared to optimum sowing date.

  1. The genetics of environmental variation of dry matter grain yield in maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2012-01-01

    Dry matter grain yield per plot from three genetically homogeneous single-cross maize hybrids were analysed to investigate whether environmental variance depends on genotype. Three genotypes were tested at 20 locations in 3 years. The data were analysed using a non-parametric approach and fully parametric Bayesian models. Both analyses reveal effects of genotype on environmental variation. The Bayesian analyses indicate that genotype by location-year interactions are the most important effects acting at the level of the mean. The best-fitting Bayesian model is one postulating genotype by location-year interactions acting on the mean and main effects of genotype and of location-year on the variance. Despite the detection of genotypic effects acting on the variance, location-year effects constitute the biggest relative source of variance heterogeneity

  2. Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids

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    F. Nzuve

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maize is an important staple crop for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa. The crop grows in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study was performed to analyze the genotype-by-environment (G×E interaction for grain yield of fourty two single cross hybrids grown in three environments located at different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. The maize genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2006 and 2007. Grain yield data of the single cross hybrids was analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and GGE biplot methods. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI analysis of variance (additive main effects showed significant effects for genotypes, environment and the genotype by environment interaction. The total proportion contributed by environment and G x E interaction accounted for 78% and 10% of the total variation. The results also showed that 64.5% of the total variation was contributed by the environment while the genotype and interaction was associated with 20.7% and 10.3% of the total variation, respectively. The most stable genotype in the high yielding group in this study was CML312/TZMI 711 (X20, followed by genotypes TZMI 102/CML384 (designated as X33, and CML312/TZMI 712 (X21. The genotype CML312/TZMI 711 (designated as X20 could be used for broad selection since it was found to be the most ideal genotypes with both high mean yield and high stability. In the biplot analysis, X20 was also close to the origin, had the shortest vector from the ATC and with large PC1 scores (high mean yield and small (absolute PC2 scores (high stability implying it had the least contribution to genotype by environment interaction (GEI. Through the stability analysis, the superior genotypes identified could also be used as references for genotype evaluation and also included in further testing in both early and later stages of selection.

  3. [Effects of row spacing on canopy structure and grain-filling characteristics of high-yield summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Dong, Shu-Ting

    2014-02-01

    Using two summer maize (Zea mays L.) varieties Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335, a field experiment was conducted to study the regulatory effects of row-spacing (equidistant row and narrow-wide row) and plant-spot spacing arrangement (1 plant per spot, 2 plants per spot, 3 plants per spot) on grain yield components, canopy structure and photosynthetic characteristics after anthesis under plant population density 7.5 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2). Moreover, the characters of grain-filling were simulated by Richards' model. The results suggested that yield, dry matter accumulated, crop growth rate, grain-filling rate, canopy photosynthesis capacity were higher under wide-narrow row than under equidistant row, and were higher for 2 plants per spot than for 1 or 3 plants per spot. The highest maize yields (13.12 and 13.72 t x hm(-2) for Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335, respectively) were observed under wide-narrow row with 2 plants per spot. Under this pattern, internal illumination condition of the canopy, net photosynthetic rate and leaf area index were improved, and the contradiction between the plant individual and group was alleviated. Meanwhile, grain-filling capacity was promoted and accumulated amount of dry matter was elevated ultimately. It was concluded that wide-narrow pattern with 2 plants per spot is an effective cultivation pattern to increase maize yield in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. PMID:24830244

  4. Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg?1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  5. Genotype-Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Admassu; Mandefro Nigussie; Habtamu Zelleke

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen maize genotypes were tested at nine different locations in 2005 under rainfed condition to determine stable maize genotypes for grain yield and determine genotypes with high yield and form homogenous grouping of environments and genotypes. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. Stability was estimated using the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicativ...

  6. Plant Density Effects on Grain Yield per Plant in Maize: Breeding Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ipsilandis, C. G.; Vafias, B. N.

    2005-01-01

    Breeding in maize (Zea mays L.) succeeded in improving tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, but failed to improve the potential yield per plant. Modern hybrids are highly productive, but their yield per unit area is dependent on high plant densities. Results of present study verified that modern hybrids require a narrow range of densities to give their maximum yield per unit area, since plant density affected significantly all kind of genetic materials. Results also showed that...

  7. Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield

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    Iraj Nosratti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that received nicosulfuron had significantly higher maize grain yield than other two SU herbicides. At Double Row (DR planting pattern, all the treatments controlled weeds more effectively than at Single Row (SR planting pattern and increased maize grain yield by mean of 1.0 t haG1. At both planting patterns herbicidal mixture of atrazine and alachlor was the best treatment in controlling weeds. The hoe weeded control and all herbicidal treatments had lower weed dry matter than the untreated control at crop harvest period. In addition the lowest weed dry matter was obtained from the hoe weeded control. Results of this study revealed that nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron were the best and the weakest SU herbicide at both planting patterns, respectively.

  8. Genetic Variation for Grain Yield of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Sole and Maize/Bean Intercropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu Balcha

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown in both sole and maize/bean intercrop systems in Ethiopia. Increasing bean yield partly requires developing cultivars that are adapted to both cropping systems. An experiment was carried out using 20 common bean genotypes in sole and maize/bean intercrop during 2012 main cropping season in Dilla, Ethiopia, to investigate genetic variances and broad-sense heritabilities and to estimate correlation coefficients for grain yield and yield related trait...

  9. Physiological responses related to increased grain yield under drought in the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemali, Krishna S; Bonin, Christopher; Dohleman, Frank G; Stephens, Mike; Reeves, William R; Nelson, Donald E; Castiglioni, Paolo; Whitsel, Joy E; Sammons, Bernard; Silady, Rebecca A; Anstrom, Donald; Sharp, Robert E; Patharkar, Osric R; Clay, David; Coffin, Marie; Nemeth, Margaret A; Leibman, Mark E; Luethy, Michael; Lawson, Mark

    2014-09-11

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays?L.) is highly susceptible to drought stress. This work focused on whole-plant physiological mechanisms by which a biotechnology-derived maize event expressing bacterial cold shock protein B (CspB), MON 87460, increased grain yield under drought. Plants of MON 87460 and a conventional control (hereafter 'control') were tested in the field under well-watered (WW) and water-limited (WL) treatments imposed during mid-vegetative to mid-reproductive stages during 2009-2011. Across years, average grain yield increased by 6% in MON 87460 compared with control under WL conditions. This was associated with higher soil water content at 0.5?m depth during the treatment phase, increased ear growth, decreased leaf area, leaf dry weight and sap flow rate during silking, increased kernel number and harvest index in MON 87460 than the control. No consistent differences were observed under WW conditions. This indicates that MON 87460 acclimated better under WL conditions than the control by lowering leaf growth which decreased water use during silking, thereby eliciting lower stress under WL conditions. These physiological responses in MON 87460 under WL conditions resulted in increased ear growth during silking, which subsequently increased the kernel number, harvest index and grain yield compared to the control. PMID:25210866

  10. Effect of Plant Density on Some Growth Indexes, Radiation Interception and Grain Yield in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mehdi Dehdashti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of different row spacing and density of corn on Radiation Interception (RI, Total Day Weight (TDW, Leaf Area Index (LAI, Next Assimilation Rate (NAR, Crop Growth Rate (CGR and grain yield. The experiment was conducted in the field at research station of Isfahan, Iran on loamy clay to compare row spacing and to determine optimum plant density for maize hybrid K704. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Plot treatments were row spacing (60, 75 and 90 cm. Split-plot treatments were within-row spacing (12, 14, 16 and 18 cm. An increase of PP from 10.5 to 13.9 plants m2 increased LAI, TDW, CGR, RI and grain yield on average by 0.205 m, 48.4 g m1, 1.14 g m2 day1, 0.89% and 222.7 kg ha1 for each 1 plant per m2 added .but decreased NAR by 0.205 g m2 day1 for each 1 plant per m2 added. Moreover, when row spacing was reduced, RI, TDW, LAI, CGR and grain yield increased. But by reducing row spacing, NAR was decreased. The results show that the row spacing 60 cm, within-row spacing 12 cm and density 11.9 plant m2 for conditions of Isfahan is suitable for maize hybrid K704.

  11. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of grain yield and yield contributing traits in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pavan, H. C. Lohithaswa, M. C. Wali, Gangashetty Prakash and B. G. Shekara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The yield is a complex trait, which is highly influenced by the environment and hence indirect selection through component traitswould be an advisable strategy to increase the efficiency of selection. Eighty seven single cross hybrids of maize were developedby crossing twenty nine newly developed inbred lines from the National Yellow Pool with three testers in a line x tester matingdesign and were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications to assess the direct and indirect effects ofgrain yield among twelve quantitative traits. Plant height, ear length, ear circumference, number of kernel rows/ear, number ofkernels/row, 100-grain weight, shelling per cent, grain yield per plant and fodder yield per ha recorded significantly positivegenetic correlation with grain yield. However, path coefficient analysis revealed that days to 50 per cent silking, plant height,number of kernels rows/ear, number of kernels/row, 100-grain weight, shelling per cent, grain yield per plant and fodder yieldhave highest direct effect on grain yield.

  12. Effect of presowing gamma irradiation of seeds on the growth, development and yield of maize grain and green mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out during the 1982-1983 period with maize hybrids Px-20, Kn-611 and H-708 irradiated with 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 R. Gamma irradiation of the seeds had no unidirectional effect on the germinative power, laboratory and field germinating ability, volume of the root system (up to day 20 after germination), height of plants and cobbing, structural elements of the cobs and plants. Presowing seed germination with the three hybrids did not increase the grain yield neither that of the green mass and the dry matter. Under 500 R irradiation of the H-708 hybrid a reliable difference in the green mass yield was obtained only in 1982. 2 tabs., 8 refs

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da, Silva; Antonio Saraiva, Muniz; Anny Rosi, Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé, Porto; Marlene Estevão, Marchetti; Antonio, Nolla; Ivan, Grannemann.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressin [...] g, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

  14. Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources on The Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayub, M.; Adil Choudhry, M.; Asif Tanveer; Amin, M. M. Z.; Imtiaz Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    The effect of different NP sources viz., urea + single super phosphate (SSP), Ammonium nitrate (AN) + SSP, ammonium sulphate (AS) + SSP, Urea + Triple super phosphate (TSP), AN + TSP and AS + TSP on the growth and grain yield of maize was studied in the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. A quadruplicated experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design measuring a net plot size of 3m x 8m. The combination of ammonium sulphate and ...

  15. Effect of Plant Density on Some Growth Indexes, Radiation Interception and Grain Yield in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mehdi Dehdashti; Shahram Riahinia

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of different row spacing and density of corn on Radiation Interception (RI), Total Day Weight (TDW), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Next Assimilation Rate (NAR), Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and grain yield. The experiment was conducted in the field at research station of Isfahan, Iran on loamy clay to compare row spacing and to determine optimum plant density for maize hybrid K704. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four rep...

  16. Grain Yield and Yield Components of Quality Protein Maize Genotypes as Influenced by Irrigation and Plant Population in the Nigerian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Sani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the yield and yield components of QPM genotypes to plant population under irrigated conditions in a semi arid ecology of Northern Nigeria. Field trials were conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa (11° 39'N, 08° 20'E and 500 m above sea level during dry seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of (Zea mays L. genotypes (TZE-W Pop X 1368, EV-DT W99 STR and DMR-ESRW, four plant population (33333, 44444, 55555 and 66666 plants ha-1 and three irrigation scheduling (40, 60 and 80 centibars soil moisture tension on the growth and yield of quality protein maize. A split plot design was used with combinations of genotypes and irrigation regimes assigned to the main plot and plant population assigned to the sub-plot. The treatments were replicated three times. The study revealed that genotype EV-DT W99 STR had significantly higher weight of ears per plant, cob length, cob diameter, number of rows per cob, 100 grain weight, grain yield, shelling percentage and harvest index than the other two genotypes used in the trial. Irrigating at 40 and 60 centibars significantly increased weight of ears per plant, while delayed irrigation significantly depressed total dry matter production. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the use of genotype EV-DT W99 STR, at 60 centibars irrigation scheduling and population of 55,555 plants ha-1 had resulted in good agro-physiological characters of QPM at Kadawa.

  17. Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm2. Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency (15NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ?) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

  18. Effects of Bean-Maize Intercropping,Phosphorus and Manure Additions on N2 fixation and Grain Yield of Phaseolus Vulgaris in the Central Kenya Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole bean and intercropped bean crops were studied for four seasons from 1996-1998. Addition of organic P at the recommended rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased bean standing biomass and grain yields during the first season. Cattle manure applied at the rate of 12 t ha-1 (25% moisture content), had a negative effect on bean yield during the first season, possibly due to short-term nutrient immobilisation induced by the high C:N ratio of manure. In subsequent seasons, manure additions resulted in higher grain yields compared to inorganic P. Intercropping bean with maize lowered grain yields by 10-100%. N2 fixed on beans on average from 55 to 69%. Intercropping thus provides a strategy for a better N resource use where the maize competes efficiently for available soil mineral N and the legume replenishes part of the extracted N via atmospheric N2 fixation. However, the amounts of N2 fixed appear not to be enough to replenish whole systems N in grain crops and so additional N2 are needed. Thus more attention needs to be given to manure management and its long-term impact on soil fertility

  19. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Temesgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX. Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS and without subsoiling (ST were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV. Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season?1, the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season?1, the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha?1 and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m?3 followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season?1, T=178 mm-season?1, Y=1840 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.60 kg-m?3 and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season?1,T=158 mm-season?1, Y=1720 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.58 kg-m?3. However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

  20. Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Mishra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L. based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria sole, pea (Pisum sativum L. sole, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. sole, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. mend. Fiori and Paol. sole, maize + potato (1:1,maize + mustard (1:1, maize + toria (1:2, maize + pea (1:2, maize + linseed (1:2 and maize + toria (1:2, were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Maize + potato system recorded higher yield attributes and grain yield of maize followed by maize + pea than sole stand of maize. potato was showed most compatible intercrop planted with winter maize as it gave higher maize-equivalent yield, land-equivalent ratio, productivity, monetary returns and lowered weed population, weed dry-biomass and highest weed-control efficiency under irrigated conditions of central Uttar Pradesh. Pea was the next best intercrop with winter maize.

  1. Maize grain yield as affected by the severity of soil erosion under semi-arid conditions and granitic sandy soils of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munodawafa, Adelaide

    Soil erosion results in soil degradation through loss of topsoil and organic matter, coupled with loss of plant nutrients. This generally results in yield decline but the relationship between land degradation and subsequent yield decline is still very unclear. To assess this relationship maize was grown on field plots, which were excavated to different depths to represent the erosion levels ranging from 1 (no erosion) to 5 (severe erosion). The plots were further split to allow for two fertiliser levels. Maize yields declined significantly at P < 0.001 with increase in erosion. Under normal fertiliser, maize grain yields declined at 131 kg ha -1 for every cm of soil depth lost while under double fertilised plots the decrease was 158 kg ha -1. Using increased fertiliser amounts only yielded benefits on uneroded and slightly eroded soils, after which there was no yield benefit. This study proved that soil erosion, under granitic sandy soils, results in the decline of soil productivity and that fertilisers cannot mask these effects after ?10 cm of topsoil have been lost. It is therefore, important to conserve the soil, as redressing the effects of erosion using fertilisers can be very costly but still remain ineffective.

  2. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless 3 gene encodes a putative GPI-anchored, monocot-specific, COBRA-like protein that significantly affects grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Zimmermann, Roman; Chimot-Marolle, Patricia; da Costa e Silva, Oswaldo; Bruce, Wesley; Lamkey, Kendall R; Wienand, Udo; Schnable, Patrick S

    2008-06-01

    The rth3 (roothairless 3) mutant is specifically affected in root hair elongation. We report here the cloning of the rth3 gene via a PCR-based strategy (amplification of insertion mutagenized sites) and demonstrate that it encodes a COBRA-like protein that displays all the structural features of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Genes of the COBRA family are involved in various types of cell expansion and cell wall biosynthesis. The rth3 gene belongs to a monocot-specific clade of the COBRA gene family comprising two maize and two rice genes. While the rice (Oryza sativa) gene OsBC1L1 appears to be orthologous to rth3 based on sequence similarity (86% identity at the protein level) and maize/rice synteny, the maize (Zea mays L.) rth3-like gene does not appear to be a functional homolog of rth3 based on their distinct expression profiles. Massively parallel signature sequencing analysis detected rth3 expression in all analyzed tissues, but at relatively low levels, with the most abundant expression in primary roots where the root hair phenotype is manifested. In situ hybridization experiments confine rth3 expression to root hair-forming epidermal cells and lateral root primordia. Remarkably, in replicated field trials involving near-isogenic lines, the rth3 mutant conferred significant losses in grain yield. PMID:18298667

  3. Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize / Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Vagno de, Souza; Glauco Vieira, Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso, Galvão; Fernando Roberto, Eckert; Éder Eduardo, Mantovani; Rodrigo Oliveira, Lima; Lauro José Moreira, Guimarães.

    1517-15-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG) e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado) e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado) e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido) -, [...] em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e três testemunhas) foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied) and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake), in maize grown in envir [...] onments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls) were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.

  4. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-01-01

    Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grai...

  5. Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

    1310-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

  6. Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio Luiz Strieder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m, two hybrids (Penta and Flash and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 × 2 × 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.A redução do espaçamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuição entre plantas na área e pode incrementar a produtividade de grãos. Os benefícios da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas na produtividade de grãos de híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Seis experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos agrícolas 2004/05 e 2005/06. Cada experimento correspondeu a um sistema de manejo. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos (0,8 e 0,4 m, dois híbridos (Penta e Flash e duas densidades de plantas, variáveis com o sistema de manejo e anos agrícolas. Além da densidade, os sistemas de manejo diferiram nas quantidades aplicadas de adubo na semeadura, em cobertura e na suplementação hídrica. Em cada experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, com quatro repetições. Os incrementos na produtividade de grãos com redução do espaçamento foram de pequena magnitude, variando de 0 a 14%. Eles dependeram da estação de crescimento e se manifestaram apenas com produtividades superiores a 10 t ha-1, independente do híbrido. O número de grãos por área foi o componente que melhor explicou a resposta da produtividade com redução do espaçamento, independentemente de densidade, híbrido e sistema de manejo. A redução do espaçamento é uma estratégia de manejo válida para incrementar a produtividade de grãos quando são adotados níveis de manejo muito altos.

  7. Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing / Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Lisandro, Rambo; Luís, Sangoi; Adriano Alves da, Silva; Paulo César, Endrigo; Douglas Batista, Jandrey.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A redução do espaçamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuição entre plantas na área e pode incrementar a produtividade de grãos. Os benefícios da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da redu [...] ção do espaçamento entrelinhas na produtividade de grãos de híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Seis experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos agrícolas 2004/05 e 2005/06. Cada experimento correspondeu a um sistema de manejo. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos (0,8 e 0,4 m), dois híbridos (Penta e Flash) e duas densidades de plantas, variáveis com o sistema de manejo e anos agrícolas. Além da densidade, os sistemas de manejo diferiram nas quantidades aplicadas de adubo na semeadura, em cobertura e na suplementação hídrica. Em cada experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, com quatro repetições. Os incrementos na produtividade de grãos com redução do espaçamento foram de pequena magnitude, variando de 0 a 14%. Eles dependeram da estação de crescimento e se manifestaram apenas com produtividades superiores a 10 t ha-1, independente do híbrido. O número de grãos por área foi o componente que melhor explicou a resposta da produtividade com redução do espaçamento, independentemente de densidade, híbrido e sistema de manejo. A redução do espaçamento é uma estratégia de manejo válida para incrementar a produtividade de grãos quando são adotados níveis de manejo muito altos. Abstract in english Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on [...] the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m), two hybrids (Penta and Flash) and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 × 2 × 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.

  8. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  9. Rendimiento de grano y sus componentes en maíces nativos de Tamaulipas evaluados en ambientes contrastantes / Grain yield and yield components of native maize populations from Tamaulipas state evaluated under contrasting environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Agapito, Pecina Martínez; Ma. del Carmen, Mendoza Castillo; J. Alberto, López Santillán; Fernando, Castillo González; Moisés, Mendoza Rodríguez; Joaquín, Ortiz Cereceres.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las poblaciones nativas de maíz (Zea mays L.) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México, algunas destacan por su alto potencial de rendimiento de grano, pero se han aprovechado en grado limitado. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes en 29 poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tama [...] ulipas (colectadas durante los años 2001 al 2004), más seis variedades mejoradas, en tres ambientes contrastantes en altitud y temperatura. El objetivo fue identificar poblaciones sobresalientes que pudieran ser utilizadas en programas de fitomejoramiento. Los ambientes de evaluación fueron Trópico Seco (TS), Transición (TRN) y Valles Altos (VA), a altitudes de 200, 1950 y 2250 m, respectivamente. Con base en el origen geográfico de las poblaciones nativas se formaron cuatro grupos (Grupos 1 a 4), y dos grupos de variedades mejoradas (Grupos 5 y 6), uno de zona tropical y el segundo de zonas templadas. Entre ambientes hubo diferencias (P ? 0.05) en rendimiento de grano, con la tendencia de dar mayor rendimiento a mayor altura y menor temperatura; entre TRN y VA las diferencias no fueron significativas para los componentes del rendimiento. Las poblaciones nativas de la zona montañosa de Tamaulipas (Grupo 4), de altitud intermedia, fueron las de mayor rendimiento en TRN y VA, entre las que destaca la C-4031 con 8.3 t ha-1, estadísticamente igual a las variedades mejoradas de los Valles Altos Centrales de México. Las poblaciones nativas de Tamaulipas mostraron mazorcas largas con alto número de granos por hilera, olotes delgados, buen rendimiento de grano y alto índice de desgrane, lo que pone de manifiesto que estas poblaciones nativas aportarán diversidad genética y caracteres agronómicos sobresalientes que pueden ser aprovechados en la mejora de la producción de este grano. Abstract in english Among native maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the State of Tamaulipas, México, some stand out in grain yield; however their utilization in breeding programs has been limited. With the aim to identify outstanding populations for potential use in maize breeding programs, 29 native populations of Tam [...] aulipas (collected from 2001 to 2004), plus six improved varieties, were evaluated for grain yield and yield components under three environments contrasting in altitude and temperature. Environments were: Dry Tropical (DT), Transition (TRN) and High Valleys (HV), located at altitudes of 200, 1950 and 2250 m, respectively. Based on their geographic origin, four groups were defined (Groups 1 to 4) for native populations; two groups of improved varieties were added (Groups 5 and 6), one for the tropical region and the other for the temperate zones. There were differences among environments (P ? 0.05) for grain yield, so that grain yield tended to be higher at higher altitude and lower temperature; no statistical differences were detected for grain yield components between TRN and HV. Among native maize populations from Tamaulipas, the ones collected from the mountain region (Group 4), located at intermediate altitude, showed higher yield in the TRN and HV; locations, population C-4031 showed the highest yield (8.3 t ha-1), statistically similar to that of improved varieties used in the central Valleys of México. Native populations from Tamaulipas developed longer ears with high number of kernels per row, thin cobs, good yield and high proportion of grain per ear. There results show that these native populations may contribute to broadening genetic diversity and could enhance for enhancing agronomic traits in of maize breeding.

  10. Growth and Yield Performance of Cassava/Maize Intercrop Under Different Plant Population Density of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Adeniyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments involving cassava/maize intercrops under different plant population densities of maize were conducted during 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons on the research farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training situated at Ilora, Nigeria (7o 22? N, 3o 52? E. Results obtained in 2002 and 2003 consistently showed that increases in plant population density of maize in maize/cassava intercrop directly increased maize plant height at tasselling, plant height at harvest and plant lodging percentage, but reduced stalk diameter, average cob weight, dry matter yield and grain yield. Significantly least values (2.03 and 2.11 t/ha were obtained from maize grain yield in 2002 and 2003 under 20,000 plants/ha while the highest values (3.28 and 3.55 t/ha were obtained in 2002 and 2003 under 40,000 plants/ha. Results obtained in 2002 and 2003 showed that increased in plant population density of maize in cassava/maize intercropping system significantly affected the cassava plant height at 2 and 4 month after planting (MAP and fresh tuber yield. Increased in plant population density of maize in cassava/maize intercrop did not significantly affect cassava plant height at 7 and 12 MAP. The highest values (25.9 and 25.3 t/ha cassava fresh tuber were obtained in 2002 and 2003 under 20,000 plants/ha maize component. The least values (17.6 and 18.2 t/ha were obtained in 2002 and 2003 under 80,000 plants/ha maize component.

  11. Rendimiento del máiz de temporal y su relación con la pudrición de mazorca / Grain yield of maize genotypes under rainfed conditions and their relation to ear rot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés, González Huerta; Luis Miguel, Vázquez García; Jaime, Sahagún Castellanos; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez Pérez; Delfina de Jesús, Pérez López.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En el Valle Toluca-Atlacomulco, Estado de México, México, se cultivan 250 000 ha con maíz, principalmente con criollos de las razas adaptadas a esta región. En el presente estudio se evaluó la susceptibilidad de 25 genotipos de maíz a la pudrición de mazorca causada por Fusarium spp. y su relación c [...] on días a floración femenina, acame y rendimiento de grano. Los genotipos fueron evaluados en campo durante 2004 en tres localidades bajo condiciones de temporal e infección natural de la enfermedad, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar y cuatro repeticiones por localidad. El análisis de datos se efectuó como una serie de experimentos. Las diferencias entre variedades e híbridos y entre Palomero Toluqueño y Cacahuacintle con Cónico y Chalqueño explicaron el mayor porcentaje de variación entre genotipos para las cuatro características mencionadas. La variedad Ixtlahuaca (testigo) fue más tardía que Palomero Toluqueño y más precoz que los otros genotipos; presentó porcentajes de acame y pudrición de mazorca inferiores a Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle y Chalqueño; sin embargo, el acame fue superior al de los híbridos de otras razas. Ixtlahuaca obtuvo mayor rendimiento que Palomero y Cacahuacintle, pero fue superada por Chalqueño, por híbridos Cónico-Chalqueño y los de otras razas como AS-722, Cóndor y H-40. El análisis genotipo x característica indicó que Palomero Toluqueño fue más precoz y de menor rendimiento. Cacahuacintle, la más susceptible al acame y pudrición de mazorca causada por Fusarium. Cónico y Chalqueño tuvieron mayor re sistencia al acame y pudrición de mazorca y mayor rendimiento que Palomero Toluqueño y Cacahuacintle. Los híbridos comerciales Cóndor, H-33, H-40, H-44 y H-90E mostraron mayor rendimiento y baja pudrición de mazorca; ésta se correlacionó positivamente con el acame y ambas características se correlacionaron negativamente con rendimiento. Abstract in english At the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley, in the State of Mexico, Mexico, 250 000 ha of maize are annually sown mainly with landrace s belonging to races adapted to this highland region. The obj ectives of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of 25 maize genotypes to Fusarium spp. and to determine [...] its relationship with days to female flowering, stalk and root lodging, ear-rot and grain yield. The genotypes were grown during 2004 at three locations under natural disease incidence in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The analysis of the data gathered across environments was performed as a series of experiments. The differences between hybrids and landraces and between Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle with Cónico and Chalqueño races explained most of the variability found among genotypes for the evaluated traits. The Ixtlahuaca landrace (control) showed a delayed flowering than Palomero Toluqueño and was earlier than other genotypes. Ixtlahuaca had lower stalk and root lodging and ear-rot percent than Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle, and Chalqueño; however, its stalk and root lodging percent was higher than that of hybrids of other races. Ixtlahuaca outyielded Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle, but was outyielded by Chalqueño, Cónico-Chalqueño hybrids, and hybrids of other races such as AS-722, Cóndor, and H-40. The genotype by-trait analysis indicated that Palomero Toluqueño was the earliest and lowest grain yielder race. Cacahuacintle was the most susceptible to stalk and root lodging and to ear-rot caused by Fusarium spp. Cónico and Chalqueño races were more resistant to stalk and root lodging and ear-rot, and outyielded Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle. As a group, the hybrids Cóndor, H-33, H-40, H-44, and H-90E showed high grain yield and low ear-rot percent. Ear-rot was positively correlated with stalk and root lodging and both traits were negatively correlated with grain yield.

  12. Variable grain legume yields, responses to phosphorus and rotational effects on maize across soil fertility gradients on African smallholder farms

    OpenAIRE

    Zingore, S.; Murwira, H. K.; Delve, R. J.; Giller, K. E.

    2008-01-01

    Promiscuous soyabean varieties have potential to contribute significantly to income generation, food security and soil N budgets on smallholder farms. One of the major factors limiting this potential is farmers¿ preference to allocate nutrient resources to food security cereal crops on the most fertile fields, leaving grain legumes to grow on residual fertility on infertile fields. Two experiments were conducted to: (i) compare the current farmer practice with targeting manure and single sup...

  13. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amir José Klein, Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves, Ferreira; Ronald José Barth, Pinto; Claudete Aparecida, Mangolin; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo, Gonçalves.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

  14. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

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    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  15. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos de genótipos de milho em diferentes sistemas de manejo / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize genotypes in different management systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noel Alves, Ribeiro; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Amauri, Bogo; Luis, Sangoi; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Leonardo Almeida, Wille.

    1003-10-01

    Full Text Available A monocultura do milho é uma prática comum em algumas regiões do Brasil, sendo responsável pelo incremento dos danos causados pelas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de produção de milho contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo sobre a incidência de [...] podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos. Foram testados quatro sistemas: S1 (baixo nível de manejo), S2 (médio), S3 (alto) e S4 (proposto para maximizar o produtividade). Os níveis de manejo diferiram quanto à densidade de semeadura, espaçamento entre linhas, quantidade de fertilizantes e uso da irrigação. Em cada sistema, foram utilizadas três genótipos de milho: BRS Planalto (variedade de polinização aberta), Traktor (híbrido duplo) e P32R21 (híbrido simples). Os experimentos foram conduzidos nas safras 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de plantio direto e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta de aveia preta+ervilhaca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Nas duas safras agrícolas, a variedade Planalto apresentou maior incidência de podridões do colmo do que os híbridos em todos os sistemas de manejo. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o principal patógeno associado às podridões do colmo. A produtividade de grãos oscilou entre 3.986 a 13.489kg ha-1 em 2003 e entre 1.787 a 13.849kg ha-1 em 2004, variando conforme o genótipo e o sistema de produção. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas em S4 com a utilização do híbrido simples P32R21. A incidência de grãos ardidos nas duas safras foi baixa, não atingindo em nenhum tratamento o valor de 6% considerado no desconto. O fungo Fusarium verticillioides foi o principal patógeno associado aos grãos ardidos. Por outro lado, C. graminicola não foi detectado nos grãos ardidos, demonstrando que sua alta incidência nos colmos não significa sua presença nos grãos. Não foi possível identificar um sistema de manejo que reduzisse a incidência de podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos na cultura do milho. Abstract in english Maize monoculture is an usual practice in some regions of Brazil, being responsible for the growing damage caused by diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different maize production systems, contrasting in management investments, on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains [...] and grain yield. Four production systems were tested: S1 (low management level), S2 (medium), S3 (high) e S4 (designed to maximize the grain yield). The production systems differed in relation to plant density, row spacing, amount of fertilizer and irrigation use. Three genotypes were used for each production system: BRS Planalto (open-pollinated variety), Traktor (double-cross hybrid) and P32R21 (single-cross hybrid). The experiments were carried out during 2002/03 and 2003/04 grown seasons, in no-till system and a monoculture area, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experiments was a split-plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with four replications. In both grown seasons, regardless management system, open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto showed higher stalk rot than the hybrids. Colletotrichum graminicola was the main pathogen associated with stalk rot. Grain yield ranged from 3,986 to 13.489kg ha-1 in 2003 and from 1,787 to 13.849kg ha-1 in 2004, depending on genotype and crop management system. The highest values of grain yield were obtained in S4 with the single-cross hybrid. The incidence of rot grain was low (below 6%) during the whole experimental period. Fusarium verticillioides was the main pathogen associated with rot grain. There was no association between incidence and causal agent of stalk rot and rot grain. It was not possible to identify a crop management system that was more efficient to reduce incidence of stalk rot and rot grain.

  16. Effect of mucuna intercropped with maize on soil fertility and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field trials were used to evaluate the effect of mucuna (Mucuna utilis) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on soil fertility and maize yield. In Experiment I, mucuna seeds were sown at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) of maize. A basal application of 50 kg N/ha was administered. These treatments were compared with control (no fertilizer, no mucuna), sole application of 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In Experiment II, complementary application of 0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass, which was sown in the previous year, were administered to maize. The results showed that intercropping of maize with mucuna at planting (0 WAP) recorded averagely 46, 60 and 87 percent of the yields for maize that received 100, 50 and 0 kg N/ha alone, respectively. The maize yield increased as sowing date of mucuna was delayed. Undersowing of mucuna at 6 and 8 WAP with application of 50 kg N/ha resulted in 30 - 62 per cent higher yield than at 0 - 4 WAP, and was comparable (91 %) with application of 100 kg N/ha. It also had residual effect of average yield increase of 52 per cent over the latter. Soil analysis showed positive residual effect on soil fertility. Planting of mucuna under maize raised the organic C, exchangeable Ca and Mg by 81, 14 and 28 percent, respectively, when compared with the chemically fertilized soil. The soil N and P levels also showed 48 and 25 percent increase, respectively. Complementary application of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation ofcation of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass increased plant height, biomass weight, and grain yield of maize by 18, 23 and 31 percent, respectively, compared with incorporation of mucuna alone. The former was equally effective as the complementary use of 100 kg N/ha. The results suggest that undersowing of mucuna in relay with maize could be a good practice for sustaining soil fertility in a cereal based cropping system. (au)

  17. Influence of row spacing reduction on maize grain yield in regions with a short summer / Influência da redução do espaçamento entre linhas no rendimento do milho em regiões de verões curtos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Márcio, Ender; Altamir Frederico, Guidolin; Milton Luiz de, Almeida; Pedro Canísio, Heberle.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O interesse em reduzir o espaçamento entre linhas do milho tem aumentado nas regiões brasileiras com estação estival de crescimento reduzida, devido a vantagens potenciais, tais como a maior eficiência de uso da radiação solar. Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da redução de espaç [...] amentos entre linhas no rendimento de grãos, em diferentes épocas de semeadura e cultivares de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 1996/97 e 1997/98, em delineamento de parcelas sub-subdivididas. Uma época de semeadura antecipada (1º de outubro) e uma normal (15 de novembro) foram testadas na parcela principal; duas cultivares morfologicamente contrastantes (híbrido simples superprecoce e híbrido duplo tardio foram utilizados nas subparcelas e três espaçamentos entrelinhas (100, 75 e 50 cm) foram usados nas sub-subparecelas. A redução do espaçamento de 100 para 50 cm aumentou linearmente o rendimento de grãos. Os aumentos no rendimento obtidos pela utilização de menor espaçamento entre linhas foram maiores na semeadura antecipada. O tipo de arquitetura da planta e o ciclo do híbrido utilizado não interferiram na resposta do milho à redução do espaçamento entre linhas. Abstract in english The interest in reducing maize row spacing in the short growing season regions of Brazil is increasing due to potential advantages such as higher radiation use efficiency. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of row spacing reduction on grain yield of different maize cultivars plante [...] d at different dates. The trial was conducted in Lages, in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, during 1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons, in a split-split plot design. Early (October 1st) and normal (November 15) planting dates were tested in the main plot; two morphologically contrasting cultivars (an early single-cross and a late double-cross hybrids) were evaluated in the split plots and three row widths (100, 75 and 50 cm) were studied in the split-split plots. The reduction of row spacing from 100 to 50 cm increased linearly maize grain yield. The yield edge provided by narrow rows was higher when maize was sown earlier in the season. Differences in hybrid cycle and plant architecture did not alter maize response to the reduction of row spacing.

  18. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Este estudo foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento no rendimento e teor de proteína nos grãos de híbridos de milho. Dois experimentos foram instalados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, nos anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Em 2001/2002, os tratamentos foram compostos por dois híbridos (Agroceres 303 e Pioneer 32R21, três doses de N aplicadas durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo (30, 80 e 130 kg ha-1 e três doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1. Em 2002/2003, quatro híbridos (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 e Syngenta Penta e quatro doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 foram testadas. A fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento promoveu incrementos significativos no rendimento e teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. A resposta do rendimento de grãos à cobertura nitrogenada tardia diferiu entre as cultivares. O impacto da fertilização nitrogenada no espigamento foi maior quando se aplicou baixas doses de N na fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os aumentos no rendimento de grãos obtidos com coberturas tardias deveram-se principalmente ao maior peso de grãos. Os híbridos contemporâneos são capazes de absorver N depois do espigamento, contradizendo a hipótese de que coberturas nitrogenadas tardias não são eficientes para aumentar o rendimento de grãos do milho.

  19. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing / Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Rúbia Patrícia da Silva, Coser; Lisandro, Rambo; Luís, Sangoi; Gilber, Argenta; Everton Leonardo, Forsthofer; Adriano Alves da, Silva.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições [...] climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Este estudo foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento no rendimento e teor de proteína nos grãos de híbridos de milho. Dois experimentos foram instalados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, nos anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Em 2001/2002, os tratamentos foram compostos por dois híbridos (Agroceres 303 e Pioneer 32R21), três doses de N aplicadas durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo (30, 80 e 130 kg ha-1) e três doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1). Em 2002/2003, quatro híbridos (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 e Syngenta Penta) e quatro doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1) foram testadas. A fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento promoveu incrementos significativos no rendimento e teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. A resposta do rendimento de grãos à cobertura nitrogenada tardia diferiu entre as cultivares. O impacto da fertilização nitrogenada no espigamento foi maior quando se aplicou baixas doses de N na fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os aumentos no rendimento de grãos obtidos com coberturas tardias deveram-se principalmente ao maior peso de grãos. Os híbridos contemporâneos são capazes de absorver N depois do espigamento, contradizendo a hipótese de que coberturas nitrogenadas tardias não são eficientes para aumentar o rendimento de grãos do milho. Abstract in english Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply d [...] uring crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21), three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1) and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1). In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta) and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1) were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.

  20. Incremento na densidade de plantas: uma alternativa para aumentar o rendimento de grãos de milho em regiões de curta estação estival de crescimento / Increment on plant density: an alternative to improve maize grain yield in short growing season regions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milton Luiz de, Almeida; Aldo, Merotto Junior; Luís, Sangoi; Márcio, Ender; Altamir Frederico, Guidolin.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento de novos cultivares de milho, de ciclo mais curto, estatura reduzida, menor número de folhas e folhas mais eretas aumentou o potencial de resposta da cultura à densidade de plantas. Essa tendência pode ser acentuada nos planaltos do Sul do Brasil, que apresentam temperatura média nos me [...] ses mais quentes inferiores a 22°C, o que resulta em menor estação estival de crescimento. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos objetivando avaliar a viabilidade de se trabalhar com densidade de plantas maiores do que as atualmente recomendadas para esta região, como uma forma de aumentar o rendimento de grãos. Nestes experimentos, submeteram-se os híbridos Cargill 901 e XL 370 a uma população que variou de 37.000 a 100.000pl ha-1, sob diferentes situações de manejo. Em três dos quatro experimentos realizados, o uso de densidade de plantas superior a 60.000plha-1 maximizou o rendimento de grãos. A maior competição intraespecífica verificada nas densidades mais elevadas não reduziu drasticamente o número de espigas por planta, o que contribuiu para a melhor adaptação da cultura a densidades elevadas. Dessa forma, para locais com estação estival de crescimento mais curta, o uso de cultivares precoces, de menor porte, pode ser acompanhado pelo incremento na densidade para valores compreendidos entre 65.000 e 80.000pl ha-1. Isso é possível desde que se tenha bom nível de fertilidade no solo, boa disponibilidade hídrica e cultivares resistentes ao acamamento. Abstract in english The development of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number and upright leaves has increased maize potential adaptability to withstand high plant densities. This trend may be emphasized on the high lands of Southern Brazil due to their mild Spring and Summer temperatures and sho [...] rter maize growing season. Four trials were carried out, aiming to investigate the viability of using higher than recommended plant populations, as an alternative to improve grain yield. The maize hybrids Cargill 901 and XL 370 were evaluated at several plant populations, ranging from 37000 to 100000pl ha-1, under different management situations. In three out of four experiments, plant populations above 60000pl ha-1 maximized grain yield. The greater competition among individuals verified at high plant populations did not decrease substantially the number of ears per plant, which contributed to improve maize adaptation to high plant densities. Therefore, for regions with a short growing season, the use of early small stature maize hybrids may be accompanied by an increment in plant population up to a value varying between 65000 and 80000pl ha-1. This is conceivable as long as there is adequate soil fertility, water availability and stem lodging resistant genotypes.

  1. Incremento na densidade de plantas: uma alternativa para aumentar o rendimento de grãos de milho em regiões de curta estação estival de crescimento Increment on plant density: an alternative to improve maize grain yield in short growing season regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz de Almeida

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento de novos cultivares de milho, de ciclo mais curto, estatura reduzida, menor número de folhas e folhas mais eretas aumentou o potencial de resposta da cultura à densidade de plantas. Essa tendência pode ser acentuada nos planaltos do Sul do Brasil, que apresentam temperatura média nos meses mais quentes inferiores a 22°C, o que resulta em menor estação estival de crescimento. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos objetivando avaliar a viabilidade de se trabalhar com densidade de plantas maiores do que as atualmente recomendadas para esta região, como uma forma de aumentar o rendimento de grãos. Nestes experimentos, submeteram-se os híbridos Cargill 901 e XL 370 a uma população que variou de 37.000 a 100.000pl ha-1, sob diferentes situações de manejo. Em três dos quatro experimentos realizados, o uso de densidade de plantas superior a 60.000plha-1 maximizou o rendimento de grãos. A maior competição intraespecífica verificada nas densidades mais elevadas não reduziu drasticamente o número de espigas por planta, o que contribuiu para a melhor adaptação da cultura a densidades elevadas. Dessa forma, para locais com estação estival de crescimento mais curta, o uso de cultivares precoces, de menor porte, pode ser acompanhado pelo incremento na densidade para valores compreendidos entre 65.000 e 80.000pl ha-1. Isso é possível desde que se tenha bom nível de fertilidade no solo, boa disponibilidade hídrica e cultivares resistentes ao acamamento.The development of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number and upright leaves has increased maize potential adaptability to withstand high plant densities. This trend may be emphasized on the high lands of Southern Brazil due to their mild Spring and Summer temperatures and shorter maize growing season. Four trials were carried out, aiming to investigate the viability of using higher than recommended plant populations, as an alternative to improve grain yield. The maize hybrids Cargill 901 and XL 370 were evaluated at several plant populations, ranging from 37000 to 100000pl ha-1, under different management situations. In three out of four experiments, plant populations above 60000pl ha-1 maximized grain yield. The greater competition among individuals verified at high plant populations did not decrease substantially the number of ears per plant, which contributed to improve maize adaptation to high plant densities. Therefore, for regions with a short growing season, the use of early small stature maize hybrids may be accompanied by an increment in plant population up to a value varying between 65000 and 80000pl ha-1. This is conceivable as long as there is adequate soil fertility, water availability and stem lodging resistant genotypes.

  2. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?anski Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis requires the study of combining abilities of potential parents. In view of this, the objective of this paper was to study combining abilities and determine the mode of inheritance and gene effects for the main agronomic character, grain yield, and its components, kernel row number and kernel number per row. Six inbred lines were used in the study, three of which originated in the U.S., while the other three were developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Kernel row number was inherited by superdominance, partial dominance, complete dominance and intermediacy. The mode of inheritance of kernel number per row and grain yield was superdominance. Additive gene action had the greatest influence on the expression of kernel row number, while the other two traits were influenced the most by nonadditive gene.

  3. The Effects of Intra-row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Okan Sener; Huseyin Gozubenli; Omer Konuskan; Mehmet Kilinc

    2004-01-01

    Maize hybrids react differently to various plant density and intra-row spacing. A two-year study was conducted at Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Research Farm to determine the optimum intra-row spacing for maize hybrids commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were maize hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer...

  4. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dahmardeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L. c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1 and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1 were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

  5. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paulo Se?rgio L. E.; Silva, Paulo Igor B. E.; Sousa, Ana Karenina F.; Gurgel, Kamila M.; Pereira Filho, Israel A.

    2006-01-01

    Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the f...

  6. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  7. Rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho em duas densidades de plantas com e sem a retirada dos perfilhos / Grain yield of maize hybrids at two plant densities with and without tillers removal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Amauri, Schmitt; Alexandre, Saldanha; Ciro Franco, Fiorentin; Anderson José, Pletsch; Jefferson, Vieria; Maxciel Alcimar, Gattelli.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O milho não possui um mecanismo efetivo de compensação de espaços vazios na lavoura. Desse modo, híbridos perfilhadores podem ser mais eficientes no aproveitamento dos recursos ambientais, principalmente sob baixas populações de plantas. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desemp [...] enho agronômico de híbridos de milho cultivados em duas densidades de plantas, com e sem a presença de perfilhos. O ensaio foi implantado em Lages, Santa Catarina, nos anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. Foram avaliados três híbridos: AS1560, PENTA e P30F53. Cada híbrido foi cultivado nas densidades de 4,0 e 7,0pl m-2, mantendo-se os perfilhos produzidos até o final do ciclo ou removendo-os quando as plantas estavam com nove folhas expandidas. Foram determinados a percentagem de plantas perfilhadas em quatro estádios fenológicos da cultura, o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento. Os híbridos P30F53 e AS 1560 perfilharam mais que o PENTA na densidade de 4pl m-2. No primeiro ano do estudo, o destino dos perfilhos não interferiu sobre o rendimento de grãos. Em 2006/2007, a manutenção dos perfilhos propiciou maior rendimento de grãos que a sua remoção para todos os híbridos avaliados, na densidade de 4pl m-2. Os resultados obtidos no trabalho demonstraram que a remoção dos perfilhos não traz benefícios ao desempenho agronômico do milho e que a sua manutenção pode incrementar o rendimento de grãos quando a lavoura é conduzida com baixas densidades de plantas. Abstract in english Maize does not have an effective mechanism to compensate empty spaces in the field. Therefore, tillering hybrids may be more efficient to use environmental resources, especially under low plant populations. This reserach was carried out aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of maize hybrids g [...] rown at two plant densities, with and without tiller's presence. The experiment was set in Lages, SC, Brazil, during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 growing seasons. Three hybrids were tested: AS 1560, Penta and P30F53. Each hybrid was evaluated at the densities of 4 and 7pl m-2, keeping tillers until harvest or removing them when the crop had nine expanded leaves. The percentage of plants with tillers at four growth stages, grain yield and yield components were assessed. Hybrids P30F53 and AS 1560 produced more tillers than Penta at the density of 4pl m-2. Tillers destiny did not affect grain yield during the first growing season. In 2006/2007 tiller maintenance promoted higher grain yield than tiller removal for all hybrids at the lower plant density. The results of this work showed that tiller removal does not enhance maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, they demonstrated that tiller maintenance may increase grain yield when maize is grown under low plant densities.

  8. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  9. PHOSPHORUS SOURCES AND PLACEMENT ON MAIZE YIELD AND MINERAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÂNIA BARBOSA ARAÚJO

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of evaluating the effect of phosphorus sources in different placement options on maize yield and mineral nutrition, a trial was carried out in field conditions on a clayey Typical Red Argisol under cerrado vegetation. The treatments were: triple superphosphate (TS, magnesium termophosphate (MT, Arad reactive rock phosphate (RP, and Araxá rock phosphate (AP, which were spread on the whole area or banded in the seeding furrow. All fertilizers were applied at the rate of 180 kg P2O5 ha-1, based on the total P2O5 of each fertilizer. A check, without P, was used as an additional treatment. It was measured the nutrient concentrations in the maize leaves at the flowering and in different plant parts at harvest. The shoot dry matter, grain yield, and accumulation of nutrients were also determined. Greater yields were obtained with the most soluble sources (TS and MT when spread and with the reactive phosphate (RP banded in the planting furrow. Placement of TS in the planting furrow decreased yield because of metabolic disorders due to the P and Zn interaction. The leaf analysis at the flowering showed to be appropriate for maize P/Zn balance evaluation.

  10. A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura / Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Amauri, Schmitt; Jefferson, Vieira; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Daniélle, Girardi; Sérgio Roberto, Zoldan.

    1354-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em [...] duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro. Abstract in english Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experime [...] nt was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

  11. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous year’s maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  12. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.S.L., Silva; K.M.B., Silva; P.I.B., Silva; V.R., Oliveira; J.L.B., Ferreira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plan [...] tas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura). Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas), Leguminosas (Fabáceas), Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas. Abstract in english The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in co [...] mpetition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing) in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae), Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.

  13. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura. Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas, Leguminosas (Fabáceas, Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas.

  14. Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nosratti; Hassan Muhammad Alizade; Taymour Makmasoumi

    2007-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU) herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that recei...

  15. ANÁLISE DE TRILHA DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJOEIRO E SEUS COMPONENTES PRIMÁRIOS EM MONOCULTIVO E EM CONSÓRCIO COM A CULTURA DO MILHO / PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD OF COMMON BEAN AND ITS PRIMARY COMPONENTS IN MONOCULTURE AND INTERCROPPED WITH MAIZE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Ribeiro, Furtado; Cosme Damião, Cruz; Antônio Américo, Cardoso; Antônio Daniel Fernandes, Coelho; Luiz Alexandre, Peternelli.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se análise de trilha do rendimento de grãos (variável básica) vs. seus componentes primários (variáveis explicativas), em monocultivo e em consórcio com a cultura do milho. De modo geral, os resultados foram semelhantes nos dois sistemas de cultivo. Das três variáveis explicativas envolvida [...] s no estudo, o número de vagens por parcela foi a única que apresentou boa combinação de coeficiente de trilha e correlação, ambos altos, tanto no monocultivo como no consórcio. Concluiu-se que o caráter número de vagens por parcela tem influência marcante na produção de grãos, podendo ser de grande valor nos progressos genéticos deste caráter, via seleção indireta. Abstract in english Path analysis of grain yield (basic variable) and its primary components (explicatory variables) was worked in common bean in monoculture and intercropped with maize. In general, the results were similar in both cropping systems. Among the explicatory variables studied, only the number of pods per p [...] lot showed a good combination of path coefficient and correlation, both high, in monoculture and intercropped. It could be concluded that the character number of pods per plot has an important influence on grain yield, which may be of great value for genetic gains in this character, by indirect selection.

  16. ANÁLISE DE TRILHA DO RENDIMENTO DO FEIJOEIRO E SEUS COMPONENTES PRIMÁRIOS EM MONOCULTIVO E EM CONSÓRCIO COM A CULTURA DO MILHO PATH ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD OF COMMON BEAN AND ITS PRIMARY COMPONENTS IN MONOCULTURE AND INTERCROPPED WITH MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ribeiro Furtado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se análise de trilha do rendimento de grãos (variável básica vs. seus componentes primários (variáveis explicativas, em monocultivo e em consórcio com a cultura do milho. De modo geral, os resultados foram semelhantes nos dois sistemas de cultivo. Das três variáveis explicativas envolvidas no estudo, o número de vagens por parcela foi a única que apresentou boa combinação de coeficiente de trilha e correlação, ambos altos, tanto no monocultivo como no consórcio. Concluiu-se que o caráter número de vagens por parcela tem influência marcante na produção de grãos, podendo ser de grande valor nos progressos genéticos deste caráter, via seleção indireta.Path analysis of grain yield (basic variable and its primary components (explicatory variables was worked in common bean in monoculture and intercropped with maize. In general, the results were similar in both cropping systems. Among the explicatory variables studied, only the number of pods per plot showed a good combination of path coefficient and correlation, both high, in monoculture and intercropped. It could be concluded that the character number of pods per plot has an important influence on grain yield, which may be of great value for genetic gains in this character, by indirect selection.

  17. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D BABNIK

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm. Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10 and the time of MPR (tm was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05 and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01. It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

  18. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no desenvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura.

  19. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD / A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no dese [...] nvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura. Abstract in english Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on e [...] ar development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.

  20. Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

  1. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão / Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Alves da, Silva; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Elias, Suhre; Gilber, Argenta; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Lisandro, Rambo.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N), que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comu [...] m (Vicia sativa) e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus), visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1) no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca. Abstract in english The black oats use (Avena strigosa) as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N), that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa) and b [...] rassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus) is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N) disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  2. DETECTION OF QTLS FOR VERTICAL ROOT PULLING RESISTANCE IN MAIZE AND OVERLAP WITH QTLS FOR ROOT TRAITS IN HYDROPONICS AND FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertical root pulling resistance (VRPR) is a trait used to estimate root strength in maize (Zea mays L.). Its measurement is laborious and destructive; hence, we examined the possibility of studying root strength without resorting to VRPR and whether conducting marker-assisted selection for VRPR wou...

  3. Effect of Different Intertillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Spring Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Ahmad; Intikhab Hazoor Wahla; Cheema, Z. A.; Ehsan Ullah,

    2000-01-01

    A field study pertaining to different intertillage practices on maize was conducted in spring 1998. Different intertillage practices comprised of no intertillage + no earthing-up, no intertillage + earthing-up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + no earthing up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + earthing-up, manual weeding + no earthing up, intertillage twice with spade + earthing-up. The significant maximum grain yield (4.3 t ha-1) of maize and net income (Rs. 27713) was obtained by intertil...

  4. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previ(lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation improved the N economy of the cropping system and enhances crop productivity. (author)

  5. Effect of zinc and plant-population on the yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during 2001 to study the effect of two levels of zinc (0 and 5 kg Zn ha-J) and three plant-densities (60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 plants ha-J) on the performance of two varieties of maize Azam and Pahari and two hybrids N7989 and Babar, at Malakandher Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Zinc at the rate of 5 kg ha-J increased the cob yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight, while increase in plant-density significantly increased the number of grains cob-J, number of cob-plant-J, cob-yield, grain-yield and 1000-grain weight. Results revealed that the highest plant-density of 100,000 plant ha-J decreased the number of cobs plant-J, number of grains cob-J and 1000-grain weight. Maximum number of cobs plant-J (0.87), number of grains cob-J (313), cob yield (4602 kg ha-J), grain yield (4222 kg ha-J) and 1000-grain weight (249 g) were obtained with plant- density of 80,000 plant ha-J. The maximum grain-yield of 4333 kg ha-J was recorded in plots of hybrid variety N7989. (author)

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF DRY-MILLED MAIZE GRIT YIELD GROUPS USING QUADRATIC DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS AND DECISION TREE ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and environmentally diverse collection of maize (Zea maize L.) samples were evaluated for physical properties and grit yield to help develop a standard set of criteria to identify grain best suited for dry milling. Application of principal component analysis reduced a set of approxima...

  7. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo / Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Delson, Horn; Amauri, Schmitt; Cleber, Schweitzer; Franchielli, Motter.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adequação das características do genótipo com as do sistema de manejo é importante para incrementar a eficiência técnica e econômica da produção de milho no sul do Brasil. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta obtida com a utilização de cultiv [...] ares de milho com diferentes variabilidades genéticas em sistemas de produção contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo. O trabalho foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, testaram-se quatro sistemas de produção equivalentes a baixo (S1), médio (S2), alto (S3) e muito alto (S4) nível de manejo. Nas subparcelas, avaliaram-se três cultivares: o híbrido simples Pioneer 32R21 (HS), o híbrido duplo Traktor (HD) e a variedade de polinização aberta BRS Planalto (VPA). Os sistemas de manejo diferiram entre si quanto à quantidade e à época de aplicação dos fertilizantes, quanto à densidade de semeadura, do espaçamento entre linhas e à suplementação hídrica. Os ensaios foram implantados em 20/11/2002 e 22/10/2003, no sistema de semeadura direta. Independentemente de cultivar, o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta aumentaram com o maior investimento em práticas de manejo, variando, respectivamente, de 1.787 (S1) a 13.848kg ha-1(S4) e de 206,00 (S1) a 2.937,00R$ ha-1 (S4), dependendo da cultivar e do ano agrícola. A maior variabilidade genética da cultivar BRS Planalto não lhe assegurou rendimento de grãos superior ao dos híbridos nos sistemas com baixo investimento em insumos (S1). As cultivares híbridas foram mais produtivas e mais rentáveis do que a BRS Planalto em S2. A utilização do híbrido simples propiciou rendimento de grãos e margem bruta maiores do que as demais cultivares em S3 e S4, demonstrando que é possível associar máxima eficiência técnica e econômica com alto teto rendimento, desde que se tenha condições para investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar. Abstract in english The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at di [...] fferent management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1), medium (S2), high (S3) and very high (S4) management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1) to 13,848 (S4)kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1) to 2,937,00 (S4)R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  8. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A adequação das características do genótipo com as do sistema de manejo é importante para incrementar a eficiência técnica e econômica da produção de milho no sul do Brasil. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta obtida com a utilização de cultivares de milho com diferentes variabilidades genéticas em sistemas de produção contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo. O trabalho foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, testaram-se quatro sistemas de produção equivalentes a baixo (S1, médio (S2, alto (S3 e muito alto (S4 nível de manejo. Nas subparcelas, avaliaram-se três cultivares: o híbrido simples Pioneer 32R21 (HS, o híbrido duplo Traktor (HD e a variedade de polinização aberta BRS Planalto (VPA. Os sistemas de manejo diferiram entre si quanto à quantidade e à época de aplicação dos fertilizantes, quanto à densidade de semeadura, do espaçamento entre linhas e à suplementação hídrica. Os ensaios foram implantados em 20/11/2002 e 22/10/2003, no sistema de semeadura direta. Independentemente de cultivar, o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta aumentaram com o maior investimento em práticas de manejo, variando, respectivamente, de 1.787 (S1 a 13.848kg ha-1(S4 e de 206,00 (S1 a 2.937,00R$ ha-1 (S4, dependendo da cultivar e do ano agrícola. A maior variabilidade genética da cultivar BRS Planalto não lhe assegurou rendimento de grãos superior ao dos híbridos nos sistemas com baixo investimento em insumos (S1. As cultivares híbridas foram mais produtivas e mais rentáveis do que a BRS Planalto em S2. A utilização do híbrido simples propiciou rendimento de grãos e margem bruta maiores do que as demais cultivares em S3 e S4, demonstrando que é possível associar máxima eficiência técnica e econômica com alto teto rendimento, desde que se tenha condições para investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar.The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1, medium (S2, high (S3 and very high (S4 management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1 to 13,848 (S4kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1 to 2,937,00 (S4R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  9. Differences in maize physiological characteristics, nitrogen accumulation, and yield under different cropping patterns and nitrogen levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xiangqian, Zhang; Guoqin, Huang; Qiguo, Zhao.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping and N fertilization play an important role in increasing crop yield. In order to further understand the advantage mechanism of intercropping and the effect of increasing N application on the advantage effect of intercropped crop, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effe [...] cts of different cropping patterns (i.e. M, maize monoculture; I1, maize-cotton intercrop; I2, maize-soybean intercrop) and N fertilization levels (N1, 100 kg ha-1; N2, 200 kg ha-1; N3, 300 kg ha-1; N4, 400 kg ha-1) on maize (Zea mays L.) Results showed that intercropping and increasing N application could enhance green leaf area per maize plant and chlorophyll content, and differences in green leaf area per plant and chlorophyll content between intercropping and monoculture under N1 were significant. Intercropping and increasing N application could improve maize photosynthetic characters, but their effects would be decreased with increasing N fertilization level. Root bleeding sap rate and root DM of maize were also obviously affected by intercropping and N fertilization, and the differences in root bleeding sap rate and root DM between I2 and M under N1 and N2 were significant. Compared to M, under N1, N2, N3, and N4, I2 increased grain N content by 12.8%, 6.3%, 2.7%, 1.5%, respectively. Intercropping and increasing N application could increase maize yield, and the difference in yield between I2 and M under N1 was significant. All the findings suggest that intercropping and increasing N application can improve maize physiological characters and increase maize root DM, N accumulation and yield, but their effects will be decreased with increasing N fertilization level.

  10. WITH-IN ROW SPACING OF MAIZE AND ITS EFFECTS ON YIELD AND MYCOTOXIN INCIDENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) grown in the 1950's and 1960's usually responded to plant densities over 45,000 plants ha-1 with high numbers of barren plants ha-1 and less grain per plant. Planting recommendations for modern hybrids use populations of over 62,000 plants ha-1 to achieve the high yields ...

  11. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect of previous crop but not by results of tillage, because an unknown factor reduced growth in the no-tillage system. The hypothesis was supported at maturity by increased biomass allocation to grain relative to total shoot weight in treatments with greater shoot-P concentration at early stages.

  12. Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content. PMID:24368275

  13. Comparação de métodos de adaptabilidade e estabilidade relacionados à produtividade de grãos de cultivares de milho / Comparison of adaptability and stability methods related to grain yield of maize cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Cargnelutti Filho; Dilermando, Perecin; Euclides Braga, Malheiros; José Paulo, Guadagnin.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram usados dados de produtividade de grãos oriundos de 34 ensaios de competição de cultivares de milho, realizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, com o objetivo de comparar os métodos de análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade de: Yates e Cochran (1948), [...] Plaisted e Peterson (1959), Wricke (1965), Annicchiarico (1992), Eberhart e Russell (1966), Tai (1971) e Lin e Binns (1988) modificado por Carneiro (1998). Para verificar as concordâncias e/ou discordâncias entre as estimativas dos parâmetros de adaptabilidade e estabilidade, obtidas pelos diferentes métodos, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Cultivares indicadas pelos métodos de Plaisted e Peterson e Wricke estão associadas à maior estabilidade, porém independem da produtividade média e da adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Cultivares indicadas pelo método YATES e COCHRAN, estão associadas a maior estabilidade, menor produtividade e mais indicadas a ambientes desfavoráveis. Cultivares com alta produtividade e associadas à alta instabilidade e adaptada à ambientes favoráveis são as mais indicadas pelos métodos de Lin e Binns modificado por Carneiro e Annicchiarico. O método de Eberhart e Russell, por considerar simultaneamente a produtividade, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis, deve ser a metodologia preferida. Abstract in english Grain yield data were used from 34 maize cultivar trials carried out in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul, in the agricultural years of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004, with the objective of comparing the following methods of adaptability and stability analysis: Yates and Cochran (1948), Plaisted and Peter [...] son (1959), Wricke (1965), Annicchiarico (1992), Eberhart and Russell (1966), Tai (1971) and Lin and Binns (1988) modified by Carneiro (1998). In order to verify the degree of agreement among the estimates of adaptability and stability parameters, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used. The cultivars indicated by the methodologies of Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke are associated with the highest stability. However they are independent of the average yield and of the adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments. The cultivars indicated by Yates and Cochran method are associated with the highest stability, less yield and more appropriate to unfavorable environments. The cultivars with high yield and associated to high instability and adapted to favorable environments are preferably indicated by the LIN and BINNS modified by Carneiro and Annicchiarico methods. The Eberhart and Russell methodology must be preferred because of considering simultaneously the yield, the stability and adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments.

  14. In vitro digestibility of phenolics in grain of maize hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Grbeša; Goran Kiš; Kristina Kljak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the quantity of phenolic compounds in the grain of maize hybrids and their in vitro release in pig small intestine. Six maize hybrids belonging to the FAO maturity groups 200-600 were produced under the same agroclimate conditions. Phenolics were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method as gallic acid equivalents. The enzymatic digestion of phenolics was carried out using in vitro procedure for pigs mimicking digestion in stomach and small...

  15. Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select t...

  16. Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

  17. A Grain Flow Model to Simulate Grain Yield Sensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Arslan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a flow model for grain combinesbased on the laboratory and field response of an impact based grain flow sensor. The grainflow model developed in this study is of first order with constant coefficients. A computercode was written to solve the model and to simulate the response of a yield sensor whoseresponse had been determined previously for various types of flow rate inputs both in fieldand laboratory experiments. The computer program for the simulation can alsocompensate for the time delay. The simulation results of the theoretical model suited wellto the experimental data and showed that the model effectively shows the input-outputrelationship of grain flow through a grain combine. This model could be used for periodicflow signals acquired from grain yield sensors. It was concluded that the model postulatedin this study could be further developed to determine the grain yield entering the combineusing the outlet flow rate measured by a yield sensor.

  18. Yield and Quality of Two Maize Hybrids as Affected by Different Planting Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Iqbal; Tariq Mahmood; Muhammad Usman

    2001-01-01

    The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement and three replications to evaluate the effect of different planting patterns viz. 60-cm spaced single rows, 70-cm spaced single rows, 30/90 cm spaced double row and 35/105-cm spaced double rows on yield and quality of tow maize hybrids viz. `Highcorn 11` and `Cargil 777`. Max-1000 grain weight (438.47 g), grain yield (9.6 t/ha), and stover yield (15.85 t/ha) was recorded when Highcorn 1 1 was sown at 60...

  19. Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeveson da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

  20. Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho / The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaeveson da, Silva; Paulo S., Lima e Silva; Maurício de, Oliveira; Kathia M., Barbosa e Silva.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1) sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012). O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN), de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema [...] de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex. Abstract in english The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1) on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012). The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprink [...] ler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

  1. Variations in the sensitivity of US maize yield to extreme temperatures by region and growth phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ethan E.; Huybers, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Maize yield is sensitive to high temperatures, and most large scale analyses have used a single, fixed sensitivity to represent this vulnerability over the course of a growing season. Field scale studies, in contrast, highlight how temperature sensitivity varies over the course of development. Here we couple United States Department of Agriculture yield and development data from 1981–2012 with weather station data to resolve temperature sensitivity according to both region and growth interval. On average, temperature sensitivity peaks during silking and grain filling, but there are major regional variations. In Northern states grain filling phases are shorter when temperatures are higher, whereas Southern states show little yield sensitivity and have longer grain filling phases during hotter seasons. This pattern of grain filling sensitivity and duration accords with the whole-season temperature sensitivity in US maize identified in recent studies. Further exploration of grain filling duration and its response to high temperatures may be useful in determining the degree to which maize agriculture can be adapted to a hotter climate.

  2. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Amauri, Bogo; Luís, Sangoi.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o ren [...] dimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento) e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento). Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos. Abstract in english The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowdin [...] g. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding) and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding). Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

  3. Residues of 14 C-malathion in stored maize grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of the insecticide malathion applied to stored maize grains were determined in the laboratory by mean of radiotracer techniques, which permitted the discrimination between surface residues, solvent extracted residues and bound residues. Results indicated that with time, the amount of bound and extractable residues is enhanced inside the grains from 8.9% to 14.7% while the surface residues progressively diminishes in the period, reaching to about 50% of the applied concentration. (author)

  4. Maize Yield Response to Water Supply and Fertilizer Input in a Semi-Arid Environment of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Fasheng; Hao, Liang; Cong, Peifei; Liu, Zuoxin

    2014-01-01

    Maize grain yield varies highly with water availability as well as with fertilization and relevant agricultural management practices. With a 311-A optimized saturation design, field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2009 to examine the yield response of spring maize (Zhengdan 958, Zea mays L) to irrigation (I), nitrogen fertilization (total nitrogen, urea-46% nitrogen,) and phosphorus fertilization (P2O5, calcium superphosphate-13% P2O5) in a semi-arid area environment of Northeast China. According to our estimated yield function, the results showed that N is the dominant factor in determining maize grain yield followed by I, while P plays a relatively minor role. The strength of interaction effects among I, N and P on maize grain yield follows the sequence N+I >P+I>N+P. Individually, the interaction effects of N+I and N+P on maize grain yield are positive, whereas that of P+I is negative. To achieve maximum grain yield (10506.0 kg·ha?1) for spring maize in the study area, the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 930.4 m3·ha?1, 304.9 kg·ha?1 and 133.2 kg·ha?1 respectively that leads to a possible economic profit (EP) of 10548.4 CNY·ha?1 (CNY, Chinese Yuan). Alternately, to obtain the best EP (10827.3 CNY·ha?1), the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 682.4 m3·ha?1, 241.0 kg·ha?1 and 111.7 kg·ha?1 respectively that produces a potential grain yield of 10289.5 kg·ha?1. PMID:24465896

  5. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MURAWSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

  6. Effect of Nitrogen Application on Biomass Production, Yield and Nitrogen Fixation of Legumes and Maize Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Chaudhry

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen application on biomass production and yield of legumes and maize under rainfed field conditions was studied to estimate the amount of nitrogen fixed by various leguminous crops under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions and to compare the yield, income and net return of legumes and non-legumes. Yield and biomass of summer legumes were not affected significantly with N application but in case of maize there was an increase of 69 and 74 per cent in dry matter and grain yield, respectively. The nitrogen application significantly increased straw yield of summer legumes but had a negative effect on N-fixation at flowering and at pod fill stage.

  7. Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

  8. Effect of tillage system on soil properties and yield of Oba 98 maize variety in Zaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namakka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria loses significant amount of soil, organic matter and plant nutrients to the continuous tilling of soil for various crop production. This leads to declining and stagnation of crop yields. Three year field trials were conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons at the experimental farm of Institute for Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Lat. 11° 11' N: Long 7° 38' E: 686 m above sea level to investigate the effect of tillage system on soil chemical properties, physical properties and grain yield of Oba 98 maize variety. The treatments consisted of six tillage systems laid out in Complete Randomize Block Design and replicated five times. The parameters measured included soil chemical properties such as ions concentrations and Cation Exchange Capacity, soil textural class, soil bulk density and grain yield of the maize under test. The results obtained indicated that GPx (Glyphosate followed by Primextra Gold and PPx (Paraquat followed by Primextra Gold tillage systems enhanced soil nutrients with higher Cation Exchange Capacity, highest cations and anions concentrations due to organic matter accumulation in the soil, improved soil structure that resulted to better grain yield of maize. The two types of tillage systems will therefore help in reducing the effect of soil degradation through frequent tilling and also improved soil aggregate and fertility as a result of organic matter accumulation on the soil surface.

  9. Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqrar Hussain

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707. Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare was recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare. While maximum grain oil and crude protein contents were recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of soil acidity amelioration on maize yield and nutrient interrelationships using stepwise regression and nutrient vector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Rensburg, H. G.; Claassens, A. S.; Beukes, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    The interrelationships between elemental content of selected soil and leaf nutrients and maize grain yield were evaluated in a liming experiment conducted on a Hutton and Oakleaf soil in a resource-poor farming area in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Improved uptake of Mo by maize with increased soil P status was found on the Hutton soil, while N and P uptake improved, due to lime and fertiliser application, on both soils. Boron uptake by maize was depressed with lime application ...

  11. A Grain Flow Model to Simulate Grain Yield Sensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Selcuk Arslan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a flow model for grain combines based on the laboratory and field response of an impact based grain flow sensor. The grain flow model developed in this study is of first order with constant coefficients. A computer code was written to solve the model and to simulate the response of a yield sensor whose response had been determined previously for various types of flow rate inputs both in field and laboratory experiments. The computer program for the s...

  12. Interacción gonotipo-ambiente del rendimiento y calidad de grano y tortilla de híbridos de maíz en Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México / Genotype-environment interaction of yield and grain and tortilla quality of maize hybrids at the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Gricelda, Vázquez Carrillo; David, Santiago Ramos; Yolanda, Salinas Moreno; Israel, Rojas Martínez; José L., Arellano Vázquez; Gustavo A., Velázquez Cardelas; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente la baja productividad del maíz (Zea mays L.) en los Valles Altos del Centro de México se debe a condiciones ambientales adversas de sequía, temperatura más alta que la usual y heladas tempranas. Para aumentar la productividad es necesario desarrollar variedades estables con rendimiento a [...] lto y que cumplan con las características físicas de grano, nixtamal y tortilla que demandan las industrias procesadoras. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la interacción genotipo x ambiente sobre el rendimiento, las características físicas del grano y la calidad de nixtamal y tortillade 20 híbridos pre-comerciales y comerciales de maíz cultivados durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2009 en seis localidades de los Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano, peso hectolítrico, peso de 100 granos (PCG), índice de flotación (IF), color de grano y harina, y la calidad de nixtamal y tortilla. Los resultados para rendimiento y características físicas del grano fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI), y los de calidad de nixtamal y tortilla bajo un diseño completamente al azar. El modelo AMMI proporcionó buena descripción de la interacción genotipo x ambiente, y de la estabilidad de los 20 híbridos. Las condiciones de siembra y las ambientales modificaron las características físicas de los híbridos, especialmente el tamaño del grano y la dureza. Huamantla y Tlatempa fueron las mejores localidades en rendimiento (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), tamaño (PCG > 33 g), dureza (IF 60 %). De los híbridos evaluados 15 cumplieron con las especificaciones de la industria de la masa y tortilla, pero ninguno cumplió las especificaciones de la industria de harina nixtamalizada. Abstract in english Currently, the low productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the central highlands of México is due to adverse environmental conditions such as drought, higher than usual temperatures and early frosts. To increase productivity, it is necessary to develop stable maize varieties with high yield which can [...] meet the quality characteristics of grain, nixtamal and tortilla demanded by the processing industry. In this study, we determined the effect of the genotype x environment interaction on grain yield and on the physical traits of grain, nixtamal and tortilla of 20 pre-commercial and commercial maize hybrids, grown during the 2009 harvest season in six locations in the highlands of Tlaxcala, México. Grain yield, test weight, 100-grains weight (HGW), flotation index (FI), color of grain and flour, and nixtamal and tortilla quality were evaluated. The results for grain yield and grain physical traits were statistically analyzed using the model of additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), while data of nixtamal and tortilla quality were analyzed under a completely randomized design. The AMMI model provided a good description of the genotype x environment interaction and stability of the 20 hybrids. Both planting conditions and environment induced changes on the physical characteristics of hybrids, especially the grain size and hardness. Tlatempa and Huamantla were the best localities for yield (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), grain size (HGW > 33 g), hardness (FI 60 %). Fifteen hybrids met the specifications for masa and tortilla industry but none met the specifications for nixtamalized flour industry.

  13. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  14. Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kyamuhangire

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain using the biomass dryer delayed insect infestation by three months and significantly (p?0.05 reduced mould and aflatoxin contamination during storage for 6 months. Maize dried using the biomass dryer was only infested with Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella while that dried on bare ground was infested by both the moth and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais implying that the biomass dryer controlled the most important storage insect pest of maize in Uganda. Drying maize using the biomass dryer had no effect on the germination potential of the grain. Thus, drying maize grain with the biomass dryer reduces drying time and greatly improves the quality of the grain during storage. However, the subsequent storage quality of the grain highly depends on the storage form (shelled or unshelled, time and environment.

  15. NITROGEN AND PLANT DENSITY EFFECT ON MAIZE YIELD AND YIELD TRAITS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Akmal; Murad Ali Khan; Adnan Khanzada

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the response of maize Local Vs Commercial hybrid to various levels of nitrogen (N) and plant density (D) for yield (Kg ha-1). Maize local hybrid (Baber) and Commercial hybrid (Poineer-3025) were planted using four levels of nitrogen (00, 75, 150, 225 kg ha-1) and three plant densities (74000, 95000 and 133000 ha-1) at Agronomy Research Farm Malakandher, University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2009. Randomized Complete Block Design with spli...

  16. Influence of Post Emergence Application of Glyphosate on Weed Control Efficiency and Yield of Transgenic Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Ravisankar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the weed control efficiency and yield potential of glyphosate resistant transgenic maize. Treatments consisted of two transgenic maize hybrids named Hishell and 900 M gold with application of glyphosate as post emergence at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/hathese were compared with non-transgenic counterpart maize hybrids with application of atrazine as pre-emergence at 0.5 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 40 Days After Sowing along with need based insect control practices. Post emergence application of glyphosate at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic maize hybrids was recorded with lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency compared to other treatments. Higher grain yield was recorded with post emergence application of glyphosate at 1800 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid 900 M Gold and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid Hishell during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 seasons, respectively.

  17. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  18. White Lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga Increases Solubility of Minjingu Phosphate Rock, Phosphorus Balances and Maize Yields in Njoro Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce J. Lelei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exudation of high amounts of citrate in white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga has the advantage of being effective in mobilization of a wide range of sparingly soluble P sources. To improve cultivation system of maize, a field experiment was conducted to assess effectiveness of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga in increasing solubility of minjingu phosphate rock (MPR, phosphorus balances and maize yields in Njoro sub-County, Kenya. The randomized complete block design experiment was conducted for four seasons; short (October – February and long rain seasons (March-September of 2010 and 2011. The treatments were; (i fallow (F – maize (M rotation with triple superphosphate (TSP applied (MTSP- F, (ii fallow - maize rotation with MPR applied (MMPR –F, (iii lupin (L – maize rotation with MPR applied (MMPR- L and (iv maize/lupin intercrop with MPR applied (M/LMPR – F. Soil and plant P and maize grain yield were higher in M/LMPR – F (with additional lupin grain yield and MTSP– F treatments. All treatments resulted in positive P balances at the end of two years with highest values in MTSP– F treatment and lowest in M/LMPR – F. Intercropping lupin with maize amid application of MPR is recommended for enhanced maize performance in the farming systems of resource poor farmers. Measurement of available soil nitrogen and comparison of lupin with other legumes in solubilizing MPR is recommended. 

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study and Pathway-Level Analysis of Tocochromanol Levels in Maize Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Lipka, Alexander E.; Gore, Michael A.; Magallanes-lundback, Maria; Mesberg, Alex; Lin, Haining; Tiede, Tyler; Chen, Charles; Buell, C. Robin; Buckler, Edward S.; Rocheford, Torbert; Dellapenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocochromanols, are the major lipid-soluble antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. Given that individual tocochromanols differ in their degree of vitamin E activity, variation for tocochromanol composition and content in grain from among diverse maize inbred lines has important nutritional and health implications for enhancing the vitamin E and antioxidant contents of maize-derived foods through plant breeding. Toward this end, we conduc...

  20. Yield and quality of maize following the foliar application of a fertilizer based on the byproduct “shale water”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Messias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The water extracted from the shale rock (shale water through the pyrolysis process to obtain fuel oil and other products shows a composition based on organic compounds and a wide range of minerals and trace elements with an important role in plant nutrition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer. Thus, the influence of foliar application of shale water (SW, with or without the micronutrients zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, boro (B and molybdenum (Mo, was evaluated regarding yield and quality of maize grains. The yield, the total antioxidant activity, and the content of starch, phenolic compounds and carotenoids were improved in maize grains following the application of three doses of 7 L/ha of SW, which indicates that SW may influence the primary and secondary metabolisms. The application of SW with micronutrients resulted in the increase of grain yield; however, did not result in the improvement of grain quality. The foliar fertilizer formulations also had an influence in the content of minerals and aminoacids of the grain. The results indicate that SW has potential to be used in agriculture to improve yield and quality of maize.

  1. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaya, Cp; Adipala, E.; Osiru, Dso

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

  2. Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okogun, J. A.; Sanginga, N.; Abaidoo, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha-1 from i...

  3. COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KRUPAKAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability of some polygenic and quality traits was studied in a set of diallel crosses involving 10 maize inbreds (P1 to P10 to know the inheritance pattern of yield attributes. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant differences among themselves for all the traits in all environments. The ratio of gca /sca was less than unity there by indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of most of the characters studied. The parents P1 , P2 and P3 for grain yield, P5 and P8 for oil content, P6 , P8 and P9 for starch content and P7 , P8 and P10 for protein content were identified as most promising parents due to having good general combining ability. Among the crosses significant and desirable sca effects P3 × P1 and P3 × P2 for grain yield, P7 × P4 and P5 × P9 for oil content, P1 × P3 and P9 × P5 for starch content and P9 × P6 & P8 × P3 for protein content, respectively. Therefore, these crosses could be utilized for further selection of high yielding and quality progenies to achieve a quantum jump in maize improvement

  4. Criterios para elegir el mejor probador de la aptitud combinatoria general para rendimiento de grano de líneas autofecundadas de maíz / Criteria to choose the best tester of the general combining ability for grain yield of maize inbred lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Lobato-Ortiz; José D., Molina-Galán; José de J., López-Reynoso; José A., Mejía-Contreras; Delfino, Reyes-López.

    2010-02-15

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En un programa de mejoramiento genético por hibridación de maíz (Zea mays L.) es importante disponer de un probador confiable y eficiente de la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de líneas autofecundadas de maíz. Con el propósito de aportar más evidencia experimental relativa a la identificación del [...] mejor probador de la ACG de líneas autofecundadas de maíz, en el presente trabajo se usaron 50 líneas S1 derivadas de la variedad Compuesto Universal original (variedad original), más cuatro líneas de alta y cuatro de baja ACG derivadas de las poblaciones de maíz Xolache y Mex. Gpo. 10. Las líneas S1 fueron cruzadas con tres probadores: una línea de baja ACG (P1), una línea de alta ACG (P2) y la variedad original (P3). La hipótesis fue que la línea de baja ACG es el mejor probador. Para evaluar los probadores los criterios fueron: 1) la variación fenotípica y genotípica de los mestizos (línea×probador); 2) la clasificación de las ocho líneas de ACG conocida, con cada uno de los tres probadores; 3) el coeficiente de divergencia (CD); 4) el efecto del probador, el efecto y la varianza de interacción línea×probador. La variable estudiada fue el rendimiento promedio de mazorca por planta. Con base en los criterios señalados, el mejor probador fue la línea de baja ACG en comparación con la línea de alta ACG y la variedad original; además, la variedad original fue también un buen probador, pero con menor valor discriminatorio que la línea de baja ACG. Abstract in english In a maize (Zea mays L.) breeding program by hybridization it is important to have a reliable and efficient tester for the general combining ability (GCA) of maize inbred lines. With the aim to contribute more experimental evidence relative to the identification of the best tester of GCA of maize in [...] bred lines, in this study 50 S1 lines derived from the Compuesto Universal original (original variety), plus four lines of high and four of low GCA derived from populations of Xolache and Mex. Gpo. 10 were used. The S1 lines were crossed with three testers: a line of low GCA (P1), a line of high GCA (P2), and the original variety (P3). The hypothesis was that the line of low GCA is the best tester. The criteria to evaluate the testers were: 1) the phenotypic and genotypic variation of top crosses (line × tester); 2) the classification of the eight lines of known GCA, with each of the three testers, 3) the coefficient of divergence (CD), 4) the effect of the tester, effect and variance of interaction line × tester. The variable studied was the average yield of ear by plant. Based on the mentioned criteria, the best tester was the line of low GCA compared to the line of high GCA and the original variety; besides, the original variety was also a good tester, but with less discriminatory value than the low GCA line.

  5. Effect of Pakistan lignitic derived humic acids on the agriculture growth part II: studies on the effect of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein content of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various minute concentrations of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein contents of maize were studied. The results revealed that the humic acid application in small doses produce higher grain yield, more protein content and better developed plants and roots compared to control. There was a positive correlation between the grain yield, protein contents and plant growth of maize to different levels of humic acid application. (author)

  6. The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM) applied every second year on maize grown for grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Nogalska; Matgorzata, Skwierawska; Zenon, Nogalski; Monika, Kaszuba.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (M [...] BM) is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L.) grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year), and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years). Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

  7. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    Jongman M, Khare Kb And Khonga Eb

    2013-01-01

    The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf) was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%)  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55%) and barley grains (3.46, 14 da...

  8. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in diallel cross of maize (zea maysl.) in f/sub 2/ generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis was carried out for six maize cultivars and their 30 F/sub 2/ crosses under agro-climatic conditions at Agricultural Research Institute of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among parents and their F/sub 2/ progeny for all the parameters. The genetic analysis revealed that the characters Viz ; kernels/ear, kernels rows/ear, kernels/row, ear length, 1000 grain weight and grain yield have shown additive type gene action. According to regression analysis, the non-significant deviation of the regression line from unit slope indicated the absence of non-allelic interaction, which was presented in all the characters. (author)

  9. Growth and Yield of Maize as Influenced by Sowing Date and Poultry Manure Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Uduzei REMISON

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two fields experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 at Evboneka in Edo State, Nigeria to determine optimum sowing date and poultry manure requirement of maize (Zea mays for the forest ultisol location. We examined the biomass production and yield, besides growth parameters under three sowing dates (April 7, May 7 and June 7 and four levels of poultry manure (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 tonnes per hectare (tha-1 in factorial arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant heights, leaf area index (LAI, days to 50% flowering and biomass were significantly affected by sowing date and poultry manure application. The plant height values ranged from 3.9 to 10.80 centimetre (cm at two weeks after sowing (WAS to 48.3 cm at six WAS, respectively for the three sowing dates and four levels of poultry manure combinations. Days to 50% flowering was increased when sowing was delayed and with increased in applied poultry level and it vary from 50 to 73 days after sowing. The corresponding value of biomass was 3.32 to 8.80 t ha-1 at final harvest. These parameters resulted in higher crop growth rate for April 7 sown plants treated with poultry manure giving higher grain yield and 1000-grain weight. The maximum grain yield of 5.77 t ha-1 and 1000-grain weight were obtained from April 7 sown plants treated with 5.0 t ha-1 of poultry manure indicating that the best sowing date and poultry level for growth and yield of maize in the rainforest ultisol.

  10. Use of Compost Manure Enriched with High Quality Organic Residues to Improve Growth and Yield of Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field trial was conducted to test whether composed manure with tithonia or lantana would improve growth and yield of maize. A field trial consisting of five compost types and inorganic N fertilizer was carried out in a site low N using maize (Zea mays Var. Hybrid 513) as a test crop. The compost and fertilizer were applied at an equivalent rate of 100 kg N ha-1. Above-ground maize biomass was taken at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after crop emergence, dried and N content determined. Amongst the compost, the highest dry matter accumulation N uptake and grain yield were observed in FYM composted with tithonia at 1:1 ratio. At all stages of crop growth, inorganic fertilizer treatment gave the highest dry matter and N uptake. Based on the growth and N uptake in the fertilizer treatment it was concluded that the N release in all the compost was lower than the crop demand

  11. In vitro digestibility of phenolics in grain of maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Grbeša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the quantity of phenolic compounds in the grain of maize hybrids and their in vitro release in pig small intestine. Six maize hybrids belonging to the FAO maturity groups 200-600 were produced under the same agroclimate conditions. Phenolics were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method as gallic acid equivalents. The enzymatic digestion of phenolics was carried out using in vitro procedure for pigs mimicking digestion in stomach and small intestine. The concentration (mg/100g of free (100.02-157.29, bound (973.41-1160.86 and total phenolics (1105.82- 1293.38 varied (P<0.001 among hybrids. In addition, the digestibility of phenolics significantly differed among tested hybrids (P<0.001 and ranged from 37.09 to 45.46%. Content of phenolics in soluble fraction after digestion was higher (486.23 vs. 128.38 mg/100g than the content of free phenolics suggesting that some amount of bound phenolics was released in small intestine.

  12. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the final grain dry weight, rate and duration of grain filling were important parameters in differentiating among cultivars grain filling curves. The yield was positively correlated with number of grains/m2, grain weight and grain filling rate, and negatively correlated with grain filling duration. Correlation between grain weight and rate of grain filling was positive. Grain filling duration was negatively correlated with grain filling rate and number of grains/m2. The highest yield on three year average had medium late Mironovska 808, by the highest grain weight and grain filling rate and optimal number of grains/2 and grain filling duration.

  13. Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arif Hussain Shah

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Pods per plant, 100 grain weight and branches per plant were the most important determinants of grain yield.

  14. Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E was highly significant and genotypes (G and genotype x environment interaction (GEI were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

  15. Application of molecular markers in bulk segragant analysis of yield in maize (Zea mays L) synthetic populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovi?-Mici? Dragana; Markovi? Ksenija; Lazi?-Jan?i? Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome regions which carry potential QTLs for high grain yield in two synthetic maize populations - B73xMol7 and LlxMol7, were identified by bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Yield was evaluated on F2 testcross families in field trials using a Nested design. Based on yield data, p3 families with the corresponding highest and lowest testcross yields were selected for BSA. Genome analysis of F3 families was carried out with 58 RFLP markers. Allele frequency differences were detected at four RF...

  16. A dynamic risk assessment model (FUMAgrain) of fumonisin synthesis by Fusarium verticillioides in maize grain in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneri, Amedeo; Maiorano, Andrea; Sacco, Dario

    2009-01-01

    Fumonisin contamination of maize grain starts in the field. Forecasting Fusarium infection and fumonisin synthesis could allow operators in the field to control contamination during the growing season and to make the best agronomic decisions for high quality yields while respecting the limits imposed by the European Union. A research project to develop a decision support system for the control of field-phase fumonisin contamination began in Italy in 2003. This paper presents a preliminary ver...

  17. Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Linda A; Everds, Nancy E; Reynolds, Julia; Mann, Peter C; Lamb, Ian; Rood, Tracy; Schmidt, Jean; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Hinds, Mark; Locke, Mary; Chui, Chok-Fun; Claussen, Fred; Mattsson, Joel L; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-07-01

    59122 is a transgenic maize line containing event DAS-59122-7 that expresses the corn rootworm (CRW) specific pesticidal Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner strain PS149B1 and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes for tolerance to the herbicidal ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. For the current study, 59122 maize grain, non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain (091), and a commercially available non-transgenic reference maize grain (33R77) were grown under conditions simulating commercial farming practices. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed diets formulated with 35% maize grain from either 59122, 091, or 33R77, or one of two separate lots of commercially available rodent chow prepared with commercially available corn (35%) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet 5002 for approximately 90 days. All diets possessed similar nutritional and contaminant profiles. The transgenic proteins were detected only in diets prepared with 59122 maize grain and were stable over the course of the study. Compared to control groups, no adverse diet-related differences were observed in rats fed diets formulated with 59122 maize grain with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs of toxicity, mortality, ophthalmology, neurobehavioral (FOB and motor activity) assessments, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), and pathology (organ weights and gross and microscopic pathology). Results from this study indicate that 59122 maize grain is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional maize grain. PMID:17329002

  18. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  19. Influence of levels of nitrogen and method of application on yield and 15N recovery by kharif maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize var.Co.1 responded well to N up to 150 kg/ha, recording 59.3% and 15.0% increase in grain yield over 50 and 100 kg N/ha. Split application at 25:50:25 per cent or 25:25:50 per cent of the required N during basal, 25 and 45 DAS registered respectively 21.02 and 19.77 per cent enhanced grain production than single application. Recovery of 15N by plant, higher translocation to grain and more retention in soil forecasted the necessity for split application of the required N either at 25:50:25 or 25:25:50 during basal, 25 and 45 DAS for maize crop. (author)

  20. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1m×2m×1.2m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240kgNha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240kgNha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120kgNha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240kgha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4kgNO3(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410kgha(-1). Furthermore, 180kgNha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837kgha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0kgNO3(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China. PMID:25681775

  1. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased gra 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

  2. Response of Soil CO2 Emission and Summer Maize Yield to Plant Density and Straw Mulching in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Quanru Liu; Xinhui Liu; Chengyue Bian; Changjian Ma; Kun Lang; Huifang Han; Quanqi Li

    2014-01-01

    Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6?...

  3. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  4. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Amanpour-balaneji, Bahman; Sedghi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams) were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive a...

  5. Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

  6. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  7. Response of soil CO2 emission and summer maize yield to plant density and straw mulching in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanru; Liu, Xinhui; Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Lang, Kun; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6 kg m(-2) to fields with plant densities of 100,000, 75,000, and 55,000 plants ha(-1). The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75,000 plants ha(-1), which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75,000 plants ha(-1) is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain. PMID:25147835

  8. Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

  9. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new crops are grown. In recent years, leaf diseases have caused production problems over several seasons. Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play a role but have not yet been clearly verified as major diseases in Scandinavia.

  10. Planting date and row spacing affects grain yield and height of pearl millet Tifgrain 102 in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Maas; Ww, Hanna; Bg, Mullinix

    2007-01-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a drought tolerant cereal grain typically grown as a forage crop in the United States. New high-yielding dwarf grain pearl millet hybrids have generated interest in millet as a substitute for maize and sorghum because of its ability to reliably produce grain on sandy, acidic, low fertility soils of the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to determine optimum planting date, row spacing, and nitrogen rate for grain production. Rust ...

  11. Diallel analyze of yield and progress of the severity of leaf diseases in maize hybrids in two population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ventura Faria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven commercial maize hybrids (AS1575, 2B688, Penta, GNZ2004, AG8021, Sprint e P30F53 were intercrossed in a complete diallel, excluded reciprocal, obtaining 21 crosses. The 28 treatments were evaluated in two environments characterized by different densities (62,500 and 90,000 plants ha-1, with the aim of selecting the most promising parents for generating base population to obtain lines. Two experiments were carried out in Guarapuava-PR, at randomized block design with three replications. We estimated the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities for yield and disease severity assessed by the area under the common rust (Puccinia sorghi progress curve (AURPC and the area under the leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis progress curve (AULPC. The effects of GCA and SCA were significant for grain yield and diseases severity in both densities, revealing the importance of both additive and non-additive effects. There GCA x densities interaction was significant only for grain yield. Crossings P30F53 x AG8021 and P30F53 x Penta had negative estimates of SCA for AURPC and AULPC on the environments average. Hybrids GNZ 2004 and P30F53 stood out showing positive GCA for grain yield and negative for AURPC and AULPC in both densities and therefore are recommended for generating base populations for obtaining lines adapted for both densities, conventional and denser plantings, given the current trends in management of maize.

  12. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Courtman; J.B.J., van Ryssen; A., Oelofse.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contai [...] ned below 50 µg selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals and humans. The geographical distribution of Se values of maize grain is consistent with that of previous studies on the Se status of herbivores in South Africa, suggesting that plants growing in most of the maize-producing areas of the country contain low concentrations of Se. However, these findings contradict those of the soil Se status in the country as reported by the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, which states that the eastern part of the maize-producing areas of the country tends to have adequate to high soil Se levels and the western areas to have low levels. These contradictory results can be explained to a large extent by the varying soil pH throughout the country. Soil pH plays a primary role in the availability of selenium to plants. Although the eastern parts of the country tend to have high Se concentration in the soil, it is not available to the maize plant owing to a low soil pH, while in the western parts of the country, where soil pH may be suitable for Se uptake by plants, there seems to be an inadequate concentration of available Se in the soil.

  13. Transportation and distribution of 14C-assimilate from functional leaves in the development of grains of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on distribution of 14C-assimilates from functional leaves in grains of maize at filling stage was carried out. The results showed that distribution of 14C-photosynthetic products in grains of each row of ear were similar while in grains of different position within the same row were different. The amount of 14C-photosynthetic products in the ear was in order of middle grains>bottom grains>top grains. It was also found that 14C-photosynthetic products between the grains next to each other were significant different. The distribution pattern of 14C-photosynthetic products in grains of maize is also discussed

  14. Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

  15. Simultaneous Selection for Fodder and Grain Yield in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Biswas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 31 selection indices were constructed on five characters in 33 diversed genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.. High heretability couple with high genetic advance expected in the next generation and association of characters were the basis for choosing of the characters for discriminant function analysis. Green fodder yield and grain yield have to be simultaneously improved through selection. Amongst the single character selection indices, grains/panicle offered maximum genetic worth (11.51. In general, inclusion of every character in the function, exerted a progressive relative efficiency over straight selection. The highest relative efficiency over straight selection on grain yield alone was realized while grain yield/plant (x1, fodder cutting maturity (x2, green fodder yield/plant (x3, digestible dry matter/plant (x4 and grains/panicle (x5 were concurrently integrated in the function.

  16. Influence of Different Osmopriming Treatments on Emergency and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor crop establishment can be major constrain to produce crop yield in marginal soils. The present study, was designed to investigate the effect of osmopriming on emergence and yield of maize (Zea mays L.. For osmopriming seeds were treated in aerated solutions of KNO3, KH2PO4 and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000 for 24 under room condition. Osmotic potential of the solutions were 0 (control, -0.5, -1.0 and -1.5 MPa. Control seeds were not treated. After osmopriming operation seeds were given 3 surfaces washing with distilled water then re-dried to near original weight under shad. Results showed grain and biological yields and some yield components affected by osmopriming treatments. Our results indicated solution kind and osmotic potential effected above characters. We obtain osmopriming of maize (Zea mays L. seeds with polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8000 at -0.5 MPa osmotic potential improved emergency, grain and biological yields compared with other treatments.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

  18. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I Three Year Yield Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006 field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

  19. Improving sustainable intensification of cereal-grain legume cropping systems in the savannahs of West Africa: Quantifying residual effects of legumes on maize, enhancing P mobilization by legumes and studying long-term Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved cereal-grain-legume systems, allowing farmers to use their land productively on a continuous basis, are being rapidly developed and adopted by small-scale farmers in the West African Moist Savannah. This paper summarizes work on several issues related to the improvement of productivity and sustainability of these intensified systems. A first study looked at the sustainability of several legume-maize cropping systems in a 5-year field trial at Sekou, Benin. Fairly low maize yields were found in continuous maize cropping systems (maize/maize), poor response to N fertilizer beyond 45 kg N ha-1, and no evidence that P and K were limiting crop yield. Over the last 5 years of the trial, maize/Mucuna relay cropping gave consistently a 2000 kg ha-1 yield increase relative to maize/maize cropping, and most of this yield gain was preserved even when Mucuna residues were removed from the plots when planting the next year's maize crop. Some yield gain, although far less than with maize/Mucuna, was observed in the maize/pigeon pea system. The maize/cowpea system offered no maize yield gain over maize/maize cropping. In a second study, enhanced isotopic methods to determine the plant available P allowed us to test the hypothesis that certain legume accessions can mobilize sparingly-available P. In one out of the 3 West-African Moist Savannah soils studied, we found that cowpea could access sparingly soluble soil P that is unavailable to maize. This moil P that is unavailable to maize. This mobilization of P was only observed when P deficiency occurred. These results confirm the P efficiency of some legume genotypes, which may lead to benefits of improved P availability by the incorporation of legumes in rotation systems. A third study, involving a 16-year continuous-cropping field experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria, provided information on long-term changes in soil organic matter carbon (SOC) contents in savannah soils with sandy top soil. In the control treatments with continuous maize and cowpea cropping without trees, SOC levels dropped from the initial 15.4 Mg C ha-1 to 7.3-8.0 Mg C ha-1 in 16 years (SOC content in 1700 Mg ha-1 equivalent soil mass). In the two continuously cropped alley cropping systems (Leucaena and Senna), the SOC levels dropped to levels between 10.7 and 13.2 Mg C ha-1. The 13C natural abundance technique yielded useful information to test the ROTHC- 26.3 SOC model in sub-humid tropical conditions under a complex pattern of cropping systems. (author)

  20. Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of maize in loess plateau of northwest china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China. (author)

  1. Gene Action for Yield and Morpho-Physiological Traits in Maize (Zea mays L. Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sandeep Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of 28 hybrids generated by crossing 8 diverse and new maize inbred lines in a half diallel fashion. The estimated value of average degree of dominance (H1/D0.5 revealed that non-additive genetic effects was more pronounced in the inheritance of days to 50 per cent maturity, anthesis-silking interval and grain yield per plant. On contrary, additive genetic effects was evident for days to 50 per cent tasseling and days to 50 per cent silking. The distribution of positive and negative genes were not too distant  for the traits viz., days to 50 per cent tasseling, days to 50 per cent  silking and grain yield per plant. Dominance to recessive genes ratio [4DH1]0.5 + F / [4DH1]0.5- F ranged from one to two, indicating that excess of dominant genes against one recessive genes were not much higher. The results indicated that most traits were under the genetic control of non-additive (over dominance type of gene action, therefore the material can easily be exploited for heterotic effect.

  2. Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses on maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Urrego-pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Marti?nez-cob, Antonio; Cavero Campo, Jose?

    2013-01-01

    Daytime sprinkler irrigation with a solid-set system can result in higher water losses, lower uniformity, and lower maize (Zea mays L.) yield compared with nighttime irrigation. We studied the relevance of irrigation time (daytime or nighttime) and water losses (compensating them or not in the irrigation applied) for the growth and yield of maize during 2 yr. The seasonal average sprinkler water losses compensated ranged from 14 to 19% for daytime irrigation and from 5 to 11% for nighttime ir...

  3. Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize and sorghum grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Crosby; G.D., Mendoza; I., Bonola; F.X., Plata; H., Sandoval; L.M., Melgoza.

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release a-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibil [...] ity of sorghum and maize grain was measured after 6 and 12 hours of fermentation with or without exogenous a-amylase in powder form or dispersed in a matrix system for slow release by a diffusional mechanism. Tablets were used as the drug release matrix system, and were formulated with barium sulphate and ethylcellulose as the core of the final tablet. Treatments consisted of incubation of sorghum or maize grains with four doses of enzyme, using a-amylase in powder or in the press-coated tablet (16 treatments). The results showed that with a higher dose of exogenous enzyme, the digestibility of the grains was improved. Sorghum and maize digestion with tablets were improved compared with a-amylase in powder form. Releasing a-amylase from matrix tablets represents a potential technology to improve grain digestion in ruminants.

  4. Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Idziak; Zenon, Woznica.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effe [...] ctive weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1) and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1) with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) and ammonium nitrate (AMN) adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1) and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively).

  5. Grain Yield Potential of Garden Peas (Pisum sativum L. Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hatam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield potential in relation to other important agronomic characters of 1 1 vegetable pea (P. sativum L. germplasm was tested during rabi 1999-2000. Germplasm PS-02 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 3167 kg ha-1, while germplasm PS-10 with 3056 kg ha-1 ranked second. Minimum yield of 91 1 kg ha-1 was obtained by PS-07, followed by PS-11 with 1389 kg ha-1 Average grain yield of group I was 45% higher than the average yield of group II. The average values of grain yield decreased in descending order from 2756 to 1513 kg ha-1 in group I and group II, respectively. Similarly the average values of plant height, branches per plant, dry matter yield and pods per plant decreased in descending order i.e. 1 37 to 89 cm, 2.5 to 2.2, 8490 to 3759 kg ha-1 and 1 1 to 7 in group I and group II, respectively and showed positive relationship with grain yield. The average values of pod length and harvest index increased in descending order i.e. 4.2 to 4.9 cm and 31.7 to 43.9 % in group I and group II, respectively. The relationship of days to maturity, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight with grain yield was not very well established. The association of harvest index with dry matter yield was significantly negative.

  6. Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro; Josana de Abreu Rodrigues; Marina Prigol; Cristina Wayne Nogueira; Lindolfo Storck; Eduardo Muller Gruhn

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min), and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM]), calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM), iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM),...

  7. High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dragana, Ignjatovic-Micic; Marija, Kostadinovic; Sofija, Bozinovic; Violeta, Andjelkovic; Jelena, Vancetovic.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collecti [...] on, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p

  8. Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou, A.; Kossou, D.; Acakpo, K.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi melon-cotton-cotton-maize, cotton-maize-cotton-maize and cassava-maize-cotton-maize) including for each, four replications of three fertilizer treatments: recommended practice [150 kg ha -1 of 14-23-14 ...

  9. Rendimiento y calidad de elote en poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tehuacán, Puebla / Yield and quality of tender maize from native maize populations of Tehuacán, Puebla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Ortiz-Torres; Pedro Antonio, López; Abel, Gil-Muñoz; Juan de Dios, Guerrero-Rodríguez; Higinio, López-Sánchez; Oswaldo R., Taboada-Gaytán; J. Arahón, Hernández-Guzmán; Mario, Valadez-Ramírez.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el estado de Puebla, la región más importante en producción de maíz (Zea mays L.) para elote es Tehuacán. Las variedades usadas son principalmente poblaciones nativas, de las cuales se desconoce su potencial para la producción de elote y la calidad del mismo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue [...] evaluar agronómicamente un conjunto de poblaciones nativas de maíz colectadas en Tehuacán, para determinar su variación en rendimiento y calidad de elote. En 2009 se evaluaron 100 variedades en tres localidades bajo condiciones de riego, de las cuales 95 fueron colectadas en el área de Tehuacán. Las cinco restantes fueron dos variedades mejoradas y tres testigos raciales de Bolita, Celaya y Pepitilla. Se midieron 20 variables de planta y elote. Los resultados del análisis de varianza combinado mostraron en todas las variables evaluadas, excepto en una, diferencias altamente significativas (P ? 0.01) entre variedades, lo que indica la presencia de diversidad para tales características entre los maíces nativos estudiados. En rendimiento de elote, un grupo de 16 poblaciones nativas resultó sobresaliente (P ? 0.05). La variedad local TEH77 obtuvo el mayor número de características deseables para rendimiento y calidad de elote: rendimiento promedio de 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11.3 °Brix, 13.7 cm de longitud de mazorca, 5.5 cm de ancho de mazorca y 30.7 granos por hilera. Esta variedad superó al mejor híbrido comercial 'AS900' en 52, 23, 30, 33 y 47 % en rendimiento (kg·ha-1), contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), longitud y diámetro de mazorca (cm), número de hileras y granos por hilera, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the state of Puebla, Tehuacán is the most important region in the production of tender maize (Zea mays L.) sold on the cob. The varieties used are mainly native populations, whose potential for production and quality are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate agronomically a set of native [...] maize populations collected in Tehuacán to determine their variation in tender maize yield and quality. In 2009, 100 irrigated varieties were evaluated in three locations; of these 95 were collected in the Tehuacán area. The remaining five were two improved varieties and three control races: Bolita, Celaya and Pepitilla. Twenty variables were measured on plant and ear. The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ? 0.01) among varieties, except one, indicating presence of diversity for the characteristics measured among the native maize under study. In tender maize yield, the group of 16 native populations was outstanding (P ? 0.05). The local variety TEH77 had the highest number of desirable traits for yield and quality of tender maize ears: average yield 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11,3 °Brix, 13.7 cm ear length, 5.5 cm ear width and 39.7 grains per row. This variety surpassed the best commercial hybrid 'AS900' by 52, 23, 30, 33 and 47 % in yield kg·ha-1, total soluble solids content (°Brix), ear length and diameter (cm), number of rows and grains per row, respectively.

  10. Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum Cultivars Grown as Second Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Gul; Veysel Saruhan

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 second crop season in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Block with three Replications. In the research, were used 24 grain sorghum cultivars to determine high yielding cultivars. The grain yields of the grain sorghum cultivars varied between 3383.8-8248.0 kg ha-1 in the research. In all the observed characters, statistically significant differences were determined among cultivars. As...

  11. Application of molecular markers in bulk segragant analysis of yield in maize (Zea mays L synthetic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatovi?-Mici? Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome regions which carry potential QTLs for high grain yield in two synthetic maize populations - B73xMol7 and LlxMol7, were identified by bulk segregant analysis (BSA. Yield was evaluated on F2 testcross families in field trials using a Nested design. Based on yield data, p3 families with the corresponding highest and lowest testcross yields were selected for BSA. Genome analysis of F3 families was carried out with 58 RFLP markers. Allele frequency differences were detected at four RFLP loci n chromosomes 1, 2, 6 and 10 (B73xMol7, i.e. four RFLP loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 6 and 9 (LlxMo17. Only one region, at chromosome 6, was identified in both populations, but with two different RFLP markers. In B73xMol7 it was umc65 and in LlxMol7 umc2l RFLP marker. Bulk segregant analysis was shown to be a quick and informative method for identification of chromosome regions which determine high yield expression in maize, i.e. for identification of RFLP markers closely linked to potential genes involved in expression of the trait.

  12. Effect of Soil Fertility Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Maize Yield in Smallholder Farmers Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tabu, I. M.; Obura, R. K.; Bationo, A.; Mumera, L.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soil fertility management and N fertilizer rates on maize yield in farmers` fields. Participatory (transect walks and soil mapping) and laboratory analysis methods were used to identify and quantify the soil fertility management niches. A Completely Randomized Block Design experiment was then conducted whereby hybrid maize (H625) was planted in plot sizes (4 x 5) m2 and N treatments 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1 applied. A significant intera...

  13. Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Nezarat, S.; Gholami, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In seco...

  14. Effect of FYM and Phosphorus Fertilization on Yield and its Components of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, A. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to maximize the productivity of maize several investigators indicated the need of maximizing the use of mineral and organic fertilizers. Therefore, this investigation was conducted for two summer seasons (2010 and 2011) in the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture (Gazala site), Zagazig University, Egypt. The study aimed at finding out the response of maize yield and its components to five levels of P fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg P2O5...

  15. Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Po...

  16. Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min, and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM], calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM, iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM, zinc (>29.05 mg kg-1 DM and copper (>8.67 mg kg-1 DM concentrations, and their dietary use is therefore recommended. Cal-96 line presents higher Z index for grain yield and for the most of the minerals, and its use is recommended for crosses for the development of superior lines.

  17. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongman M, Khare KB* and Khonga EB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55% and barley grains (3.46, 14 days, 13 days and 55.24% in terms of mycelium growth vigor, colonization time, spawn running time of the substrate and yield  of the oyster mushroom. Hot water treatment and steaming of substrate significantly reduced substrate contamination and improved mushroom yield as compared to the untreated control. Mushrooms grown on steamed substrates had significantly higher yield (BE: 69.4% than those grown on substrates treated with hot water (BE: 53.3%.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Application on Biomass Production, Yield and Nitrogen Fixation of Legumes and Maize Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, M. A.; Yasmin, K.; Lone, M. I.; Khan, K. S.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen application on biomass production and yield of legumes and maize under rainfed field conditions was studied to estimate the amount of nitrogen fixed by various leguminous crops under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions and to compare the yield, income and net return of legumes and non-legumes. Yield and biomass of summer legumes were not affected significantly with N application but in case of maize there was an increase of 69 and 74 per cent in dry matter and grai...

  19. Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilimba, Allan D. C.; Young, Scott D.; Black, Colin R.; Rogerson, Katie B.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Lammel, Joachim; Broadley, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diets but the risk of suboptimal intake increases where food choices are narrow. Here we show that suboptimal dietary intake (i.e. 20–30?µg?Se?person?1?d?1) is widespread in Malawi, based on a spatial integration of Se concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) grain and soil surveys for 88 field sites, representing 10 primary soil types and >75% of the national land area. The median maize grain Se concentration was 0.019?mg?kg?1 (range 0.005–0.533), a mean intake of 6.7?µg?Se?person?1?d?1 from maize flour based on national consumption patterns. Maize grain Se concentration was up to 10-fold higher in crops grown on soils with naturally high pH (>6.5) (Eutric Vertisols). Under these less acidic conditions, Se becomes considerably more available to plants due to the greater solubility of Se(IV) species and oxidation to Se(VI). PMID:22355591

  20. Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and Some Yield Components in Pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Ceyhanand Mehmet Ali Avci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the general and specific ability, the heterosis, heterobeltiosis for grain yield and some yield components in pea as a good source of plant protein. Grain yield and its inheritance were studied in four pea cultivar and three winter pea genotypes by crossing them in line x tester fashion. The General Combining Ability (GCA and Specific Combining Ability (SCA effects were highly significant, indicating the presence of both additive and non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of additive variance to dominance variance indicated the predominant role of non-additive gene action for all traits. Heterosis was determined as the superiority over the mid-parent (HMP and also over the better parent (HBP. Hybrids generally showed a better yielding than their parental genotypes. Grain yield showed highly significant heterosis: 83.2% heterosis over mid-parent and 66.8% heterosis over better-parent, respectively. An estimate of heritability (narrow sense was low due to the major role of environmental factors in expression of grain yield and yield components in pea. Thus, delay selection was suggested for breeding of stable yielding lines. Correlation studies showed that the grain yield was significant positive correlated with plant height, pod number, seeds of pod and pod yield. The highest direct effect was exhibited by pod yield, indirect effects, especially through the pod number in the parents and hybrids.

  1. Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes

    OpenAIRE

    Brou Kouakou; Gbogouri Albarin; Ocho Anin Louise; Dede Theodore, Djeni N.; Kone Youssouf; Gnakri Dago

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeabi...

  2. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  3. Preliminary evaluation of grain yield components in hexaploid tritordeum

    OpenAIRE

    Barth Pinto, Ronald Jose?; A?lvarez, Juan Bautista; Marti?n, Luis Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome duplication of Hordeum chilense and Triticum turgidum conv. durum hybrids created a new cereal with favorable characteristics for planting: the hexaploid tritordeum (X Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner). A field experiment with three replications was carried out in Cordoba, Spain, to obtain more information on the potential yield of tritordeum for grain yield and its components. The performance of two advanced tritordeums was compared with the yield of two commercial whe...

  4. Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Khorramabad, Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghalavand

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to use organic fertilizers and decrease chemical fertilizers consumption to reach sustainable agriculture. Thus, to study the effects of manure incorporation methods, and integrated effects of poultry manure with chemical fertilizers on the grain yield and yield components of maize, an experiment was conducted in 2004 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Lorestan Weather Department, 30 kms northeast of Khorramabad. The treatments were arranged in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of incorporation of fertilizer with soil by furrower or disk. The subplots included T0: control (no consumption of fertilizer and poultry manure; T1: 200, 100, and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively; T2: 80% of T1+ 4 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T3: 60% of T1+ 8 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T4: 40% of T1+ 12 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T5: 20% of T1+ 16 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; and T6: 20 ton ha-1 of poultry manure. The results showed that incorporation of fertilizer by furrower, compared with disk, led to significant increase in plant height, 1000 seed weight and grain and biological yields. However, there were not significant differences in the number of seed per ear and harvest index between the two fertilizer incorporation methods. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increase of the treats mentioned except for the harvest index. The interaction effects were not significant for any traits. T5 treatment produced the highest grain yield, and was significantly different from T0, T1, T3 and T6 treatments. The differences between T1 (chemical nutrition system and T6 (organic nutrition system were not significant either. Effectiveness of integrated poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on maize yield components was higher than either poultry manure or chemical fertilizer. The results of this experiment indicated that incorporation of 16 ton poultry manure + 40, 20 and 20 kg ha-1 N, P and K with furrower might be appropriate for maize prodution under conditions similar to this experiment.

  5. EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eche N. Mary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a “balanced” fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

  6. Crescimento e produtividade de milho em função da cultura antecessora / Maize growth and yield according to the previous crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila de, Oliveira; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; João, Kluthcouski; Tomás de Aquino, Portes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de plantas de cobertura, no sistema plantio direto, pode proporcionar melhores condições para o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, com reflexos positivos na produtividade de grãos. Mediante a técnica de análise de crescimento, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar o desempenho agronômic [...] o de milho cultivado sobre palhada de feijão comum, Brachiaria brizantha e milheto. O Experimento foi conduzido em solo de Cerrado, em Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com três tratamentos (palhadas de cobertura) e cinco repetições. A velocidade de decomposição da palhada de feijão comum foi maior que a de B. brizantha e milheto. Os maiores valores de acúmulo de matéria seca das folhas, colmos, espigas e total, bem como do índice de área foliar e produtividade de grãos de milho, foram obtidos quando o cultivo ocorreu sobre palhada de feijão comum. Abstract in english The use of cover crops in the no-tillage system can provide better conditions for the development of maize plants, with positive effects on grain yield. By using the growth analysis technique, this study aimed at characterizing the agronomic performance of maize on common bean, Brachiaria brizantha [...] and millet straw. The experiment was carried out in a Brazilian Savannah soil, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three treatments (cover crops) and five replications. The common bean straw decomposition rate was higher than the B. Brizantha and millet ones. The highest values for the dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, cobs and total, as well as leaf area index and maize grain yield, were observed when cultivated on common bean straw.

  7. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly MØller

    The maize area in northern Europe has increased dramatically during the last 20 years, in Denmark from 19,000 ha in 1990 to 172,000 ha in 2010. Knowledge about nitrogen (N) leaching from maize under temperate coastal climate conditions is sparse. In 2009 an N leaching study was started in a field trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize, each previous long-term treatment with soil tillage and cover crop was sub-divided into two, one with perennial ryegrass as cover crop and one without cover crop. The maize was sown in 2009 and 2010 and fertilized with 140 kg N ha-1. The objectives were to determine the effects on leaching of i) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn due to strong competition from the maize crop. The experiment shows that it is difficult for the perennial ryegrass variety used as cover crop to survive until harvest of grain maize and to reduce leaching substantially.

  8. Isolation of high-quality RNA from grains of different maize varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Buss, Julieti Huch; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Nora, Leonardo; e Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos Anjos; Margis, Rogério; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2014-10-01

    The study of gene expression in maize varieties represents a powerful tool aiming to increase vitamin A precursors. However, the isolation of RNA from different maize varieties is challenging because these varieties show different levels of polysaccharides, and most methods available for RNA isolation are inappropriate for grain samples. The polysaccharides co-purify and co-precipitate with RNA during isolation, resulting in low-quality RNA, compromising the use of RNA in subsequent applications. Thus, a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based method was adapted in this study and compared with six methods for RNA isolation, including commercial reagents and RNA and DNA isolation kits, in order to identify the most appropriate for maize grains from different varieties. Most of the methods evaluated were considered inadequate due to limitations in terms of purity and/or quantity of the isolated RNA, which affected the efficiency of subsequent RT-qPCR analysis, resulting in nonamplification of ?-carotene hydroxylase gene (HYD3) or high deviation among replicates. However, the CTAB modified method allowed the study to obtain intact RNA, with high quality and quantity, from 25 maize varieties. Furthermore, this RNA was successfully used to evaluate the expression of HYD3 gene by real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and thus represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost strategy. PMID:24400636

  9. Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

  10. The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleti? Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

  11. Maize Yield Response in a Long-term Rotation and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Agyare, W. A.; Clottey, V. A.; Mercer-quarshie, H.; Kombiok, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    To sustain crop production, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, sorghum and cassava were compared for their potential in crop rotation or as an intercropping partner to maize over an eleven-year period in Northern Ghana. The trial in each year consisted of 12 treatments arranged in an RCBD with five replicates. There was a gradual decline in maize yield for groundnut-maize, soybean-maize and cassava-maize as compared to a rapid decline in the other rotation combinations over the years. The best combi...

  12. PHENOTYPIC GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudari?

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield as well as adaptability level of several domestic soybean cultivars. The trials were conducted on three locations in the region of the eastern Croatia (Osijek, Brijest, Donji Miholjac in the period from 1998-2002 and involved 14 soybean cultivars. Tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. They belong to maturity groups 0, 0-I and I according to vegetation period length. Two parameters are used in the analysis of yield stability and cultivar adaptability: portion of variance of genotype x environment interaction of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxE and regression coefficient (bi. Obtained results indicated significant differences in level and stability of grain yield as well as level of cultivar adaptability. Six of the 14 tested cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Smiljana, Kuna, Anica and Tisa had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Other tested cultivars had unstable grain yield and narrow (specific adaptability.

  13. Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

  14. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1 applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1. With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41 and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

  15. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos / Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Solange, França; João, Mielniczuk; Luís M. G., Rosa; Homero, Bergamaschi; João I., Bergonci.

    1143-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N) disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF), a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após [...] a emergência (DAE) em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M), aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C) e ervilhaca/milho (E/M) e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1) aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M) e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C). Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1). Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE), o maior IAF (4,41) e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%), enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE) e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE). O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N) to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI), shoot dry matter (SDM) production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with [...] three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata) and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1) applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1). The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1). With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41) and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

  16. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  17. FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa, Crestani; Rafael, Nornberg; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quali [...] ty.

  18. HEDGEROW PRUNING EFFECTS ON LIGHT INTERCEPTION, WATER RELATIONS AND YIELD IN ALLEY CROPPED MAIZE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In alley cropping, trees and crops compete for light, nutrients and water. However, there was a paucity of information on how hedgerow pruning would impact light interception, water relations and yield in an alley cropped maize system. Competition between mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durazz) hedgero...

  19. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Ia?i contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

  20. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed HU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS. The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought.

  1. Effect of a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP) on nitrate leaching and maize yield during two growing seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Di?ez Lo?pez, Jose? Antonio; Herna?iz, Pedro J.; Arauzo, Mercedes; Carrasco Marti?n, I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) to urea on nitrate leaching and maize (Zea mays L.) yield over two growing seasons. Two nitrogen (N) levels (optimum and excessive) were applied to an irrigated maize crop under Mediterranean conditions. There were five treatments: optimal N (as urea) and the same dose plus DMPP; optimal N (as urea plus 40 kg N ha-1) and the same N dose plus DMPP; and a control with no added N fe...

  2. Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Tabu, I. M.; Obura, R. K.; Bationo, A.; Nakhone, L.

    2005-01-01

    Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols) were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and Mollic gleyso...

  3. The fractal dimension of agricultural parcels considering maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Da Silva, Jr; Silva, Ll; Sousa, Amo

    2012-01-01

    Before making any decisions, all farm managers would like to have some indication about the effectiveness of a particular investment, especially when investing in precision agriculture technologies. Usually, the best indicator should be associated with the yield geometric complexity and its spatial and temporal dynamics. The fractal dimension of corn yield in a given year was calculated for six studied parcels, considering the fractal dimension of yield buffer zones above and b...

  4. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tan?i?

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  5. Evaluating YieldTracker forecast for maize in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    We seek to predict in-season land productivity to guide irrigation management decisions designed to optimize water utilization in the Ogallala Aquifer region. YieldTracker is a mathematical model that simulates growth and yield of graminoid crops using weather and leaf area index (LAI) as inputs, wh...

  6. Grain yield and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat and pea in a high yielding environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Sandaña; D, Pinochet.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of grain yield, phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE, g yield g-1 P available) and related root traits of wheat and pea to different P availabilities in a high yielding environment (e.g.: yield higher than 10 Mg ha-1 for wheat). Two experiments [...] were conducted in southern Chile. Treatments consisted of the combination of (i) two crops (spring-bred wheat and pea) and (ii) three rates of P fertilization (0 (P0), 100 (P1) and 250 (P2) kg P ha-1). Grain yield of wheat was more sensitive to P deficiency than pea. Wheat showed consistently higher (P

  7. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vrani?

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  8. High yielding small grain mutant of rice variety Pankaj

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By treatment with EMS a mutant has been produced from the variety Pankaj which has better tillering, longer panicle and more grains per panicle. In multilocation trials at Burdwan, Suri and Rampurhat in West Bengal it yielded significantly more than Pankaj and Mahsuri at all locations, with a mean 5.2t. The mutant named BU 79 would be a suitable substitute for Pankaj and similar long-duration rices. (author)

  9. Variable rate fertilization for maize and its effects based on the site specific soil fertility and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiments of variable rate fertilization (VRF) for maize were carried out using a self-developed VRF system. In the studies, prescriptions of VRF were made for maize according to the nutrient levels in soil and the theory of yield goal. The results of this study have shown that VRF increased...

  10. Variable rate fertilization for maize and its effects based on the site-specific soil fertility and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiments of variable rate fertilization (VRF) for maize were carried out using a self-developed VRF system. In the studies, prescriptions of VRF were made for maize according to the nutrient levels in soil and the theory of yield goal. The results of this study have shown that VRF increased...

  11. Effect of time of sowing and system Brachiaria brizantha intercropped with maize on yield components and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edleusa Pereira Seidel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4; sown in two seasons and two seeding systems in space between two rows, and to evaluate the effect of intercropping on maize yield, as well as evaluating the physical properties of the soil after the consortium. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2010, the Municipality of Quatro Pontes/PR. The experimental design was randomized blocks as a factorial 2x2, and an additional treatment that was corn cultivation single, with four replications. The treatments consisted two intercropping systems: corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in the row, and corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in space between two rows, and two times of sowing Brachiaria brizantha: simultaneously corn, and twenty-five days after sowing corn. The seed was planted mechanically in no-tillage system, with spacing between the lines of 0,70 m. The ears were harvested by hand and in the laboratory were evaluated: yield components and productivity. Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4 was sown and harvested manually. We evaluated the production of fresh and dry mass and yield components. For soil analyzes the soil was sampled at 0-0.10 and 0,10-0,20 m. Were determined the total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. The results demonstrated that the production components of Brachiaria brizantha were lower when it was sown twenty-five days after sowing corn, and between sowing systems when Brachiaria brizantha was sown in line. There was no reduction in grain yield of maize intercropped with Brachiaria system independent and sowing date. The consortium of pasture with corn increased the total porosity, and reduced soil bulk density.

  12. Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

  13. Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kahraman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lüleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, K?z?ltan95, Ayd?n 93 and Alt?n 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

  14. The long-term effects of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system in Southern Malawi, on gliricidia and maize yields, and soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Makumba, W. I. H.; Janssen, B. H.; Oenema, O.; Akinnifesi, F. K.; Mweta, D.; Kwesiga, F. R.

    2006-01-01

    A gliricidia¿maize (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)¿Zea mays L.) simultaneous intercropping agroforestry system has shown to be a suitable option for soil fertility improvement and yield increase in highly populated areas of sub Saharan Africa where landholding sizes are very small and inorganic fertilizer use is very low. An 11 year old field experiment, gliricidia¿maize simultaneous intercropping, with and without a small application of inorganic fertilizer was studied to increase our understa...

  15. Heritability studies for grain yield and yield components in F3 segregating generation of spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heritability estimates provide information about the extent of which a particular genetic character to be transmitted to the successive generations. Heritability studies were conducted in four F3 segregating populations originated through cross combinations of 6 wheat varieties/advanced lines i.e., Sarsabz, Soghat-90, Marvi-2000, SI-91195, SD-1200/14 and IB-25/99 at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam during 2004-05. Genetic variance, environmental variance, heritability percentage in broad sense and genetic advance were estimated for different grain yield and yield contributing traits. The highest heritability (83.09%) associated with genetic advance (55.39) for grain yield was observed in cross combination of Marvi-2000 x Soghat-90 followed by Marvi-2000 x SI-91195 (80.0%; GA: 39.9), revealed good parental combination for effective selection for high yielding plants in segregating population. (author)

  16. Application of a New Mathematical Model for Estimating Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Karadavut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out International Agricultural Research Institute’s experimental areas in Konya province in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. In the research, three corn cultivars (P 3394, DK 585 and NS 640 were tested in randomized complete block design with four replications. The interelation between the productivity of Zea mays and the increasing of it’s generative organs during the phenological phase ‘tasseling-milky ripeness’, as far as the dependence of this relation on some factors influencing crop grow, provide a basis for a quantity analysis left to this work. The potantial yield of the used hybrid was the only parametric index from the stock of the growth limiting factors, which take part in the analysis. Environmental factors, especially sum of effective temperatures, precipitation and nitorgen supply, were strongly effected yield formation. The interrelation between these factors gave us a real possibility to determine the function of the growth and yield.

  17. Maize Growth and Yield under Daytime and Nighttime Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cavero Campo, Jose?; Jime?nez, Laura; Puig Basa, Miriam; Faci Gonza?lez, Jose? Mari?a; Marti?nez-cob, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Nighttime sprinkler irrigation usually results in lower wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) and better irrigation uniformity compared with daytime irrigation. However, daytime sprinkler irrigation modifies the microclimatic conditions within the crop canopy which could result in improved crop growth. We studied the effect of daytime and nighttime irrigation on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) irrigated with a solid-set sprinkler system. Two irrigation treatments were tested: ...

  18. Impacts of Conservation Tillage Systems on Maize and Soybean Yields of Eroded Illinois Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, K. R.; Ebelhar, S. A.; Lang, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, millions of hectares of highly erodible cropland have been in the Conservation Reserve Programme (CRP) for the past 10 to 20 years. Any conversion of CRP land back to maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) production would require the use of conservation tillage systems such as conservation tillage to meet federal and state soil erosion control standards. Evaluations of crop yield response of these conservation tillage systems such as no-till (NT) and chi...

  19. Effect of sodium and nitrogen on yield function of irrigated maize in Southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Tiago; Gonc?alves, M. C.; Castanheira, N. L.; Martins, J. C.; Santos, F. L.; Fernandes, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Salinization and nitrate leaching are two of the leading threats to the environment of the European Mediterranean regions. Inefficient use of water and fertilizers has led to a nitrate increase in the aquifers and reduction in crop yields caused by salts. In this study, a triple emitter source irrigation system delivers water, salt (Na+), and fertilizer (N) applications to maize (Zea mays L.). The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of saline water and nitrogen applicat...

  20. Variable sensitivity of US maize yield to high temperatures across developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E. E.; Huybers, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of maize to high temperatures has been widely demonstrated. Furthermore, field work has indicated that reproductive development stages are particularly sensitive to stress, but this relationship has not been quantified across a wide geographic region. Here, the relationship between maize yield and temperature variations is examined as a function of developmental stage. US state-level data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service provide dates for six growing stages: planting, silking, doughing, dented, mature, and harvested. Temperatures that correspond to each developmental stage are then inferred from a network of weather station observations interpolated to the county level, and a multiple linear regression technique is employed to estimate the sensitivity of county yield outcomes to variations in growing-degree days and an analogous measure of high temperatures referred to as killing-degree days. Uncertainties in the transition times between county-level growth stages are accounted for. Results indicate that the silking and dented stages are generally the most sensitive to killing degree days, with silking the most sensitive stage in the US South and dented the most sensitive in the US North. These variable patterns of sensitivity aid in interpreting which weather events are of greatest significance to maize yields and provide some insight into how shifts in planting time or changes in developmental timing would influence the risks associated with exposure to high temperatures.

  1. Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nezarat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area. The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

  2. Influence of Relative Humidity and Temperature on the Changes in Grain Moisture in Stored Soybean and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Volenik; Vlatka Rozman; Irma Kalinovic; Anita Liska; Darko Kiš; Branimir Šimi?

    2007-01-01

    These investigations aimed to determine influence of the changes in relative humidity and temperature in storage facilities on the moisture in grain of stored soybean and maize. Soybean (“Podravka 95” variety) and maize (“OSSK 644” hybrid) were stored during 34 days at the temperatures of 0oC and 20oC, and relative humidity of 55%, 73%, 80% and 98%. At the temperature of 0oC and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased, 2.4% and 1.9%, while at the relative...

  3. EFFECT OF MAIZE HARVEST DELAY ON THE INCIDENCE OF SPOILED GRAINS AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO ANARACY SANTIN

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of harvest delay on the incidence of spoiled grains and pathogenic fungi on maize grains of the hybrids XL 212 and XL 344, sowed through direct planting system in two areas of 60 x 100 m, with 55.000 plants per hectare and cultivated above soil vegetal coverage, black oat and foraging turnip. The spoiled grains (SG incidence was determined through the average of four repetitions of 250g per sample and the fungus incidence was determined on 400 grains incubated in potato-dextrose-agar, in growth chamber at 25ºC and photoperiod of 12 hours for seven days. The SG incidence increased in all treatments until the fourth evaluation, considering that the hybrid XL 344, cultivated above turnip coverage, reached 6.2% of SG and, above the oat coverage, reached 3.5%. In the XL 212 hybrid, the maximum incidence was 2.3% and 2.0% above oat and turnip coverage, respectively.The delay did not influence the increase of the spoiled grains incidence, but it influenced the decrease of the F. moniliforme and the raise of the incidence of the F. graminearium and the Aspergillus, Cephalosporium and Penicillium genus species.

  4. 14C-lindane residues in stored maize grain in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and fate of the insecticide 14C-lindane in stored maize grains were studied for 36 weeks in the laboratory under conditions simulating local agricultural practices. Surface extracts declined from 10.9% of the applied activity at zero time (0-24 hours) to 1.5% after 36 weeks. Lindane penetrated the seed coat and internal (methanol-extractable) residues accounted for 38% of the applied activity, after 4 weeks. Bound pesticide residues reached a maximum of 23.4% after the second week and declined very slowly to 10.7% after 36 weeks. A total concentration of lindane residues in the grain (methanol-extractable and bound) was calculated to be 7.6 mg/kg at the end of the storage period. (author)

  5. Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significanest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

  6. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    OpenAIRE

    Borghese, A.; Manzi, P.; Mattera, M.; Maschio, M.; Allegrini, S.; Palocci, G.; Pacelli, C.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Tripaldi, C.; Barile, V. L.

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group) and sorghum silage (S group), had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein). Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea), somatic cell count, coagulation...

  7. Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

  8. Yield Responses of Maize to Organic and Mineral Fertilizers at Different Inclinations in Tropical Smallholder Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. P. Egodawatta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted on the potential of Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. to enhance productivity of degraded soils. Maize was cropped in a hilly region of Sri Lanka with and without the recommended mineral fertilization, in two major seasons, October-January in 2007/8 (Year 1 and in 2008/9 (Year 2 on 92 farms at two inclinations: Flat (0-10% and Moderate (10-30%. On half the farms, green manure (Gliricidia leaves was added (3 tonnes per hectare per season. NPK boosted production to a very respectable mean grain yield of 4.2 t/ha on Flat farms. At ZERO, the yield was lower by 60%, irrespective of the inclination. Gliricidia failed to replace the required nitrogen, even with an adequate supply of phosphorous and potassium (PK. In contrast, together with NPK, Gliricidia increased yields by 15-20% compared to NPK alone, while the gain was 35% at ZERO. Fields in the Moderate category were more responsive to green manure and mineral fertilizers. The high response to mineral fertilizers indicated that the degradation of the soils resulted to a greater extent in chemical rather than in physical deficits. But intensive cropping reduced the soil organic matter within two years, to some extent slowed down by Gliricidia green manure. Therefore an intense cropping for the sake of food security must be accompanied by soil conserving cropping systems.

  9. Effect of Bio-phosphate and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizer Accompanied with Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Yield, Quality and Phosphorus and Zinc Concentration of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Galavi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran during 2008-2009 to evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizer, phosphorus and foliar application of micronutrients on dry matter accumulation, yield, and phosphorus and zinc concentration of maize (Zea mays L.. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four replications was followed in the study. The micronutrients foliar application in two levels (foliar application and non foliar application were the main plots, and four levels of phosphate (T1: 0 (no fertilizer, T2: 100 kg ha-1 P2O5, T3: 100g bio-phosphate, T4: 100g bio-phosphate with 50 kg ha-1 P2O5 as the sub plots. Results showed that micronutrients foliar application and biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers had a significant influence on dry matter accumulation. The maximum dry matter accumulation was obtained by applying 50 kg/ha P2O5 plus bio-fertilizer. Grain yield, 1000-seed weight and protein content of grain were significantly affected by micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers treatments. Micronutrients foliar application and phosphorus fertilizers interaction had no significantly effect on grain yield, 1000-seed weight and grain protein content. Grain phosphorus and zinc concentration where significantly increased by application of micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers.

  10. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Phosphorus Fertilizer Use Efficiency, Mycorrhizal Dependence and Maize Yield under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorchiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency, mycorrhizal dependence and grain yield and dry matter yield of maize under water deficit conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments in this experiment were included as follows: irrigation (normal irrigation and water deficit stress based on evaporation from class A pan evaporation; combined different seed inoculations with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment of chemical phosphate fertilizer (non- consumption of phosphate fertilizer, consumption of 50 percent of triple superphosphate fertilizer needed, and consumption of rock phosphate, based on the quantity of consumed phosphorus of triple superphosphate source. The results showed that effects of irrigation, seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens biological phosphate fertilizer and chemical phosphate fertilizer were significant on yield and yield components, dry matter yield, relative agronomic efficiency and root colonization. Mild stress significantly reduced grain yield, relative agronomic efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency compared to optimum irrigation. Results showed that grain and dry matter yield are highly correlated with root colonization under mild stress condition. Maximum mycorrhizal dependence was obtained in mild stress condition. Maximum relative agronomic efficiency, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, yield and yield components was related to seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of triple superphosphate fertilizer were increased grain yield in comparison with rock phosphate along with inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. However, maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal dependence was achieved in non- consumption treatment of phosphate fertilizer.

  11. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  12. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  13. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  14. Determining Possible Relationships between Yield and Yield-Related Components in Forage Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Correlation and Path Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Necmettin; Carpici, Emine Budakli

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the optimum plant density and nitrogen rate in maize (Zea mays L.) under the ecological conditions of the Southern Marmara Region. For this purpose, maize was grown at different plant densities and was fertilized with different rates of nitrogen during 2006 and 2007. The dry forage yield, plant height, first ear height, stem diameter, leaf number plant-1, ear number plant-1, leaf ratio, stem ratio, ear ratio, ear diameter, leaf area index, and light int...

  15. Effects of Short Exposures to Spinosad-Treated Wheat or Maize on Four Stored-Grain Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...

  16. Yield of green mass, grain and other yield components of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in dependence of agroecological conditions and seed maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Rap?an; Gordana Bukvi?; Sonja Grljuši?; Tihana Tekli?; Mladen Juriši?

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the research was to determine the influence of two locations (Osijek and Vinkovci) and seed age on field germination, vegetative mass and dry matter of vegetative mass yields, grain yield, 1000 grain weight and grain crude protein yield of foreign spring field pea cultivar (Timo) during two successive years (2004 and 2005). The year has significantly influenced the grain yield, and the location influenced the grain yield and 1000 grain weight. In the first year of research, the gr...

  17. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  18. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure irrespective of topsoil removal, compared to NPK + urea which was only effective without topsoil removal. Therefore, poultry manure was a better soil ameliorant than NPK + urea after topsoil removal. (author)

  19. Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 aultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

  20. Genetic Variability and Heritability for Grain Yield and Other Characters in Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tuba Bicer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for grain yield and six other characters in lentil. Experimental material included five lentil cultivars and 26 lentil lines grown during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Maximum variability was recorded for biological yield; grain yield and seed yield plant ha-1 . Maximum heritability was found for seed weight and days to 50% flowering.

  1. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation ding is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  2. Influence of Relative Humidity and Temperature on the Changes in Grain Moisture in Stored Soybean and Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Volenik

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available These investigations aimed to determine influence of the changes in relative humidity and temperature in storage facilities on the moisture in grain of stored soybean and maize. Soybean (“Podravka 95” variety and maize (“OSSK 644” hybrid were stored during 34 days at the temperatures of 0oC and 20oC, and relative humidity of 55%, 73%, 80% and 98%. At the temperature of 0oC and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased, 2.4% and 1.9%, while at the relative humidity of 80% and 98% it increased, 0.2% and 0.6% aft er 34 days storage. At the temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased 4.0% and 0.7%, while at the relative humidity of 80% and 98% it increased 0.8% and 2.3%, as following. During 34 days storage at 0°C and relative humidity of 55%, moisture in maize grain decreased 0.2%, while at the relative humidity of 73%, 80% and 98% it increased 0.4%, 1% and 1.5%. At the temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 55%, moisture in maize grain decreased 1.5% and at the relative humidity of 73%, 80% and 98% increased, 0.2%, 0.9% and 1.7%. Such investigations enable additional insights into the rate of changes in grain, and the influence on the grain viability in changed storage conditions.

  3. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir; Asif Tanveer

    2012-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris M.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in pots and fi...

  4. The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize

    OpenAIRE

    Deleti? Nebojša; Stojkovi? Slaviša; Gudži? Slaviša; Biberdži? Milan

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances be...

  5. Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Nematode Densities and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a yard waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and forage yield of maize (Zea mays) were determined over three seasons in two sites in north Florida. In each test, the experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replications and three treatments: 269 mt/ha of a yard waste compost C:N ratio = 35:1 to 46:1) applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Of the nematodes found in ...

  6. Determination of Yield and Yield Components and Relationship among the Components of Grain Sorghum Cultivars Grown as Main Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Gul; Veysel Saruhan; Mehmet Basbag

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 main crop season in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Block with three replications. In the research, were used 24 grain Sorghum cultivars to determine high yielding cultivars. The grain yields of the grain sorghum cultivars varied between 3589.9-9634.8 kg ha-1 in the research. In all the observed characters, statistically significant differences were determined among cultivars. The ...

  7. EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION OF WHOLE CROP MAIZE VERSUS MAIZE STOVER SILAGES WITH COMMERCIAL CONCENTRA TES ON MILK YIELD AND ITS COMPOSITION IN SAHIW AL COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, A. U. Rahman A. Khan M. Amjed And N.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare the effects of feeding value of silages from whole crop maize (WCM) and maize Stover (MS) on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and its composition in lactating Sahiwal cows. Eight cows nearly of the same age, weight and lactation stage were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. A and B, Two rations viz I and II were randomly allotted to these groups. Both the rations were based on 60% test materials (WCM or MS silage) added with 40% con...

  8. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

  9. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo De, Carli; Bruna, Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata, Noreña; Irineu, Lorini; Adriano, Brandelli.

    1469-14-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dia [...] s a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2. Abstract in english The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concen [...] trations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.

  10. Biochemical constraints that determine protein quality and grain yield in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most cereal grain proteins are nutritionally poor because of the high proportion of prolamin, which is deficient in lysine. Improved protein quality mutants in maize, barley and sorghum have a lower proportion of prolamin and a higher albumin content. Protein accumulation in high-lysine mutants of maize and sorghum is more rapid during the early stages of grain development than in normal grains. Higher protein concentration during early grain development in high-lysine mutants was associated with increased levels of soluble amino nitrogen, glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate-oxaloacetate amino transferase activity. Regulatory control of mRNA synthesis for prolamin is important in determining protein quality. Post-translational modification of proteins may account for the loss of protein lysine during later stages of maturity. Starch synthesis studies indicate a decreased rate of starch accumulation during the later stages of grain development in high-lysine maize. Regulatory controls on starch synthesis in high-lysine mutants are discussed. (author)

  11. Genotype variations in grain yield of spring barley depending on sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunovi? Aleksandar S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year study was carried out for grain yield in five cultivars of the spring brewer's barley at the Small Grains Research Center of in Kragujevac from 1996 to 1998. The effect of three sowing densities on the number of spikes, grain number per spike and grain yield was studied for each cultivars. Research results have shown that the cultivars displayed a highly significant effect on the grain number per spike and grain yield. It has also been noticed that, in the course of every research year, sowing density induced increases in spike number and grain yield. In contrast, the higher sowing density brought about a decrease in the grain number per spike.

  12. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  13. The impact of Ni, Co and Mo supplementation on methane yield from anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evranos, Beyza; Demirel, Burak

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to demonstrate the impact of trace metal supplementation, namely nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo), on the methane yields obtained from batch mesophilic anaerobic digestion of maize silage as mono-substrate. The maize silage used in this experimental work initially lacked Ni and Co. Trace metal concentration selected was 0.1 and 0.5?mg/L for Ni and Co, respectively, while it was 0.05 and 0.25?mg/L for Mo. The supplementation by Ni, Co and Mo, individually or in combination at different doses, seemed to improve the methane yields for mono-digestion of maize silage and particularly, the highest methane yield of 0.429?L CH4/g VSadded was obtained, when Ni, Co and Mo were supplemented together at concentrations of 0.5, 0.5 and 0.25?mg/L, respectively. PMID:25495753

  14. Associations between Grain Crop Yields in Central-Eastern Argentina and El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá, Guillermo P.; Messina, Carlos D.; Grondona, Martín O.; Magrin, Graciela O.

    1999-10-01

    Associations are investigated between yields of major crops in the Argentine Pampas (central-eastern Argentina) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase. For maize and sorghum, higher (lower) yield anomalies occur more frequently than expected by chance alone during warm (cold) ENSO events. For both crops, the depression of yields during cold events is, on average, larger and less variable than yield increases are during warm events. A yield decrease during cold events also is observed in soybean yields, although the effect of warm events is not statistically significant. There is a marginally significant tendency for low sunflower yields to occur less frequently than expected during cold events. Wheat, the only winter crop considered, did not show an association with ENSO. Precipitation anomalies during October-February (the period with strongest ENSO signal in the Pampas) are summarized through principal component analysis. Precipitation anomalies during November-January are significantly correlated with maize, sorghum, and soybean yield anomalies. In turn, those precipitation anomalies show a distinct ENSO signal. Late spring-early summer precipitation, then, appears to mediate associations between ENSO phase and yields of maize, sorghum, and soybean in the Pampas.

  15. Effect of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) caused injury on maize grain content, especially regarding to the protein alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, S; Pál-Fám, F; Kerepesi, I

    2011-03-01

    The cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner), which migrated in the Carpathian-basin from Mediterraneum in the last decades, is becoming an increasingly serious problem for maize producers in Hungary. In several regions the damage it causes has reached the threshold of economic loss, especially in the case of the sweet maize cultivation. The aim of the research was to determine the changing of ears weights and in-kernel accumulation and alteration in grain as a function of cotton bollworm mastication.Our investigation confirmed that there is an in-kernel and protein pattern change of maize grain by cotton bollworm. Our results proved the significant damaging of each part of ears by cotton bollworm masticating (the average weight loss of ears: 13.99%; the average weight loss of grains: 14.03%; the average weight loss of cobs: 13.74%), with the exception of the increasing of the grain-cob ratio. Our examinations did not prove the water loss - that is the "forced maturing" - caused by the damage. Decreasing of raw fat (control: 2.8%; part-damaged: 2.6%; damaged: 2.4%) and starch content (control: 53.1%; part-damaged: 46.6%; damaged: 44.7%) were registered as a function of injury. In contrast, the raw protein content was increased (control: 4.7%; part-damaged: 5.3%; damaged: 7.4%) by maize ear masticating. The most conspicuous effect on protein composition changing was proved by comparison of damaged grain samples by SDS PAGE. Increased amounts of 114, 50, 46 and 35 kDa molecular mass proteins were detected which explained the more than 50% elevation of raw protein content. The statistical analysis of molecular weights proved the protein realignment as a function of the pest injuries, too. PMID:21388919

  16. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil / Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Homero, Bergamaschi; Timothy Robert, Wheeler; Andrew Juan, Challinor; Flávia, Comiran; Bruna Maria Machado, Heckler.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuv [...] a de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State [...] was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling). Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.

  17. How model and input uncertainty impact maize yield simulations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter; Wang, Enli

    2015-02-01

    Crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in studies on food security and global change. Various uncertainties however exist, not only in the model design and model parameters, but also and maybe even more important in soil, climate and management input data. We analyze the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM and the global scale crop model LPJmL with different climate and soil conditions under different agricultural management in the low-input maize-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. We test the models’ response to different levels of input information from little to detailed information on soil, climate (1961–2000) and agricultural management and compare the models’ ability to represent the observed spatial (between locations) and temporal variability (between years) in crop yields. We found that the resolution of different soil, climate and management information influences the simulated crop yields in both models. However, the difference between models is larger than between input data and larger between simulations with different climate and management information than between simulations with different soil information. The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models even with little information on soils and management but APSIM simulates a higher variation between single locations than LPJmL. The agreement of simulated and observed temporal variability is lower due to non-climatic factors e.g. investment in agricultural research and development between 1987 and 1991 in Burkina Faso which resulted in a doubling of maize yields. The findings of our study highlight the importance of scale and model choice and show that the most detailed input data does not necessarily improve model performance.

  18. Soil physical characteristics and yield of wheat and maize as affected by mulching materials and sowing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Anwar-ul-hassan; Allah Bakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Soil physical degradation due to agriculture activity is a pressing issue in Pakistan causing reduction in crop yields. The study was conducted to assess the effects of two sowing methods and two mulching materials on soil physical characteristics and yields of wheat and maize during 2008-10 at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results showed that Bed sowing method along with wheat straw mulch increased Leaf Area Index of wheat by 5 to 16%, and of maize by 4 to 14% compared with other treatments. This tr...

  19. Effects of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat or maize on four stored-grain insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

    2010-02-01

    The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., or maize, Zea mays L., was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insect species: lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and the psocid Lepinotus reticulatus (Enderlein) (Psocoptera: Trogiidae). Adult mortality of these species was recorded after 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 40 h on commodities treated with 1 ppm of spinosad (immediate mortality). Then, the surviving individuals were removed and placed on untreated wheat or maize, and mortality was recorded again 7 d later (delayed mortality). Progeny production then was determined 65 and 35 d later for the beetles and psocids, respectively. Among the four species tested, R. dominica was the most susceptible, and immediate mortality after 40 h reached 78 and 72% on wheat and maize, respectively. Moreover, 7 d later, all adults that had been exposed for >2 h were dead on both commodities. Progeny production was significantly reduced in comparison with the controls, and no progeny were found when parental adults had been exposed for >8 or >4 h on wheat and maize, respectively. For S. oryzae, 40-h exposures significantly increased delayed mortality on both wheat and maize, but progeny production still was high. Generally, no effect of short exposures was noted for T. castaneum. For L. reticulatus, despite the fact that the increase of exposure interval increased mortality on maize, progeny production was not avoided. With the exception of T. castaneum, more progeny were found on wheat than on maize. The results of the current study indicate that R. dominica is very susceptible after short exposures to spinosad-treated substrate, but the other species are able to survive and reproduce at the exposure range examined. PMID:20214387

  20. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  1. Influence of Iron and AM Inoculation on Metabolically Active Iron, Chlorophyll Content and Yield of Hybrid Maize in Calcareous Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, S.; Archana, J.; Mohamed Amanullah, M.; Subramanian, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiencies are commonly seen in calcareous soils which often reduce the yield of the crops. Iron application in conjunction with Arbuscular mycorrhizae may help to increase the metabolically active iron content in the plants and hence the yields. The objective of this experiment was to study the influence of iron and arbuscular mycorrhizae inoculation on metabolically active iron, chlorophyll content and yield of hybrid maize in calcareous soil. Hence, field experiment was conducted at...

  2. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  3. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological zones and two varieties of white maize grains (Local and DMR-ESRW) produced in the same environmental conditions were compared. These grains were used in four balanced diets for unsexed broiler chickens (Re Bro) from 8 to 49 days of age. Per kg of dry matter (DM), a difference of about 0.396 MJ of metabolisable energy and 27 g of crude protein content were found between varieties of maize. Crude protein content was identical in both soybean grains, while a difference of 16 g/kg DM was found between them in crude fibre content. In spite of these differences in chemical components, there was no significant effect (P>0.05) of the grains' origin or variety on the growth performance of chickens. The daily feed intake, thedaily weight gain, the feed conversion ratio and the final body weight of chickens at 28 and 49 days of age were similar between diets. In addition, the partial substitution of maize by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding.

  4. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  5. Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo R., Matiello; Maria Teresa G., Lopes; Kátia R., Brunelli; Luis Eduardo A., Camargo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatmen [...] ts arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf and tasseling stage). Internal lesion length, adjusted yield, and yield components (length, diameter and ear weight) were evaluated 120 days after emergence. Significant differences in yield and ear weight were detected in the susceptible hybrid inoculated at the earliest stage: yield was reduced by 16.1 and 20.2% in the first and second experiment, respectively. Although lesion length in the susceptible hybrid was approximately three times greater than in the resistant, there were no significant differences in lesion length among treatments for each hybrid. However, there were differences in the number of dead plants and ear weight. It is suggested that damage caused by early infection with C. graminicola results mainly from plant death and reduction in ear weigh rather than from the extent of colonization of the stalk.

  6. Comparative evaluation of modified neem leaf, neem leaf and woodash extracts on soil fertility improvement, growth and yields of maize (Zea mays L. and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Sole and Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Akure (7oN, 5o101E in the rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2006 and 2007 to determine the effectiveness of neem leaf, woodash and modified neem leaf extracts as fertilizer sources in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus sole and intercrop. There were six treatments namely, poultry manure, neem leaf extract (sole, woodash extract, modified neem leaf (neem leaf + woodash, NPK 15-15-15 and a control (no fertilizer nor extract, replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB. The extracts (neem leaf, wood ash and modified neem leaf were applied at 1200 litres per hectare each, NPK 15-15-15 at 300 kg/ha and poultry was applied at 6t/ha. The results showed that there were significant increases (P < 0.05 in the maize growth and yield parameters (leaf area, plant height stem girth grain yield, cob weight and % shelling percentage as well as in watermelon (vine length, stem girth, number of branches, fruits weight, population and fruit diameter under sole and intercrop compared to the control treatment. Generally, the growth and yield parameters values were slightly higher under the sole crop than the intercrop. The modified neem leaf extract increased the plant height and stem girth of maize (sole by 11.78% and 27.43% respectively compared to that of neem leaf extract and the same trend of increase was experienced in maize (intercrop where modified neem leaf extract increased plant height and stem girth by 11.5% and 24.48% compared to neem leaf. Poultry manure also increased the maize leaf area (sole and intercrop compared to the extracts and NPK 15-15-15. For instance, under maize (sole, the poultry manure increased the leaf area by 8.74% compared to NPK 15-15-15. For yield parameters of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop, modified neem leaf increased most all values of yield parameters compared to neem leaf and woodash extract. For example, modified neem leaf increased the values of sole maize grain yield, cob weight by 65.63% and 57.58% respectively compared to neem leaf extract. The LER value for maize and watermelon (intercrop and sole was 2.61 while relative yield is 1.575 or 157.5%. For soil fertility improvement after harvesting, modified neem leaf extract and poultry manure had the highest values of soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N compared to NPK 15-15-15 and neem leaf extract. For instance, modified neem leaf extract increased soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N by 12.4%, 32.8%, 25%, 23.7%, 19.32%, 17.24% and 20% respectively compared to neem leaf extract under intercrop plot. The high soil K/Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios in the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer treatment led to an imbalance in the supply of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients to maize and watermelon crops. The least values for growth, yield and soil parameters were recorded under the control treatment. In these experiments, modified neem leaf extract (woodash + neem leaf extracts applied at 1200 litres/ha was the most effective in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop and could substitute for 6 tons per hectare of poultry manure and 300kg/ha of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer.

  7. The genetic architecture of zinc and iron content in maize grains as revealed by QTL mapping and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Tiantian; Zhou, Jinfeng; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, Liying; Zhao, Yongfeng; Huang, Yaqun

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiency in diets, has aroused worldwide attention. Biofortification of food crops has been considered as a promising approach for alleviating this deficiency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to dissect the genetic mechanism of Zn and Fe content in maize grains using a total of 218 F2:3 families derived from a cross between inbred lines 178 and P53. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detec...

  8. Distribuição hídrica no período crítico do milho e produção de grãos Water supply in the critical period of maize and the grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho pode sofrer reduções na produção de grãos quando há déficit hídrico no período crítico do ciclo da cultura, que ocorre desde o pendoamento até o início de enchimento de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer relações entre o suprimento de água durante o período crítico do milho e a produção de grãos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em Eldorado do Sul, RS (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, nas safras 1998/1999 e 2002/2003, anos em que ocorreram os fenômenos La Niña e El Niño, respectivamente. Os dados de rendimento de grãos e seus componentes foram obtidos em experimentos de campo, sob diferentes volumes de aplicação de água via irrigação. A produtividade de grãos foi inversa à média geral do Estado, nos dois anos analisados. Em 1998/1999, durante uma estiagem longa, 46,8 mm de chuva no período crítico garantiram rendimento próximo de 8.000 kg ha-1 sem irrigação. Em 2002/2003 uma curta estiagem no período crítico reduziu a produtividade para menos de 2.000 kg ha-1 no mesmo tratamento, afetando o número de espigas por planta e o número de grãos por espiga. Portanto, em anos de El Niño, mesmo que as previsões climáticas apontem para uma distribuição favorável de chuvas, há risco na produção esperada de milho, se o suprimento de água no período crítico da cultura não for adequado.Maize crops may experience reductions of grain yields when submitted to water deficit during the critical period of crop cycle, from tasseling stage to beginning of grain filling. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the importance of the water supply during the critical period on the grain production of maize. Experiments were conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil (30º5'S; 51º40'W; 40 m altitude, during the crop seasons of 1998/1999 and 2002/2003, characterized by La Niña and El Niño phenomenon, respectively. Data of grain yield and its components were obtained in field experiments, using different volumes of water applied through irrigation. The grain yields showed an opposite tendency when compared to the regional estimated average. In 1998/1999, during a long drought period, 46.8 mm of rain on the critical period allowed a grain yield of about 8 t ha-1 without irrigation. In contrast, in 2002/2003 a short drought during the critical period reduced the grain yield to less than 2 t ha-1, affecting the number of ear per plant and the number of kernel per ear. Therefore, risks in the expected maize production are probable, although having climatic forecasting of favorable rain distribution in the region, such as by El Niño phenomenon.

  9. Planting date and row spacing affects grain yield and height of pearl millet Tifgrain 102 in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Maas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum is a drought tolerant cereal grain typically grown as a forage crop in the United States. New high-yielding dwarf grain pearl millet hybrids have generated interest in millet as a substitute for maize and sorghum because of its ability to reliably produce grain on sandy, acidic, low fertility soils of the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to determine optimum planting date, row spacing, and nitrogen rate for grain production. Rust resistant hybrid Tifgrain 102 was drilled in a split-split plot, randomized complete block design with four replications nested in date. Planting date was the main effect, andthere were 7, 8 and 9 planting dates in 2001, 2002 and 2006, respectively. Planting date was split into four row spacings (0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.5 m and 0.9 m, and further split for two nitrogen levels (90 kg ha-1 and 140 kg ha-1. There was a significant (P ?0.001 interaction of year by planting date for both yield and height. Planting date within years was significant (P ?0.001 for yield andheight. Yield at 0.4 m row spacing was greater than at 0.9 m spacing and nearly significant for yield at 0.5 m spacing and 0.2 m. Height significantly (P ?0.005 increased with wider row spacing. Yield and height were not affected by nitrogen rate.

  10. Ridge regression technique to determine the environmental influences on tef (Eragrostis tef) grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Debusho, Legesse Kassa

    2008-01-01

    Tef grain yield is dependent on a number of component characters such as plant height and panicle length. These characters and consequently yield are governed by a large number of factors including environmental factors. The objective of this paper was to determine the environmental influences on tef grain yield. The effects of eleven environmental variables on tef yield were studied using least squares and ridge regression analyses. The results revealed that the least squares estimates of re...

  11. Effect of pre-sowing gamma irradiation and microelement seed treatment on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to study the joint application of gamma irradiation and microelement treatment. The microelement treatment consisted in soaking the seeds for 24 hours in combined solution of H3BO3, CuSO4, ZnSO4, MnSO4 (0.01% each). The yield and growth of plants have not been affected considerably by the sequence of irradiation and microelement treatment. From the experimental data it can be concluded that under the testing conditions, in the majority of the cases, the fresh weight and growth of the young plants of the MvSC 530 maize hybrid, changed positively on the influence of treatment with gamma irradiation prior to sowing (1000 rad) and microelement solution. However, an enhanced depression in weight and length was caused by the treatment with 7000 rad. (author)

  12. Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

  13. EFFECTS OF INTRA-ROW SPACING ON MAIZE GROWTH IN THE MID-SOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids produced in the 1950's and 1960's responded to increased plant densities with more barren plants ha-1 and less grain per plant. Hybrids grown today produce high grain yields under high plant populations. Maize produced in the Mid South often uses a 101.6 cm row spacing,...

  14. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ? Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ? More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ? Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ? New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

  15. The Role of Indigenous Mycorrhiza in Combination with Cattle Manure in Improving Maize Yield (Zea Mays L on Sandy Loam of Northern Lombok, Eastern of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Astiko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A glass house study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF in improving maize yield grown on sandy loam of Northern Lombok. The package of organic fertilizers treatments were tested including: without inoculation of mycorrhiza, inoculation mycorrhiza and no added inorganic fertilizers, inoculation of mycorrhiza with cattle manure added, inoculation of mycorrhiza with rock phosphate added and inoculation mycorrhiza with inorganic fertilizers. The treatments were arranged using a Completely Randomized Design with four replications. The results of the study show that the inoculation of AMF significantly increased soil concentration of N, available-P, K and organic-C by 37.39%, 60.79%, 66.66% and 110.15% respectively observed at 60 days after sowing (DAS. The similar trend was also found at 100 DAS, where those nutrients increased by 21.48%, 69%, 43.93% and 37.07%, respectively compared to control. The improving of soil fertility status was also reflected by nutrients uptake (i.e. N, P, K, Ca as well as growth and yield of maize. N, P, K and Ca uptake increased by 1,608%, 1,121%, 533% and 534%, respectively. Roots and top dry biomass at 60 DAS increased by 718.40% and 337.67%, respectively. The trend increased of the biomass was followed by observation at 100 DAS. Yield components including cobs, grain and weight of 100 grains increased by 313.60%, 411.84% and 137.54%, respectively. In addition, the inoculation of AM with F2 contributed significantly to the spore numbers and root infection.

  16. Crop yield and quality parameters of 4 annual fibre crops (Hemp, Kenaf, Maize and Sorghum) in the North of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amaducci, S.; Amaducci, M. T.; Benati, R.; Venturi, G.

    2000-01-01

    Four fibre crops (hemp, kenaf, maize and sorghum) considered amongst the most suitable for the conditions of Northern Italy were compared in 1995 and 1997, over two irrigation regimes (rainfed conditions and restoration of 100?Tp) and in two locations (Bologna and Milano). Three harvests were carried out on each crop at different development stages. At each harvest time data on yield and yield components were collected. Sub-samples of stems of each crop and at each harvest time were analyse...

  17. Fertilização nitrogenada, densidade de plantas e rendimento de milho cultivado no sistema plantio direto / Nitrogen fertilization, plant density and maize yield cropped under no-tillage system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco de Brito, Melo; José Eduardo, Corá; Milton José, Cardoso.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do milho (Zea mays L.), o suprimento inadequado de nitrogênio e a densidade de plantio são considerados fatores limitantes ao rendimento de grãos. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio e diferentes densidades de plantas nos componentes de produção e no [...] rendimento da cultura de milho. O experimento foi instalado na Região de cerrado do sul do Maranhão, MA, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura argilosa, cultivado há seis anos em sistema de plantio direto (SPD). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, e os tratamentos segundo o arranjo em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de cinco doses de nitrogênio, na forma de uréia (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1), e quatro densidades de plantas (25.000; 50.000; 75.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1).O número e massa de grãos por espiga e massa de grãos por planta aumentaram com o acréscimo da dose de N e com o decréscimo da densidade de plantas. Maiores rendimentos de grãos foram obtidos com acréscimos, concomitantemente, nas doses de N e nas densidades de plantas. A máxima produtividade de grãos de milho (11,9 Mg ha-1) foi obtida com 120 kg ha-1 de N e 83.000 plantas ha-1. Abstract in english In maize (Zea mays L.), the inadequate nitrogen supply and planting density are considered limiting factors to the grain yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different nitrogen levels and plant densities to the maize yield components and productivity. The experiment wa [...] s carried out in the Cerrado region, located in the southern of the Maranhão State, Brazil, in a clay Oxisol (Ustox), cropped under the no-tillage system for six years. The randomized completed blocks experimental design with four replications was used, with treatments arrangement in a 5 x 4 factorial. The treatments were a combination of five doses of nitrogen as urea (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and four plant densities (25,000; 50,000; 75,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1). The grain number and mass per spike and grain mass per plant were improved by increased N and decreased plant density. Higher incomes of grains were obtained with adding concomitantly in N doses and in plants density. The maximum grain yield (11,9 Mg ha-1) was obtained with 120 kg ha-1 of N and 83,000 plants ha-1.

  18. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Balestre; João Cândido de Souza; Renzo Garcia Von Pinho; Rogério Lunezzo de Oliveira; José Mauro Valente Paes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction) biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction) analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4) were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and o...

  19. Avaliação do método químico de controle de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea) sobre a produtividade do milho / Chemical control evaluation of alexander grass (Brachiaria plantaginea) on maize (Zea mays) yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Galon; Siumar Pedro, Tironi; Evander Alves, Ferreira; Ignácio, Aspiazu; Jesus Juares Oliveira, Pinto.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea, com herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, e a influência destes na produtividade do milho híbrido Pioneer 3063. O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007, no município de Capão do Leão (RS). [...] Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em sistema de cultivo convencional, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo herbicida s-metolachlor (1.620 g ha-1) e pela mistura em tanque de atrazine + nicosulfuron (1.250 + 28 g ha-1), aplicados em pré e pós-emergência da cultura do milho, respectivamente, mais testemunha capinada e infestada. A população B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. As variáveis avaliadas foram o controle de B. plantaginea e os componentes do rendimento, bem como a produtividade de grãos de milho. O tratamento herbicida que proporcionou melhor controle da planta daninha foi a mistura de atrazine + nicosulfuron, aplicada em pós-emergência da cultura, mantendo-se o controle do início ao fim do ciclo da cultura. O herbicida s-metolachlor mostrou eficiência no controle inicial de plantas daninhas, até os 20 dias após a emergência da cultura. O não controle de B. plantaginea causou interferência em todas as variáveis avaliadas, apresentando limitação de produtividade de grãos de até 98%. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the Brachiaria plantaginea control with pre and post-emergence herbicides and their effects on the hybrid Pioneer 3063 maize yield. The trial was conducted from October 2006 to February 2007, in Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by using a co [...] mplete randomized blocks design, with four replications, under the conventional sowing system. The treatments consisted of the herbicide s-metolachlor (1,620 g ha-1) and the mixture in tank of atrazine + nicosulfuron (1,250 + 28 g ha-1), applied in pre and early post-emergence of the culture, respectively, plus one infested and one weed-free control. The plants of B. plantaginea were obtained from the soil seed bank, with average population of 312 plants m-2. The evaluated variables were control of B. plantaginea by the herbicides and maize grain yield components, as well as grain yield. Among the herbicides, the one that provided better control of B. plantaginea was the mixture atrazine plus nicosulfuron, applied in post-emergence of the crop, maintaining the field free of B. plantaginea, from the beginning to the end of the cycle. The herbicide s-metolachlor showed to be an alternative for the initial control of weeds in maize, up to 20 days after emergence. The absence of B. plantaginea control caused interference in all grain yield components of maize, being observed up to 98% of grain yield losses.

  20. Maize Biomass Production, N-Use Efficiency and Potential Bioethanol Yield, Under Different Cover Cropping Managements, Nitrogen Influxes and Soil Types, in Mediterranean Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Beslemes, Dimitrios F.; Tigka, Evangellia L.; Panagiotis Efthimiadis; Danalatos, Nikolaos G.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cover cropping faba bean with maize, compared to maize monocrop cultivation, on yield (dry matter), nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) and N fertilizer recovery fraction of maize, field experiments were carried out over a period of three years. Experimental sites were located in central Greece, on a fertile, clayey soil and on a sandy soil of moderate fertility, A factorial combination of four nitrogen dressings (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1) and three legume treatment...

  1. Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; van Rooijen, C; Kabel, M A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-12-01

    Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and thereby increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n=11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8±0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (approximately 3 percentage units [% units]); P=0.063) and starch (approximately 1% unit; P=0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2% units, P=0.030, for CP and 0.3% units, P<0.01, for starch) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD; 3% units, P<0.01, for CP and 0.2% units, P=0.024, for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets, indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6% units; P=0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6% units; P<0.01), whereas hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for growing pigs. Although acid extrusion seemed to facilitate more rapid degradation of NSP and shifted fermentation to more proximal gastrointestinal segments, total extent of NSP degradation was not affected. More than 35% of the NSP from DDGS remained undegraded, independent of technological processing. Enzyme technologies that specifically target ester-linked acetyl, feroloyl, or coumaroyl groups were identified to be of interest for future research. PMID:25367528

  2. Effect of Row Spacing on the Grain Yield and the Yield Component of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iqtidar Hussain; Muhammad Ayyaz Khan; Khalil Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different row spacing on grain yield and yield components of wheat variety Inqilab 91 at the agronomic research area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan. The results revealed that different row spacing significantly affected plant population m G 2, number of spikes m G 2, 1000 grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Number of grains spike G 1, spikelets spike G 1, spike length and harvest index remained non signif...

  3. Foliage applied boron improves the panicle fertility, yield and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Rehman; M, Farooq; Z, Ata Cheema; A, Nawaz; A, Wahid.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Boron (B) deficiency in rice field is becoming a common problem in South Asia. Correcting B deficiency in rice has potential to improve the rice productivity. Foliage application of B is an easy and effective way to resolve this problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of foliage [...] applied (0.16, 0.24, 0.32, 0.40 and 0.48 M) B on leaf elongation, tillering, water relations, yield and B grain enrichment of rice cultivars Super Basmati and Shaheen Basmati. Foliage applied B improved leaf elongation, tillering, leaf chlorophyll contents, water relations, grain yield, yield-related traits and B grain contents with simultaneous decrease in panicle sterility. However, foliage application of 0.32 M B was the most effective in this regard. An increase in leaf and grain B contents was observed with increase in B concentration in the foliar spray. There was no difference between the cultivars for grain yield; however, Shaheen Basmati had more grain weight, and grain and leaf B contents than Super Basmati. Boron foliage application (0.32 M B) proved an effective way to correct B deficiency in rice. Improvement in grain yield by B application was attributed to increase in grain size and decrease in panicle sterility.

  4. Quantitative and Qulitative Characteristics of Grain Yield Sorghum as Affected by Nitrogen and Plant Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Jalali

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N levels and planting densities on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain yield in grain sorghum (cv. Kimia was studied in summer 1998 at Kushkak Agricultural Research Station, Shiraz University. The experiment was a spilt plot with 4 replications in which 4 levels of planting densities (7.7, 10, 15.4, 20 seeds m-2 were applied as main plots and 4 levels of N (0, 40, 80, 120 Kg N ha-1 as subplots. N application rates up to 120 kg N ha-1 increased grain yield (7240 kg ha-1, but due to increased planting density (5336 kg ha-1 the highest yield obtained from 15 seeds m-2. Interaction of N and planting density was also significant. Application of 80 kg N ha-1 and highest planting density produced 8702 kg ha-1 of grain. Different grain yields in different levels of N and planting densities were due to increased number of grains per basic branches of panicle and increased number of panicle per m-2. The trend of variation of crop growth rates (CGR was similar to the trend of grain yield. Nitrogen application increased grain protein contents but planting density had no significant effect on grain protein. Phenolic compounds (tannins decreased with increasing N application and with decreasing planting density. A negative correlation was observed between increased N content and increased phenolic compounds.

  5. Rice grain resistance to brown spot and yield are increased by silicon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro J., Dallagnol; Fabricio A., Rodrigues; Mateus V. B., Mielli; Jian F., Ma.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases of rice and can cause a reduction in yield and grain quality. The effect of silicon (Si) on the resistance of rice grains to brown spot was investigated. Plants from cv. Oochikara and its mutant, defective in the Lsi1 tran [...] sporter (lsi1 mutant), were grown in hydroponic culture either with Si (+Si; 2 mM) or without Si (-Si). Panicle inoculation with B. oryzae was carried out at the beginning of the milk-grain stage. Panicles were harvested at physiological grain maturity. The supply of Si significantly increased Si concentration in husks compared to -Si plants. Si concentration in husks from cv. Oochikara was up to three times greater than the lsi1 mutant. In the presence of Si, brown spot severity was reduced by 88% in grains from cv. Oochikara and by 53% in grains from lsi1 mutant. Brown spot severity was 77% lower for grains of cv. Oochikara than for the lsi1 mutant, both plant types were grown in the presence of Si. Panicle inoculation reduced significantly the following yield components: number of grains per panicle, the weight of 1000 grains and the percentage of filled grains. Si significantly increased these yield components, especially for inoculated panicles. Considering kernel quality, the panicle inoculation with B. oryzae significantly reduced the yield of husked kernel, yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, especially for grains from -Si plants. For panicles from +Si plants, the kernel quality was improved under inoculation, compared to -Si plants. Results from this study show that Si improved rice yield and kernel quality in panicles inoculated with B. oryzae. Furthermore the functional Lsi1 gene contributed significantly for increasing the yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, possibly due to the increasing Si concentration in husks.

  6. Genotypic Variation in Dry Weight and Nitrogen Concentration of Wheat Plant Parts; Relations to Grain Yield and Grain Protein Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafeez Malik; Allan Andersson; Ramune Kuktaite; Muhammad Yaqub Mujahid; Bismillah Khan; Eva Johansson

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating genotypic variability in nitrogen (N) concentration and dry weight of wheat plant parts and their relation with grain yield and protein concentration. Sixteen Nordic and three Pakistani wheat genotypes were grown in controlled climate chambers. Plant parts such as shoot, roots and grains were collected after harvesting, weighed and N concentration was determined. The results showed a large genetic variation for dry weight and N concentration in the various p...

  7. Contribution of Cereal-Legume association to the yield and grain quality of cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the mixed cereal-legume cultivation in different planting patterns was undertaken for two consecutive years. The aim was to investigate the contribution of the association of legumes towards yield and grain quality of cereal crops. The data indicated that the association of legumes in different planting pattern with sorghum affected the yield and grain quality of sorghum. During both the years of study, the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern significantly increased the grain yield of sorghum, as compered with single rows (60 cm apart) and triple row strips (30/120 cm). The grain yield of sorghum decreased when sorghum was associated with mungbean or guar, but the additional harvest of intercrops increased the total productivity. The difference in grain yield between the treatment means of interaction was non-significant. Moreover, in the first year of study, protein content of sorghum grain was not significantly affected by the planting pattern, but in the second year of study, double and triple row strips planting pattern significantly increased the grain protein content (respectively, 9.41% and 9.345%) of sorghum, as compared with single row planting pattern (protein content of 9.19%). Sorghum grain protein content of 9.51 and 9.49% produced in association with mungbean was significantly more than the grain protein content of sorghum alone or sorghum grown in the association with guar during 1999 and 2000, respectively. Increase in grain protei00, respectively. Increase in grain protein content of sorghum, when associated with mungbean, was attributed to the N transfer from companion mungbean to sorghum. It may be concluded from the results obtained that sorghum + mungbean association in the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern can efficiently utilize the available resources to improve the grain quality and overall production of sorghum-based cropping system. (author)

  8. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fast neutrons from a 252Cf source in the fluence range 105–108 n/cm2 on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2×106 n/cm2 increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5–1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na+ in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ decreased. - Highlights: • Irradiation of wheat grains with neutrons (low fluence ?102 n/cm2) considerably increases the grain yield throughout three subsequent generations. • The irradiation also remarkably increases total chlorophyll concentration in the higher plant, which results in higher concentrations of sugars and crude protein. • The irradiation also increases salt tolerance of the plants

  9. Genotype by environment interaction for grain yield and carbon isotope discrimination of barley in Mediterranean Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon isotope discrimination (?) has been found to be either positively or negatively related to grain yield of small grain cereals when grown in contrasting environments. In order to clarify a possible association between grain yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and ? of mature kernels, five 6-rowed and five 2-rowed barley cultivars were evaluated in 22 rainfed environments of northern Mediterranean Spain. Analyses of variance suggested that the genotypic ? values were more consistent across environments than the genotypic yields. Genotype-environment (GxE) interaction for grain yield was further explored by fitting an AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) model. The first 2 multiplicative axes were found significant. The AMMI2 model provided more accurate estimates of genotypic yields within environments than the conventional unadjusted means across replicates. AMMI2 estimates were used for input into cluster analysis, grouping environments that ranked genotypic yields similarly. Three major groups were obtained, with average yields of 2.42 t/ha (cluster I), 3.06 t/ha (cluster II), and 5.16 t/ha (cluster III). The genotypic ranking for ? did not vary substantially across clusters, but it changed for grain yield. The average genotypic yields in the low-yielding cluster I ranked opposite to those in the high-yielding cluster III, suggesting the existence of a crossover point at an intermediate yield level. The association between grain yievel. The association between grain yield and ? for genotypic means within clusters was variable. In cluster I, yield and ? tended to be negatively related, whereas they were positively related in clusters II and III. Genotypes with lower D, i.e. with higher transpiration efficiency, performed better in low-yielding environments (mostly those grouped in cluster I). On the contrary, a high genotypic ? was of advantage in medium (cluster II) and high-yielding environments (cluster III). This observation supports the assumption that drought tolerance and high yield potential under non-limiting growing conditions may be antagonistic concepts in barley. Genotypic means for kernel number per m2 and ? were consistently and positively related within clusters, suggesting that a constitutively high ? may have been driven by a large genotypic reproductive sink. The convenience of using ? as a selection criterion in areas exhibiting a considerable GxE interaction for grain yield is discussed. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  10. [Comparative studies of oat cultivars from Southern Brazil: effect of grain morphology on industrial yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Alicia; Beber, Rosane Costa; Fulcher, R Gary; Medin, Tom; Alves, Antonio Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of grain morphology of oats on their industrial yield. The five cultivars studied: CTC3, UFRGS7, UFRGS14, UPF7 and UPF16 were grown in three localities with different soil and climate conditions, for two consecutive years. The parameters evaluated in the oat samples before and after dehulling were grain size and shape (by image analysis), comparing them to industrial yield, weight of a thousand kernels and hectoliter weight. The results showed that image analysis of oat samples (with hulls), does not have any relation to industrial yield, different from what was observed with groat samples (dehulled). Industrial yield varied according to genotype, locality and year, while area, minimum and maximum diameters and grain shape were only affected by the genetic factor. It was observed that longer grains (UPF16) had the highest industrial yield, differently to rounder and shorter grains (UFRGS14) which had a lower yield due to the ease of breakage during hulling; the smallest grains also gave a low industrial yield. PMID:12658868

  11. Maize Production and Marketing in Trans Nzoia District Under a Liberalised Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers have for along time been known to reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no systematic study had been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate loss of stem borers in maize production in most transitional maize zone in western Kenya, a major maize-production zone, an experiment was superimposed on six farmers' field each in the six sites in western Kenya. One plot was treated with bulldock, an insecticide and the other was the control. Direct measurement and comparison of the grain yields in the plots indicated that in all sites, the control plots had 10-15% yield increase over the non-treated plots. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 8000.00 or about 10 bags per hectare, an equivalent of annul maize grain requirements for five adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers

  12. La oferta de maíz grano en Guanajuato, México: 1980-2009 / Supply of grain maize in Guanajuato, Mexico: 1980-2009

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Guzmán-Soria; S., Rebollar-Rebollar; J., Hernández-Martínez; J. A., García-Salazar; M. T. de la, Garza-Carranza; N., Callejas-Juárez; A., Terrones-Cordero.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México la escasa rotación de cultivos ha afectado la capacidad del suelo para producir, el uso de genotipos de maíz con mayor potencial de rendimiento y sistemas de producción más intensivos ha incrementado la demanda de insumos; lo cual afecta la economía del productor. Para determinar el efecto [...] de los cambios en el precio de los insumos y de los principales factores que explican la oferta de maíz grano en Guanajuato, en este trabajo se estimó un modelo econométrico compuesto por dos ecuaciones de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad para el periodo de 1980 a 2009. Los resultados indican que la oferta de maíz grano en el estado responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y de manera elástica si los cambios se suscitan en el mismo nivel de precio pero de la oferta en temporal, con elasticidades precio-propias de 0.8531 y 1.0604; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta estatal son el precio del plaguicida y de la mano de obra, con elasticidades precio-cruzada de -0.6154 y -0.5470; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactan son los registrados en el frijol, con elasticidades precio-cruzada de -0.5489 si es producido bajo riego y de -1.0292 si es producido en temporal. El efecto de transmisión de los precios, indica que el precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal estatal es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0.79 y 0.80% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el precio al mayoreo en el estado a niveles de 0.21 y 0.13% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en éstos. Abstract in english In Mexico, poor crop rotation has affected the capacity of soil to produce; the use of maize genotypes with higher yield potential and more intensive production systems has increased the demand for inputs, which affects the economy of the producer. To determine the effect of changes in input prices [...] and the main factors that explain the supply of maize grain in Guanajuato, in the present work an econometric model was estimated; comprised of two supply equations, three transmission prices and an identity for the period from 1980 to 2009. The results indicate that the supply of maize grain in the state responds inelastically to changes in the producer price of maize produced under irrigation and elastically if changes arise in the same price level but the offer temporary, with elasticities own-price 0.8531 and 1.0604, changes in input prices that more affect the state offer are the pesticide and labor price, with cross-price elasticities of -0.6154 and -0.5470, changes in the competitive product that more impact are those in the bean, with cross-price elasticities of -0.5489, if produced under irrigation and -1.0292 if produced in temporary. The effect of price transmission, indicate that the producer price of maize under irrigation and temporary state is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0.79 and 0.80% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence on the wholesale price in the state at levels of 0.21 and 0.13% for every unit percentage change in them.

  13. Broiler responses to supplementation of phytase and admixture of carbohydrases and protease in maize-soyabean meal diets with or without maize Distillers' Dried Grain with Solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Cowieson, A J; Adeola, O

    2010-06-01

    1. This experiment investigated growth performance and nutrient utilisation responses of broilers to partial replacement of maize and soyabean meal in broiler diets with 100 g kg(-1) maize Distillers' Dried Grain with Solubles (mDDGS) as well as responses to supplementation of an admixture of carbohydrases and protease (XAP) or phytase individually or in combination in the diets. 2. A total of 288 one-day-old broilers were allocated to 8 treatments in a randomised complete block design and a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The three factors were two levels each of mDDGS (0 or 100 g kg(-1)), phytase (0 or 1000 FTU kg(-1)), and XAP (0 or 500 mg kg(-1)). 3. Each treatment had 6 replicate cages with 6 birds per replicate cage. The control diets were formulated to meet all nutrient requirements of broilers according to National Research Council recommendations of 1994, but were marginally deficient in non-phytate P and ME. 4. Weight gain and gain:food were higher in broilers receiving diets containing mDDGS. The coefficient of apparent ileal N digestibility was lower in diets with mDDGS. Phytase increased the coefficient of apparent ileal DM digestibility in all diets. 5. Phytase improved the coefficient of the apparent total tract DM retention independently of mDDGS and tended to improve the coefficient of apparent P retention in the diets without mDDGS. The enzymes were additive in their effects in the diets with mDDGS. Overall, the results showed that adding 100 g kg(-1) mDDGS to a maize-soyabean meal diet had no negative effect on growth when energy and nutrient concentrations were similar to the maize-soyabean meal diet, and that phytase or an admixture of carbohydrases and protease individually or in combination modestly improved nutrient utilisation independently of mDDGS addition. Combination of the enzymes did not produce greater benefit than the use of phytase alone. PMID:20680879

  14. FAEM Chiarasul: new white oat cultivar with high yield and grain-processing quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antonio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa Crestani, Hawerroth; Rafael, Nornberg; Douglas André Mallmann, Schmidt; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Chiarasul was developed from a cross between UFRGS 17 and UFGS 10/ Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by reduced plant height, and high yield, grain quality and grain-processing quality. [...

  15. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Tian; Bo Guan; Daowei Zhou; Junbao Yu; Guangdi Li; Yujie Lou

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended pri...

  16. Análise de componentes principais de atributos químicos e físicos do solo limitantes à produtividade de grãos / Principal component analysis of soil chemical and physical attributes limiting grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Luis, Santi; Telmo Jorge Carneiro, Amado; Maurício Roberto, Cherubin; Thomas Newton, Martin; João Leonardo, Pires; Lisandra Pinto Della, Flora; Claudir José, Basso.

    1346-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio da análise dos componentes principais, a redução na dimensionalidade de atributos químicos e físicos do solo para a compreensão da variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas de grãos. A área experimental, de 54 ha, é manejada em agr [...] icultura de precisão há oito anos. Com base em seis mapas de colheita (soja - safra 2000/2001; milho - 2001/2002; soja - 2002/2003; trigo - 2003; soja - 2003/2004; e milho - 2004/2005), a área foi dividida em três zonas de produtividade de grãos (alta, média e baixa). Foram definidos 15 pontos georreferenciados representativos, para determinação de atributos químicos e físicos do solo, o que totalizou 63 variáveis analisadas. Entre os atributos químicos, o elevado teor de K no solo é o que melhor explica a variabilidade espacial da produtividade das culturas de grãos, provavelmente em razão do desbalanço das relações Ca:K e Mg:K. A zona de baixa produtividade apresentou baixa qualidade física do solo. Neste caso, a infiltração de água no solo, isoladamente, é a variável que melhor explica o desempenho das culturas de grãos. A análise dos componentes principais dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é estratégia eficiente para explicar a variabilidade espacial e temporal da produtividade de culturas de grãos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate, through principal component analysis, the reduction in the dimensionality of soil chemical and physical attributes in order to understand the spatial and temporal variability of grain crop yield. The experimental area of 54 ha has been managed under precis [...] ion agriculture for eight years. Based on six grain yield maps (soybean - 2000/2001 harvest season; maize - 2001/2002; soybean - 2002/2003; wheat - 2003; soybean - 2003/2004; and maize - 2004/2005), the area was split in three grain yield zones (high, medium, and low). Fifteen representative geo?referentiated points were defined in order to determine soil chemical and physical attributes, totaling 63 analyzed variables. Among chemical attributes, the high K content in soil is the variable that best explains the spatial variability of grain crop yield, probably due to the imbalance of the Ca:K and Mg:K relations. The low?yield zone had low soil physical quality. In this case, soil water infiltration, solely, is the variable that best explains the performance of the grain crops. Principal components analysis of soil chemical and physical attributes is an efficient strategy to explain the spatial and temporal variability of grain crop yield.

  17. Effect of plant row spacing and herbicide use on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield

    OpenAIRE

    Acciaresi, Horacio A.; Zuluaga, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The use of narrow plant spacing in corn (Zea mays) has been suggested as a technological alternative to obtain grain yield increases, due to a better use of resources. The regular pattern could diminish intraspecific competition while favoring interspecific competition with weeds. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of corn row spacing on weed aboveground biomass and corn grain yield. Field experiments were conducted during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 growing seasons. Three corn...

  18. Soybean grain yield monitoring and estimation aided by the mesoscale ETA Weather Forecast model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Morais Freitas; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Rodrigo Rizzi; Denise Cybis Fontana

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to monitor and estimate soybean grain yield based on an agronomical model coupled to a Geographic Information System (GIS) using meteorological data generated by the Eta mesoscale weather forecast model. The agronomic model produced bi-weekly penalizing indices maps and soybean grain yield estimates for the States of Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil, during crop year 2004/05. Result showed that meteorological data from the Eta model, incorporat...

  19. Produtividade do milho irrigado em sucessão a espécies invernais para produção de palha e grãos / Productivity of irrigated maize in succession to winter crops for straw and grain production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Alves da, Silva; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Luis, Sangoi; Alexandre Tadeu, Piana; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Douglas Batista, Jandrey; Paulo César, Endrigo.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade do milho irrigado, em sucessão a espécies invernais, quanto à cobertura de solo e produção de grãos, cultivado em diferentes doses de nitrogênio em cobertura. O trabalho foi realizado nas safras 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, em Eldorado do Su [...] l, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de cultivo do milho, em sucessão a cinco espécies invernais: aveia-preta, ervilhaca-comum e nabo forrageiro (produção de palha); aveia-branca e trigo (produção de grãos e palha); e de um tratamento-testemunha em que a vegetação espontânea foi controlada por aplicações periódicas de dessecante. Quando se aplicou nitrogênio em cobertura, a produtividade do milho superou 8 Mg ha-1 e não foi afetada pela espécie invernal antecessora. Em ausência de cobertura nitrogenada, a produtividade do milho foi maior, quando este sucedeu ao nabo forrageiro. A aveia-branca e o trigo adicionaram quantidades de palha superiores a 3 Mg ha-1 e produziram mais do que 1,5 Mg ha-1 de grãos. Com uso de irrigação e aplicação de N em cobertura obtém-se elevada produtividade de grãos de milho cultivado em sucessão, independentemente da cobertura do solo no inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of irrigated maize, grown using several rates of nitrogen sidedress, in succession to different winter crops. The experiment was carried out in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Southern Brazil, during the 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 growing seas [...] ons. Maize was sown in succession to five winter crops: black oat, common vetch, wild radish (straw production), white oat and wheat (grain and straw production), and to a control treatment, where the spontaneous vegetation was controlled by successive desiccant application. Maize grain yield was higher than 8 Mg ha-1 and was not affected by the specie of preceding winter crop, when nitrogen sidedress was applied. Maize grain yield was higher, when it succeeded wild radish and in the treatment without N in side-dressing. White oat and wheat added more than 3 Mg ha-1 of straw and produced more than 1.5 Mg ha-1 of grain. With supplementary irrigation and side-dress nitrogen application, it is possible to obtain high grain yield, when corn is cultivated as a sequential crop, independently of winter cover species.

  20. Produtividade do milho irrigado em sucessão a espécies invernais para produção de palha e grãos Productivity of irrigated maize in succession to winter crops for straw and grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade do milho irrigado, em sucessão a espécies invernais, quanto à cobertura de solo e produção de grãos, cultivado em diferentes doses de nitrogênio em cobertura. O trabalho foi realizado nas safras 2003/2004, 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, em Eldorado do Sul, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de cultivo do milho, em sucessão a cinco espécies invernais: aveia-preta, ervilhaca-comum e nabo forrageiro (produção de palha; aveia-branca e trigo (produção de grãos e palha; e de um tratamento-testemunha em que a vegetação espontânea foi controlada por aplicações periódicas de dessecante. Quando se aplicou nitrogênio em cobertura, a produtividade do milho superou 8 Mg ha-1 e não foi afetada pela espécie invernal antecessora. Em ausência de cobertura nitrogenada, a produtividade do milho foi maior, quando este sucedeu ao nabo forrageiro. A aveia-branca e o trigo adicionaram quantidades de palha superiores a 3 Mg ha-1 e produziram mais do que 1,5 Mg ha-1 de grãos. Com uso de irrigação e aplicação de N em cobertura obtém-se elevada produtividade de grãos de milho cultivado em sucessão, independentemente da cobertura do solo no inverno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity of irrigated maize, grown using several rates of nitrogen sidedress, in succession to different winter crops. The experiment was carried out in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Southern Brazil, during the 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 growing seasons. Maize was sown in succession to five winter crops: black oat, common vetch, wild radish (straw production, white oat and wheat (grain and straw production, and to a control treatment, where the spontaneous vegetation was controlled by successive desiccant application. Maize grain yield was higher than 8 Mg ha-1 and was not affected by the specie of preceding winter crop, when nitrogen sidedress was applied. Maize grain yield was higher, when it succeeded wild radish and in the treatment without N in side-dressing. White oat and wheat added more than 3 Mg ha-1 of straw and produced more than 1.5 Mg ha-1 of grain. With supplementary irrigation and side-dress nitrogen application, it is possible to obtain high grain yield, when corn is cultivated as a sequential crop, independently of winter cover species.

  1. Manuring Effect on the Potential Grain Yield of Wheat in the Light of The Holy Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ayyaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain

    2001-01-01

    Combined application of chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure increased the ears m -2 and grains per ear than alone application of organic or inorganic fertilizer to wheat variety Ghaznavi under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan however both parameters i.e. ears per emerged seedling and grains per ear remained lower than the predicted yield in Ayah No. 261 of Surah Al-Baqrah of The Holy Quran. This variety produced the grain yield of 5.5 t ha -1 when fertilized with ...

  2. Genetic Association between Grain Yield of Bread Wheat and Carbon Isotope Discrimination under Drought in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of the wheat plant to discriminate against the carbon-13 isotope during photosynthesis, in favor of the lighter carbon-12 isotope, has been found to correlate with grain yield in many studies. This hypothesis was tested under four contrasting environments in Morocco during 2003-2006 using three sets of elite wheat genotypes. Significant positive correlations were found between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, ?13C or ?) and grain yield, and were higher under more water stressed environments at Douyet and Jemaa Sahim, indicating that high ? is associated with high yield under drought stress. Selection based on yield appeared to have indirectly acted on ? as well, since the correlation was significant and remained relatively unchanged across years of selection. This indicates a possible genetic linkage between yield and ?. Also, transgressive segregation occurred for most agronomic and physiological traits, including ?, offering a potential genetic variation for selection. At the molecular level, CID was found to be linked to a molecular marker at the gwm095 region of chromosome 2A, and to a thousand kernel weight marker at the gwm071 region, distant by 20-30 cent Morgan (cM). A poor QTL associated with grain yield was detected at chromosome 5A, similar to the one detected at CIMMYT in Obregon (Mexico) and northern Australia. From these results, it can be concluded that CID may be used as a new selection criterion to enhance wheat grain on criterion to enhance wheat grain yield potential under drought in Morocco. (author)

  3. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liu, Qi-Hua; Wu, Xiu; Li, Tian; Ma, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Biao.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effec [...] t worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  4. Genetic variability and correlation for yield and grain quality characters of rice grown in coastal saline low land of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesan T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty four rice varieties of diverse origin were studied for genetic variability and correlation analysis under coastal salinelow lands. The PCV values were slightly greater than GCV, revealing little influence of environment in character expression.High values of heritability along with genetic advance were observed for grain yield per plant, 100 grain weight, productivetillers per plant, grain per panicle, grain length, grain breadth, kernel length, panicle length and plant height. Grain yield perplant showed positive significant association with plant height and productive tillers per plant at both genotypic andphenotypic levels. The 100 grain weight was positively significantly correlated with plant height, grains per panicle andgrain breadth.

  5. Application of essential oils in maize grain: impact on Aspergillus section Flavi growth parameters and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Romina V; Etcheverry, Miriam G

    2008-04-01

    The antifungal activity of Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Pëumus boldus Mol (boldus), Hedeoma multiflora Benth (mountain thyme), Syzygium aromaticum L. (clove), and Lippia turbinate var. integrifolia (griseb) (poleo) essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus section Flavi was evaluated in sterile maize grain under different water activity (a(w)) condition (0.982, 0.955, and 0.90). The effect of EOs added to maize grains on growth rate, lag phase, and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) accumulation of Aspergillus section Flavi were evaluated at different water activity conditions. The five EOs analyzed have been shown to influence lag phase and growth rate. Their efficacy depended mainly on the essential oil concentrations and substrate water activity conditions. All EOs showed significant impact on AFB(1) accumulation. This effect was closely dependent on the water activity, concentration, and incubation periods. Important reduction of AFB(1) accumulation was observed in the majority of EO treatments at 11 days of incubation. Boldus, poleo, and mountain thyme EO completely inhibited AFB(1) at 2000 and 3000 microg g(-1). Inhibition of AFB(1) accumulation was also observed when aflatoxigenic isolates grew with different concentration of EOs during 35 days. PMID:18206775

  6. Weed Control and Grain Yield in Double-Cropped Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Simi?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different herbicide combinations: control (1, alachlor+linuron (2, and alachlor+linuron+imazethapyr (3 were investigated in double-cropped soybean grown in two row spacing variants, 38 cm and 76 cm, under conventional tillage (CT or no-tillage (NT. In trials conducted on a sandy loam soil at Zemun Polje, high weediness had a negative effect of on the yield of double-cropped soybean, especially at the higher row spacing tested and with no-tillage.Regression and correlation data revealed a dependence of weediness in double-cropped soybean on tillage system and herbicide combination, and dependence of soybean yield on tillage system.

  7. Developing selection criteria based on an ontogenetic path analysis approach to improve grain yield in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setotaw, T A; Belayneh, S G; Gwinner, R; Ferreira, J L

    2014-01-01

    We used correlation and path coefficient analysis based on an ontogenetic approach to develop selection criteria in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for an early production system in Ethiopia. A total of 100 genotypes using 10x10-simple lattices with two replications were used to perform the experiment at Ambo and Asasa. The combined analysis of the measured traits showed significant differences among genotypes for all traits. A positive correlation was observed between grain yield and spike/m2, kernel number/spike, and 1000-kernel weight. The path analysis showed that spike/m2, 1000-kernel weight, and kernel number per spike had significant positive direct effects on grain yield, which shows that these traits can be used as selection criteria to improve grain yield. The significant positive correlation of spike/ m2, 1000-kernel weight, and grain-filling period and the positive direct effect on grain yield indicated the potential of these traits as indirect selection criteria to improve grain yield in the early production system in Ethiopia. This study also showed that the path coefficient analysis based on an ontogenetic model was efficient and produced results that can be interpreted clearly. PMID:25036513

  8. Genetic control of grain yield and its related traits in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Bhullar, G S; Gill, K S

    1986-07-01

    Genetic control of tiller number, grain number, grain weight, harvest index and grain yield in six generations, along with the biparentals, F3s, F2xparental progeny, and F2xF1 progeny were investigated in an intervarietal cross of bread wheat involving two highly competitive varieties, 'WL711' and 'HD 2009'. The performance of F1, B1, B2, F2, × p1, F2 × P2 and F2 × F1 progeny was midway between the parents involved with respect to all the evaluated characters. The biparental progeny excelled the mean performance of their corresponding F2 and F3 progeny in tiller number, seed weight and grain yield. The estimates of variance components obtained from the two models deployed were almost similar. Considerable additive genetic variance was observed for grains per spike, seed weight and grain yield while dominance variance was more pronounced for harvest index. The additive-dominance model was adequate for grains per spike and harvest index. Epistatic effects of additive × additive and additive × dominance type for tiller number and grain yield, and of additive × dominance type for seed weight were observed. The digenic epistatic model was inadequate for explaining the nature of gene action for tiller number, seed weight and grain yield. The studies indicated that non-allelic interactions should not be ignored in formulating wheat breeding programmes and that a biparental approach could be adopted as an extremely useful tool for enhancing genetic variability and the creation of transgressive segregants. The usefulness of breeding methodologies utilising a biparental approach is discussed. PMID:24248028

  9. Determinantes del peso de grano en cultivares nativos e híbridos de maíz / Determinants of grain weight in native cultivars and hybrids of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esmeralda, Corona-Mendoza; Carlos Gustavo, Martínez-Rueda; Gaspar, Estrada-Campuzano.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los parámetros fisiológicos que explican las variaciones en el peso individual de grano entre cultivares nativos e híbridos y analizar el avance genético en el rendimiento de grano de maíz de valles altos. Se evaluaron dos cultivares nativos (Ixtlahuaca [...] y Jiquipilco), dos híbridos antiguos (H-30 y H-32) y dos modernos (Z-60 y H-40), en cuatro ambientes contrastantes, variando la fecha de siembra (FO: óptima 2/04/09 y FT: tardía 30/04/09) y sistemas de producción (SA: antiguo 5 plantas m-2, 80N-40P-00K y SM: moderno 8 plantas m-2, 180N-90P-60K), durante 2009 en Toluca, México. Existieron diferencias significativas entre genotipos y ambientes para el peso máximo de grano (PMG), rendimiento de grano (RG) y sus principales componentes, sin que se presentaran efectos de interacción GxA. Las variaciones en el PMG se explicaron principalmente por cambios en la tasa de llenado de grano (TLLG). En la FO, los cultivares nativos mostraron mayor PMG y contenido máximo de agua en el grano (CMAG) debido a una mayor TLLG. La capacidad potencial de demanda (CPD) fue mayor en los híbridos modernos, y estuvo directamente relacionada (R²= 0.89, p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the physiological parameters that explain variations in individual grain weight among native cultivars and hybrids and analyze the genetic advance in grain yield of highland maize. There were evaluated two native cultivars (Ixtlahuaca and Jiquipilco), two anci [...] ent hybrid (H-30 and H-32) and two modern (Z-60 and H-40), in four contrasting environments, varying planting date (OD: optimal 2/4/09 and LD: late 30/04/09) and production systems (AS: ancient 5 plants m-2, 80N-40P-00K and MS: modern 8 plants m-2, 180N-90P-60K), in 2009 in Toluca, Mexico. There were significant differences between genotypes and environments for maximum grain weight (MGW), grain yield (GY) and its maj or components, without GxA interaction effects. Variations in the MGW were mainly explained by changes in the grain filling rate (GFR). In the OD, native cultivars showed higher MGW and maximum water content in the grain (MWCG) due to increased RGF. The potential capacity ofdemand (PCD) was higher in modern hybrids, and was directly related (R²= 0.89, p

  10. Nitrogen and Water Stress Impact on Hard Red Spring Wheat Crop Reflectance, Yield and Grain Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, C. L.; Clay, D. E.; Beck, D.; Clay, S. A.; Seielstad, G.

    2007-12-01

    Water and nitrogen stress impact hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop reflectance, yield and grain quality. To minimize yield losses from nitrogen (N) and water stress, it is essential to apply appropriate N in relation to water stress. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of N and water stress on hard red spring wheat crop reflectance, yield, and grain quality. Complete randomized block experiments were conducted in 2003, 2004 and 2004 in dryland and irrigated fields at three locations in central South Dakota. Treatments consisted of N rates and N application at different growth stages. Nitrogen fertilizer rates ranged from 0 to 200 kg ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer application times were (1) planting; (2) planting and tillering (Feekes 2 -3) or (3) tillering (Feekes 2 -3). Reflectance data was collected using a Cropscan and a CropCircle radiometer. Reflectance data was collected at bare soil, tillering (Feekes 2-3) and flag leaf (Feekes 9-10). Carbon 13 isotopic discrimination (Ä) was used to determine yield loss to nitrogen or water stress. Reflectance data was compared to yield and Ä values or grain quality and Ä values. Correlation of crop reflectance (measured at the different growth stages and by the different radiometers) with yield loss to nitrogen or water and grain quality will be presented. Information presented will be used to make corrective nitrogen treatments and improve marketing decisions as related to grain quality.

  11. Combining ability analysis for yield and yield components in bold grained rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Assam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Chakraborty; Supriyo, Chakraborty; B.K., Dutta; S.B., Paul.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in english Combining ability analysis for grain yield and its components was carried out in eight parental diallel crosses of bold grained rice excluding reciprocals. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importan [...] ce of both additive and non-additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parents Ranjit followed by Matonga and Monohar Sali contributed significantly to high GCA effect towards high grain yield per hill. The superior specific cross combinations for high grain yield per hill were Matonga/Bar Madhava, originated from high x low GCA combination followed by Dhola Mula/ Ranjit (low x high gca), Chandmoni/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA), Dhola Mula/Mala (low x low gca), Matonga/Mala (high x low GCA), Bar Madhava/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA) and Matonga/Hathi Sali (high x high GCA). Further, these crosses exhibited high SCA effects for some other characters as well.

  12. Combining ability analysis for yield and yield components in bold grained rice (Oryza sativa L. of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Dutta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis for grain yield and its components was carried out in eight parental diallel crosses of bold grained rice excluding reciprocals. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parents Ranjit followed by Matonga and Monohar Sali contributed significantly to high GCA effect towards high grain yield per hill. The superior specific cross combinations for high grain yield per hill were Matonga/Bar Madhava, originated from high x low GCA combination followed by Dhola Mula/ Ranjit (low x high gca, Chandmoni/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA, Dhola Mula/Mala (low x low gca, Matonga/Mala (high x low GCA, Bar Madhava/Hathi Sali (low x high GCA and Matonga/Hathi Sali (high x high GCA. Further, these crosses exhibited high SCA effects for some other characters as well.

  13. Effect of Maize Stover Application as Soil Mulch on Yield of Arabica coffee (Coffee arabica L., Rubiaceae at Western Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Bekeko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during the dry seasons in western Hararghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia at the Haramaya University Chiro Campus to determine the effect of maize stover as soil mulch on yield of Arabica coffee. Five levels of maize stover as soil mulch at a rate of: 0t/ha, 2t/ha, 4t/ha, 6t/ha and 8t/ha were applied in randomized complete block design with four replications from 2008 to 2011. Yield data was recorded during specific phenological stage of the plant. Result from the analysis of variance from the application of maize stover as soil mulch over years showed the presence of significant difference among treatments on bean yield of Arabica coffee. The highest bean yield (1070 kg/ha and the lowest bean yield (520 kg/ha were noted at 8 tons/ha and 0 ton/ha, respectively. Similarly, the pooled analysis of variance over seasons corroborated that the effect of maize stover as a soil mulch at a rate of 6t/ha and 8t/ha showed the presence of no significant difference on bean yield of coffee (p<0.05. The result of the present study also elucidated that, the unmulched control plots had the lowest coffee bean yield. While application of 8 tons/ha of maize stover as a soil mulch significantly increased coffee yield both in 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. Therefore, on the basis of these results, it can be concluded that applying maize stover as soil mulch during the dry seasons at west Hararghe can help to sustain Arabica coffee production. Thus, it is recommended that application of 8tons/ha maize stover as soil mulch can significantly increase the yield of Arabica coffee and sustains its productivity over years.

  14. Weed Control and Grain Yield in Double-Cropped Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Simi?; Nebojša Momirovi?; Željko Dolijanovi?; Željko Radoševi?

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different herbicide combinations: control (1), alachlor+linuron (2), and alachlor+linuron+imazethapyr (3) were investigated in double-cropped soybean grown in two row spacing variants, 38 cm and 76 cm, under conventional tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT). In trials conducted on a sandy loam soil at Zemun Polje, high weediness had a negative effect of on the yield of double-cropped soybean, especially at the higher row spacing tested and with no-tillage. Regression and correlation...

  15. INTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK-BIOGAS AND THE EFFECT OF DRIED SLUDGE MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE ON ULTISOL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyo Soelaeman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Tamanbogo Experimental Farm consists of 3 activities, namely 1. To evaluate the kind and amount of feed consumed by 20 heads of cattle and the amount of manure produced, 2. To evaluate the amount of biogas, sludge and slurry produced by digester, and 3. To study the application of manure, dried sludge manure, and NPK fertilization on the growth and yield of hybrid maize of Pioneer 27 (P27. The research results showed that the total weight of feed consumed in the rainy season and in the dry season has already achieved to the recommendation of 10% of the body weight of cattle. The average production of manure and urine were 11.25 kg head-1 day-1 with the biogas production of 3 m3 day-1 was sufficient for cooking and lighting for 5 members of family daily. The by-product of biogas production was 8 kg day-1 of sludge and 127 L day-1 of slurry. The grain yield of P27 with application of dried sludge accompanied with 50 % of NPK fertilizer recommendation dose gave the highest yield of P27 (4.45 t ha-1 with a profit Rp. 3,466,000 ha-1 and B/C of 1.5

  16. Interacción genotipos X prácticas de manejo en el rendimiento de grano de híbridos de maíz / Genotypes X crop management interaction grain yield of corn hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aristeo, Barrios-Ayala; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Rafael, Ariza-Flores; Marco, Otero-Sánchez; Alejandro, Michel-Aceves.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa al método de campo para generar recomendaciones de manejo en México son los modelos modulares dinámicos del crecimiento de los cultivos, que son aditivos en su concepción e ignoran al genotipo. El objetivo de este estudio fue: 1) demostrar que no se pueden generalizar las recomendaci [...] ones de manejo del cultivo de maíz para todos los genotipos (de maíz) disponibles para ello y 2) cotejar el efecto de las interacciones genotipo x factores de manejo sobre el rendimiento de grano en tres experimentos de campo conducidos bajo riego en el sureste de México, San Gregorio y Villa Flores, Chiapas y Piedras Negras, Veracruz. El diseño experimental fue en parcelas divididas con dos repeticiones, en el que las parcelas grandes se asignaron a 25 tratamientos de un compuesto central rotatorio para N, P, K y densidad de población. Las parcelas chicas fueron asignadas a tres o cuatro híbridos modernos de maíz, todos con desarrollo agronómico similar pero diferente origen genético. El rendimiento de grano se ajustó por regresión a un modelo cuadrático aditivo que ignoró a los genotipos y a otro no aditivo para manejo y genotipo; este último mediante variables mudas con valor 0 ó 1. Los resultados evidencian la interacción genotipo x manejo para el rendimiento de grano, que se manifiesta en diferentes efectos lineales, curvaturas e interacciones entre híbridos, que son cambiantes entre localidades. El modelo no aditivo mejoró entre 30 y 71% el coeficiente de determinación (R²) para rendimiento de grano en relación al modelo aditivo. Abstract in english An alternative to the field method for generating recommendations of management in Mexico is the use of modular, dynamic models of crop growth, which are additives in its conception and ignore the genotype. The objetive in this study was: 1) to prove that the recomendations for the use of maize crop [...] cultivation can not be used for all genotypes of maize available for this and 2) data from three maize field experiments conducted in southeastern Mexico, San Gregorio and Villa Flores, Chiapas and Piedras Negras, Veracruz, was analyzed in order to evaluate the genotype x crop management interactions on grain yield . Twenty-five treatments of a Rotable, Central Composite Design for N, P, K and population stand were assigned to main plots of a split plot design replicated twice. Small plots were assigned to three or four modern maize hybrids that had similar agronomic performance but different genetic background. Grain yield was fitted by regression with an additive model that ignored maize genotype and an interactive quadratic model for management factors and maize hybrids, in the last model dummy variables valued 0 or 1 accounted for maize hybrids. Results reflected genotype by management interaction that varied significantly among hybrids and locations in the interactive model. The interactive model consistently improved 30% to 71% the determination coefficient (R²) of grain yield as compared to the additive model.

  17. Severidade de doenças foliares e produtividade de genótipos de milho em resposta à adubação nitrogenada / Severity of foliar diseases and genotype maize yield in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gil Rodrigues dos, Santos; Francismar Rodrigues, Gama; Clebson Gomes, Gonçalves; Artenisa Cerqueira, Rodrigues; Evelynne Urzedo, Leão; Carlos Henrique, Cardon; Aurenivia, Bonifacio.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças foliares, principalmente, helmintosporiose (Bipolaris spp.), antracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) e ferrugem (Puccinia spp.), podem ocasionar redução do rendimento da cultura do milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e severidade de helmintosporiose, antracnose e fe [...] rrugem, bem como a produtividade de genótipos de milho, em resposta a doses crescentes de nitrogênio. Avaliou-se a severidade das doenças, utilizando-se escala de notas, em nove genótipos de milho (AG9040, AG7088, 30F35, 3F624, 1F583, 1F632, 1F557, 1F640 e ID219), submetidos a quatro doses de nitrogênio (67; 112; 157; e 202 kg ha-1), em duas safras (2009/2010 e 2010/2011). Para determinar a produtividade, utilizou-se a massa dos grãos coletados. Os graus de severidade da helmintosporiose, da antracnose e da ferrugem variaram em resposta às doses de nitrogênio e, entre os genótipos de milho avaliados durante as duas safras, entretanto, não houve relação clara entre as doses de nitrogênio aplicadas e a ocorrência das doenças nas duas safras. A ferrugem foi detectada apenas durante a safra I. Apesar da severidade das doenças foliares, elas, de modo geral, não afetaram significativamente a produtividade dos genótipos de milho avaliados. Desses, o genótipo de milho AG7088 pode ser considerado o mais produtivo e o mais resistente às doenças avaliadas. Abstract in english Leaf diseases, mainly, helmintosporiosis (Bipolaris spp.), anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) and rust (Puccinia spp.), may cause reduction in maize yield. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of helmintosporiosis, anthracnose and rust, as well as productivity of different [...] genotypes of maize in response to increasing doses of nitrogen. Disease severity was evaluated using a score scale in nine maize genotypes (AG9040, AG7088, 30F35, 3F624, 1F583, 1F632, 1F557, 1F640 and ID219) subjected to four different nitrogen levels (67; 112; 157; and 202 kg ha-1) in two cropping years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). To determine the productivity, it was used the weight of collected grains. It was observe that the severity of helmintosporiosis, anthracnose and rust varied in response to nitrogen levels and between the genotypes evaluated during two cropping years, although there was no clear relationship between the nitrogen levels applied and disease incidence in two cropping years. Rust was detect only during the cropping year I. Although the severity of foliar diseases, in general, these did not significantly affect the productivity of the maize genotypes evaluated. Of the evaluated genotypes, genotype AG7088 can be consider the most productive and the most resistant to the diseases evaluated.

  18. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proti? Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  19. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ? We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ? The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ? Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ? Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical composition. ? Silage quality parameters may be used as criteria for indirect selection of MFY.

  20. Grain Discoloration Severity and Upland Rice Yield at Different Cover Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Trevisan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study the effect of different cover crops on grain discoloration severity and upland rice yield in order to make recommendations for agricultural practices that provide better performances. The experiment was carried out in the crop year 2011/2012 in Santa Carmen, northern state of Mato Grosso, Brasil, in an Oxisol that has been cultivated under the integrated crop-livestock systems for six years. The treatments were T1: intercropping system with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and Brachiaria ruziziensis, T2: intercropping system with Crotalaria ochroleuca and B. ruziziensis and T3 intercropping system with Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense and B. ruziziensis. The grain discoloration disease was responsible for 34% reduction in yield and a 10% reduction in weight of 100 grains. The results showed significant differences in treatment effects on grain yield, weight of 100 grains and grain discoloration severity. The intercropping system of previous crops that provided better yields and lower disease severity was that of B. ruziziensis and cowpea, being the most suitable to compose the system of crop rotation before planting rice.

  1. Genetic variability and correlation for yield and grain quality characters of rice grown in coastal saline low land of Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    Sabesan T; Suresh, R.; Saravanan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty four rice varieties of diverse origin were studied for genetic variability and correlation analysis under coastal salinelow lands. The PCV values were slightly greater than GCV, revealing little influence of environment in character expression.High values of heritability along with genetic advance were observed for grain yield per plant, 100 grain weight, productivetillers per plant, grain per panicle, grain length, grain breadth, kernel length, panicle length and plant height. Grain yi...

  2. Qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados em diferentes temperaturas / Quality of maize grains stored at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo T., Paraginski; Bruno A., Rockenbach; Rodrigo F. dos, Santos; Moacir C., Elias; Maurício de, Oliveira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura de armazenamento é um dos principais fatores que interferem na qualidade de armazenamento e, considerando a pequena quantidade de trabalhos realizados com grãos de milho, este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados nas temperaturas de 5, 15, 25 e 35 °C, dura [...] nte 12 meses. Foram realizadas análises de classificação dos grãos, teor de água, peso de mil grãos, percentual de germinação, condutividade elétrica e teor de lipídios no início, aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses de armazenamento; a análise de perfil de ácidos graxos foi realizada no início e ao final dos 12 meses. Os grãos foram classificados como Tipo 1 até os 6 meses de armazenamento porém após este período ocorreu uma redução drástica na qualidade sendo enquadrados como abaixo do padrão na temperatura de 25 °C. Os resultados de teor de água, peso de mil grãos, germinação, condutividade elétrica e perfil de ácidos graxos indicaram que as maiores alterações foram observadas nos grãos armazenados nas temperaturas mais elevadas principalmente a 25 e 35 °C indicando que o tempo de armazenamento seguro dos grãos nessas condições é menor quando comparado ao armazenamento em temperaturas mais baixas. Abstract in english The storage temperature is one of the main factors that affect the quality of storage, and considering the fact that limited studies have been conducted with maize, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of maize grains stored at 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C for 12 months. Analysis for classification of gr [...] ain, moisture content, thousand grain weight, germination percentage, electrical conductivity and lipid content at the beginning, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage, and analysis of fatty acid profile were performed at the beginning and at the end of 12 months. The grains were classified as Type 1 until 6 months of storage, but after this period there was a drastic reduction in quality, being framed with below standard temperature of 25 °C. The results of water content, thousand grain weight, germination, electrical conductivity, and fatty acid profile indicated that major changes were observed in grain storage at higher temperatures, especially at 25 and 35 °C, indicating that the safe time for storage of grains under these conditions is less compared to storage at lower temperatures.

  3. Yield and mineral nutrition of soybean, maize, and Congo signal grass as affected by limestone and slag / Produtividade e nutrição mineral de soja, milho e capim-ruziziensis influenciados por calcário e escória de siderurgia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral, Castro; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação superficial de calcário e escória de siderurgia e seus efeitos nos atributos químicos do solo e na produtividade e nutrição de soja, milho e capim-ruziziensis (Urochloa ruziziensis). O experimento foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho dis [...] troférrico, sob sistema de semeadura direta. Os tratamentos consistiram do uso de calcário e de escória de siderurgia (silicatos de cálcio e magnésio), para corrigir a acidez do solo, e de uma testemunha sem aplicação de corretivos. As dosagens foram calculadas com o intuito de elevar a saturação por bases a 70%. A soja foi semeada em novembro de 2006 e o milho em dezembro de 2007. O capim-ruziziensis foi semeado logo após as colheitas da soja e do milho e foi cultivado durante as entressafras. Os atributos químicos do solo foram avaliados aos 6, 12 e 18 meses após a aplicação dos corretivos. A escória é uma fonte eficiente para correção da acidez do solo e é capaz de aumentar o nível de bases trocáveis no perfil do solo mais rapidamente do que o calcário. Tanto o calcário como a escória aumentam a produção de matéria seca do capim-ruziziensis e a produção de grãos de soja e milho. A escória é mais eficiente em elevar a produtividade do milho. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of superficial application of limestone and slag, and their effects on soil chemical attributes and on yield and mineral nutrition of soybean, maize, and Congo signal grass (Urochloa ruziziensis). The experiment was carried out in a Rhodic Ha [...] pludox under no tillage system. The treatments consisted of the use of limestone or slag (silicates of calcium and magnesium) to correct soil acidity, and of a control treatment without the use of soil correctives. Rates were calculated in order to raise soil base saturation up to 70%. Soybean was sown in November 2006 and maize in December 2007. Congo signal grass was sown right after the harvests of soybean and maize, and it was cropped during the off-seasons. Soil chemical attributes were evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months after the application of the corrective materials. Slag is an efficient source for soil acidity correction, being able to raise the exchangeable base levels in the soil profile faster than lime. Both limestone and slag increase dry matter yield of Congo signal grass, and grain yield of soybean and maize. Slag is more effective in improving maize grain yield.

  4. Perfilhamento, área foliar e produtividade do milho sob diferentes arranjos espaciais / Maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity under different spatial arrangement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Sangoi; Cleber, Schweitzer; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Amauri, Schmitt; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Clóvis Arruda de, Souza.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de variações no arranjo espacial de plantas sobre o perfilhamento, a área foliar e a produtividade do milho. Os experimentos foram implantados na primavera/ verão dos anos agrícolas 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro densidades [...] (três, cinco, sete e nove plantas por metro quadrado) e de três espaçamentos entre linhas (0,4, 0,7 e 1,0 m). Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF) e a produtividade de grãos do híbrido P30F53, além da contribuição dos perfílhos para esses caracteres. Em 2007/2008, não houve deficiência hídrica, o IAF na floração foi superior a 7 e os perfilhos contribuíram com 65% do IAF total, na menor densidade de plantas. Nesse ano, a produtividade de grãos (13,7 Mg ha-1) não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, e os perfilhos contribuíram com 44% da produtividade, na densidade de três plantas por metro quadrado. Em 2008/2009, houve restrição hídrica na pré?floração e no enchimento de grãos, o que diminuiu o perfilhamento e a contribuição dos perfilhos ao IAF. A produtividade de grãos, nesse ano, aumentou de 9,7 para 11,7 Mg ha-1 com o aumento na densidade de plantas, mas a contribuição dos perfilhos à produtividade foi menor. O perfilhamento aumenta a estabilidade fenotípica da produtividade de grãos frente a variações no arranjo de plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plant spatial arrangement on maize tillering, leaf area, and grain productivity. The experiments were carried out in the spring/summer of the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (three, five, s [...] even, and nine plants per square meter) and three row spacings (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 m). The leaf area index (LAI) and grain yield of hybrid P30F53 were assessed, as well as the tiller contribution to these characters. In 2007/2008, there was no water deficit, LAI values were higher than 7, and tillers contributed with 65% of total LAI at the lowest plant density. In this year, grain yield average (13.7 Mg ha-1) was not affected by treatments, and tillers contributed with 44% of total yield at the density of three plants per square meter. In 2008/2009, there was water deficit before flowering and during grain filling, which decreased tillering and tiller contribution to LAI. Grain yield in this year increased from 9.7 to 11.7 Mg ha-1 with increasing plant densities, but tiller contribution to grain yield was lower. Tillering increases phenotypic stability of grain productivity to variations in plant spatial arrangement.

  5. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments witt mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to plant breeders in making decisions regarding the development and evaluation of new cultivars. (author)

  6. Grain yield losses in wheat by Russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia (mordvilko)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wheat cultivars were sown at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to evaluate their response to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Significant variability was observed among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and yield losses. Cultivar V-2707 was the least infested with the aphid (6.3 aphids/tiller) giving maximum grain yield (4638 kg/ha), with cultivar V-2047 the second best with 6.43 aphids/ tiller infestation and grain yield of 4206 kg/ha. Commercial cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Punjab-96) were heavily infested with 14.4 and 12.6 aphids/tiller, respectively, and yielded 2245 and 2490 kg/ha harvest, respectively. Aphid population increased up to the fourth week of March and then declined. Aphid infestation resulted in 3.96 to 7.36% yield loss. The cultivar V-2707 was later released for general cultivation, under the name of Punjab-1. (author)

  7. Grain Yield and Morphological Characters of Spring Safflower Genotypes: Evaluation Relationship Using Correlation and Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of safflower were investigated. In this survey, 30 spring safflower genotypes were tested via the randomized complete block experiment design for two years of 2005 and 2006. The phenotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficient were estimated in both years. Grain yield was significantly correlated with some characters, like the plant height (r = 0.563** and r = 0.536**, hectoliter weight (r = 0.574** and r = 0.577** and biological yield (r = 0.980** and r = 0.977** in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on grain yield in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Therefore, improvement of the grain yield will immensely be efficient via plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight based selection.

  8. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  9. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanovi?, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

  10. Diallelic analysis for lysine and oil contents in maize grains Análise dialélica para conteúdos de lisina e óleo em grãos de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Six S5 lines of maize, with differences for lysine and oil contents in grains, were used to carry out a complete series of diallelic crosses. The resulting 15 hybrids were grown in a field at two nitrogen levels (10 and 130 kg N ha-1. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were obtained by using the method 4, model I of Griffing for grain yield, and grain lysine and oil contents. Significant (p Seis linhagens S5 de milho, com diferenças para conteúdos de óleo e de lisina nos grãos, foram usadas para realizar uma série completa de cruzamentos dialélicos. Os 15 híbridos resultantes foram cultivados em campo com dois níveis de nitrogênio (10 e 130 kg N ha-1. A capacidade geral de combinação (CGC e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC foram obtidas com o método 4, modelo I de Griffing para produtividade de grãos e concentração de lisina e óleo nos grãos. Interação significativa (p < 0.001 foi observada entre CGC e níveis de N para produtividade de grãos, indicando seleção de diferentes linhagens para cada nível de N. Esta interação não foi significativa para conteúdo de lisina, mas existiu efeito significativo (p < 0.1 da CGC nos dois níveis de N para esta variável. Os efeitos de CGC e CEC foram não significativos para conteúdo de óleo, contudo, foi observada correlação positiva entre conteúdos de lisina e óleo nos híbridos, nas linhagens e mesmo nas cultivares utilizadas como controle. Os resultados indicam a efetividade da seleção para conteúdo de lisina nas linhagens não opaco de milho estudadas, independente dos níveis de N, e a possibilidade de atingir concomitantemente maiores níveis de óleo e lisina nos grãos.

  11. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  12. Genetic Mechanism For Some Spike Characteristics and Grain Yield In Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Five wheat varieties/lines viz; HABA-4, HABA-12, Pitic-62, Pak-81 and LU26S were crossed in a diallel fashion to determine the mode of inheritance of some important spike characteristics. Number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike and grain yield per plant were governed by over dominance type of gene action. Number of spikelets per spike, spike length and 1000-grain weight were ruled by partial dominance with additive type of gene action except spike length in which non additive type of gene action was observed. Epistasis was absent for all the traits studied.

  13. White Lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga) Increases Solubility of Minjingu Phosphate Rock, Phosphorus Balances and Maize Yields in Njoro Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lelei, Joyce J.; Onwonga, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Exudation of high amounts of citrate in white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga) has the advantage of being effective in mobilization of a wide range of sparingly soluble P sources. To improve cultivation system of maize, a field experiment was conducted to assess effectiveness of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga) in increasing solubility of minjingu phosphate rock (MPR), phosphorus balances and maize yields in Njoro sub-County, Kenya. The randomized complete block design experiment wa...

  14. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  15. Yield component analysis and recombinative heterosis of complex characters in QPM maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Thanga Hemavathy, N.Subbaraman, S.M.Ibrahim and K.Balaji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Component analysis is the analysis of variation of complex character based on the variation of its components. For assessing the variation,components should be arranged in ontogenetical order. This allows determination of the mutually independent contributions of the components tothe variation of complex character. Component analysis provides the necessary data for the exploitation of recombinative heterosis in plantbreeding. Recombinative heterosis is the phenomenon where in, the progeny value of a complex character exceeds the mid parental value as aresult of the multiplicative relationship between the complex character and its component traits. It is suggested that this form of heterosis may bean important cause of specific combining ability. As such, it may be involved in the heterosis of complex characters in F1 hybrids and in thehybrid- vigor encountered in interspecific hybrid populations. It is demonstrated how recombinative heterosis may be explained by a quantitativegenetical model involving additive inheritance of the component traits. Current study was focused to predict progeny performance for thecomplex character from parental data for the component traits. This requires regression of individual components on the preceding primarycharacters. The contribution of the coefficient for yield component C3 (single seed weight to variance of log yield was maximum in the parentsCML 189, UMI 814, CML 145, UMI 524, CML 141 followed by the coefficient C2 (number of kernels per row which was maximum in theparents UMI 427 and UMI 814. In the present investigation, 35 hybrid combinations were tested for progeny prediction value. Application of thisprocedure revealed that among the 35 crosses, five crosses exceeded the predicted mid parental value. The predicted values can serve as a basisfor the selection of promising combinations. The crosses that exhibited higher values for grain yield per plant was predicted in the combination ofCML 142 x UMI 426, CML 143 x UMI 427, CML144 x UMI 189, CML 144 x UMI 426 and CML 147 x UMI 426.

  16. Onset of grain filling is associated with a change in properties of linker histone variants in maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajka, R.; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In maize kernel development, the onset of grain-filling represents a major developmental switch that correlates with a massive reprogramming of gene expression. We have isolated chromosomal linker histones from developing maize kernels before (11 days after pollination, dap) and after (16 dap) initiation of storage synthesis. Six linker histone gene products were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A marked shift of around 4 pH units was observed for the linker histone spot pattern after 2D-gel electrophoresis when comparing the proteins of 11 and 16 dap kernels. The shift from acidic to more basic protein forms suggests a reduction in the level of post-translational modifications of linker histones during kernel development. Analysis of their DNA-binding affinity revealed that the different linker histone gene products bind double-stranded DNA with similar affinity. Interestingly, the linker histones isolated from 16 dap kernels consistently displayed a lower affinity for DNA than the proteins isolated from 11 dap kernels. These findings suggest that the affinity for DNA of the linker histones may be regulated by post-translational modification and that the reduction in DNA affinity could be involved in a more open chromatin during storage synthesis.

  17. Determination of Some Yield Characters of Grain Corn in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Keskin; Yilmaz, Ibrahim H.; Osmetullah Arvas

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted in Van, located in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, in 2000 and 2001 year to determine some yield characters of grain corn cultivars. In the experiment eleven (C-955, DK-626, Antbey, LG-60, Flash, LG-55, TTM-8119, Vero, TTM-813, Ant-90 and Akp nar) corn cultivars were used and experimental design was Randomized Complete Block. Corn cultivars had the lowest 711.2 kg da-1 and the highest 1062.5 kg da-1 grain yield. DK-626 (1062.5 kg da-1), LG-55 (1027.4 kg da-1) and C...

  18. Grain Yield Potential of Field Pea (Pisum arvense L.) Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Hatam; Amanullah

    2002-01-01

    Grain yield potential in relation to other important agronomic characters of 13 graypea (Pisum arvense L.) germplasm during rabbi 1999-2000 was investigated in order to identify the high yielding promising germ plasm for further studies. Germplasm GP-01 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 1000 kg/ha, while germplasm GP-12 with 9444 kg/ha ranked second. Minimum yield of 49 kg/ha was obtained by GP-09, followed by GP-02 with 67 kg/ha. The germplasm in group 1 viz. GP-01 and GP-12 g...

  19. YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF SPECLIATY CORN AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF NITROGEN APPLICATION UNDER PONGAMIA + MAIZE AGRI- SILVI SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prathyusha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at the Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad on red sandy loam soils to study the effect of nitrogen management in speciality corn under Pongamia + maize agri-silvi system. All the parameters such as cob yield (with husk, green fodder/stover yield, harvest index of all the types of corn were found significantly higher at 120 kg N ha-1 than the other two lower doses of nitrogen. Similarly kernel yield of popcorn and shelling percentage of popcorn were also found maximum at 120 kg N ha-1. Maximum gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio was obtained with the combination of sweet corn at 120 kg N ha-1 followed by sweet corn at 90 kg N ha-

  20. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing strategies to collect and use cellulo sic biomass for bio energy production is important because those materials are not used as human food sources. This study compared corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies on a 50 ha Clarion- Nicol let-Webster soil Association site near Emmetsburg, Iowa, USA. Surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm) were analyzed after each harvest to monitor soil organic carbon (Soc), ph, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) changes. Grain yields in 2008, before the stover harvest treatments were imposed, averaged 11.4 Mg ha-1. In 2009, 2010, and 2011 grain yields averaged 10.1, 9.7, and 9.5 Mg ha-1, respectively. Although grain yields after stover harvest strategies imposed were lower than in 2008, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Four-year average stover collection rates ranged 1.0 to 5.2 Mg ha-1 which was 12 to 60% of the above-ground biomass. Soc showed a slight decrease during the study, but the change was not related to any specific stover harvest treatment. Instead, we attribute the Soc decline to the tillage intensity and lower than expected crop yields. Overall, these results are consistent with other Midwestern USA studies that indicate corn stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1

  1. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high quality protein Heterose em cruzamentos entre populações de milho de grãos brancos com alta qualidade protéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate heterosis and its components in 16 white grain maize populations presenting high quality protein. These populations were divided according to grain type in order to establish different heterosis groups. The crosses were carried out according to a partial diallel cross design among flint and dent populations. Seven agronomic traits were evaluated in three environments while four leaf diseases and incidence of corn stunt were evaluated in one. Least square procedure was applied to the normal equation X'Xbeta = X'Y, to estimate the model effects and their respective sum of squares. Among the heterosis components, in diallel analysis, significance for average heterosis in grain yield, number of days to female flowering and to all evaluated diseases was detected. Specific heterosis was significant for days to female flowering and resistance to Puccinia polysora. Results concerned to grain yield trait indicate that populations with superior performance in dent group, no matter what flint population group is used in crosses, tend to generate superior intervarietal hybrids. In decreasing order of preference, the dent type populations CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 and ZQP/B 101 and the flint type CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 and ZQP/B 102 are recommended to form composites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a heterose e seus componentes em 16 populações de milho de grãos brancos, de alta qualidade protéica. Estas populações foram divididas de acordo com o tipo de grão, para estabelecer grupos heteróticos diferentes. Os cruzamentos foram realizados entre populações dentadas e duras, seguindo o esquema dialélico parcial. Sete caracteres agronômicos foram avaliados em três locais, e quatro doenças foliares e a incidência de enfezamento, em um. O procedimento de quadrados mínimos foi aplicado à equação normal X'Xbeta = X'Y, para estimar os efeitos do modelo e suas respectivas somas de quadrados. Entre os componentes de heterose, na análise dialélica, detectou-se significância para heterose média em dias para o florescimento feminino e resistência a Puccinia polysora. As populações com performance superior no grupo dentado, independentemente da população dura usada no cruzamento, tendem a gerar híbridos intervarietais de produtividade superior. Na formação de compostos, são recomendadas as populações CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 e ZQP/B 101, do tipo dentado, e CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 e ZQP/B 102, do tipo duro, nesta ordem.

  2. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  3. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ahmed; Dixit Shalabh; Vikram Prashant; Bp, Swamy Mallikarjuna; Kumar Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integrat...

  4. Presowing stimulation of maize in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper information is given about the presowing stimulation of maize in Syria. For radiation treatment of the seeds 137 Cs source was used in 5-50 Gy dose range. to the experiments-between 1985 and 1988 significant increase in the grain yield was obtained with optimum dose. (author). 7 refs. 5 tabs

  5. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that...

  6. Effect of Planting Density, Irrigation Regimes, and Maize Hybrids with Varying Ear Size on Yield, and Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed K. Abbas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corn (maize, Zea mays L. hybrids expressing the flexibility trait in ear size (number of kernels per ear are marketed for ability to give higher yields under adverse conditions. Altered kernel number is associated with altered number of silk, a major route for infection of kernels by aflatoxin-producing fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. The effect of plant density and irrigation level on yield and accumulation of aflatoxins and fumonisins in harvested grain was compared in a fixed-ear hybrid (Pioneer 33K81, a semi-flexible ear hybrid (Pioneer 3223 and a flexible ear hybrid (Golden Acres 8460 over a range of seeding densities (49,400, 61,750, 74,700, 86,450, and 98,800 seeds·ha–1 in non-irrigated, moderately-irrigated (6.4 cm soil water deficit and well-irrigated plots (3.8 cm soil water deficit, during three years with variable rainfall. Irrigation increased yields in all hybrids, but in the absence of irrigation, yields were highest with the semi-flexible ear trait hybrid. In general, the hybrid with the flexible ear trait had lower optimal seeding densities than the other hybrids for each soil water regime. In general, kernel number was least affected by seeding density in the hybrid with fixed-ear trait compared to the semi- and flexible ear hybrids. The lowest levels of aflatoxin and of fumonisin contamination in harvested grain were associated with the flexible ear trait at all rainfall and irrigation levels, but there was no evidence that reducing stress by lowering seeding density reduced mycotoxin contamination. Inoculation with A. flavus resulted in much higher levels of aflatoxin and significantly higher levels of fumonisin contamination in grain of all hybrids under most conditions of rainfall and irrigation, suggesting that factors that promote A. flavus infection can affect production of both mycotoxins.

  7. Heterosis and combining ability analysis for grain yield and quality traits in bread wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, C. S. Desale And D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Heterosis and combining ability analysis were studied in a 10 × 10 diallel set of bread wheat. Significant heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis was observed in HW-5018 x HI-1544for grain yield per plant, harvest index, total soluble sugar and non-reducing sugar. Cross RAJ-4136 x UAS-281 showed significant heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant, total soluble sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar as well as significant standard heterosis for grain yield per plant, harvest index, c...

  8. Biomass yield development of early, medium and late Maize varieties under a future climate in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Degener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower Saxony, with a total land area of about 46 500 km2, constitutes one of the most important agricultural areas in Germany and thus within Europe. Roughly one third of its agricultural area is used for maize cultivation and as of today only few information exist on how a future changing climate will affect its local growing conditions. Thus the newly developed carbon-based crop model BioSTAR and a high-resolution regional climate data-set (Wettreg were used to evaluate the change in biomass yields of an early, medium and late maize variety. The climate input data is based on the SRES A1B scenario, with a potential fertilization effect or better still, an increased water use efficiency due to rising CO2 levels, taken into account. The biomass yield for all varieties was calculated for each year from 2001 until 2099 on a total of 91 014 sites. The results suggest clearly differentiated development paths of all varieties. All three show a significant positive trend until the end of the century. However the medium variety shows a statistical significant decline of 5% during the first 30 years and only a slight recovery towards +5% around the century's end. The late variety has the clearest and strongest positive trend, with partially more than 30% increase of biomass yields around the end of the century or +25% mean increase in the last three decades. The early variety can be seen as in-between, with no negative but also not an as strong positive development path. All varieties have their strongest increase in yields after the mid of the 21st century. Statistical evaluation of these results suggests that the shift from a summer rain to a winter rain climate in Germany will be the main limiting factor for all varieties. In addition summer temperatures will become less optimal for all maize crops. Only if the plants can supply themselves sufficiently with water outside of the increasingly dry summer months, when also temperatures are much more favorable, an increase in biomass yields is feasible. As the data suggests the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will play a critical role in reducing the crops water uptake, thus enabling yield increases in the first place.

  9. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pHmonosodium glutamate wastewater (MW), and highly alkaline (pH>10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. PMID:24507456

  10. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  11. Components of genetic variance and degree of dominance for grain and fodder yields in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani And Ch Sreelakshmi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis for grain and fodder yield in sorghum genotypes using six generation means indicated the major role of additive genetic effects (d) for days to maturity and grain yield in both the crosses viz., EP 82 x CRS 1 and CSV 14R x SPV 1375. The cross EP 82 x CRS 1 indicated additive variance for plant height and grain yield while the cross CSV 14 R x SPV 1375 for days to maturity, plant height, panicle length, test weight and grain yield. Among the epistatic components of genetic var...

  12. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  13. Effect of radiation and temperature on germination of maize grain during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination of maize (Zea mays L.) was studied in this investigation. Which was reduced at 2-4 KGray. A marked reduction in germination was apparent at higher doses. Germination was apparently unaffected at low doses, i.e. 0.5 KGray, but seedling survival diminished as the level of treatment increased. The germination percentage ranged from 99-30% at the end of the year. It was observed that reduction in seed viability depends on its moisture content and radiation dose. The incubation temperature plays insignificant role in seed germination

  14. CHEMICAL CONTROL EVALUATION OF ALEXANDER GRASS (Brachiaria plantaginea ON MAIZE (Zea mays YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO MÉTODO QUÍMICO DE CONTROLE DE PAPUÃ (Brachiaria plantaginea SOBRE A PRODUTIVIDADE DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Brachiaria plantaginea control with pre and post-emergence herbicides and their effects on the hybrid Pioneer 3063 maize yield. The trial was conducted by using a complete randomized blocks design, with four replications, under the conventional sowing system. The treatments consisted of the herbicide s-metolachlor (1,620 g ha-1 and the mixture in tank of atrazine + nicosulfuron (1,250 + 28 g ha-1, applied in pre and early post-emergence of the culture, respectively, plus one infested and one weed-free control. The plants of B. plantaginea were obtained from the soil seed bank, with average population of 312 plants m-2. The evaluated variables were control of B. plantaginea by the herbicides and maize grain yield components, as well as grain yield. Among the herbicides, the one that provided better control of B. plantaginea was the mixture atrazine plus nicosulfuron, applied in post-emergence of the crop, maintaining the field free of B. plantaginea, from the beginning to the end of the cycle. The herbicide s-metolachlor showed to be an alternative for the initial control of weeds in maize, up to 20 days after emergence. The absence of B. plantaginea control causes interference in all grain yield components of maize, being observed up to 98% of grain yield losses.

    KEY-WORDS: Chemical control; herbicide mixtures; weed.

    Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea, com herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, e a influência destes na produtividade do milho híbrido Pioneer 3063. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em sistema de cultivo convencional, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelo herbicida s-metolachlor (1.620 g ha-1 e pela mistura em tanque de atrazine + nicosulfuron (1.250 + 28 g ha-1, aplicados em pré e pós-emergência da cultura do milho, respectivamente, mais testemunha capinada e infestada. A população B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. As variáveis avaliadas foram o controle de B. plantaginea e os componentes do rendimento, bem como a produtividade de grãos de milho. O tratamento herbicida que proporcionou melhor controle da planta daninha foi a mistura de atrazine + nicosulfuron, aplicada em pós-emergência da cultura, mantendo-se o controle do início ao fim do ciclo da cultura. O herbicida s-metolachlor mostrou eficiência no controle inicial de plantas daninhas, até os 20 dias após a emergência da cultura. O não controle de B. plantaginea causou interferência em todas as v

  15. Effects of Number and Rate of Goat Manure Application on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Sweet Maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Felix Uwah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources of plant nutrients have now become highly imperative especially for vegetable crop production in Nigeria. Due to the escalating costs, environmental and health problems associated with excessive use of inorganic fertilizers on continuously cropped fields, there is a need for more research on the use of organic manures and residues. A field experiment was conducted in the late growing season from September to December, 2012 in Calabar, a humid forest agroecology in south eastern Nigeria to evaluate the effects of two types of goat manure (GM application (single and double split doses, five rates of GM (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 and 400kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer (120:60:60 kg ha-1 rate on soil chemical properties and agronomic performance of sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut. Factorial combinations of the treatments were fitted into a randomized complete block design with three replications. The application of GM significantly (P ? 0.05 increased soil pH, organic matter (OM content, total N, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and the cation exchange capacity (CEC status of the soil. Soil exchangeable acidity (EA was reduced from 1.76 to 0.64 cmol kg-1 at 20 t ha-1 GM rate. The 20 t ha-1 also recorded the highest values for soil pH, OM, P, Ca, Mg and CEC, while the values for residual N and K peaked at the NPK fertilizer treatment. The double split application of GM recorded higher values for growth and yield attributes, and increased soil properties than the single application. Growth and yield parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index (LAI, total dry matter (TDM, number and weight of grains/ear and total grain yield were significantly (P < 0.05 increased by GM and NPK fertilizer treatments. The values obtained for all growth and yield parameters except LAI at the 20 t ha-1 GM rate were not significantly different from those at the NPK fertilizer treatments. The application of 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 GM, and NPK fertilizer significantly increased TDM by 11.9, 74.3, 91.9, 106.2 and 104.6%; weight of grains/ear by 16.5, 54.6, 61.4, 100.6 and 94.4% and total grain yield by 46.9, 111.7, 121.0, 127.2 and 140.1% respectively, compared with the control treatment. The interactions between number of applications and rates showed that split applying GM at 20 t ha-1 maximized TDM, weights of whole and dehusked green ears and total grain yield compared to other GM rates, hence it is recommended.

  16. Selection for Osmoregulation Gene to Improve Grain Yield of Wheat Genotypes under Osmotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eivazi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For identifying osmoreguulation (or differences in bread wheat genotypes, three experiments by using of randomized complete blocks design with five replications were carried out separately on 6 genotypes (Tabasi, Alvand, Shahi, Sabalan, Sardary and Roshan under normal, drought and salinity stresses. At earring stage, in order to studying osmotic stress on pollen grains, treatments of 30% PEG (control and 50% PEG with 10 mM KCl (osmotic stress were applied. All pollen grains of genotypes were been swollen at control treatment, but under osmotic stress except of Roshan pollen grain (due to accumulation of K+ ion was been shrinkage. Orthogonal analysis of variance showed significant differences for traits of grain yield and its components, soluble sugars, Na+, K+ accumulations. Under stress Roshan genotype had high accumulation of soluble sugars and K+. Increasing of grain yield due to or gene at Roshan than other genotypes under drought and salinity stresses were, respectively 18.14 and 38.80%. So, under drought and salinity stresses, identification of or allele and selection based on it in wheat breeding programs are strongly recommended.

  17. Levantamento da micoflora presente em grãos ardidos e sementes de milho / Survey of mycoflora in grains and kernels of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalgisa Thayne Munhoz, Ramos; Maria Heloisa Duarte de, Moraes; Roberto Venceslau De, Carvalho; Luis Eduardo Aranha, Camargo.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na cultura do milho as podridões de espigas causadas por fungos destacam-se como uma das principais responsáveis pelas perdas em produção e qualidade, principalmente devido a formação dos chamados grãos ardidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de identificar a micoflora presente em grãos e sementes [...] produzidos em difer entes regiões e zonas macro-climáticas do Brasil, nos períodos de safra e safrinha. A determinação da incidência dos gêneros fúngicos foi feita pelo método do papel de filtro com congelamento. Foram a nalisa dos duzentos grãos/ sementes por amostra em um total de 44 amostras de grãos ardidos e 12 de sementes. As análises foram efetuadas sob mi croscópio estereoscópico e microscópio ópt ico. Os principais fungos encontrados neste levantamento, tanto em sementes como em grãos ardidos, foram Penicillum sp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp., Cephalosporium sp. e Stenocarpella spp. Dentre os patógenos principais, Fusarium spp. e Penicillium sp. foram os gêneros encontrados em maior incidência tanto nos grãos como nas sementes nas duas safras. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os diferentes climas e regiões na safra verão para a incidência de Fusarium spp. e Penicillium sp. Porém, durante a safrinha, foi observada uma maior incidência de Fusarium spp. na região CO. Cladosporium sp. se destacou entre os fungos sobretudo durante a safrinha. Abstract in english In maize crop, ear rot caused by fungi is one of the main responsible for quality and production losses, mainly because of the development of the so called discolored grains. The purpose of this study was to identify the mycoflora present in grains and kernels produced in different regions and clima [...] tic zones of Brazil during summer and winter harvest and relate the occurrence of fungi with such parameters. The identification of the fungi was done by the filter paper with freezing method. Two hundred grains/kernels for sample totaling 44 samples of discolored grains and 12 of kernels were analyzed. The tests were performed under a stereomicroscope and an optical microscope. The main fungi found in this survey, both in kernel and discolored grains were Penicillium sp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp. Cephalosporium sp. and Stenocarpella spp. Among the major pathogens, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. were found in higher incidence in grains and kernels in both seasons. There were no significant differences between regions and climates in the summer season for Fusarium spp. and Penicillium sp. incidence. However, during the winter season there has been observed a higher incidence of Fusarium spp. in the region CO. Cladosporium sp. stood out among fungi especially during the winter season.

  18. White lupin leads to increased maize yield through a soil fertility-independent mechanism: a new candidate for fighting Striga hermonthica infestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Laure; Akello, Pollycarp; Milleret, Roxane; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Schulthess, Fritz; Gobat, Jean-michel; Le Bayon, Rene?e-claire

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N)-deficiency and lack of phosphorus (P) availability are major constraints to maize yields in Western Kenya. In a two-season field study in the lake Victoria basin, we tested the capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus (L.), cv. Ultra), as a nitrogen-fixing crop with a highly efficient P-acquisition capacity, to increase maize yields when used as a companion or cover crop, or as a source of organic matter. Each experiment was performed on three different fields (Vertisols) differing...

  19. Effects of Hydro-Priming Duration on Seedling Vigour and Grain Yield of Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar NASROLLAHZADEH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (Talash, COS16 and Khomain were divided into four sub-samples, one of which was kept as control (non-primed, P1 and three other samples were soaked in distilled water at 20oC for 7 (P2, 14 (P3 and 21 (P4 hours and then dried back to initial moisture content. In the laboratory, the lowest mean germination time and the highest germination percentage and seedling dry weight were achieved with P2, which was not significantly different from P3. Mean time of seed germination for Khomain was significantly higher than that for Talash and COS16. In the field, 1000 grain weight of Khomain was significantly higher than that of other cultivars, but mean grains/plant, grains/m2, grain yield/plant and grain yield/m2 of COS16 and Talash were significantly higher than those of Khomain. Therefore, grains/plant was the most important yield component affecting grain yield of pinto bean cultivars. Hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours resulted in lower mean emergence time and higher seedling emergence percentage, grains/m2 and grain yield/m2, compared with P1 and P4. Grains/plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant were not significantly affected by hydro-priming. However, hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours improved grain yield per unit area indirectly through enhancing seedling establishment and grains/m2. Extended priming duration negatively affected laboratory and field performance of pinto bean cultivars.

  20. Distancia entre surcos en el rendimiento y calidad de la materia seca de maíz y de sorgo / Row spacing on both sorghum and maize dry matter yield and quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Daniel, Bolaños Aguilar; Jean-Claude, Emile.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue comparar el rendimiento de materia seca y el valor nutritivo de un híbrido convencional de sorgo [(Sorghum bicolor (L.)], establecido a dos distancias entre surcos, con un híbrido convencional de maíz (Zea mays L.). El sorgo var. Solarius fue establecido a 75 y 20 cm entre surcos, y [...] el maíz var. Anjou 387 a 75 cm (siembra convencional) en 2007, 2008 y 2009 en Lusignan, Francia. El rendimiento de materia seca (RMS) en ambas especies declinó con los años y esta disminución fue mayor en maíz. El RMS para 2009 fue menor en 20.7, 6.5 y 5 t ha-1, al compararlo con 2007, con respecto a maíz, sorgo 75 y 20 cm, lo que indica que la reducción de lluvia afectó menos el RMS del sorgo 20-cm. Al promediar los años, sorgo 20-cm tuvo mayor proteína con 104.1 g kg-1 MS vs 89.4 y 70.5 g kg-1 MS de sorgo 75-cm y maíz, respectivamente. El maíz tuvo más alta digestibilidad que el promedio de los dos tratamientos de sorgo con 692 vs 636 g kg-1 MS. La digestibilidad fue mayor en maíz debido a su menor concentración de lignina. La concentración en lignina del maíz fue 18 vs 28.8 g kg-1 MS del promedio de los dos tratamientos de sorgo. Sin embargo, la digestibilidad de ambos tratamientos de sorgo aumentó en 77.2 g kg-1 MS al pasar de 2007 a 2009. El maíz fue más sensible a los cambios ambientales. El sorgo sembrado a 20 cm entre surcos fue superior en RMS y en concentración de proteína que el maíz, cuando las condiciones de lluvia son un factor limitante. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to compare dry matter yield and nutritive value of conventional hybrid grain sorghum [(Sorghum bicolor (L.)] as influenced by row spacing, with conventional hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). Sorghum hybrid var. Solarius was planted at two distances between rows, 75 and [...] 20 cm, and maize var. Anjou 387 at 75 cm (conventional planting). Dry matter yield (DMY) in both species decreased over the years, being this fall greater in maize. DMY fell by 20.7, 6.5 and 5 t ha-1 in 2009 when compared to 2007 for maize, sorghum 75 and 20 cm, respectively, indicating that DMY in sorghum 20-cm was less affected by a drop in rainfall than in the other treatments. When averaged over the years, sorghum 20-cm showed the higher protein concentration, 104.1 g kg-1 MS vs 89.4 and 70.5 g kg-1 DM for sorghum 75-cm and maize, respectively. Digestibility in maize was higher than in the average of the two sorghum treatments, 692 vs 636 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Lignin concentration in maize was 18 vs 28.8 g kg-1 DM for the average of the two sorghum treatments. However, digestibility in both sorghum treatments increased by 77.2 g kg-1 MS from 2007 to 2009. Maize was more sensitive to environmental variations. Sorghum planted at 20 cm between rows shows both greater DMY and protein concentration than maize in dry matter yield when rainfall is a limiting factor.

  1. The role of cattle manure in enhancing on-farm productivity, macro- and micro-nutrient uptake, and profitability of maize in the Guinea savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, A. C.; Diels, J.; Schulz, S.; Oyewole, B. D.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    An on-farm trial was conducted in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, over a period of five years, with the objectives of quantifying the effects on maize of applying cattle manure in combination with synthetic fertilizer with regard to soil characteristics, yield, plant nutrition and profitability. Maize grain yield was significantly increased by the annual application of cattle manure, compared to maize receiving an equal amount of N through synthetic fertilizer, but only from the third...

  2. Simulating maize yield in sub?tropical conditions of southern Brazil using Glam model / Simulação do rendimento de milho em condições subtropicais do Sul do Brasil por meio do modelo Glam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Homero, Bergamaschi; Simone Marilene Sievert da, Costa; Timothy Robert, Wheeler; Andrew Juan, Challinor.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade de se estimar a produção de milho numa região subtropical do Sul do Brasil por meio do "general large area model" (Glam). Foi utilizada uma série de 16 anos de dados meteorológicos diários. O modelo foi ajustado e testado como alternativa para simu [...] lar rendimentos de milho em pequena e grande escala espacial. Os rendimentos de milho simulados e observados estiveram altamente correlacionados (R acima de 0,8; p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of simulating maize yield in a sub?tropical region of southern Brazil using the general large area model (Glam). A 16?year time series of daily weather data were used. The model was adjusted and tested as an alternative for simulating maize [...] yield at small and large spatial scales. Simulated and observed grain yields were highly correlated (r above 0.8; p

  3. Neck blast disease influences grain yield and quality traits of aromatic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Bhuiyan, Md Rejwan; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Sen, Partha Pratim; Ara, Anjuman; Siddique, Md Abubakar; Ali, Md Ansar

    2014-11-01

    A critical investigation was conducted to find out the effect of neck blast disease on yield-contributing characters, and seed quality traits of aromatic rice in Bangladesh. Both healthy and neck-blast-infected panicles of three aromatic rice cultivars (high-yielding and local) were collected and investigated at Plant Pathology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh. All of the tested varieties were highly susceptible to neck blast disease under natural conditions, though no leaf blast symptoms appear on leaves. Neck blast disease increased grain sterility percentages, reduced grain size, yield and quality traits of seeds. The degrees of yield and seed quality reduction depended on disease severity and variety's genetic make-up. Unfilled grains were the main source of seed-borne pathogen, especially for blast in the seed lot. Transmission of blast pathogen from neck (panicle base) to seed was very poor. These findings are important, especially concerning the seed certification programme in which seed lots are certified on the basis of field inspection. Finally, controlled experiments are needed to draw more critical conclusions. PMID:25444707

  4. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade / Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina, Dudienas; Gisèle M., Fantin; Aildson P., Duarte; Marcelo, Ticelli; Ivana M., Bárbaro; Rogério S., Freitas; Paulo C. L., Leão; Gerson, Cazentini Filho; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Angélica P., Pântano.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de [...] cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST) e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV) em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada). Abstract in english Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of culti [...] vars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different localities of São Paulo State, correlated to yield. A total of 50 simple and triple hybrids (HST) and 22 double hybrids and varieties of maize (HDV) in use by farmers were evaluated in 2005/2006 for their reaction to southern rust in six locations in western and north-central regions of São Paulo State. In the experiments with HST, the most resistant cultivars with the highest yields were: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 and Impacto. Among HDV, the most resistant ones presenting the highest yields were: 30S40 and AG 2040. Yield losses due to the severity of southern rust, assessed in the stage of pastry grain, ranged from 3.5%, for cultivars with approximately 2.5% of leaf area affected by the disease, to 20.3% for cultivars with 39% of the leaf area affected, compared to cultivars of higher resistance to the disease (1.4% affected leaf area).

  5. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dudienas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada.Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of cultivars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different localities of São Paulo State, correlated to yield. A total of 50 simple and triple hybrids (HST and 22 double hybrids and varieties of maize (HDV in use by farmers were evaluated in 2005/2006 for their reaction to southern rust in six locations in western and north-central regions of São Paulo State. In the experiments with HST, the most resistant cultivars with the highest yields were: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 and Impacto. Among HDV, the most resistant ones presenting the highest yields were: 30S40 and AG 2040. Yield losses due to the severity of southern rust, assessed in the stage of pastry grain, ranged from 3.5%, for cultivars with approximately 2.5% of leaf area affected by the disease, to 20.3% for cultivars with 39% of the leaf area affected, compared to cultivars of higher resistance to the disease (1.4% affected leaf area.

  6. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield / Absorção foliar de cobre por plantas de milho: efeitos no crescimento e rendimento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Hidalgo, Barbosa; Luciane Almeri, Tabaldi; Fábio Rodrigo, Miyazaki; Márcio, Pilecco; Samir Oliveira, Kassab; Daísa, Bigaton.

    1561-15-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um leve aumento nos níveis de certos nutrientes pode causar um significante aumento no rendimento das culturas ou causar sintomas de fitotoxicidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da fertilização foliar com cobre (Cu) sobre o crescimento e rendimento do milho híbrido triplo DG [...] -501. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período entre dezembro de 2009 e abril de 2010, em sistema de plantio convencional. Quando as plantas encontravam-se com 6-8 folhas totalmente desenvolvidas, o Cu (0; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500 e 600g ha-1) foi aplicado via foliar. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Quando 50% das plantas apresentavam-se no período de florescimento, avaliaram-se a altura de plantas, diâmetro de colmo, altura da inserção da primeira espiga, área foliar e teor de clorofila. Na colheita, avaliaram-se o diâmetro e o comprimento da espiga, o rendimento e o peso de mil grãos. Houve redução linear na altura de plantas de milho e na altura de inserção da primeira espiga com o aumento das doses de Cu. Por outro lado, os dados de índice relativo de clorofila, área foliar, diâmetro e comprimento da espiga, peso de mil grãos e rendimento aumentaram quando foram utilizadas doses de Cu de até 100g ha-1 e diminuíram nas doses maiores. Portanto, o Cu aplicado via foliar em doses maiores que 100g ha-1 exerceu efeito tóxico às plantas de milho, com prejuízos no crescimento e no rendimento. Abstract in english A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu) on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried ou [...] t between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1) was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  7. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  8. Herbicidal control of parthenium weed in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years experiments were conducted using randomized complete block (RCB) design, having eight treatments, replicated four times to find their impact on maize, parthenium and associated weeds. The treatments consisted of 6 herbicides, viz., Aatrax (atrazine) at the rate 1.0, Buctril super (bromoxynil+MCPA) 60 EC at the rate 0.80, Dual gold (s-metolachlor) 960 EC at the rate 1.92, Sencor extra (metribuzin) at the rate 2.0, Primextra gold 720 SC (atrazine+s-metolachlor), at the rate 1.50 Stomp (pendimethalin) 330 EC at the rate 1.50 kg. a.i. ha/sub -1/, hand weeding and a control. Data showed that weed density was significantly influenced by application of various herbicides in maize. Fresh weed biomass (g m/sup -2/) was reduced in plots where Primextra gold and Dual gold were sprayed followed by hand weeding. Weed mortality (%) was significantly influenced by application of different herbicides, whereas year effect remained similar for weed mortality. Higher weed mortality was observed in Primextra gold treated plots, followed by hand weeding and Dual gold which were statistically at par. Long stature maize plants were recorded in hand weeding and Primextra gold treated plots, whereas short stature plants were found in control plots. Number of grains ear-1 was significantly increased by application of herbicides and higher numbers of grains were recorded in Primextra gold and hand weeded plots. Thousand grain weight was significantly increased by herbicides and hand weeding. Application of herbicides significantly influenced biological and grain yields of maize. The effect of year was found non-significant for both grain and biological yields. Control plots resulted in lower grain and biological yield. Overall results indicated that application of Primextra gold as pre-emergence could provide good control of parthenium weed and associated weeds in maize. (author)

  9. Chemical Control of Fusarium diseases of wheat and maize

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium diseases of cereals such as wheat and maize are a growing concern for farmers and breeders because they can cause heavy crop yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grains with severe economic impact. Fusarium diseases may affect wheat head and foot, maize ear and stalk as well as seeds, roots and seedlings. Fungicides or insecticides can be used for seed and/or foliar treatment to prevent Fusarium diseases of these cereals and reduce the consequent accumulation of mycotoxins in...

  10. The Effect of Different Densities and Interferences Periods of Sorghum on Contribution of Stem Reserves to Corn Grain Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHakiba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield component and determinate the contribution of stem reserves to corn yield under effect of different densities and interference periods of sorghum, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2002 on the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture Tabriz University. Experimental factors were sorghum interference at different periods (0,14,28,42 days after corn emergence and also during plant life corn with three densities (4,8,12 plants m-2. Characteristics of study were yield, yield component and the contribution of stem reserves to corn grain yield. The results showed that with increasing sorghum density and interference, corn yield components (except the number of grain rows were decreased, due to shading and competition between plants for using available resources. Maximum grain yield and grain number per ear was obtained at pure corn plantation. With increasing sorghum density and interference periods grain yield decreased, and maximum corn yield loss was 38%, which occurred at the highest sorghum density and interference. Dry matter remobilization and contribution of stem reserves were significantly influenced by sorghum densities and interferences in corn grain yield. The highest contribution of dry matter remobilization and stem reserves to corn yield was obtained at maximum density and complete interference of sorghum. The least contribution of reserves was shown in pure corn plantation. This might be related to shading and competition between plants for light and other resources.

  11. Productividad de variedades precoces de maíz de grano amarillo para Valles Altos / Yellow maize grain of early season varieties' productivity for the Highlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita, Tadeo Robledo; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón; Israel, Arteaga Escamilla; Viridiana, Trejo Pastor; Mauro, Sierra Macías; Roberto, Valdivia Bernal; Benjamín, Zamudio González.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish México importa anualmente diez millones de toneladas de grano de maíz amarillo; por lo que se requiere incrementar la producción. El uso de semilla mejorada es un elemento clave, para alcanzar niveles competitivos en la producción. Una opción para atender esta demanda y aminorar las dificultades por [...] las condiciones limitantes del temporal, son las variedades de grano amarillo de ciclo corto, cuya disponibilidad en Valles Altos es escasa. En la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, se han generado variedades de maíz de grano amarillo, de ciclo precoz. En los últimos años se promueven variedades de grano amarillo en ambas instituciones (Oro Ultra C, Oro Plus D y V-53A, V-54A, V-55A), las dos últimas ya inscritas en el Catálogo Nacional de Variedades Vegetales (CNVV). En este trabajo se evaluaron 8 variedades en comparación con un testigo comercial, en tres experimentos, dos de ellos en el CEVAMEX, con fecha de siembra diferente. En el CEVAMEX, fecha de siembra 1, fue donde se obtuvo el mejor rendimiento (6 070 kg ha-1), similar estadísticamente al rendimiento medio de la FESC-UNAM (5 553 kg ha-1), en ambos casos en siembra de la segunda quincena de junio, pero diferentes estadísticamente a la media de CEVAMEX, fecha de siembra 2, en la primera quincena de julio (3 493 kg ha-1). Las variedades V-53 A, V-54 A, Oro Ultra 3 C y V-55 A, exhibieron en promedio los mejores rendimientos (6 157 kg -1, 6 112 kg ha-1, 5 843 kg ha-1, 5 405 kg ha-1, respectivamente), superiores estadísticamente a Amarillo Zanahoria. Abstract in english Mexico imports annually ten million tons of yellow maize grain; making necessary to increase its production. The use of improved varieties is a key element to achieve competitive levels of production. One option to meet this demand and lessen the difficulties by boundary conditions of rainfed is the [...] varieties of yellow grain of short cycle, whose availability is limited in the Highlands. At the School of Advanced Studies Cuautitlán, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock, varieties of yellow maize of early season cycle have been generated. In recent years yellow grain varieties have been promoted at both institutions (Oro Ultra C, Oro Plus D and V-53 A, V-54 A, V-55 A), the latter two already recorded in the National Catalogue of Plant Varieties (CNVV). In this study, 8 varieties were evaluated comparing them with a commercial control in three experiments, two in the CEVAMEX, with different planting dates. In the CEVAMEX, the planting date 1, had the best yield obtained (6 070 kg ha-1), statistically similar to the average return of the FESC-UNAM (5 553 kg ha-1), both cases planting in the second half of June, but statistically different to the average in CEVAMEX, planting date 2, in the first half of July (3 493 kg ha-1). The varieties V-53 A, V-54 A, Oro Ultra 3 C and V-55 A, showed on average the best yields (6 157 kg-1, 6 112 kg ha-1, 5 843 kg ha-1 and, 5 405 kg ha-1, respectively), statistically superior to Amarillo Zanahoria.

  12. Variabilidade de genótipos de milho quanto à composição de carotenoides nos grãos Variability of maize genotypes for grain carotenoid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Soares Cardoso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a variabilidade quanto ao teor e perfil de carotenoides nos grãos de 134 genótipos de milho (Zea mays, com vistas à utilização em programas de biofortificação. Os materiais foram provenientes dos campos experimentais e do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG. São cultivares e híbridos comerciais, linhagens-elite e outros acessos escolhidos com base na coloração amarelo-alaranjada do endosperma. A quantificação do teor de carotenoides totais, carotenos e xantofilas mono-hidroxilada e di-hidroxilada dos grãos foi realizada por método cromatográfico-espectrofotométrico. As médias encontradas nos grãos foram 22,34µ gg-1 de carotenoides totais, 2,55µ gg-1 de carotenos, 3,86µ gg-1 de xantofilas mono-hidroxiladas e 15,93µ gg-1 de xantofilas di-hidroxiladas. Os genótipos foram agrupados em 18 grupos pelo método de Tocher. O germoplasma da Embrapa possui potencial para ser usado em programas de desenvolvimento de linhagens de milho biofortificadas, quanto ao total de carotenoides pró-vitamina A.The objective of this work was to characterize 134 maize (Zea mays genotypes, for carotenoids content and build a genetic profile to facilitate future breeding to increase grain nutritional value (biofortification. Seeds came from experimental fields and from the Banco Ativo de Germoplasma of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The genotypes were co mmercial hybrids, varieties, and inbred lines developed by the Embrapa biofortification program and other accessions, chosen for their yellow-orange endosperm color. Total grain carotenoids, carotenes, xanthophylls (monohydroxylates and dihydroxylates were determined by chromatographic-spectrophotometric methods. The detected averages were: 22.34µ gg-1 for total carotenoids, 2.55µ gg-1 for carotenes, 3.86µ gg-1 for monohydroxylated xanthophylls, and 15.93µ gg-1 for dihydroxylated xanthophylls. The genotypes variability was divided into 18 groups by the method of Tocher. The Embrapa germplasm has variability and potential for development of maize lines biofortified for total of provitamin A carotenoids.

  13. Effect of induced lodging on grain yield and quality of brewing barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the main factors of constraint to grain yield stability in barley. The objective of this study wasto evaluate the effects of lodging on agronomic and qualitative traits, when induced at different stages of the crop development.The trial was carried out in Victor Graeff, RS, using a randomized complete block design with four replications and 3 factors:year, lodging date and lodging intensity. The analyzed parameters were grain yield (GY, kernel plumpness (KP, germination(G, and score of lodging at harvest (SLH. No significant interaction was observed for GY and G. The effects of inducedlodging at the booting and physiologic maturity stages were distinct for GY, KP and G. Unlike G, the variables GY and KPwere not significantly affected by lodging intensity. Quantitative and qualitative losses in barley can be predicted based onlodging.

  14. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yunlu; Zheng, Chengyan; Chen, Jin; Chen, Changqing; Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (PWarming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (Pwarmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat. PMID:24736557

  15. Evaluation of short stature mutants of Basmati-370 for yield and grain quality characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three short stature mutants were induced in an indica rice cultivar by gamma irradiation. The mutants were assessed for their yielding ability and grain quality characteristics. All the mutants out yielded the parent variety, Basmati-370. The increase in yield of the mutants ranged from 19.37% to 29.66%. DM-2 gave the highest yield (3587.96 kg/ha) among the mutants. As regards physical, cooking and eating quality characteristics, there was no significant difference in water absorption, volume expansion ratios and stickiness among the mutants and Basmati-370. However, Basmati-370 was scored best for flavour as this variety had strong aroma as compared to its mutants which were scored for moderately strong aroma. (authors)

  16. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell-wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT), days to silking (DTS), dry matter content (DMC), and dry matter yield (DMY) were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield- and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF), and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s) combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP) alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area. Udgivelsesdato: 15 January 2010

  17. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT, days to silking (DTS, dry matter content (DMC, and dry matter yield (DMY were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area.

  18. BRS Esteio: common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helton Santos, Pereira; Leonardo Cunha, Melo; Luís Cláudio de, Faria; Adriane, Wendland; Maria José, Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da, Costa; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; José Luis Cabrera, Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de, Carvalho; Válter Martins de, Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de, Melo; Antônio Félix da, Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli, Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza, Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa, Abreu; Cléber Moraes, Guimarães; Jaison Pereira de, Oliveira; José Aloísio Alves, Moreira; Maurício, Martins; Benedito Fernandes de, Souza Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 Brazilian States. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1, which is 8.1% higher than that of the contr [...] ol cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging, and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  19. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days, an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1, upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  20. GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire

    2012-01-01

    A Genotype x Environment (GxE) interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s). A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1...

  1. Various irrigation cycles effect on grain yield, proline and adaptive metabolits in some wheat genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Zare; Meysam Siasinejad; Sasan Ghasemi; Arash Azarpanah

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress globally affects the growth and production of plants. Wheat is an important crop whose research in this aspect is highly noticeable related to food quality. In recent study, the effects of two different irrigation cycles (weekly (control) and 15-day irrigation) on leaf proline, carbohydrate, N, P, K accumulation and grain yield of three wheat genotypes (Chamran, Dehdasht and Kohdasht) were evaluated at the field of Agriculture Research Station of Borazjan, Bushehr state, Iran, ...

  2. Prediction of Chinese per Capita Grain Yield Base on Residual Modification GM (1, 1) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang

    2013-01-01

    To build effective grain yield prediction system and predict its trend scientifically, this study, on the basis of statistics, prognostics and agricultural economics, explains and functions grey system theory. As a new method, grey system still has many shortages. On the basis of comparison in correlative prediction, we propose GM (1, 1) grey prediction method by modifying ends to improve predictive precisions. Besides, combining with historic data during 2000-2009, predict, summary and propo...

  3. Predictive grain yield models based on canopy structure and structural plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Abdullah A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural dimensions, digitally measured on stems and leaves of soybean plants during thefirst six reproductive growth stages (R1-R6), were used to assess the impact of fivemanagement strategies (combinations of cropping systems, tillage practices and croprotations) on grain yield per plant. Stem and leaf dimensions, light penetration within thecanopy [log (I/Io) x 100], fractal dimension of plant skeletal images (Do) multiplied by leafarea index (LAI), and midday differential canopy tempera...

  4. Grain Yield and Economic Effect of NP Fertilizers Application on Dryland Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Khan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is an important cereal used as feed and forage crop in Pakistan. Information on the economical dose of NP fertilizer application on barley are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the agronomic and economic effects of NP fertilizers on barley production under dryland conditions. The study was conducted at Malakandher Farm of the Agriculture University Peshawar, during 1991-92, in a randomize complete block design with 4 replications. Fertilizer treatments were: 23-0, 46-0, 69-0, 23-23, 46-23, 69-23, 23-46, 46-46, 69-46, 23-69, 46-69, 69-69 of N P2O5 kg ha-1 respectively vs control (0-0. Barley cultivar Frontier 87 was sown 13, Nov. 1991 in 6 rows 5m long 30cm apart. The results on grain yield revealed that maximum grain yield of 2995 kg ha-1 was harvested from 69-69 NP2O5 kg ha-1 treatment, and the lowest grain yield of 507 kg/ha was obtained from control treatment fertilizer applied plots significantly increased grain yield as compared to control. From the economic analysis, a maximum marginal rate of return (MRR of 5460 per cent was obtained from 23-23 NP2O5 kg ha-1 fertilizer application, followed by 46-46 NP2O5 kg ha-1 fertilizer treated plot with 5210 per cent MRR suggesting their use to farmers under conditions similar to those of this study. More research is needed to conclude valid recommendations for barley growers in different agroecological zones of the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP of Pakistan.

  5. Improving grain yield and nitrogen fixation of common bean grown in an acrisol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of selected management practices such as the use of phosphate rock (PR), partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) and soil liming, on improving grain yields and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in an strongly acid Acrisol from Cuba. In Experiment 1 the agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR and FPA 50, a PAPR from Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 50% acidulation level were evaluated as P sources for the common bean genotypes, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa. In Experiment 2 the response of the CC 25-9N common bean genotype to the increasing application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1) of two P sources, i.e. triple super phosphate and C 40, was determined at two liming levels. C40 was a PAPR from the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 40% acidulation level. In Experiment 3 the effect of soil liming on grain yield and BNF of BAT 58, BAT 304, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390, Judia Roja Camagueyana (JRC) and Censa common bean genotypes was studied. The most effective P sources to increase grain yields of the studied bean genotypes were the water-soluble superphosphate in experiments 1 and 2. Both partially acidulated PR products, FPA 50 and C 40, showed intermediate agronomic effectiveness and they increased grain yields over the PR and control (withouain yields over the PR and control (without P) treatments. Soil liming increased grain yields and BNF of the common bean genotypes tested. Based on an economic analysis of profit and value/cost ratios, single superphosphate was the P source that gave the highest economic profit for all common bena genotypes while FPA 50 was efficient for DOR 390 and Censa. Lime application increased the economic profit of all bean genotypes. Genotype BAT 304 showed adaptability to soil acidity and gave the highest profit in limed soil. (author)

  6. Genetic architecture of delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchero, Wellington; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye N; Drabo, Issa; Cisse, Ndiaga; Close, Timothy J; Muranaka, Satoru; Boukar, Ousmane; Ehlers, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    The stay-green phenomenon is a key plant trait with wide usage in managing crop production under limited water conditions. This trait enhances delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield under drought stress. In this study we sought to identify QTLs in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) consistent across experiments conducted in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and the United States of America under limited water conditions. A panel of 383 diverse cowpea accessions and a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were SNP genotyped using an Illumina 1536 GoldenGate assay. Phenotypic data from thirteen experiments conducted across the four countries were used to identify SNP-trait associations based on linkage disequilibrium association mapping, with bi-parental QTL mapping as a complementary strategy. We identified seven loci, five of which exhibited evidence suggesting pleiotropic effects (stay-green) between delayed senescence, biomass, and grain yield. Further, we provide evidence suggesting the existence of positive pleiotropy in cowpea based on positively correlated mean phenotypic values (0.34vegetative delayed senescence with biomass and grain yield QTLs suggests the possibility of using delayed senescence at the seedling stage as a rapid screening tool for post-flowering drought tolerance in cowpea breeding. BLAST analysis using EST sequences harboring SNPs with the highest associations provided a genomic context for loci identified in this study in closely related common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) reference genomes. PMID:23936140

  7. EFFECT OF STEM RUST INFECTION ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Asmmawy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To estimate grain yield losses due to stem rust, replicated experiments including twelve wheat cultivars i.e.  Gemmeiza 7, Gemmeiza 9, Gemmeiza 10, Gemmeiza 11, Sakha 61, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sids 12, Sids 13, Giza 168, Misr 1 and Misr 2 were evaluated for adult plant resistance at Sakha Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. The field experiment was surrounded by spreader area of highly susceptible varieties i.e. Morroco and Max inoculated with a mixture of stem rust races as a source of inoculum. Disease severity was recorded each 10 days and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and ranged from 100 to 475 in 2011/12 and 100 to 750 in 2012/13. It was found that, yield losses ranged between 2.47 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 2 to 6.29 % in the wheat cultivar Sids 12 during 2011/12, while during 2012/13 ranged from 1.96 % in the wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 7 to      8.21 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 1. High correlation was found between yield losses with disease severity and AUDPC.

  8. Rendimiento, heterosis y depresión endogámica de cruzas simples de maíz / Yield, heterosis and inbreeding depression of single crosses of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nérida, Escorcia-Gutiérrez; José D, Molina-Galán; Fernando, Castillo-González; José A, Mejía-Contreras.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron en tres localidades las generaciones F1, F2 y F3 de las 45 cruzas simples posibles entre 10 líneas de maíz (Zea mays L.) con nueve o más autofecundaciones. Las líneas fueron derivadas en forma aleatoria del compuesto varietal 'Xolache' de la raza Chalqueño. Se estimaron los efectos de a [...] ptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de las líneas y los efectos de aptitud combinatoria específica (ACE) de las cruzas y con estos estimadores se construyó la estructura genética de las cruzas (Xij= µ + g i+ g j+ s ij). Con base en la estructura genética fue posible explicar el potencial de rendimiento, la heterosis y la depresión endogámica de cada cruza. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto, la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) fue alta en al menos una de sus líneas y la aptitud combinatoria específica (ACE) de las cruzas también fue alta. En las cruzas con rendimiento bajo, al menos una de sus líneas tuvo ACG baja y los efectos de ACE fueron negativos con alto valor absoluto. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto y heterosis alta participó cuando menos una línea de alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron positivos con valor absoluto alto. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto y heterosis baja participó cuando menos una línea de alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron cercanos a cero. En las cruzas con depresión endogámica alta, los efectos de ACE fueron positivos con valor absoluto alto, mientras que en las de baja depresión endogámica, las dos líneas tuvieron alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron cercanos a cero. Por tanto, los programas de mejoramiento genético de maíz por hibridación, debieran tener una base de líneas de alta ACG y alto rendimiento, en cuyas cruzas simples sería posible identificar las de mayor heterosis. Abstract in english Information was obtained from evaluating the F1, F2 and F3 of 45 single crosses among ten maize inbred lines with nine or more generations of selfing. Such inbred lines were randomly derived from the maize composite Xolache of the Chalqueño race. General and specific combining effects (GCA and SCA) [...] were estimated for lines and crosses, respectively and the genetic structure (Xij= µ + g i + g j + s ij) of each cross was constructed. Based on the genetic structure, it was possible to explain the potential yield, heterosis and inbreeding depression of each cross. High yielding crosses were those having at least one high general combining ability inbred line and high positive SCA effects. Reversely, low yielding crosses had at least a low GCA inbred line and high negative SCA effects. High yielding crosses with high heterosis had at least one high GCA inbred line and high positive SCA effects. On the other hand, high yielding crosses with low heterosis were those having at least one high GCA inbred line and low negative SCA effects. High yielding crosses with high inbreeding depression had at least a high GCA inbred line and high positive SCA effects. Reversely, high yielding crosses with low inbreeding depression had both inbred lines with high GCA and low positive or negative SCA effects. The most important inference derived from the genetic interpretation of the components of the genetic structure of single crosses is that any hybrid maize program should it have a base of high GCA inbred lines, and that by single crossing should be possible to identify those crosses presenting the highest heterosis.

  9. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: A three year mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH4(+) and NO3(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  10. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  11. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8x8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P=0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  12. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8 X 8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P.0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  13. Sistema de cultivo e doses de nitrogênio na sanidade e no rendimento do milho / Cropping systens and nitrogen levels in the maize plant health and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Américo, Wordell Filho; Evandro, Spagnollo.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As podridões da base do colmo (PBC) e grãos ardidos (GA) ocorrem em lavouras de milho, causando prejuízos aos produtores e contaminando os grãos com micotoxinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os efeitos do monocultivo de milho, da rotação de culturas com feijoeiro e da adubação nitrogenada [...] na incidência de PBC e GA, nos teores de fumonisinas, peso de mil sementes (PMS) e no rendimento de grãos de milho. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições por tratamento. Na parcela principal, foram testados três híbridos de milho: P30F36, AS 1575 e Maximus. Nas subparcelas, foi avaliada a resposta dos híbridos a cinco doses de nitrogênio (N), equivalentes a 0; 75; 140; 215 e 290kg de N ha-1, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para os valores médios de PBC, fumonisina e rendimento de grãos nos dois sistemas de cultivo avaliados. Para os valores médios de GA e PMS, ocorreram diferenças entre híbridos somente quando cultivados em rotação de cultura. A incidência dos parâmetros PBC e GA, quando em monocultura, foi superior aos encontrados quando cultivado em rotação de culturas. As variações médias do PMS e rendimento de grãos foram superiores quando em rotação, comparativamente ao sistema de cultivo em monocultura. As diferentes doses de N explicaram apenas parcialmente as variações observadas em todas as variáveis analisadas. Abstract in english The stalk rot (SR) and grain rot (GR) occur in crops as corn, causing losses to farmers and contaminating the grain with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of corn monoculture, crop rotation with common bean, and nitrogen fertilization on the incidence of SR, GR, fumonisin [...] levels, weight of thousand seeds (WTS) and grain yield. The experiment was randomized blocks with split plot and four replicates per treatment. In the main plot were tested three maize hybrids: P30F36, AS 1575 and Maximus. In the sub-plots, each of the hybrids was evaluated in five levels of nitrogen (N), equivalent to 0; 75; 140; 215 and 290kg of N ha-1 in both cropping systems. There were no significant differences for mean values of SR, Fumonisin and grain yield in both cropping systems evaluated. For GR and WTS average values had differences between hybrids only when corn was grown in crop rotation with common bean. The annual growth rate of SR and GR parameters in corn monoculture ranged from 44.8 to 172.4 %, above the rate found on corn when grown in crop rotation. In turn, mean changes of WTS and grain yield was 1.2 to 17.6 % higher when in rotation compared to monoculture cropping system. The differences found in nitrogen rates partly explained the changes observed in all variables.

  14. Evaluation of Some Physiological Traits and Grain Yield of Ten Iranian Bread Wheat Cultivars Under Two Irrigation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alimohamady

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology to evaluate some of the agronomic and physiological traits and grain yield potentials of ten bread wheat cultivars using a split plot design with three replications. Main and sub plot consisted of optimum and stress moisture treatments (irrigation after 70±3 and 130±3 mm evaporation from class A pan and wheat cultivars, respectively. The results of analysis of variance revealed significant effect of moisture treatments on all traits except 1000-grain weight, harvest index, specific leaf weight, assimilate redistribution and difference of peduncle weights at heading. Significant differences were found among genotypes in the stress condition except for chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a to b ratio. Significant differences were detected among genotypes in optimum moisture condition for all characters, except for chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a to b ratio, harvest index and assimilate redistribution. Grain yields in two moisture conditions had significant positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with harvest index, number of grain/spike, RWC, chlorophyll a and sum of chlorophylls a and b and had significant negative correlation with RWL. Significant positive correlation was observed between peduncle weight at heading stage and difference of peduncle weights at stages heading and maturity with grain yield and RWC in moisture stress condition. The results of path analysis for phenotypic correlation coefficients between grain yield and their corresponding traits in the regression model showed that in stress condition harvest index had the highest direct and positive effect on grain yield and in non stress condition chlorophyll a had the highest direct and positive effect on grain yield. Results of stepwise regression analysis in non stress condition revealed that chlorophyll a, plant height and harvest index explained more than 90% of grain yield variability. Based on stepwise regression analysis in non stress condition, RWL, harvest index and RWC explained 95% of grain yield variability.

  15. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China. Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha?1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha?1, and decreased with 300 kg N ha?1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in maltingbarley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield and quality of malting barley in China farmers are recommended to fertilize with 150–209 kg N ha?1.

  16. The Effect of Tillage System and Rimsulfuron Application on Weed Flora, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM Root Colonization and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna KAKABOUKI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of tillage system and rimsulfuron application on weed flora and growth of maize (Zea mays L. Mitic F1 at a site with no history of pesticide use for the last 5 years. A randomized complete block design was employed with three replicates per treatment (conventional tillage without rimsulfuron application (control, no-tillage with rimsulfuron application (NT+Rim and conventional tillage with rimsulfuron application (CT+Rim. The lowest leaf area index, dry weight and yield of maize were recorded in NT+Rim plots. In addition, the highest soil bulk density was determined in NT+Rim plots. Moreover, the rimsulfuron application resulted in significant reduction in the root growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization. The lowest root biomass, root length density, root surface and AM root colonization was found in CT+Rim plots. The lowest weed number and biomass was also observed at CT+Rim plots. Sustainability yield index (SYI shown that the maize crop is more stable under conventional tillage compared with no-tillage. Our results indicated that root growth was reduced significant by rimsulfuron application but statistically significant lower maize yield was obtained in no-tillage system.

  17. Narrow rows reduce biomass and seed production of weeds and increase maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Mashingaidze, A. B.; Werf, W.; Lotz, L. A. P.; Chipomho, J.; Kropff, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in southern African countries rely primarily on cultural control and hoe weeding to combat weeds, but often times, they are unable to keep up with the weeding requirements of the crop because of its laboriousness, causing them to incur major yield losses. Optimisation of crop planting pattern could help to increase yield and suppress weeds and to reduce the critical period of weed control and the weeding requirements to attain maximum yield. Experiments were carried out in...

  18. Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

  19. Grain yield stability of wheat genotypes under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lauro Akio, Okuyama; Luiz Carlos, Federizzi; José Fernandes, Barbosa Neto.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Analises das interações entre genótipos e ambientes foram realizadas em trigos cultivados a campo, sob condições irrigada e não-irrigada, em duas épocas de semeadura, durante três anos. O método de regressão linear foi utilizado para a análise de estabilidade de rendimento de grãos. Foram observadas [...] interações entre genótipos e ambientes para o rendimento de grãos em todos os grupos de ambientes. Nesser foi o genótipo mais produtivo e estável sob diferentes condições ambientais, seguido da cultivar IAPAR 17-Caeté. Em semeadura tardia, os melhores desempenhos produtivos de grãos foram observados nos genótipos OCEPAR 7-Batuíra, IAPAR 17-Caeté e Nesser, sob regime irrigado, e Nesser e IAPAR 28-Igapó, na condição não-irrigada. Esses resultados indicam que Nesser combinou alto rendimento de grãos, adaptabilidade e estabilidade, podendo, dessa forma, ser considerado como o genótipo mais apropriado para condições de semeadura tardia e de estresse hídrico no final do ciclo. Abstract in english Analyses of genotype by environment interactions were carried out for wheat genotypes grown under irrigated and non-irrigated field conditions, in two sowing dates during three years. The linear regression method was used to analyze the stability of grain yield. Genotype by environment interactions [...] was observed for grain yield in all groups of environments. Nesser was the most productive and stable genotype in all groups of environments, followed by IAPAR 17-Caeté. In the late sowing, better yield performances were observed for the cultivars OCEPAR 7-Batuíra, IAPAR 17-Caeté and Nesser, under irrigated condition, and Nesser and IAPAR 28-Igapó, under non-irrigated condition. The results indicated that Nesser gave high grain yield with superior adaptability and stability, and could thus be considered as the most suitable genotype for late sowing and water stress condition at the end of plant cycle.

  20. A triple-scale dislocation-crystal plasticity simulation on yield point drop of annealed FCC ultrafine-grained metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annealed ultrafine-grained metals contain some grains with extremely low dislocation density, so that the critical resolved shear stress increases at the first stage of deformation due to the exhaustion of dislocation sources in a grain. In this paper, in order to express the increase of critical resolved shear stress, the conventional Bailey-Hirsh's relationship is extended on the basis of physical consideration for grain boundary that plays a role of dislocation source. A triple-scale dislocation-crystal plasticity FE simulation based on the above model, geometrically necessary crystal defects and the homogenization method is carried out for annealed FCC polycrystals with different initial grain size and initial dislocation density. Yield point drop and propagation of Lueders bands observed in macroscopic specimen with annealed FCC fine-grains are numerically reproduced. Moreover, macroscopic yielding of specimen and microscopic grain yielding are investigated in detail so as to clarify the initial yield behavior of annealed ultrafine-grained metals. It is also shown that plastic deformation is easy to be localized and the tensile ductility decreases as the grain size reduces. (author)

  1. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated wem reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  2. Weed-Crop Competition in Maize in Relation to Row Spacing and Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer, A.; Ali, A.; Ahmad, R.; Ayub, M.

    1999-01-01

    A field experiment comprising two row spacing viz. 60 and 75 cm and five durations of weed-crop competition i.e. competition for 20, 30, 40, 50 days after emergence and till harvest was conducted to observe growth and yield response of maize. There was gradual increase in dry weight of weeds with increased weed-crop competition duration. Decrease in number of grains per cob and 1000-grain was recorded with increased competition duration of weeds. Maize grain yield was increased from 1911.61 k...

  3. Effects of row spacing and N fertilizer on N2 fixation of groundnut, N transfer to intercropped maize and crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to examine effects of row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on N2 fixation, N transferred to the intercropped maize, (Zea mays, L.) and the yields of crops in cropping systems involving maize and groundnut (Arachis hypogea, L.). The cropping systems involved were: (1)L1, one groundnut row between maize double rows; (2) L2, two groundnut rows between maize double rows; (3) L3, one groundnut row between maize single rows; (4) L4, sole groundnut; and (5) M, sole maize. The rate of N fertilizer studied was 80 kg N/ha. Both with and without the N fertilizer, L1 produced not only the highest maize yield but also the highest total crops dry matter. Without the N fertilizer, groundnut in L1, L2, L3, and L4 gave percent N derived from fixation of 53, 63, 46 and 60, and of 22, 52, 31, and 175 kg/ha of N2 fixed by the legumes, respectively. With the N fertilizer, the corresponding figures were 41, 44 and 34 percent and 14, 25, and 20 kg/ha for L1, L2, and L3, respectively. Quantities of fixed N2 estimated by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and by N-Balance Method (NB) highly correlated with those estimated by the 15N isotope dilution method. However, ARA generally gave higher figures that ID, especially in the cases of high N2 fixation whereas NB gave higher figureub> fixation whereas NB gave higher figures than ID in the cases of low fixation and lower figures in the cases of high fixation. There was no evidence to support transfer of fixed N from the legume to the intercropped maize in any of the systems. Without the N fertilizer, L2 gave smaller amount of N deficit due to cropping than L1 and L3. With the N fertilizer, the three systems were comparable. Both with and without the N fertilizer, the three systems were comparable in their quantities of N returned to the soil in stubbles. Taking these and crop yields into account, L1 is the most recommendable intercropping system. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Maize Biomass Production, N-Use Efficiency and Potential Bioethanol Yield, Under Different Cover Cropping Managements, Nitrogen Influxes and Soil Types, in Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios F. Beslemes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of cover cropping faba bean with maize, compared to maize monocrop cultivation, on yield (dry matter, nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE and N fertilizer recovery fraction of maize, field experiments were carried out over a period of three years. Experimental sites were located in central Greece, on a fertile, clayey soil and on a sandy soil of moderate fertility, A factorial combination of four nitrogen dressings (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha-1 and three legume treatments (incorporated into the topsoil or harvested before the sowing of maize and mono-cropping were tested in a split plot design in three blocks. Results showed a substantial importance of the legume cover crop for both soil types, for all studied factors. Maize total dry biomass yield fluctuated from 13.4 to 20.3 Mg ha-1 for the control plots, from 15.1 to 21.6 Mg ha-1 when faba bean was harvested and from 15.3 to 22.4 Mg ha-1 when incorporated, for clayey soil and from 12.4 to 16.9 Mg ha-1 for the control plots, from 14.9 to 19.4 Mg ha-1 when faba bean was harvested and from 14.5 to 19.6 Mg ha-1 when incorporated, for sandy soil. The NUE was estimated at 56 kg kg-1 and 55 kg kg-1 for clayey and sandy soil, respectively. The N recovery fraction was enhanced by 10-15% after faba bean cover cropping, for both soil types. Such systems should be seriously considered in future land use planning, with respect to the sustainable cultivation of maize.

  5. Environmental stability and heritability estimates for grain yield and test weight in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ronald D; Blount, Ann R; Pfahler, Paul L; Bruckner, Philip L; Wesenberg, Darrell M; Johnson, Jerry W

    2006-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale has many advantages over both parental species for both grain and forage production in certain environments. Additional information on environmental stability and heritability would be desirable to develop appropriate selection strategies in the production of superior widely-adapted cultivars. The grain yield of 22 diverse genotypes grown at four ecologically-distinct geographical locations [Quincy, FL, USA (approximate geographical coordinates (AGC) = 30 degreesN 84 degreesW, approximate elevation (AE) = 58 m), Plains, GA, USA (AGC = 32 degreesN 84 degreesW, AE = 76 m), Bozeman, MT USA (AGC = 45 degreesN 111 degreesW, AE = 1458 m), and Aberdeen, ID, USA (AGC = 42 degreesN 112 degreesW, AE = 1360 m)] was measured in two years with winter and spring planting dates only at Bozeman and Aberdeen. Test weight (grain weight in a given volume) was determined for two years at Bozeman and Aberdeen at both planting dates and one year at Quincy. Stability analyses indicated that significant (P < 0.01) variation in means, regression coefficients, and deviation mean squares of the genotypes were present for both characters. Realized heritability (h2) estimates were as follows: grain yield ranged from -0.02 to 0.80 with a mean of 0.57; test weight ranged from 0.63 to 1.05 with a mean of 0.93. The results indicated that substantial genetic variation is present and selection for widely-adapted cultivars would be effective for both characters especially test weight. PMID:16877798

  6. Impacts of Climate Change on Grain Sorghum Yield in the Ogallala Aquifer Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, G.; Anandhi, A.; Prasad, P.; Staggenborg, S. A.; Gowda, P. H.; Rice, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Ogallala aquifer region consists of 232 counties spread over 8 states of United States is facing declining water levels and deteriorating water quality which in turn affects the crop production in these counties. Coupled with the water stress, the changing climatic conditions also has adverse effects on crop production. The objectives of this study was to generate the future scenarios of grain sorghum production in the Ogallala region for plausible future climates. Three RCM's participating in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), used in this study are Canadian RCM (CRCM), Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) and the Hadley Regional Model (HRM3). The RCMs were nested within the AOGCMs for the current period 1971-2000 and for the future period 2041-2070 for A2 emission scenario. Grain sorghum yield were simulated across the study region using the CERES-Sorghum model program available in the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) crop simulation model suite. Daily data on rainfall, solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature generated from the RCM were used as meteorological inputs in the current analysis. Grain sorghum hybrid 'Pioneer 8333' planting date and density were set at 5 June and 160,000 plants per hectare respectively. Simulation results show a decrease in the yield of grain sorghum for A2 emission scenario without considering effects of elevated carbon dioxide and changes in genetics. Results of the study provide critical information needed to help decision/policy makers to device long-term strategies to cope with impacts of climate change and variability on water use and crop production for the Ogallala aquifer region.

  7. Prediction of Chinese per Capita Grain Yield Base on Residual Modification GM (1, 1 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To build effective grain yield prediction system and predict its trend scientifically, this study, on the basis of statistics, prognostics and agricultural economics, explains and functions grey system theory. As a new method, grey system still has many shortages. On the basis of comparison in correlative prediction, we propose GM (1, 1 grey prediction method by modifying ends to improve predictive precisions. Besides, combining with historic data during 2000-2009, predict, summary and propose the research future. Research indicates, whether theoretic basis or practice, grey model is more useful and convenient. It predicts the yield in future 5 years, the increasing speed will decrease. The increasing yield is 5-6 kilos per person, less than 8-10 kilos per person during 2003-2009. Surely, grain industry includes many son industries, such as rice, corn and wheat. The biggest son industry should be found to give different financial support, in order to eliminate errors. The innovation is to solve time responding function and incandesce equation of end residual sequence of GM (1, 1 model, to eliminate error. Besides, analyze practical examples to indicate its value in economic prediction and provide references for relative areas.

  8. Improvement in grain quality characteristics and yield in rice by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement in grain quality has been obtained in two rice cultures CR.75-83 and CR-75-93 (Rexore X Chianan-8) after gamma irradiation. The culture CR.75-83 and R.75-93 have good field resistance for bacterial leaf blight, but have comparatively low yield potential (4-5 tonns/ha) and have defects in grain quality such as low gelatinization temperature of starch and relatively low amylose content with inferior cooking quality since one of their parents was a 'Ponlai' type (Taiwan japonica). Improvement in fineness of the kernel and cooking quality by mutation of genes especially for higher amylose content and intermediate gelatinization temperature have been achieved in CR.75-83 mutants No.1,4,6,7,8,9,11 and 13 under 15Kr., in CR.75-93 in mutant No.2,4 and 10 under 25 Kr. Yield atributes have also improved with a shortening in the total duration by 10 to 20 days. The feasibility of improving the cooking quality especially the geletinization temperature and amylose content in the high yielding varieties by mutagenesis is discussed. (author)

  9. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Milling Quality Characters of Two Line Rice Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mahalingam and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. India and the materials for thisstudy consisted of three TGMS lines viz., TS 29, TS 6 and GD 98013 and 11 testers viz., ADT 39, ADT 41, Pusa Basmathi 1,Basmathi 370, Improved White ponni, AD 98028, GEB 24, ADT 43, ADT 45, Taroari Basmathi and Jeeraga samba. Crossing wasdone according to clipping and churning method in L X T fashion. Based on the nature of combing ability inferred from line xtester analysis, three cross combinations viz, TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 were selectedfor generation mean analysis study. The scaling tests indicated the presence of epitasis for all the characters and there fore sixparameters model was followed to estimate the various gene action. The scales A and C are negatively significant in all thecrossed viz., TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for grains per panicle and hundred grainsweight. The scale B is negatively non significant for grains per panicle and hundred grains weight in all the three crosses. Thecrosses TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 showed positively significant A and C scales forgrain yield. The mean effect m was significantly positive and greater than all other effects in all the three crosses viz., TS 29 /ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for productive tillers, hundred grain weights, graim yield, hulling percent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. A significant additive x dominance (j effect was recorded in TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 crosses for grain yied and hulling per cent A significant additive x dominance (j was observed in TS29 / ADT 41 cross (panicle length and milling per cent. The (h and (l effects took opposite signs in all the three crossesindicating the involvement of duplicate dominant epistatic kinds of interaction for productive tillers, hundred grains weight, grainyield, hulling per cent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. In general , both additive and non-additive gene effects appear toall eight characters studied. Therefore, improvement of these traits appears to beset with difficulties as simple selection techniqueswill not be able to fix superior lines in the early segregating generations. Postponement of selection of superior lines to latergenerations in pedigree breeding will be effective.

  10. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  11. Effect of winter cover crop species and planting methods on maize yield and N availability under irrigated Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Salmero?n Cortasa, Montserrat; Isla Climente, Ramo?n; Cavero Campo, Jose?

    2011-01-01

    Under semiarid Mediterranean conditions irrigated maize has been associated to diffuse nitrate pollution of surface and groundwater. Cover crops grown during winter combined with reduced N fertilization to maize could reduce N leaching risks while maintaining maize productivity. A field experiment was conducted testing two different cover crop planting methods (direct seeding versus seeding after conventional tillage operations) and five different cover crops species (barley, o...

  12. Effect of low doses of X-rays on grain and straw yield of Setaria italica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry or pre-soaked seeds were irradiated with 250-1,500 R/h of X-rays at a dose rate of 1,000 R/h and sown into pots. Till harvest normal cultural practices were employed. A stimulation of grain and straw yield was only obtained by irradiation of dry seeds. Irradiation of pre-soaked seeds was ineffective or somewhat harmful. The absence of any effects in post-soaked seeds indicated that early hydration of seeds after irradiation results in a stabilization of the damage. (MG)

  13. Genetic analysis of seed morphological traits and its correlations with Grain yield in common bean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Dalla Corte; Vania, Moda-Cirino; Carlos Alberto Arrabal, Arias; José Francisco Ferraz de, Toledo; Deonisio, Destro.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho estudou o controle genético de características morfológicas de sementes e suas correlaçöes com a produtividade de grãos em feijoeiro comum. Para tanto, foram efetuados três cruzamentos entre cultivares de feijoeiro com diferentes características de sementes. As progênies F1 deram orige [...] m às gerações F2, RC1P1F1 e RC1P2F1. Uma amostra aleatória de sementes das gerações dos parentais, F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos foram semeadas na safra das águas de 2003/2004. Na maturação fisiológica foram amostradas 150 plantas das gerações F2 e 20 plantas dos parentais, F1 e retrocruzamentos, nas quais foram determinados a produtividade de grãos por planta e as seguintes características morfológicas de sementes: comprimento, largura e espessura. Os efeitos genéticos envolvidos em cada cruzamento foram obtidos por meio das estimativas dos componentes das médias e variâncias fenotípicas. As características morfológicas de sementes foram controladas por um complexo de genes, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, embora os efeitos de dominância foram presentes. Correlações altas e negativas entre a largura e espessura de semente com produtividade de grãos sugeriram maiores produtividades de grãos em feijoeiros que possuem sementes menores. Abstract in english This work investigated the genetic control of seed morphological traits and its correlations with grain yield in common bean. Three crossings among bean cultivars with different growth habit and seed characteristics were analyzed. F1 progenies gave origin to F2, RC1P1F1 and RC1P2F1 generations. Rand [...] om samples of seeds from F2 generations and parents, F1 and backcrossings were sown during the season 2003/2004. Plant grain yield and seed morphological traits were determined by a sample of 150 plants from F2 generations and 20 plants from parents, F1 and backcrosssings. Genetic effects involved in each crossing were obtained from estimates of genetic components means and genetic and environmental components of phenotypical variance. Results showed that the seed morphological traits were controlled by a complex of genes, with additive effects predominance although dominance effects were present. High and negative correlations among seed length and thickness with grain yield suggested greater grain yield in bean plants with smaller seeds.

  14. GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF WINTER OAT (AVENA SATIVA L. CULTIVARS IN THE CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlut AKCURA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to assess genotype environment interaction and determine stable oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars for grain yield in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Stability analysis [9] were to performed on results for grain yield of 5 oat cultivars (Chekota, Yesilkoy-1779, Yesilkoy-330, Faikbey-2004, Seydisehir-2004 from 24 trials (6 irrigated, 18 rain fed was conducted over 6 years in the Central Anatolian Region, Turkey. There was considerable variation in grain yield within and across environments. Year by location and location variability were dominant sources of interactions. The cultivar, “Seydisehir-2004” with respective regression coefficient value of 1.03, the smallest deviations from regressions (S2di value and the highest grain yield could be considered the most widely adapted cultivar. The other test cultivars were sensitive to production-limiting factors, their wider adaptability, stability and general performance to the fluctuating growing conditions within and across environments being lowered.

  15. Analysis of grains grown on fly ash treated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One time application of fly ash was done at the rate of 200 t/hectare in the crop lands in Odisha, India. The increase in yield of maize grains was 28% and 34% over the control values whereas the increase in yield of rice grains was 40% and 13% at Malud and Dhenkanal, respectively. The results indicated that fly ash is an amendment for soil which can improve the physical and chemical properties of deficient soil and improves the soil fertility and crop yield. - Highlights: ? Fly ash was applied in the soil and some crops were harvested. ? Increase in yield of these grains was significant. ? Increase in maize yield was 28–34% and rice yield was 13–40%. ? Elemental composition was normal and well below the critical levels in the plants. ? Hence, fly ash treated grains are safe for consumption.

  16. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition. PMID:24397242

  17. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha-1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  18. The influence of agroecological conditions and seed maturity of the grain yield and quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Rap?an; Gordana Bukvi?; Sonja Grljuši?; Tihana Tekli?; Mladen Juriši?

    2006-01-01

    During two years, the influence of agroecological growth conditions and seed maturity on field emergence, grain yield, above-ground vegetative mass production, above-ground dry matter production, a 1000 seed weight and grain crude protein yield of field pea was investigated. Field trial was established as randomised block design with four replicates at two locations (Osijek i Vinkovci) of Eastern Croatia characterised by eutric brown soils. Different maturity seeds of Czech spring pea variety...

  19. Effect of foliar treatments to durum wheat on flag leaf senescence, grain yield, quality and DON contamination in North Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo; Pilati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Since the production of durum wheat in the drier areas of the Mediterranean Basin is characterized by high variability in terms of yield and grain quality, there is also considerable interest in developing durum wheat in the northern regions, where the pedo-climatic conditions can offer the possibility of obtaining grain yields with higher technological quality and stability. However, the climatic conditions in the northern regions make durum wheat more prone to fungal foliar disease, particu...

  20. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Silva; Saglam, Didem; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Reynolds, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain filling, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68% of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could still improve GY in a wide range of environments. However, in Iranian sites, taller genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain filling. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection. PMID:24456121

  1. Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter for Two Growth Stages to Assess Grain Yield of Malaysian Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Proper yield management in rice influences grain quality and quantity. Nitrogen site-specific management is also effective on final product of crops because excessive nitrogen application at any growth stage can reduce yield and increase disease incidence. In contrast, suboptimal nitrogen levels at discrete growth stages may substantially reduce plant productivity. The nitrogen status at specific growth stages may be used for estimating supplemental nitrogen requirements and yield potential. The SPAD chlorophyll meter is a quick and non-destructive tool used for directly measuring leaf chlorophyll and indirectly assessing the proportional parameter of leaf, plant nitrogen status and finally, grain yield. Approach: Describing within-field variability in a typical Malaysian paddy field was conducted to show the temporal variability of SPAD readings and also grain yield. Furthermore, the study aimed to introduce the rice growth stage which SPAD readings show higher relationship with grain yield. SPAD readings data was collected at two different growth stages (55 DAT and 80 DAT using a Minolta SPAD 502. Grain yield was then collected at the end of the season to compare results with SPAD values. Results: Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of parameters and also their relationship. Conclusion: Variability maps of the aforementioned parameters were generated. Increasing of SPAD values with growth stage could be observed in this study. SPAD readings taken at 55 DAT had a better relationship to grain yield than those taken at 80 DAT; therefore assessment of grain yield status is better to be done at 55 DAT.

  2. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tresults suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  3. Effects of location and year on grain yield and its components in wheat genotypes developed from seed irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight mutant lines derived from gamma ray treatments and their parental cultivar sokha 69 of bread wheat were evaluated for grain yield per feddan, straw yield per feddan, harvest index, spike length, spike yield and weight of 1000-kernels at two locations (El-Fayoum and Inshas) in two seasons, 1991/92 and 1992/93. Significant effects of location on yield and yield components were found and the year significantly affects all the studied traits except grain yield per feddan. A significant location genotype interaction was detected for spike length, 1000-kernel weight and straw yield per feddan. In addition, year genotype interaction was significant in weight of 1000-kernels, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference among genotypes over all environments for spike length, 1000-kernel weight, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. However, these did not reflect significant effect on grain yield per feddan over all environments because it has a highly compensation ability. Meanwhile, mutant L12-1 exhibited significantly higher straw yield than sokha 69, when averaged over two seasons at El-Fayoum. Mutant L19-1 gave higher weight of 1000-kernels, spike length and harvest index than the other genotypes at low-yielding location (Inshas). It seems to be stable over a wide range of environments. 3 tabs

  4. Various irrigation cycles effect on grain yield, proline and adaptive metabolits in some wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress globally affects the growth and production of plants. Wheat is an important crop whose research in this aspect is highly noticeable related to food quality. In recent study, the effects of two different irrigation cycles (weekly (control and 15-day irrigation on leaf proline, carbohydrate, N, P, K accumulation and grain yield of three wheat genotypes (Chamran, Dehdasht and Kohdasht were evaluated at the field of Agriculture Research Station of Borazjan, Bushehr state, Iran, during 2011-2012 growing season. Experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The results demonstrated that different irrigation cycles and wheat genotype effects were significant on leaf proline, carbohydrate, K leaf accumulation and grain yield. This finding suggested that Dehdasht genotype could be considered as more resistance genotype against drought condition than Kohdasht and Chamran genotypes. In arid condition which water is limited and dry land farming is necessary, Kohdasht could be selected as a tolerance genotype to water deficiency. Accumulation of proline and carbohydrates was also considered as osmotic adjustment in response to drought stress condition.

  5. Study of Rough Set Based Grey Relational BP Neural Network on Grain Yield Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; He, Yong

    2005-01-01

    BP neural network is a nonlinear dynamical system widely-used in forecasting target values influenced by diverse variables. Its redundant input nodes often generate imprecision in the predict results. By introducing rough set and grey relation theories, condition attributes were considered as correlation sequences and decision attributes as reference sequences. The grey correlation coefficients represented the weights upon which the condition attributes were reducted and the initial decision table was renewed with the remaining core factors. As a result of training the network by the reducted condition attributes, the prediction precision was improved prominently. In the model application case to forecast the grain yields of China in 2001 and 2002, the results show great improvement of prediction precision as 0.83% and 1.93%, respectively. And the fitting precision of the grain yields in the other 11 years (1990-2000) are all above 99%. The redundancy elimination also increases the network training rate by reducing the input and hidden nodes. Thus, this optimized model was promising in reducing dimension during knowledge discovery and data dining from a large-scale information pool. PMID:17281247

  6. Natural selection in common bean microsatellite alleles and identification of QTLs for grain yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monik Evelin, Leite; João Bosco dos, Santos; Flávia Fernandes, Carneiro; Karla Rodrigues, Couto.

    2011-01-15

    Full Text Available Natural selection acts to select better adapted individuals or alleles in segregating population and help plant breeding. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of natural selection on microsatellite alleles as indicators of better adaptation and identification of quantitative trait loc [...] i (QTLs) for grain yield. This study evaluated 107 progenies from the F8 and 107 from the F24 generation derived from crossing Carioca MG and ESAL 686 lines, carried out by the bulk method, and evaluated in three different seasons: winter 2001; rainy 2001 and dry 2002. It was utilized 22 polymorphic markers and the natural selection acted in all of them. The frequency of the alleles of the parent Carioca MG, the most adapted, was increased in all of the 22 loci in F8 and 19 loci in F24. Selection affected each locus with different intensities in different generations. All of the selected alleles can be important for breeding program. QTLs were identified in generation F8 and F24 at varied magnitudes. The best marker PVttc002 explained 11.76% of variation in grain yield. However, an elevated interaction between QTLs and the environments was observed, showing the great difficulty in assisted selection.

  7. Effects of nitrogen management patterns on grain yield, solar radiant use efficiency in super hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore the effects of different nitrogen management patterns on the solar radiation use efficiency (RUE) and yield of super rice, we used super hybrid rice Liangyou 293 (LY293) as the experimental material, and three nitrogen management patterns (seven applied nitrogen levels, N0 ? N6) were designed as the treatments. The result showed that leaf area index, total dry matter, solar radiation use efficiency and yield of super rice were increased as applied nitrogen rate increased. Grain yield of N6 is 9927.0 kg /hm2, about 4.8% to 33.5% higher than that of other treatments. But yield and interception photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) amount of different treatments used different nitrogen management patterns decreased if applied N more than 210 kg /hm2. There is an extreme significant difference of total dry weight and RUE between treatment N6 and other treatments. Total dry weight and RUE by N6-treatments were are 1853.7 g /m2and 1.59 g /MJ, respectively, which were higher than that of the other treatments. (authors)

  8. Influence of Texture and Grain Shape on the Yield Surface in Aluminium Sheet Material Subjected to Large Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saai, A.; Dumoulin, S.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2011-05-01

    The crystal plasticity finite element method is used to investigate the combined effects of crystallographic texture and grain morphology on the shape of the yield surface computed for aluminium sheets subjected to large deformation. Two crystallographic textures (recrystallized and rolling) and two grain shapes (equiaxed and elongated) were modelled using a representative volume element (RVE) containing a large number of grains satisfying the periodicity conditions. Plane stress state is assumed and a rate-dependent model of single crystal plasticity is used to compute the mechanical response of the individual grains within each RVE.

  9. Effects of Cd2+ on chlorophyll content in flag and grain yield of wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted with wheat cultivars Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 to investigate the effects of Cd2+ stress on chlorophyll contents in flag leaves, flag leave area, thousand kernel weight, kernel filling velocity and yield of wheat. Results indicated that, under low Cd2+ stress (10 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b of Luohan 6 reduced by 1.6%, however, its average area of flag leave and yield increased by 3.8% and 1.6%, respectively. At the same time, the average content of chlorophyll a + b, area of flag leave yield of Yumai 18 reduced 8.0%, 9.6% and 5.4%. Under high Cd2+ stress (100 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b, areas of flag leaves and yields of Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 reduced by 29.2% and 30.5%, 6.3% and 17.4%, 16.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that Cd2+ restrained synthesis and accumulation of chlorophyll and its components. This study even showed that within a range of Cd2+ concentration could promote the growth of flag leaves, and it also had an equal positive effect on yield of wheat if the Cd2+ concentration in grains were not out of limit. The growth of flag leave and yield of wheat would be limited when Cd2+ concentration exceed that range. Overall, Yumai 18 bore more poison from Cd2+ than Luohan 6. (authors)

  10. Development and Application of Techniques in Breeding for Greater Grain Yield of Rice under Favourable Conditons in Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the correlation of carbon isotope discrimination (CID) with yield and yield components, to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling CID of irrigated rice, during 2005 to 2007 under field conditions. The 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Zhenshan97 and Minghui63 were employed for identification of QTLs. Six hybrid varieties (Chuanxiagyou727, IIyou838, Liangyoupei9, 99you029, Shanyou63 and Liangyou125) were used to investigate relationships between CID and grain yield and/or its yield components under six fertilizer N topdressing rates of 0, 90, 135, 180, 225 and 270 kg N ha-1. A significant transgressive segregation for CID was found in the RILs, and the frequency of CID was almost normally distributed. The CID at the heading stage was negatively correlated with heading date. Negative correlations of CID at 30 days after transplanting were observed with biomass and spikelets per panicle, while positive correlations were found with harvest index and number of panicles. Grain yield, grain filling percentage and 1000 grain weight were not correlated with CID at 30 days after transplanting. Similarly, CID at the heading stage showed poor negative correlations with grain yield, harvest index and 1000 grain weight, while significant negative correlations with biomass, spikelets and productive panicle number were found. A total of five and three QTLs for CID at the heading sta and three QTLs for CID at the heading stage were identified in 2006 and 2007, respectively. They were located at chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10 and 12. The QTL located at R1440-C1023 on chromosome 7 and the QTL located at C909b-R496 were consistently detected in two years. The QTL for CID located at RG236-C86 on chromosome 1 was associated with the QTLs to control grain yield. CID varied among rice genotype and fertilizer N had a negative effect on CID in three field experiments. Although there was poor correlation of CID with grain yield for inbred germplasm and RILs, a significant negative correlation occurred between CID and grain yield for hybrid varieties. The CID values of high yielding hybrid rice are lower than those of lower yielding varieties, opening up the possibility of using CID for screening high yielding hybrid rice under favourable irrigated field conditions. (author)

  11. Yield analysis in gamma ray induced advance generation mutants of short grain aromatic non-Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield analysis was made in a population comprising 18 advance generation (M4) morphologically distinct induced mutants along with their two mother genotypes, derived from Gobindabhog, a popular short grain aromatic non-basmati rice variety of West Bengal. The estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight, harvest index, grain yield and flag leaf length; and low for days to flower, panicle length, plant height, panicle number, spikelet number, spikelet fertility (per cent), grain number, test weight. The estimates of heritability in broad sense were very high for days to flower, flag leaf angle, plant height, spikelet fertility per cent, test weight, flag leaf length and straw weight moderate for grain number, spikelet number, harvest index, grain yield and panicle length; and low for panicle number. The estimates of genetic advance as per cent of mean were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight and harvest index; and low for the remaining characters. The results of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance revealed flag leaf angle, grain number, straw weight and grain yield per plant would be useful traits for selection

  12. Effect of tillage system on soil properties and yield of Oba 98 maize variety in Zaria

    OpenAIRE

    Namakka, A.; Hassan, A. H.; Ahmad, S. M.; Lere, G. A.; Sharifai, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Nigeria loses significant amount of soil, organic matter and plant nutrients to the continuous tilling of soil for various crop production. This leads to declining and stagnation of crop yields. Three year field trials were conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons at the experimental farm of Institute for Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Lat. 11° 11' N: Long 7° 38' E: 686 m above sea level) to investigate the effect of tillage system on soil chemical properti...

  13. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder; Hale, Sarah E.; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Magnus Sparrevik; Vanja Alling; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Gerard Corne