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Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that occurs in inbreds during inbreeding. The highest average value of heterosis for gain yield was detected in the hybrid ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 (123.0% and 178.1% in 1997 and 1998, respectively). The estimation of combining abilities was done on the basis of diallel hybrids after the method established by Griffing, 1956 (method II, mathematical model I). The analysis of variance of combining ability for grain yield indicated highly significant values of GCA and SCA for the observed trait in both study years. Grain yield inheritance was more affected by non-additive genes (dominance and epistasis) as indicated by the GCA to SCA ratio that was smaller than unity. The inbreds ZPLB401 and ZPLB406 had high GCA effects, while the hybrid combinations ZPLB40Î x ZPLB402, ZPLB401 x ZPLB403, ZPLB401 x ZPLB405, ZPLB402 x ZPLB406, ZPLB403 x ZPLB406, ZPLB404 x ZPLB406, ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 had high SCA effects in both study years. These hybrid combinations include one parent with high GCA effects and other with low GCA effects. Furthermore, there are combinations ZPLB402 x ZPLB405, ZPLB403 x ZPLB405 and ZPLB404 x ZPLB405 with significant SCA effects that include parents with low GCA effects. This is probably the result of the additive type (additive x additive) of interaction between parents.

Živanovi? Tomislav; Se?anski M.; Šurlan-Momirovi? Gordana; Prodanovi? S.

2005-01-01

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Contribution of different yield components for grain yield improvement in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available Seventy two maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids along with their parental lines were assessed for genetic correlation among 14quantitative traits. All the traits studied exhibited a positive and significant correlation with grain yield except days to tasselling,silking and days to maturity. Grains per row exhibited the highest positive and significant correlation with grain yield followedby cob diameter, cob length, plant height, leaf breadth, leaf length, cob height, and 100 grain weight, grain rows per cob andleaves per plant. A strong positive inter correlation was observed among the traits viz., plant height, leaves per plant, leaf length,leaf breadth, cob length, cob diameter, grains per row and grain yield indicating that selection for these characters can help toimprove the grain yield in maize indirectly.

S.Kanagarasu*, G.Nallathambi, K.N.Ganesan and S.Kannan

2012-01-01

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Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available Interrelationships between grain yield and its components were determined by genotypic correlation and path co-efficient analysis in eighteen maize lines/hybrids. The results indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with all parameters studied. The results also showed that number of kernels row?1 has maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1. Ear height had negative direct effect on grain yield. It was concluded that number of kernels row?1, 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1 were the main yield components.

Muhammad Bashir Alvi; Muhammad Rafique; Muhammad Shafique Tariq; Amer Hussain; Tariq Mahmood; Muhammad Sarwar

2003-01-01

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NUMBER AND TIME OF WEEDING EFFECTS ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD  

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Full Text Available Several problems are to blame for the low yields of maize in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Among these problems, the lack of weed control in the proper season is one of the biggest. The experiment was conducted in Mossoró-RN, in a sprinkler-irrigated area. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of one weeding (at 15, 30, 45 or 60 days after planting, DAP), two weedings (15 and 30, 15 and 45, 15 and 60, 30 and 45, 30 and 60 or 45 and 60 DAP), three weedings (15, 30 and 45; 15, 30 and 60 or 30, 45 and 60 DAP) or four weedings (15, 30, 45 and 60 DAP) on cultivar Centralmex grain yield. A “no weeding” treatment was also included. A random block design with four replicates was utilized. The lack of weeding reduced plant and ear heights, as well as grain yield and its components. The highest grain yields were obtained with treatments 30 DAP, 15-30 DAP, 30-45 DAP, 30-45-60 DAP, and 15-30-45-60 DAP. Greater net revenue with grain commercialization can be obtained with treatment 15-30 DAP.

PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA; SORIEUDES SANTOS XAVIER MESQUITA; RAFAELA PRISCILA ANTÔNIO; PAULO IGOR BARBOSA E SILVA

2004-01-01

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DISTRIBUITION AND POPULATION OF PLANTS AND MAIZE GRAIN YIELD  

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Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the effect of plant population (30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha-1), under two width rows (0.40 and 0.80 m), on the grain yield of three maize genotypes with open (AG 1051), semi-erect (AG 7575) and erect (DKB 911) leaf architecture, a field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil between November 20th, 2000 and April 10th, 2001. According to the results: a) in high population (90,000 plants ha-1), the reduction of width row (from 0.80 m to 0.40 m) increases grain yield on the open-leaf-architecture genotype, and b), until 60,000 plants ha-1, regardless of genotype, the grain yield is crescent with an increase in plant population. With the plant population increasing from 60,000 to 90,000 plants ha-1, the grain yield: a) increases in the erect-leaf-architecture genotype, b) stabilizes on the semi-erect-leaf-architecture genotype, c) stabilizes under reduced spacing (0.40 m), and decreases under spacing of 0.80 m in the open-leaf-architecture genotype.

DURVAL DOURADO NETO; MARCOS PALHARES; PEDRO ABEL VIEIRA; PAULO AUGUSTO MANFRON; SANDRO LUIS PETTER MEDEIROS; MARCELO RIBEIRO ROMANO

2003-01-01

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Effect of irrigation frequencies on grain yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find out the water requirement and its application frequencies in spring Maize a trial was designed. The trial was comprised of five maize varieties (Ev-5098, EV-6098, EV-1098, Composite-20 and Pack Afgoyee) and five irrigation frequencies (7,8,9,10 and 11). The trial was sown in split plot design with three replication, keeping varieties in main plots and irrigation frequencies in sub plots. The plot size was 5m x 4.5 with 75cm apart rows and plant to plant distance was 15 com to maintain the 88888 plants per hectare. The trial was conducted during spring 2000 and 2001. Data were collected for days to 50% silking. Plant height (cm), cob height (cm) and grain yield per hectare. The data were analyzed and results obtained which revealed highly significant differences among varieties and also among irrigation frequencies in all the characters studied during both the years and in pooled analysis over years. The interaction between varieties and irrigation frequencies was highly significant for grain yield kg ha/sup -1/ and significant for other characters studied in year wise as well as in pooled analysis. Years effect was also high significant which is clear from the table of weather data which shows that temperature remained high during the crop season of 2001 as compared to 2000 along with high temperature more rains were also received in March. April and May in 2001 while in 2000 rain was received only in February. Three was gradual decrease in days to 50% silking with the increase in number of irrigations in all the varieties while plant height, cob height and grain yield increased with every addition of irrigation. Trend of increase or decrease remained the same during both the year. All the varieties separately or in combine showed better results during spring 2001, maximum grain yield was obtained by EV-5098 (full duration variety) with 11 irrigations during both the years 2000 and 2001 i.e. 3511 and 6140 kg ha/sup -1/ while EV-1098 (short duration variety out yielded with 10-irrigation i.e. 2082 and 5265 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

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Effect of Phosphorus Levels on Yield Components, Grain Yield and Harvest Index of Two Maize Varieties  

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Full Text Available The investigation to see the effect of different phosphorus level Viz., 0,50,75,100 and 125 kg P2O5 ha-1) with a recommended constant dose of nitrogen @ 150 kg ha-1) on two maize varieties was carried out. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (factorial) with four replications. The maize cultivars included were Composite-17 against a standard variety Akbar. Both the varieties showed almost a similar growth and yield behaviour. Application of phosphorus increased a number of yield parameters over control such as cob bearing plants, weight of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. However, the difference between phosphorus levels was not always significant.

Rana Muhammad Iqbal; Hafiz Qutub Iqbal Chauhan

2003-01-01

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Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

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Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

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Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

Science.gov (United States)

|Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

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Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components  

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Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was used as a female parent.

Živanovi? Tomislav; Brankovi? Gordana; Radanovi? Slavko

2010-01-01

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Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

1999-01-01

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Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates  

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Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L.) grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002) maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400). Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May) and delayed (about two weeks later) sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

Damir Fabijanac; Boris Varga; Zlatko Sve?njak; Darko Grbeša

2006-01-01

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Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants.

Li B; Liu H; Zhang Y; Kang T; Zhang L; Tong J; Xiao L; Zhang H

2013-08-01

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[Effects of planting density on the grain yield and source-sink characteristics of summer maize].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking high-yielding summer maize cultivars Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958) and Denghai 661 (DH 661) as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different planting density (22500, 45000, 67500, 90000, and 112500 plant x hm(-2)) on the grain yield and source-sink characteristics of the cultivars in four regions, i.e., Shandong Agricultural University, Wenkou, Yanzhou, and Laizhou. At the planting density 112500 plant x hm(-2), the grain yield and the biomass of the cultivars were the highest, being 19132 and 36965 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Comparing with those at the planting densities 22500 and 67500 plant x hm(-2), the grain yield at the planting density 112500 plant x hm(-2) was increased by 72% and 48%, and the biomass was increased by 152% and 112%, respectively. With the increase of planting density, the leaf area index (LAI) increased significantly, while the leaf area per plant (LA), the maximum number of filaments, the grains per ear, and the 1000-grain weight all decreased. The harvest index and the grain-leaf ratio decreased with increasing planting density, but no significant change was observed when the planting density was higher than 67500 plant x hm(-2), suggesting that at higher planting densities, summer maize could improve their grain yield via increasing population sink.

Liu W; Lü P; Su K; Yang JS; Zhang JW; Dong ST; Liu P; Sun QQ

2010-07-01

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Recurrent Selection for Maydis Leaf Blight Resistance and Grain Yield Improvement in Maize  

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Full Text Available Leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L.), caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. and Miyake), is one of the major factors limiting maize production in the plain areas of Pakistan, particularly in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). The objectives of this study were to estimate selection differential, expected and observed response to selection and heritability for maydis leaf blight resistance and grain yield and to determine progress from selection in a maize population. Two cycles of S1 recurrent selection were conducted in broad based maize population, Sarhad White (SW). One hundred S1 lines were compared with their respective original population (C0) as a check. The experimental material was evaluated under artificial epiphytotics during 2003 and 2004, at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Selection differentials, expected responses and heritability estimates were determined from the replicated S1 lines performance of the first cycle. The observed progress was estimated from the replicated S1 lines of the second cycle that were generated after recombination of selected S1 lines of the first cycle. Highly significant variations between the cycles were observed for MLB and grain yield. Moderate and high heritability estimates, desirable selection differentials and close correspondence of expected and observed response were manifested for MLB and grain yield. The positive percent deviation of inoculated from uninoculated trials in both cycles (C1 = 71% and C2 = 41%) for leaf blight indicated successful development of blight disease after artificial inoculation, while the negative percent deviation of inoculated form uninoculated trials (C1 = -21 and C2 = -6%) for grain yield indicated the impact of blight disease on grain yield. Blight disease was significantly reduced from 2.9 to 2.3, whereas, grain yield was significantly increased from 2041 kg ha-1 cycle-1 to 2527 kg ha-1 cycle-1 or 19% cycle-1. This yield improvement in SW was probably the result of concomitant reduction in the blight disease severity by -26%. These findings suggested that S1 recurrent selection was quite effective in improving disease resistance and grain yield. Nevertheless, some additional cycles of selection may be required to further improving grain yield and resistance level to maydis leaf blight in SW maize population.

S. Salim Shah; Hidayat-Ur-Rahman; Iftikhar Hussain Khalil; Muhammad Iqbal

2007-01-01

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EFFECT OF GRAY LEAF SPOT ON SECOND-SEASON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD IN SÃO PAULO STATE  

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Full Text Available Gray leaf spot is an important maize disease in São Paulo State. Due to its relevance, the effect of this disease on maize grain yield was studied during the 2004 to 2008 autumn-winter seasons. Experiments were carried out to evaluate corn cultivars, comprising 44 to 60 simple and triple hybrids, being 19 trials in 2004, 15 in 2005, 16 in 2006, 16 in 2007 and 15 in 2008. The evaluations of disease severity were done at the kernel dough stage, ascribing notes 1 to 9 (for 0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and more than 75% affected leaf area, respectively). Significant negative correlation between gray leaf spot severity and grain yield was detected in 16 of the 35 trials where the disease occurred. In order to quantify the effect of gray leaf spot on yield of these 16 trials, attempting to minimize the dispersion caused by differences of yield potential, cultivars tolerance to the disease and other factors, cultivars were grouped into categories of disease intensity based on the Scott-Knott test at 5%, and means for severity and yield were calculated for each category. The adjustment of linear equations to these data allowed to estimate the yield reduction as a function of disease severity, for the intervals studied in each trial, that was on average 238 kg ha-1 (4%) with note 2, 634 kg ha-1 (11%) with note 3, 1006 kg ha-1 (17%) with note 4 and 1574 kg ha-1 with note 5, in relation to the groups with greatest gray leaf spot resistance which showed mean note 1.4 and mean grain yield 5655 kg ha-1. These results indicate that even with low disease severity a significant maize yield loss can be observed, demonstrating the importance of the use of genetic resistance in the control of gray leaf spot and to reduce losses in maize grain yield.

GISÈLE MARIA FANTIN; AILDSON PEREIRA DUARTE; CHRISTINA DUDIENAS; PAULO BOLLER GALLO; EDISON ULISSES RAMOS JÚNIOR; FABIANA ALVES CRUZ; VALDIR JOSUÉ RAMOS; ROGÉRIO SOARES DE FREITAS; SYLMAR DENUCCI; MARCELO TICELLI

2008-01-01

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Correlation And Path Analysis Of Grain Yield Components In Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Hybrids  

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Full Text Available Present study was aimed to investigate the genotypic and phenotypic association among grain yield components and their direct and indirect effects on yield. Correlation studies revealed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic relationship of grain yield with cob position, rows per cob and grains per row. Cob height, number of grains per row, stem diameter and cob girth had high positive direct effects on grain yield. Cob position had high negative direct effect on yield. These result depicted that cob position, no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per cob may be used as reliable criteria for improving grain yield. Heritability and genetic advance estimates described the genetic attributes of the traits under study. All the traits except no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row had non additive type of gene action with high heritability and low genetic advance. The exploitation of these traits would be effective in hybrid maize breeding. No. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row showed both additive and non additive type of gene action with environmental influence due to high environmental variance. These traits can be utilized effectively through selection in varietal development.

Muneeb Munawar; Muhammad Shahbaz; Ghazanfar Hammada; Muhammad Yasir

2013-01-01

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Correlation study for Protein Content, Grain yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available Seventy Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.) hybrids were grown in duplicate randomized complete block design forcharacter association study to assess the relationship among total grain protein content, grain yield and its components. Totalgrain protein showed significant correlation with plant height and ear height. Character association analysis revealed strongpositive association of Grain yield per plant with plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per cob, kernelsper row, test weight and shelling per cent. Total grain protein showed strong negative association with days to 50 % flowering,days to anthesis and days to 50% silking. Hence, simultaneous selection of plant height and ear height would contribute for theimprovement of the grain yield per plant and total protein content in the grains at the same time.

Ravi V. Mural*, Chikkalingaiah And Shailaja Hittalmani

2012-01-01

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The effect of partially acidulated phosphate rock on maize grain yield under monoculture growth  

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Full Text Available Maize was grown in monoculture throughout the consecutive years 2003-2007 in Nowa Wie? Królewska (52o26’ N; 17o57’ E). A two factorial field experiment was established on a slightly acidic soil, moderately rich in available phosphorus. Experimental factors were as follows: 1) chemical formulation of the fertilizer (simple superphosphate – SSP, triple superphosphate – TSP, partially acidulated phosphate rock – PAPR), 2) nitrogen rate: 80 and 140 kg N·ha-1. A phosphorus unfertilized treatment (control) was also considered. The yield forming effect of TSP and PAPR (at the rate 26.4 kg P·ha-1) was similar, irrespective of nitrogen fertilization. Mean agronomical efficiencies of phosphorus (AE-P) for TSP amounted to 13.2 and 19.1 kg·kg-1, respectively for 80 and 140 kg N·ha-1, whereas in the case of PAPR, 14.4 and 17.8 kg·kg-1. respectively. In relation to calcium phosphate from superphosphate, the partially acidulated phosphate rock may be considered as an alternative source of phosphorus for maize grown for grain. The influence of sulphur from SSP on maize grain yield was higher after the application of the lowest nitrogen rate. The deficiency of phosphorus in the control treatment has led to a grain yield decrease in the order 9-19% as a result of both the low number of kernels per cob and the weight of 1000 kernels (TKW).

Potarzycki J.

2008-01-01

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Phenotypic Stability for Grain Yield in Maize Genotypes under Varied Rainfed Environments  

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Full Text Available Six maize genotypes viz. EV-1089, EV-1098, EV-5089, EV-5098, EV-6089 and EV-6098 were tested for their yield performance under four different locations of Barani tract. A number of statistics such as genotype mean performance, genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variation, ecovalence and regression coefficients were estimated to evaluate the environments effect on the grain yield. Keeping in view the mean yield performance of the genotypes over locations and estimates of different statistics, genotype EV-5098 and EV-5089 may be considered relatively less sensitive to change in environments and can successfully be grown over varied soil and climatic conditions.

Muhammad Tariq; Muhammad Irshad-ul-Haq; Ali Asghar Kiani; Naveed Kamal

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Genetic and phenotypic relationship between grain yield and components of grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available For efficient selection of grain yield, like the most importance economic trait, in regard to its on the great influence the environmental factors, has complex mode of inheritance and low heritability, is necessary to know genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of correlations between grain yield and morphological traits of the plant and ear which are influencing on the grain yield. The objective of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and morphological traits, in 8 inbred lines and their hybrids. Strong genetic and phenotypic correlations were found between grain yield and other studied traits, except between grain yield, on one side, and kernel row number where we found medium correlations. Between other studied traits, the highest values of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of correlations were found between ear length and cob weight.

Bo?anski Jan; Sre?kov Zorana; Nastasi? Aleksandra

2009-01-01

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Grain Yield and Heterosis of Maize Hybrids under Nematode Infested and Nematicide Treated Conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are present on maize but resistant genotypes have not been identified in Uganda. This study was aimed at determining the level of nematode resistance among F(1) hybrids, and to estimate grain yield, heterosis and yield losses associated with maize hybrids under nematode infestation. The 30 F(1) hybrids and two local checks were evaluated in a split plot design with nematode treatment (nematode infested versus nematicide treated) as the whole plot factor, and the hybrids as subplot factors arranged in an 8 x 4 alpha-lattice design. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at three sites. The hybrids were also evaluated in a split plot design under greenhouse conditions at IITA-Namulonge. Results revealed 24 P. zeae susceptible hybrids compared to only six P. zeae resistant hybrids. Grain yield across sites was higher by about 400 kg ha(-1) under nematicide treatment than under nematode infestation. The nematode tolerant/resistant hybrids exhibited yields ranging from 5.0 to 8.4 t ha(-1) compared to 5.0 t ha(-1) obtained from the best check. Grain yield loss was up to 28% among susceptible hybrids, indicating substantial economic yield losses due to nematodes. Under field conditions, desired heterosis was recorded on 18 hybrids for P. zeae, and on three hybrids for Meloidogyne spp. Under nematode infestation, only 16 hybrids had higher relative yield compared to the mean of both checks, the best check and the trial mean, whereas it was 20 hybrids under nematicide treated plots. Overall, most outstanding hybrids under nematode infestation were CML395/MP709, CML312/5057, CML312/CML206, CML312/CML444, CML395/CML312 and CML312/CML395. Therefore, grain yield loss due to nematodes is existent but can be significantly reduced by growing nematode resistant hybrids. PMID:23429435

Kagoda, Frank; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Coyne, Daniel L; Talwana, Herbert L

2011-09-01

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Grain Yield and Heterosis of Maize Hybrids under Nematode Infested and Nematicide Treated Conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are present on maize but resistant genotypes have not been identified in Uganda. This study was aimed at determining the level of nematode resistance among F(1) hybrids, and to estimate grain yield, heterosis and yield losses associated with maize hybrids under nematode infestation. The 30 F(1) hybrids and two local checks were evaluated in a split plot design with nematode treatment (nematode infested versus nematicide treated) as the whole plot factor, and the hybrids as subplot factors arranged in an 8 x 4 alpha-lattice design. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at three sites. The hybrids were also evaluated in a split plot design under greenhouse conditions at IITA-Namulonge. Results revealed 24 P. zeae susceptible hybrids compared to only six P. zeae resistant hybrids. Grain yield across sites was higher by about 400 kg ha(-1) under nematicide treatment than under nematode infestation. The nematode tolerant/resistant hybrids exhibited yields ranging from 5.0 to 8.4 t ha(-1) compared to 5.0 t ha(-1) obtained from the best check. Grain yield loss was up to 28% among susceptible hybrids, indicating substantial economic yield losses due to nematodes. Under field conditions, desired heterosis was recorded on 18 hybrids for P. zeae, and on three hybrids for Meloidogyne spp. Under nematode infestation, only 16 hybrids had higher relative yield compared to the mean of both checks, the best check and the trial mean, whereas it was 20 hybrids under nematicide treated plots. Overall, most outstanding hybrids under nematode infestation were CML395/MP709, CML312/5057, CML312/CML206, CML312/CML444, CML395/CML312 and CML312/CML395. Therefore, grain yield loss due to nematodes is existent but can be significantly reduced by growing nematode resistant hybrids.

Kagoda F; Derera J; Tongoona P; Coyne DL; Talwana HL

2011-09-01

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SCREENING OF MAIZE VARIETIES FOR GRAIN YIELD AT DERA ISMAIL KHAN  

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Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of advanced lines from different research institutions across the country and commercially cultivated varieties, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during spring 2008. The data were recorded on days to pollen shedding, days to silking, plant height and grain yield. All varieties showed significant differences with each other for all the traits studied. Variety “Ev-5098” had the highest grain yield of 7.35 t ha-1. Variety “Islamabad White” took more days to pollen shedding and silking while variety Soan-3 was found early maturing, which took 69 days to 50% silking. The highest plant height of 205 cm was noted in variety Sahiwal-2002. These varieties had a wide genetic background, thus showing grain yield ranges from 5.26 to 7.35 t ha-1. Maize varieties EV-5098 and Sahiwal-2002 were found most promising, which have the potential to increase the average yield of maize in Dera Ismail Khan and are therefore recommended for general cultivation

N. Hussain, M. Y. Khan and M. S. Baloch

2011-01-01

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Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions  

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Full Text Available Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-dominance type of gene action for protein content, osmotic potential, stomata size and grain yield per plant under normal condition also remained unchanged under water stress whereas additive type of gene action for stomatal frequency under normal changed to over-dominance type of gene action under water stress.

Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum; Muhammad Saleem; Asif Ali; Muhammmad Asghar Malik

2005-01-01

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YIELD AND CONCENTRATIONS OF Mn AND Zn IN GRAIN OF MAIZE PARENTAL INBREDS AND HYBRIDS  

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Full Text Available Enhanced micronutrient content in grains or seeds could improve both, nutritive value and agricultural productivity of crops on the soils deficient in a particular micronutrient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype and environmental components on the grain yield and concentrations of Mn and Zn in the grain of two maize hybrids and their parental lines as well as to examine the impact of parental inbreds on the grain of Mn and Zn concentration in the hybrids. Maize genotypes were grown in a field trials during two growing seasons on the soil poor in available Mn and Zn (17.5 mg Mn kg-1 and 1.06 mg Zn kg-1 soil). Highly significant effects of both, year and genotype for all traits were ascertained. The average grain yield for all genotypes was 4.08 t ha-1, with varying over years from 1.13 t ha-1 to 6.34 t ha-1 (2003) and from 1.13 t ha-1 to 11.64 t ha-1 (2004). Concentrations of Mn and Zn in the grain were slightly lower and ranged depending on genotype from 2.85 – 4.35 mg Mn kg-1 and 13.6 – 25.6 mg Zn kg-1. Male parents of Lancaster origin had the highest concentrations of investigated microelements in the grain, while in the female lines belonging to BSSS group it was significantly lower. Grain Mn concentration was higher than parental means in both hybrids, whilst the opposite effect was ascertained for Zn concentration, especially in OSSK 552. The origin of inbred lines, as parental component of hybrids, plays an important role in inheritance of nutrient contents, but that genetic impact is greatly affected by environmental factors.

Mirta Rastija; Domagoj Rastija; Domagoj Šimi?; Igor Mihaljevi?

2009-01-01

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The effect of yield components on grain yield in different progeny types of an F3 maize population  

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Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of S1 and HS progenies obtained from an F3 maize population. Those two progeny groups were created in 2004, and field trials were carried out in the period 2005-2006 at three locations near Aleksinac, Leskovac, and Kruševac, in RCB design. After genotypic correlation coefficients were calculated, they were used to calculate path coefficients and multiple determination coefficients. Analysis of path coefficients showed significant direct effects of the all studied traits in both S1 and HS progeny types. In S1 progenies indirect effects were significant for the all paths, except for percent of stalk and root lodged plants through 1000 grain mass, 1000 grain mass through percent of stalk and root lodged plants, and for 1000 grain mass through number of grain rows. The strongest direct effect on grain yield in HS progenies was shown by percent of stalk and root lodged plants (0.68**), while number of grains per row gave the strongest negative direct effect on grain yield (-0.97**). Multiple determination coefficients were significant for the most of independent variables' combinations in both progeny types. Numerous combinations composed of just few traits showed joint effects almost equal to the one showed by all seven independent variables.

Stojkovi? Slaviša; Deleti? Nebojša; Biberdži? Milan; Aksi? Miroljub; Bekovi? Dragoljub

2009-01-01

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Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources on The Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available The effect of different NP sources viz., urea + single super phosphate (SSP), Ammonium nitrate (AN) + SSP, ammonium sulphate (AS) + SSP, Urea + Triple super phosphate (TSP), AN + TSP and AS + TSP on the growth and grain yield of maize was studied in the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. A quadruplicated experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design measuring a net plot size of 3m x 8m. The combination of ammonium sulphate and single super phosphate produced significantly higher plant height, leaf area plant-1 and grain yield (5.41 t ha-1) than all other combinations. The increased yield was mainly associated with higher 1000-grain weight. Number of cobs plant-1 and number of grain rows cob-1 were statistically sigmilar in all combinations of NP sources. The combination of AS + SSP sems to be the most suitable one for obtaining higher grain yield of maize in Faisalabad conditions.

M. Ayub; M. Adil Choudhry; Asif Tanveer; M.M.Z. Amin; Imtiaz Ahmad

2000-01-01

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LEAF AREA AND GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE HYBRIDS AT DIFFERENT PLANT POPULATIONS  

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Full Text Available The slower leaf senescence during the reproductive growth period may be a positive physiological trait to enhance maize tolerance to crowding. This experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of plant population increase on leaf area and grain yield of maize hybrids. The trial was set in Lages, SC, in a randomized split-plot block design. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Ag 303 and Speed. Each hybrid was evaluated at five plant populations in the split-plots: 25,000, 50,000, 75,000, 100,000 and 125,000 pl ha-1. Five leaf area evaluations were performed at the silking stage and 14, 28, 42 and 56 days afterwards. Grain yield of Speed was higher and more responsive to the increase in plant population than the productivity of Ag 303. The increment in plant population reduced leaf area of both hybrids. The Speed’s leaf area was always higher than Ag 303’s leaf area during the whole kernel filling period. Speed was more tolerant to crowding and preserved higher leaf area than Ag 303 after silking.

LUÍS SANGOI; AMAURI SCHMITT; CLAITSON GUSTAVO ZANIN

2007-01-01

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INTERCEPTATION OF PHOTOSSINTETIC ACTIVE RADIATION AND GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE UNDER HIGH PLANT DENSITY  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of light attenuation (PAR) in maize hybrids, cultivated under different population densities in narrow row spacing (0,45 m). An experiment was installed to evaluate six hybrids (A 2555, A 2288, AG 9010, AG 6690, P 30F88 and Valent), cultivated in five plant densities (40, 53, 71, 84 and 97 thousand plants for hectare), in Goiânia, Goiás state, in the growing season 2002/2003. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plot, arranged in a 6x5 factorial with four replicates. The interceptation of photossintetic active radiation was evaluated measuring photon flux density: above the canopy, in the height of the ear, and in soil surface. The results showed a positive correlation between grain yield and light attenuation. The increment on plant density in narrow row spacing resulted in a greater absorption of PAR, and consequently enhancements in grain yield. In these conditions, the results also showed that the light attenuation on maize canopy occurs in the superior part of the canopy, above the ear height.

ROBÉLIO LEANDRO MARCHÃO; EDWARD MADUREIRA BRASIL; PAULO ALCANFOR XIMENES

2006-01-01

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Stability parameters for grain yield of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available Stability parameters for grain yield were evaluated in 11 maize hybrids of FAO 300-700 maturity groups (ZPSC 330M, ZPTC 404, ZPSC 42A, ZPSC 480, ZPSC 539, ZPSC 599, ZPSC 580, ZPSC 677, ZPSC 633, ZPSC 704 and ZPSC 753) at three different locations in Central Serbia over a two-year period. The hybrids were tested in two separate trials including 50,000 and 65,000 plants/ha, respectively. The stability parameters were estimated using the EBERHART and RUSSELL regression model (1966). There were no significant differences (except in the ZPTC 404 hybrid) between the values of the regression coefficient (bi) for grain yield and the mean value. The ZPSC 599 hybrid of the group of hybrids with a medium growing season gave high yields and less favorable values of stability parameters at most locations and over most years as compared to the long- season hybrids. The late maturity hybrids (FAO 600 and 700) as compared to the early maturity ones generally exhibited unfavorable values of stability parameters, i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to more favorable environmental conditions, and produced higher average yields. The yield of these hybrids could not have been jeopardized by the yield of the early maturity hybrids.

Madi? Milomirka; ?urovi? Dragan; Stevovi? Vladeta; Bokan Nikola

2010-01-01

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Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya  

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[en] Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

1999-01-01

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Effect of sowing date on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production for maize  

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Full Text Available High moisture ear and grain production of maize (Zea mays L.) hasadvantages in comparison with dry grain production because longer maturity hybrids might be grown and there are no grain drying costs. A two year study was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture experimental field Maksimir to evaluate the effect of delayed sowing dates on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production when compared to optimum sowing date. Maize hybrids belonging to the maturity groups FAO 200 (PR39K38) and 300 (PR38P05) were sown at optimum (early May) and two delayed sowing dates (middle May and early June) and grown under intensive cropping system.When compared to optimum sowing date, grain and ear yield significantly decreased with delayed sowing dates despite the fact that grown hybrids reached physiological maturity before the first autumn frosts. These yield reductions at delayed sowing dates were mainly associated with fewer grains per ear, and partly due to lighter 1000-grain weights. Both hybrids resulted in similar ear yield; however, a longer maturity hybrid (PR38P05) had larger grain yields than a shorter-maturity hybrid (PR39K38) because the latter hadsignificantly smaller shelling index (82,1 %) than the former one (87,0 %). Sowing date and growing conditions showed no significant effect on grain protein and oil contents. Hybrids also had similar grain protein content, whereas PR38P05 had absolutely small, but significantly higher grain oil content than PR39K38. Thus, delayed sowing of the maize hybrids of FAO 200 - 300 maturity groups might occur into early June with no effect on grain quality, but with significant yield losses when compared to optimum sowing date.

Zlatko Sve?njak; Boris Varga; Darko Grbeša; Zvonimir Štafa; Darko Uher

2007-01-01

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Timing and rate of nitrogen application influence grain quality and yield in maize planted at high and low densities  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Efficient use of nitrogen (N) is considered one of the most important inputs needed for increasing grain quality and crop productivity. Hypothesis was that grain quality and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in north-west Pakistan are enhanced by increasing the rate of N, and that response to applied N is greater with an increase in the number of N split applications at high plant density compared to low density.RESULTS: Field experiments were carried out on maize (cv. Azam) in summer 2002 and 2003 consisting of two planting densities and three N rates as main plots, and six split N applications as sub-plots. Year 1 had higher shelling percentage and stover yield (SY). Harvest index (HI) decreased but SY increased with increase in plant density. Increase in N rate and number of split N applications increased grain weight and protein content, HI and SY.CONCLUSION: The highest N rate in four to five split applications increased maize grain quality and yield at both densities. Maize response to the interactive effect of year x plant density, year x N rate, and year x N timing suggests zonal specific effective N management practices for sustainable maize production in different agro-ecological zones.

Shah Paigham

2010-01-01

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The genetics of environmental variation of dry matter grain yield in maize  

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Dry matter grain yield per plot from three genetically homogeneous single-cross maize hybrids were analysed to investigate whether environmental variance depends on genotype. Three genotypes were tested at 20 locations in 3 years. The data were analysed using a non-parametric approach and fully parametric Bayesian models. Both analyses reveal effects of genotype on environmental variation. The Bayesian analyses indicate that genotype by location-year interactions are the most important effects acting at the level of the mean. The best-fitting Bayesian model is one postulating genotype by location-year interactions acting on the mean and main effects of genotype and of location-year on the variance. Despite the detection of genotypic effects acting on the variance, location-year effects constitute the biggest relative source of variance heterogeneity

Yang, Ye; Schön, Chris-Carolin

2012-01-01

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Effects of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Time of Tasselling, Time of Silking and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays)  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from August to December in 2005 and repeated between March and July, 2006 to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays) to liquid organic fertilizer. The study was conducted using a split plot fitted into randomized complete block design. Liquid organic fertilizer was diluted at the rate of 60 ml of the product to 15 litres of water and applied to maize foliage, topsoil, foliage and topsoil at the rates of 5l/ha, 10l/ha, 151/ha, l8l/ha, 201/ha and 251/ha. The result obtained indicated a positive influence of liquid organic fertilizer on time of tasselling, time of silking and grain yield of maize. Liquid organic fertilizer significantly reduced the times of tasselling and silking, and increased grain yield of maize. Based on this study, it is recommended that 151/ha of liquid organic fertilizer which produced 5.6tha’ in 2005 and 6.1tha’ of dry grain yield 2006 be applied on the topsoil of maize plant with a view to maximally exploit the great economic potentials of the crop.

Enujeke, E. C. and Ojeifo, I. M.; Nnaji, G. U.

2013-01-01

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QTL consistency and meta-analysis for grain yield components in three generations in maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grain yield is the most important and complex trait in maize. In this study, a total of 258 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RIL), derived from a cross between dent corn inbred Dan232 and popcorn inbred N04, were evaluated for eight grain yield components under four environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their epistatic interactions were detected for all traits under each environment and in combined analysis. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detected QTL across three generations (RIL, F(2:3) and BC(2)F(2)) derived from the same cross. In total, 103 QTL, 42 pairs of epistatic interactions and 16 meta-QTL (mQTL) were detected. Twelve out of 13 QTL with contributions (R(2)) over 15% were consistently detected in 3-4 environments (or in combined analysis) and integrated in mQTL. Only q100GW-7-1 was detected in all four environments and in combined analysis. 100qGW-1-1 had the largest R(2) (19.3-24.6%) in three environments and in combined analysis. In contrast, 35 QTL for 6 grain yield components were detected in the BC(2)F(2) and F(2:3) generations, no common QTL across three generations were located in the same marker intervals. Only 100 grain weight (100GW) QTL on chromosome 5 were located in adjacent marker intervals. Four common QTL were detected across the RIL and F(2:3) generations, and two between the RIL and BC(2)F(2) generations. Each of five important mQTL (mQTL7-1, mQTL10-2, mQTL4-1, mQTL5-1 and mQTL1-3) included 7-12 QTL associated with 2-6 traits. In conclusion, we found evidence of strong influence of genetic structure and environment on QTL detection, high consistency of major QTL across environments and generations, and remarkable QTL co-location for grain yield components. Fine mapping for five major QTL (q100GW-1-1, q100GW-7-1, qGWP-4-1, qERN-4-1 and qKR-4-1) and construction of single chromosome segment lines for genetic regions of five mQTL merit further studies and could be put into use in marker-assisted breeding.

Li JZ; Zhang ZW; Li YL; Wang QL; Zhou YG

2011-03-01

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Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing  

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Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21), three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1) and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1). In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta) and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1) were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.

Silva Paulo Regis Ferreira da; Strieder Mércio Luiz; Coser Rúbia Patrícia da Silva; Rambo Lisandro; Sangoi Luís; Argenta Gilber; Forsthofer Everton Leonardo; Silva Adriano Alves da

2005-01-01

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The effects of no nitrogen fertilizer on the grain yield and N_(min) level of soil under winter wheat and summer maize rotational cultivation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

No nitrogen fertilizer (NNF) for one season had significant influence on the yield of winter wheat and a little impact on the yield of summer maiz. NNF for more than two seasons reduced both winter wheat and summer maize yield significantly. The yield of winter wheat and summer maize were kept quiet low and steady when NNF was applied for more than 4 seasons. Winter wheat yield was much reduced comparing with that of summer maize under NNF. Nitrogen deficiency reduced grain yield mainly through decreasing grain number per ear for both winter wheat and summer maize. N_(min) level of soil was fall down significantly under NNF. When NNF was adopted for more than three seasons, N_(min) level kept low and steady like grain yield.

Wei Yaping; Wang Pu; Chen Cailiang

2004-01-01

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[Effects of stubble-standing mode on the grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat and maize in wheat/maize intercropping system].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wheat/maize intercropping is the main intercropping pattern in the irrigation region of Hexi Oasis, Northwest China, but the traditional intercropping needs much water, making the regional water resource lacked increasingly. In 2010, a field experiment was conducted in the irrigation region of Shiyang River basin oasis, Gansu Province of Northwest China, aimed to study the effects of traditional stubble-burning, stubble-returning, and stubble-standing on the grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economical benefits of wheat and maize in wheat/maize inter-cropping system. Compared with stubble-burning and stubble-returning, stubble-standing increased the grain yield of mono- and intercropped wheat by 7.2% and 5.1% , and 6.2%, 5.1%, and that of mono- and intercropped maize by 4.7% and 2.5%, and 7.2% and 3.3%, and increased the WUE of mono- and intercropped wheat by 20.4% and 16.2%, and 17.9% and 14.6%, and that of mono- and intercropping maize by 16.7% and 10.9%, and 11. 8% and 17.0%, respectively. As for the mono- and intercropped wheat and maize, their average net economical benefits under stubble-burning, stubble- returning, and stubble-standing were 10946, 11471, and 13454 RMB.hm-2, respectively. In considering the grain yield, WUE, and economic benefits, stubble- standing would be the optimal mode of wheat/maize intercropping in the oasis of Hexi irrigation region, Northwest China.

Liu CW; Wang Q; Liu QL; Guan XK; Yang Y; Zhang EH

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
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[Effects of applying biogas liquid manure on the key source-sink metabolism enzymes and grain yield of summer maize].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

15000, 22500, and 30000 kg x hm(-2) of biogas liquid manure were applied to maize hybrid Zhengdan 958 to study their effects on the key source-sink metabolism enzymes and yield components of the summer maize. Compared with CK and applying nitrogen fertilizer, the application of biogas liquid manure not only increased the aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content, but also enhanced the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and sucrose phosphate synthetase (SPS) in leaves and the sucrose synthetase (SS) in grains. The yield parameters such as ear diameter, ear length, grain rows per ear, grains per row, kernels per ear, 1000-kernel mass, and grain yield per unit area were also increased significantly. Of the three test application rates, 22500 kg x hm(-2) (7500 kg x hm(-2) applied at jointing, big trumpet, and tasseling stages, respectively) had the best effects on enhancing the above mentioned enzyme activities and grain yield, with the yield reached 14006.7 kg x hm(-2) and being 40.7% higher than the control.

Lü SM; Qu XF; Wang LH; Liang SR; Wang JZ; Zhao HJ

2010-02-01

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Effect of Plant Density on Some Growth Indexes, Radiation Interception and Grain Yield in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available We studied the effect of different row spacing and density of corn on Radiation Interception (RI), Total Day Weight (TDW), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Next Assimilation Rate (NAR), Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and grain yield. The experiment was conducted in the field at research station of Isfahan, Iran on loamy clay to compare row spacing and to determine optimum plant density for maize hybrid K704. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Plot treatments were row spacing (60, 75 and 90 cm). Split-plot treatments were within-row spacing (12, 14, 16 and 18 cm). An increase of PP from 10.5 to 13.9 plants m2 increased LAI, TDW, CGR, RI and grain yield on average by 0.205 m, 48.4 g m1, 1.14 g m2 day1, 0.89% and 222.7 kg ha1 for each 1 plant per m2 added .but decreased NAR by 0.205 g m2 day1 for each 1 plant per m2 added. Moreover, when row spacing was reduced, RI, TDW, LAI, CGR and grain yield increased. But by reducing row spacing, NAR was decreased. The results show that the row spacing 60 cm, within-row spacing 12 cm and density 11.9 plant m2 for conditions of Isfahan is suitable for maize hybrid K704.

Sayed Mehdi Dehdashti; Shahram Riahinia

2008-01-01

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RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index) for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010) and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S); 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 4th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 8th leaf stage and 20% at S, 40% at 4th leaf stage and 40% at 8th leaf stage. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with four replications in split-plot design, being maize hybrids the plot and portioning of nitrogen fertilization the split. Determinations of the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index), evaluated with the chlorophyll meter, leaf nitrogen content, and grain yield were done. The chlorophyll meter readings were efficient to provide early diagnose of nitrogen content at the fourth tally expanded leaf of maize cultivars AG9010 (super-early cycle) and P32R21 (early cycle). Concerning the hybrid DKB333B (normal cycle) there was no correlation between chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD index) and nitrogen content on the fourth fully expanded leaf.

RAIMUNDO NONATO CARVALHO ROCHA; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; PAULO CESAR TEIXEIRA; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; ERNANI LUIZ AGNES; PAULO ROBERTO GOMES PEREIRA; UBERLANDO TIBURTINO LEITE

2005-01-01

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Combining ability analysis in quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) for grain yield and its component traits  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to estimate combining ability effects in maize for different characters in a line × tester programme comprising 70 hybrids produced by crossing 14 lines and 5 testers. The interaction of line × tester was highly significant for twelve traits studied except for protein content. Significant general and specific combining ability variance were observed for all characters except protein content. The variance due to SCA was higher than GCA indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of GCA:SCA variance was lower than unity for all characters indicating predominance of non -additive gene action over additive gene action. Among the lines, genotype QPM 3 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for most yield contributing traits followed by QPM 1 and QPM 187. Among the testers, T 323-8 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yield contributing traits followed by T 209 and T 295 genotypes. Among the crosses, QPM 35 × T 295 was superior with positive significant SCA effects and better mean performance for grain yield and plant height. Similar superior positive significant SCA effects with better mean performance were also observed in QPM 6 × T 295 (ear length, test weight and grain yield per plant) and QPM 43 × T 193-2 (ear length and grain yield per plant).

Ravi V. Mural and Chikkalingaiah

2012-01-01

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Grain Yield and LER of Maize-climbing Bean Intercropping as Affected by Inorganic, Organic Fertilisers and Population Density in Western Oromiya, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) and climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgars L.) intercropping system is affected by fertility status of the soil and population density of component crops. A trial was conducted in 2002 and 2003 cropping season to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic fertilisers and population density on productivity of maize-climbing bean intercropping system. The experiment was laid out as 2x2x2x2 factorial arrangement with two sole cropping in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Nitrogen and population density significantly increased grain yield of climbing bean. FYM significantly affected LER of intercropping system. Grain yield of component crops from intercropping were significantly higher than the monocultures. Yield of intercropping were up to 27 and 403% higher for maize and climbing bean than the yield achieved by growing the crops separately. Partial land equivalent ratio of maize and climbing bean ranged between 0.94 to 1.19 and 0.30 to 0.90, respectively. Higher partial LER of maize indicated the superiority of maize on climbing bean in intercropping. Higher land equivalent ratio was recorded from intercropping than sole planting. Intercropping produced 32 to 98% more yield per unit land area than the component monocultures. Intercropping maize-climbing bean is a viable agronomic practice to produce higher yield from a unit of land.

Tolera Abera; Tamado Tanaand; L.M. Pant

2005-01-01

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Timing of azoxystrobin+propiconazole application on maize to control northern corn leaf blight and maximize grain yield  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of foliar fungicides on field maize has increased greatly over the past ten years. There has also been an increasing interest in foliar fungicide applications on maize, because quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, in addition to providing disease control, have been shown to induce physiological benefits for plants in studies conducted under controlled conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the timing of fungicide applications on maximizing grain yield by considering foliar disease control and physiological benefit of the application on plants. Five fungicide application timings were compared to an untreated control (T0), in four experimental trials conducted in 2 sites in 2009 and 2010. The fungicide treatments were applied in each trial at the following growth stages: T1, 4 unfolded leaves (growth stages – GS 14); T2, end of leaf development (GS 19); T3, middle of stem elongation (GS 35); T4, flowering with fully emerged stigmata (GS 65); T5, milk stage (GS 75). The treatments were carried out with self-propelled ground sprayers, using a mixture of azoxystrobin and propiconazole. The following measurements were performed: plant and ear height, cross-sectional area of the stalk, leaf greenness, northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) incidence and severity, the photosynthetic efficiency of the total content of nonstructural carbohydrates of the leaf, ear dimension, grain yield, test weight (TW), thousand grain weight (TGW), European corn borer and fungal ear rot severity and fumonisin concentration in grain. Azoxystrobin+propiconazole application timing significantly affected NCLB incidence and severity, grain yield, TW and TGW. The best timings for foliar NCLB control were observed with application from the mid-stem elongation (T3) to the milk stage (T5), while only treatments at the mid-stem elongation (T3) and the flowering stage (T4) significantly increased grain yield compared to the untreated control (T1). The first collected data suggest that plants treated with QoI and DMI fungicides undergo an increase in photosynthetic efficiency, while no significant differences have been observed for ear and plant development or leaf senescence for any application timings. None of the compared fungicide application timings resulted in a significantly different concentration of fumonisins or severity of fungal ear rot than the untreated control.

Blandino Massimo; Galeazzi Michele; Savoia Walter; Reyneri Amedeo

2012-01-01

47

Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen sup (more) ply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

Silva, Maria Anita Gonçalves da; Muniz, Antonio Saraiva; Mannigel, Anny Rosi; Porto, Simone Maria Altoé; Marchetti, Marlene Estevão; Nolla, Antonio; Grannemann, Ivan

2011-08-01

48

Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva; Antonio Saraiva Muniz; Anny Rosi Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé Porto; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; Antonio Nolla; Ivan Grannemann

2011-01-01

49

[Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF. PMID:20136000

Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

2009-11-01

50

[Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF.

Zhao B; Dong ST; Wang KJ; Zhang JW; Liu P

2009-11-01

51

Estimation of combining ability for grain yield and its components in 4 x 4 diallel cross of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combining ability effects were estimated for maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield and six related agronomic traits in 4 x 4 diallel analysis. Mean squares due to genotypes and specific combining ability effects for all traits except number of ears per plant were highly significant. Mean squares due to general combining ability effects were highly significant for ear height and number of grain rows per ear and significant for plant height and 100-grain weight, while these were non-significant for number of ears per plant, number of grains per row and grain yield per hectare. Variances due to specific combining ability were greater and more important for all characters except number of rows per ear. It indicated the presence of non-additive type of gene action. The inbred line USSR-3135 proved to be the best general combiner for number of rows per ear (0.352), number of grains per row (0.537) and grain yield per unit area (0.343), whereas the inbred line IMAN-I was good general combiner for plant height (0.055), inbred line A-637 was good general combiner for ear height and the inbred line ASE-304 was good combiner for 100-grain weight. A cross USSR-3135 x A-637 showed the best specific combining ability effect (3.253) for grain yield.

Juma Khan; Shafiullah; Baitullah

1999-01-01

52

Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test-cross populations of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU1 population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS test crosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. In second studied population the highest value of coefficient of correlations also was found between grain yield and kernel row number, but that relation was negative. Path coefficient analysis provides more information among variables than do correlation coefficients. Because of that goal of this study also was founding the direct and indirect effects of morphological traits on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for ear height, in both studied populations. Plant height, in both test cross populations, kernel row number and oil content, at B73 test crosses, has high significant undesirable effect on grain yield. (author)

2011-01-01

53

Economic effectiveness of irradiation with gamma rays on maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Gamma irradiation of maize grains before sowing increses the yield and improves the quality of agricultural produce. The positive results consist in the net income from silage maize from 45 to 85 per ha and from the grain maize from 85 to 109,9 per ha; the level of raw protein from the silage maize with 11,30% and from the grain maize with 6 to 12%; the level of feed units from the silage maize with 5 to 13% and from grain maize with 6 to 12%. Such direct effect in the same time is a stimulating one and raises the effectiveness of the animal production due to the better feeding of animals

1985-01-01

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Correlations and comparisons of quantitative trait loci with family per se and testcross performance for grain yield and related traits in maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Simultaneous improvement in grain yield and related traits in maize hybrids and their parents (inbred lines) requires a better knowledge of genotypic correlations between family per se performance (FP) and testcross performance (TP). Thus, to understand the genetic basis of yield-related traits in both inbred lines and their testcrosses, two F (2:3) populations (including 230 and 235 families, respectively) were evaluated for both FP and TP of eight yield-related traits in three diverse environments. Genotypic correlations between FP and TP, [Formula: see text] (FP, TP), were low (0-0.16) for grain yield per plant (GYPP) and kernel number per plant (KNPP) in the two populations, but relatively higher (0.32-0.69) for the other six traits with additive effects as the primary gene action. Similar results were demonstrated by the genotypic correlations between observed and predicted TP values based on quantitative trait loci positions and effects for FP, [Formula: see text] (M (FP), Y (TP)). A total of 88 and 35 QTL were detected with FP and TP, respectively, across all eight traits in the two populations. However, the genotypic variances explained by the QTL detected in the cross-validation analysis were much lower than those in the whole data set for all traits. Several common QTL between FP and TP that accounted for large phenotypic variances were clustered in four genomic regions (bin 1.10, 4.05-4.06, 9.02, and 10.04), which are promising candidate loci for further map-based cloning and improvement in grain yield in maize. Compared with publicly available QTL data, these QTL were also detected in a wide range of genetic backgrounds and environments in maize. These results imply that effective selection based on FP to improve TP could be achieved for traits with prevailing additive effects.

Peng B; Li Y; Wang Y; Liu C; Liu Z; Zhang Y; Tan W; Wang D; Shi Y; Sun B; Song Y; Wang T; Li Y

2013-03-01

55

Apoplastic infusion of sucrose into stem internodes during female flowering does not increase grain yield in maize plants grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrogen (N) limitation reduces leaf growth and photosynthetic rates of maize (Zea mays), and constrains photosynthate translocation to developing ears. Additionally, the period from about 1 week before to 2 weeks after silking is critical for establishing the reproductive sink capacity necessary to attain maximum yield. To investigate the influence of carbohydrate availability in plants of differing N status, a greenhouse study was performed in which exogenous sucrose (Suc) was infused around the time of silking into maize stems grown under different N regimes. N deficiency significantly reduced leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. High N-delayed leaf senescence, particularly of the six uppermost leaves, compared to the other two N treatments. While N application increased ear leaf soluble protein concentration, it did not influence glucose and suc concentrations. Interestingly, ear leaf starch concentration decreased with increasing N application. Infusion of exogenous suc tended to increase non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in the developing ears of all N treatments at silking and 6 days after silking. However, leaf photosynthetic rates were not affected by suc infusion, and suc infusion failed to increase grain yield in any N treatment. The lack of an effect of suc infusion on ear growth and the high ear leaf starch concentration of N-deficient maize, suggest that yield reduction under N deficiency may not be due to insufficient photosynthate availability to the developing ear during silking, and that yield reduction under N deficiency may be determined at an earlier growth stage.

Peng Y; Li C; Fritschi FB

2013-08-01

56

Apoplastic infusion of sucrose into stem internodes during female flowering does not increase grain yield in maize plants grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen (N) limitation reduces leaf growth and photosynthetic rates of maize (Zea mays), and constrains photosynthate translocation to developing ears. Additionally, the period from about 1 week before to 2 weeks after silking is critical for establishing the reproductive sink capacity necessary to attain maximum yield. To investigate the influence of carbohydrate availability in plants of differing N status, a greenhouse study was performed in which exogenous sucrose (Suc) was infused around the time of silking into maize stems grown under different N regimes. N deficiency significantly reduced leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. High N-delayed leaf senescence, particularly of the six uppermost leaves, compared to the other two N treatments. While N application increased ear leaf soluble protein concentration, it did not influence glucose and suc concentrations. Interestingly, ear leaf starch concentration decreased with increasing N application. Infusion of exogenous suc tended to increase non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in the developing ears of all N treatments at silking and 6 days after silking. However, leaf photosynthetic rates were not affected by suc infusion, and suc infusion failed to increase grain yield in any N treatment. The lack of an effect of suc infusion on ear growth and the high ear leaf starch concentration of N-deficient maize, suggest that yield reduction under N deficiency may not be due to insufficient photosynthate availability to the developing ear during silking, and that yield reduction under N deficiency may be determined at an earlier growth stage. PMID:23061679

Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Chunjian; Fritschi, Felix B

2013-08-01

57

Apoplastic infusion of sucrose into stem internodes during female flowering does not increase grain yield in maize plants grown under nitrogen?limiting conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrogen (N) limitation reduces leaf growth and photosynthetic rates of maize (Zea mays), and constrains photosynthate translocation to developing ears. Additionally, the period from about 1 week before to 2 weeks after silking is critical for establishing the reproductive sink capacity necessary to attain maximum yield. To investigate the influence of carbohydrate availability in plants of differing N status, a greenhouse study was performed in which exogenous sucrose (Suc) was infused around the time of silking into maize stems grown under different N regimes. N deficiency significantly reduced leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. High N?delayed leaf senescence, particularly of the six uppermost leaves, compared to the other two N treatments. While N application increased ear leaf soluble protein concentration, it did not influence glucose and suc concentrations. Interestingly, ear leaf starch concentration decreased with increasing N application. Infusion of exogenous suc tended to increase non?structural carbohydrate concentrations in the developing ears of all N treatments at silking and 6 days after silking. However, leaf photosynthetic rates were not affected by suc infusion, and suc infusion failed to increase grain yield in any N treatment. The lack of an effect of suc infusion on ear growth and the high ear leaf starch concentration of N?deficient maize, suggest that yield reduction under N deficiency may not be due to insufficient photosynthate availability to the developing ear during silking, and that yield reduction under N deficiency may be determined at an earlier growth stage.

Peng Y; Li C; Fritschi FB

2013-08-01

58

Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, sobrevivência e contribuição dos perfilhos ao rendimento de grãos do milho/ Nitrogen availability, tiller survival and contribution to maize grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O N influencia os processos de morfogênese e perfilhamento nas espécies da família Poaceae. Contudo, seu efeito sobre o perfilhamento do milho é pouco conhecido. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar se a dose de N e a época de aplicação da cobertura nitrogenada interferem na emissão, sobrevivência e contribuição dos perfilhos ao rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho. O experimento foi instalado no município de Lages (SC), nos anos agríco (more) las de 2006/07 e 2008/09. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos casualizados dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. No primeiro ano, as parcelas foram constituídas de dois híbridos de milho (AS 1560 e P30F53); as subparcelas, por três doses de N (0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de N); e as sub-subparcelas, por três épocas de aplicação do N (V4, V4+V8 e V8). No segundo ano, avaliaram-se quatro doses de N nas parcelas (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de N) e as mesmas épocas de aplicação usadas no primeiro ano, nas subparcelas. Determinaram-se a percentagem de plantas perfilhadas, o número de perfilhos por planta, o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento. O híbrido P30F53 teve maior capacidade de perfilhamento e maior rendimento de grãos do que o AS 1560. A aplicação de N em cobertura reduziu a mortalidade dos perfilhos na colheita no primeiro ano, e até a floração, na segunda safra. A realização da cobertura nitrogenada em V4 estimulou o perfilhamento e permitiu maior sobrevivência dos perfilhos na colheita em 2008/09. A aplicação de N em cobertura aumentou o rendimento de grãos nos dois anos de ensaio e incrementou a contribuição direta dos perfilhos à produtividade em 2006/07. A época de aplicação do N em cobertura não interferiu no rendimento de grãos. A capacidade de perfilhamento no milho difere entre híbridos. Os perfilhos contribuem diretamente para o rendimento de grãos do milho em condições de boa disponibilidade de N. Abstract in english Nitrogen influences the processes of morphogenesis and tillering in Poaceae. However, its effect on maize tillering is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether N rates and application time affect tiller emission, survival and contribution to maize grain yield. The experiment was set up in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2006/07 and 2008/09. The experimental design was arranged in randomized blocks with split plots. In the fir (more) st year, the main plots consisted of two maize hybrids (AS 1560 and P30F53), the split plots of three N rates (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 N), and the split-split plots of three rates of N sidedressing (V4, V4 + V8 and V8). In the second year, four N rates were evaluated in the main plots (0, 50, 100, and 200 kg ha-1 N) and the same sidedress rates in the split plots. The percentage of plants with tillers, number of tillers per plant, grain yield and yield components were assessed. The tillering capacity and grain yield of hybrid P30F53 were greater than of AS 1560. Nitrogen sidedressing reduced tiller mortality at harvest in the first year, and until flowering in the second season. Nitrogen sidedressing at V4 stimulated tiller emission and survival at harvest 2008/09. Nitrogen sidedressing increased grain yield in both study years, and enhanced the direct contribution of tillers to grain yield in 2006/07. The time of nitrogen sidedressing did not affect grain yield, regardless of the growing season. Maize tillering capacity differed among hybrids. In environments with adequate N availability, tillers contribute to increase maize grain yield.

Sangoi, Luis; Vargas, Vitor Paulo; Schimitt, Amauri; Pletsch, Anderson José; Vieira, Jeferson; Saldanha, Alexandre; Siega, Eduardo; Carniel, Giovani; Mengarda, Rodolfo Thiago; Picoli Junior, Gilmar José

2011-02-01

59

Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop) on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm) and minimum (133.6 cm) plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum number of (10.73 leaves plant-1), cob length (19.2 cm) and grains cob-1 (205.2) were recorded with 30,000 maize population ha-1. While maximum barrenness of 18.90 was observed in plots containing maximum maize population of 60,000 plants ha-1. Maximum grain weight (240 g), grain yield (2400 kg ha-1) and harvest index (15.45) were recorded with lowest maize population of 30,000 plants ha-1, while maximum (7.2) and minimum (4.5 kg) biological yield unit area-1 were recorded in 30,000 and 60,000 plant population of maize ha-1 respectively, maximum number of shoots stump-1 were 8.91, 11.33 and 12.08 with 30,000 plant population of maize ha-1, while minimum 0.57 were observed in 30,000 maize population ha-1, respectively. Maximum of 68.88 and minimum of 59.02 cm sugarcane heights at maize harvest were recorded with 30,000 and 60,000 maize population ha-1, respectively.

Imran Haider Shamsi; Wajid Ali Shah; Jehan Bakht; Mujtaba Masood

2003-01-01

60

Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied) and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake), in maize grown in environments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls) were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG) e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado) e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado) e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido) -, em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e três testemunhas) foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes.

Leandro Vagno de Souza; Glauco Vieira Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso Galvão; Fernando Roberto Eckert; Éder Eduardo Mantovani; Rodrigo Oliveira Lima; Lauro José Moreira Guimarães

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize/ Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG) e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado) e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado) e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido) -, em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e t (more) rês testemunhas) foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied) and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake), in maize grown in environments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls) were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the (more) southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.

Souza, Leandro Vagno de; Miranda, Glauco Vieira; Galvão, João Carlos Cardoso; Eckert, Fernando Roberto; Mantovani, Éder Eduardo; Lima, Rodrigo Oliveira; Guimarães, Lauro José Moreira

2008-11-01

62

Combining ability analysis of newer inbred lines derived from national yellow pool for grain yield and other quantitative traits in maize (Zea mays L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information on combing ability is important for effective breeding strategies in a cross pollinated crop like maize. Twenty nine inbred lines were derived from national yellow pool based on their performance in their S4 generation. Twenty nine lines, three testers and their 87 hybrids from a line x tester design were evaluated for grain yield and its components. The SCA variance was higher than GCA variance for all the characters indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action. Line x tester interaction variance was found significant for all the traits except ear length, ear circumference, shelling percentage and fodder yield. The line YP4#07-20 was the best general combiner and the cross YP4#07-20 X CI-5 was identified as good specific combiner.

R. Pavan, H. C. Lohithaswa, Gangashetty Prakash, M. C. Wali and B. G. Shekara

2011-01-01

63

Rendimiento de variedades precoces de maíz grano amarillo para valles altos de México/ Grain yield of maize varieties with yellow endosperm and earliness for Mexican highlands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estableció como objetivo determinar la capacidad productiva de variedades de grano amarillo desarrolladas en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM) y en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuaria (INIFAP). Fueron establecidos, dos experimentos uniformes, uno en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX), en Santa Lucía de Prías y otro en la Facu (more) ltad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM), en comparación con un testigo comercial de grano blanco y dos testigos de grano amarillo; ambos se sembraron en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010. Se evaluaron trece variedades, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. El mayor rendimiento medio se obtuvo en CEVAMEX (5887 kg/ha), el cual fue superior al obtenido en FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). En el grupo de mayor rendimiento de grano se ubicaron las variedades ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) y V-54 A (5405 kg/ha). Abstract in english The objective in this work was to evaluate the grain yield capacity of yellow grain maize varieties developed in The Cuautitlan Faculty of Superior Studies, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (FESC-UNAM), and the National Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Research (INIFAP). Two experiments were planted in two locations; one in the CEVAMEX, in Saint Lucia of Prias and another at the FESC-UNAM, compared to white grain and yellow commercial con (more) trol groups; both were planted mid June, 2010. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated in each experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of CEVAMEX had the best grain yielding, 5887 kg/ha, and was superior (p ? 0.05) to the experiment of FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). The best grain yielding varieties were ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) and A V-54 (5405 kg/ha).

Espinosa-Calderón, Alejandro; Tadeo-Robledo, Margarita; Turrent-Fernández, Antonio; Sierra-Macías, Mauro; Gómez-Montiel, Noel; Zamudio-González, Benjamín

2013-06-01

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Genetic relationship between yield and yield components of maize  

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Full Text Available One of the objectives of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and yield components, in S1 and HS progenies of one early synthetic maize population. Grain yield was in high significant, medium strong and strong association with all studied yield components, in both populations. The strongest correlation was recorded between grain yield and 1000-kernel weight (S1 progenies rg = 0.684; HS progenies rg = 0.633). Between other studied traits, the highest values of genotypic coefficient of correlations were found between 1000-kernel weight and kernel depth in S1 population, and 1000-kernel weight and ear length in HS population. Also, objective of this research was founding the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for 1000-kernel weight and kernel row number, and in S1 and HS progenies, and for ear length in population of S1 progenies. Kernel depth has undesirable direct effect on grain yield, in both populations.

Nastasi? Aleksandra; Jockovi? ?or?e; Ivanovi? Mile; Stojakovi? Milisav; Bo?anski Jan; ?alovi? Ivica; Sre?kov Zorana

2010-01-01

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Rendimiento de grano de genotipos de maíz sembrados bajo tres densidades de población/ Grain yield of maize genotypes grown at three population densities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la densidad de población sobre el rendimiento de grano de nueve genotipos de maíz (Zea mays L.) tropical, se condujo en 2005 un estudio en el campo experimental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco en el municipio de Centro, Tabasco. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones. En las parcelas grandes se establecieron las densidades de pobl (more) ación de 44 289, 53 200 y 66 500 plantas ha-1, y en la parcela chica se establecieron las poblaciones de maíz: población 21, 22, 23, 25, 32, 43, 49, híbrido HS-3G y variedad VS-536. Hubo diferencias significativas entre densidades sólo para rendimiento de grano (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the population density on the grain yield of nine tropical maize genotypes (Zea mays L.). A study was conducted in 2005 at the experimental station of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Centro municipality, Tabasco. A randomized complete block experimental design with four replicates and a split plot arrangement was used. The big plots contained population densities of 44 289, 53 200 and 66 500 plants h (more) a-1, and the small plot contained population densities of 21, 22, 23, 25, 32, 43, 49, the HS-3G hybrid and the VS-536 variety. Significant differences among densities were recorded only for grain yield (p

de la Cruz-Lázaro, E; Córdova-Orellana, H; Estrada-Botello, MA; Mendoza-Palacios, JD; Gómez-Vázquez, A; Brito-Manzano, NP

2009-04-01

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Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido  

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Full Text Available Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m), two hybrids (Penta and Flash) and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 × 2 × 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.A redução do espaçamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuição entre plantas na área e pode incrementar a produtividade de grãos. Os benefícios da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da redução do espaçamento entrelinhas na produtividade de grãos de híbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Seis experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos agrícolas 2004/05 e 2005/06. Cada experimento correspondeu a um sistema de manejo. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos (0,8 e 0,4 m), dois híbridos (Penta e Flash) e duas densidades de plantas, variáveis com o sistema de manejo e anos agrícolas. Além da densidade, os sistemas de manejo diferiram nas quantidades aplicadas de adubo na semeadura, em cobertura e na suplementação hídrica. Em cada experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, com quatro repetições. Os incrementos na produtividade de grãos com redução do espaçamento foram de pequena magnitude, variando de 0 a 14%. Eles dependeram da estação de crescimento e se manifestaram apenas com produtividades superiores a 10 t ha-1, independente do híbrido. O número de grãos por área foi o componente que melhor explicou a resposta da produtividade com redução do espaçamento, independentemente de densidade, híbrido e sistema de manejo. A redução do espaçamento é uma estratégia de manejo válida para incrementar a produtividade de grãos quando são adotados níveis de manejo muito altos.

Mércio Luiz Strieder; Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva; Lisandro Rambo; Luís Sangoi; Adriano Alves da Silva; Paulo César Endrigo; Douglas Batista Jandrey

2008-01-01

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Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids  

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Full Text Available El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbridos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376.The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels, 180 and 240 kg ha-1, were tested; in medium plot plant stands, 60 000, 80 000 and 100 000 plants ha-1 and the hybrids H-376 and Lobo in the small plots. The recorded variables were: grain yield per ha and total dry matter production, neutral and acid detergent fiber content, dry matter digestibility in vitro and milk production per ton of dry matter as well as per hectare. The 240-90-00-fertilization level increased grain yield and total dry matter in 1.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 respectively. The increase in plant stand from 80 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased grain yield in 1 t ha-1 and the change of 60 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased total dry matter in 3.2 t ha-1. The H-376 had the greatest yield of total dry matter with 21.7 t ha-1 and the largest contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and the lowest digestibility in vitro; nonetheless Lobo produced 216 kg of milk t-1 and 3.5 t of milk ha-1 more than H-376.

Alfonso Peña Ramos; Fernando González Castañeda; Francisco Javier Robles Escobedo

2010-01-01

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Rendimiento de grano y sus componentes en maíces nativos de Tamaulipas evaluados en ambientes contrastantes/ Grain yield and yield components of native maize populations from Tamaulipas state evaluated under contrasting environments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Entre las poblaciones nativas de maíz (Zea mays L.) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México, algunas destacan por su alto potencial de rendimiento de grano, pero se han aprovechado en grado limitado. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes en 29 poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tamaulipas (colectadas durante los años 2001 al 2004), más seis variedades mejoradas, en tres ambientes contrastantes en altitud y temperatura. El objetivo fue identificar po (more) blaciones sobresalientes que pudieran ser utilizadas en programas de fitomejoramiento. Los ambientes de evaluación fueron Trópico Seco (TS), Transición (TRN) y Valles Altos (VA), a altitudes de 200, 1950 y 2250 m, respectivamente. Con base en el origen geográfico de las poblaciones nativas se formaron cuatro grupos (Grupos 1 a 4), y dos grupos de variedades mejoradas (Grupos 5 y 6), uno de zona tropical y el segundo de zonas templadas. Entre ambientes hubo diferencias (P ? 0.05) en rendimiento de grano, con la tendencia de dar mayor rendimiento a mayor altura y menor temperatura; entre TRN y VA las diferencias no fueron significativas para los componentes del rendimiento. Las poblaciones nativas de la zona montañosa de Tamaulipas (Grupo 4), de altitud intermedia, fueron las de mayor rendimiento en TRN y VA, entre las que destaca la C-4031 con 8.3 t ha-1, estadísticamente igual a las variedades mejoradas de los Valles Altos Centrales de México. Las poblaciones nativas de Tamaulipas mostraron mazorcas largas con alto número de granos por hilera, olotes delgados, buen rendimiento de grano y alto índice de desgrane, lo que pone de manifiesto que estas poblaciones nativas aportarán diversidad genética y caracteres agronómicos sobresalientes que pueden ser aprovechados en la mejora de la producción de este grano. Abstract in english Among native maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the State of Tamaulipas, México, some stand out in grain yield; however their utilization in breeding programs has been limited. With the aim to identify outstanding populations for potential use in maize breeding programs, 29 native populations of Tamaulipas (collected from 2001 to 2004), plus six improved varieties, were evaluated for grain yield and yield components under three environments contrasting in altitude and te (more) mperature. Environments were: Dry Tropical (DT), Transition (TRN) and High Valleys (HV), located at altitudes of 200, 1950 and 2250 m, respectively. Based on their geographic origin, four groups were defined (Groups 1 to 4) for native populations; two groups of improved varieties were added (Groups 5 and 6), one for the tropical region and the other for the temperate zones. There were differences among environments (P ? 0.05) for grain yield, so that grain yield tended to be higher at higher altitude and lower temperature; no statistical differences were detected for grain yield components between TRN and HV. Among native maize populations from Tamaulipas, the ones collected from the mountain region (Group 4), located at intermediate altitude, showed higher yield in the TRN and HV; locations, population C-4031 showed the highest yield (8.3 t ha-1), statistically similar to that of improved varieties used in the central Valleys of México. Native populations from Tamaulipas developed longer ears with high number of kernels per row, thin cobs, good yield and high proportion of grain per ear. There results show that these native populations may contribute to broadening genetic diversity and could enhance for enhancing agronomic traits in of maize breeding.

Pecina Martínez, J. Agapito; Mendoza Castillo, Ma. del Carmen; López Santillán, J. Alberto; Castillo González, Fernando; Mendoza Rodríguez, Moisés; Ortiz Cereceres, Joaquín

2011-06-01

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Influence of Seed Size on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Three Maize Genotypes  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size on maize (Zea mays L.) performance. Among three genotypes under study the seed size categories and their interaction showed non significant effect on yield, yield components, photo biomass production and quality of maize under Faisalabad agro-meteorological conditions. All the parameters including germination, number of plants per plot, plant height, number of cobs per plant, number of rows per cob, number of grains per cob, 1000 grain weight, seed yield, stalk yield biological yield, harvest index and protein contents were increased with Golden variety, bold seed sizes but the difference were non significant.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry; M. Ikram Ullah

2001-01-01

70

Meta-analyses of QTL for grain yield and anthesis silking interval in 18 maize populations evaluated under water-stressed and well-watered environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identification of QTL with large phenotypic effects conserved across genetic backgrounds and environments is one of the prerequisites for crop improvement using marker assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of this study were to identify meta-QTL (mQTL) for grain yield (GY) and anthesis silking interval (ASI) across 18 bi-parental maize populations evaluated in the same conditions across 2-4 managed water stressed and 3-4 well watered environments. RESULTS: The meta-analyses identified 68 mQTL (9 QTL specific to ASI, 15 specific to GY, and 44 for both GY and ASI). Mean phenotypic variance explained by each mQTL varied from 1.2 to 13.1% and the overall average was 6.5%. Few QTL were detected under both environmental treatments and/or multiple (>4 populations) genetic backgrounds. The number and 95% genetic and physical confidence intervals of the mQTL were highly reduced compared to the QTL identified in the original studies. Each physical interval of the mQTL consisted of 5 to 926 candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analyses reduced the number of QTL by 68% and narrowed the confidence intervals up to 12-fold. At least the 4 mQTL (mQTL2.2, mQTL6.1, mQTL7.5 and mQTL9.2) associated with GY under both water-stressed and well-watered environments and detected up to 6 populations may be considered for fine mapping and validation to confirm effects in different genetic backgrounds and pyramid them into new drought resistant breeding lines. This is the first extensive report on meta-analysis of data from over 3100 individuals genotyped using the same SNP platform and evaluated in the same conditions across a wide range of managed water-stressed and well-watered environments.

Semagn K; Beyene Y; Warburton ML; Tarekegne A; Mugo S; Meisel B; Sehabiague P; Prasanna BM

2013-01-01

71

Effects of hybrid on maize grain and plant carbohydrates  

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Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials. The basic chemical composition (content of starch, protein, oil, crude fibre and ash) and the content of lignocellulose fibres (content of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelullose and cellulose) were determined for grain and the whole maize plant of the seven ZP maize hybrids. The negative very significant correlation between protein and starch content (r=-0.78) and significant correlation between oil and starch content (r=-0.65) was obtained in grain. The hybrid ZP 666 had the highest starch, crude fibre, ADF and cellulose content, high NDF content, the lowest ADL and low protein content in grain. The lowest starch, crude fibre, ADF, cellulose content and the highest protein and oil content in grain was determined in hybrid ZP 158. The hybrid ZP 730 had the highest and hybrid ZP158 the lowest dry matter yield of whole plant, whole plant without ear, ear and yield of digestible dry matter of whole plant. The differences in the contents of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelluloses, cellulose and digestibility of the whole maize plant among observed ZP hybrids were 6.21%, 4.01%, 0.79%, 5.65%, 3.88% and 6.79%, respectively. Obtained values for the content of lignocellulose fibres differed significantly among hybrids and were closely related to digestibility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Radosavljevi? Milica; Milašinovi?-Šeremeši? Marija; Terzi? Dušanka; Todorovi? Goran; Paji? Zorica; Filipovi? Milomir; Kaitovi? Željko; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana

2012-01-01

72

Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the changes in micronutrient concentrations in grain of intercropped maize.

Xia H; Zhao J; Sun J; Xue Y; Eagling T; Bao X; Zhang F; Li L

2013-09-01

73

Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the changes in micronutrient concentrations in grain of intercropped maize. PMID:23900569

Xia, Haiyong; Zhao, Jianhua; Sun, Jianhao; Xue, Yanfang; Eagling, Tristan; Bao, Xingguo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Long

2013-07-30

74

[Leaf redundancy of high-yielding maize (Zea may L.) and its effects on maize yield and photosynthesis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the maize yield at plant density of 15000 ind x hm(-2) in 2007, the leaf-redundant type (cultivar Chaoshi 1) and non-redundant type (cultivar Chaoshi 3) at low plant density were selected, and the changes of their above-ground dry matter accumulation and grain yield after cutting all leaves to 1/2 (T1) and 1/4 (T2) at anthesis at the optimal density and under high-yielding condition were analyzed in 2008, aimed to approach whether the leaf redundancy exists in high-yielding maize colonies. The characters of grain-filling were simulated by Richards' model, and the photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves on ear position were determined to reveal the activities of photosynthesis after the removal of redundancy. The results showed that at optimal plant density and under high-yielding condition, both the redundant and non-redundant types had leaf redundancy. The characterization of grain-filling by Richards' model indicated that appropriately removing redundant leaves could increase the net photosynthetic rate and solar energy use efficiency of the leaves on ear position, extend the active period of grain-filling, and enhance the grain yield.

Hao MB; Wang KJ; Dong ST; Zhang JW; Li DH; Liu P; Yang JS; Liu JG

2010-02-01

75

Rendimiento en granos y eficiencia de una asociación maíz (zea mays) y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan) con o sin fertilización/ Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system with and without fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de determinar el rendimiento en granos y la eficiencia de una asociación maíz (CENIAP PB8) y quinchoncho (var. ICPL 87119) se estableció un experimento aditivo con 62.500 plantas/ha del cereal y 50.000 p/ha de la leguminosa, con siembra escalonada y dos niveles de fertilización. El maíz no fue afectado por la competencia con la leguminosa a pesar del retardo de 20 días en su siembra y produjo 6938 y 7665 kg/ha en parcelas de monocultivo no fertiliza (more) das y fertilizadas, respectivamente, mientras que en las asociadas los valores correspondientes fueron 7030 y 7507 kg/ha. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en el rendimiento de la leguminosa asociada, aunque el ciclo en este último caso se prolongó por 18 días. El quinchoncho rindió 3437 y 3464 kg/ha en monocultivo no fertilizado y fertilizado, respectivamente, en tanto que en las parcelas asociadas los valores fueron 3064 y 3277 kg/ha. No se detectó efecto significativo por la aplicación del fertilizante. La eficiencia de uso de los recursos por la asociación se estimó mediante los índices de relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET), relación de equivalencia de área y tiempo (REAT) y la relación de equivalencia de área y cosecha (REAC), que evidenciaron ventajas significativas de las parcelas asociadas respecto a los monocultivos de referencia. Abstract in english Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system were compared in an additive experiment with 62.500 plants/ha sole cropped maize (CENIAP PB8), 50.000 plants/ha sole cropped pigeonpea (ICPL 87119) and 112.500 plants/ha in intercropping plots. Two fertilization levels were applied. Maize was planted 20 days after pigeonpea. Grain yields of maize were 6938 and 7665 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized monoculture plots, and 7030 and 7507 kg/ha in not (more) fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pigeonpea, with grain yields of 3437 and 3464 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized sole cropped plots, and 3064 and 3277 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots. Efficiency indexes land equivalent ratio (LER), area-time equivalency ratio (ATER) and area-harvest equivalency ratio (AHER) showed advantages of intercropping in relation to monocultures.

Quiroz, Ana Isabel; Marín, Douglas

2003-05-01

76

Contribution of Some Maize Production Factors Towards Grain Yield and Economic Return under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Full Text Available Contribution of different factors responsible for the increase of Maize production viz: weeds control, insect/pest control and fertilizer were determined in Kharif, 1996 and 1 997 under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The investigations measured the average maximum yield gap between the improved practices and that of farmer`s practices as 2443 kg/ha, showing an increase of 193.88 % over that of farmer`s practices. The highest share contributed by improved fertilizer dose, was 38.48 %; followed by insect/pest control, that was 26 %. The lowest share was contributed by weeds control, 22 %. The highest net return and Value Cost Ratio (VCR) of Rs. 3974.65 and (1:2.2) respectively, were found for fertilizer. The minimum net return of Rs. 1 576.20 with VCR (1:1.47) was obtained for insect/pest control.

Muhammad Bashir Ahmed; Khizar Hayat; Qamar Zaman; Nazeer Hussain Malik

2001-01-01

77

Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis requires the study of combining abilities of potential parents. In view of this, the objective of this paper was to study combining abilities and determine the mode of inheritance and gene effects for the main agronomic character, grain yield, and its components, kernel row number and kernel number per row. Six inbred lines were used in the study, three of which originated in the U.S., while the other three were developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Kernel row number was inherited by superdominance, partial dominance, complete dominance and intermediacy. The mode of inheritance of kernel number per row and grain yield was superdominance. Additive gene action had the greatest influence on the expression of kernel row number, while the other two traits were influenced the most by nonadditive gene.

Bo?anski Jan; Sre?kov Zorana; Nastasi? Aleksandra; Ivanovi? Mile; ?alovi? Ivica; Vukosavljev Mirjana

2010-01-01

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Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop) on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm) and minimum (133.6 cm) plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum num...

Imran Haider Shamsi; Wajid Ali Shah; Jehan Bakht; Mujtaba Masood

79

Effect of mucuna intercropped with maize on soil fertility and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two field trials were used to evaluate the effect of mucuna (Mucuna utilis) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on soil fertility and maize yield. In Experiment I, mucuna seeds were sown at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) of maize. A basal application of 50 kg N/ha was administered. These treatments were compared with control (no fertilizer, no mucuna), sole application of 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In Experiment II, complementary application of 0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass, which was sown in the previous year, were administered to maize. The results showed that intercropping of maize with mucuna at planting (0 WAP) recorded averagely 46, 60 and 87 percent of the yields for maize that received 100, 50 and 0 kg N/ha alone, respectively. The maize yield increased as sowing date of mucuna was delayed. Undersowing of mucuna at 6 and 8 WAP with application of 50 kg N/ha resulted in 30 - 62 per cent higher yield than at 0 - 4 WAP, and was comparable (91 %) with application of 100 kg N/ha. It also had residual effect of average yield increase of 52 per cent over the latter. Soil analysis showed positive residual effect on soil fertility. Planting of mucuna under maize raised the organic C, exchangeable Ca and Mg by 81, 14 and 28 percent, respectively, when compared with the chemically fertilized soil. The soil N and P levels also showed 48 and 25 percent increase, respectively. Complementary application of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass increased plant height, biomass weight, and grain yield of maize by 18, 23 and 31 percent, respectively, compared with incorporation of mucuna alone. The former was equally effective as the complementary use of 100 kg N/ha. The results suggest that undersowing of mucuna in relay with maize could be a good practice for sustaining soil fertility in a cereal based cropping system. (au)

2004-01-01

80

Effect of Legume Intercrops and Nitrogen Levels on the Yield Performance of Maize  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the beneficial effect of legumes and inorganic quantities of N on maize crop. Different levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 were used. Besides maize alone, intercrops were; maize+mungbean, maize+pigeon pea and maize+janter. Maize @ 40, mungbean 20, pigeon pea 50 and janter at 25 kg ha-1 were used respectively. Maximum seedlings emerged m?2 (40.20) was obtained at 120 kg N ha-1 in maize alone. Maximum days (61.7) to earing were taken by maize intercropped with janter. Maximum days (67.50) to silking were taken by maize+janter intercrop at 0 kg N ha-1. Maximum plant height (165.50 cm) was observed in maize alone at 120 kg N ha-1. Maximum cob length (12.55 cm) was noticed in maize and mungbean intercrop under 40 kg N ha-1. Maximum biological yield (28429.63 kg ha ha-1) was obtained from maize alone by 40 kg N ha-1. Maximum number of grains cob-1 (309) was obtained from maize and pigeon pea intercropping at 120 kg N ha-1. For maximum yield potential maize alone and maize+mungbean intercropping was at par statistically at 80 and 40 kg N ha-1 by giving 3463 and 3444 kg ha-1 yield, respectively. Overall legume intercrop was superior by decreasing less yield of maize crop in addition to legume seed yield and N cost minimization.

Nazim Hussain; Imran Haider Shamsi; Sherin Khan; Habib Akbar; Wajid Ali Shah

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho em duas densidades de plantas com e sem a retirada dos perfilhos Grain yield of maize hybrids at two plant densities with and without tillers removal  

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Full Text Available O milho não possui um mecanismo efetivo de compensação de espaços vazios na lavoura. Desse modo, híbridos perfilhadores podem ser mais eficientes no aproveitamento dos recursos ambientais, principalmente sob baixas populações de plantas. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico de híbridos de milho cultivados em duas densidades de plantas, com e sem a presença de perfilhos. O ensaio foi implantado em Lages, Santa Catarina, nos anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. Foram avaliados três híbridos: AS1560, PENTA e P30F53. Cada híbrido foi cultivado nas densidades de 4,0 e 7,0pl m-2, mantendo-se os perfilhos produzidos até o final do ciclo ou removendo-os quando as plantas estavam com nove folhas expandidas. Foram determinados a percentagem de plantas perfilhadas em quatro estádios fenológicos da cultura, o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento. Os híbridos P30F53 e AS 1560 perfilharam mais que o PENTA na densidade de 4pl m-2. No primeiro ano do estudo, o destino dos perfilhos não interferiu sobre o rendimento de grãos. Em 2006/2007, a manutenção dos perfilhos propiciou maior rendimento de grãos que a sua remoção para todos os híbridos avaliados, na densidade de 4pl m-2. Os resultados obtidos no trabalho demonstraram que a remoção dos perfilhos não traz benefícios ao desempenho agronômico do milho e que a sua manutenção pode incrementar o rendimento de grãos quando a lavoura é conduzida com baixas densidades de plantas.Maize does not have an effective mechanism to compensate empty spaces in the field. Therefore, tillering hybrids may be more efficient to use environmental resources, especially under low plant populations. This reserach was carried out aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of maize hybrids grown at two plant densities, with and without tiller's presence. The experiment was set in Lages, SC, Brazil, during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 growing seasons. Three hybrids were tested: AS 1560, Penta and P30F53. Each hybrid was evaluated at the densities of 4 and 7pl m-2, keeping tillers until harvest or removing them when the crop had nine expanded leaves. The percentage of plants with tillers at four growth stages, grain yield and yield components were assessed. Hybrids P30F53 and AS 1560 produced more tillers than Penta at the density of 4pl m-2. Tillers destiny did not affect grain yield during the first growing season. In 2006/2007 tiller maintenance promoted higher grain yield than tiller removal for all hybrids at the lower plant density. The results of this work showed that tiller removal does not enhance maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, they demonstrated that tiller maintenance may increase grain yield when maize is grown under low plant densities.

Luís Sangoi; Amauri Schmitt; Alexandre Saldanha; Ciro Franco Fiorentin; Anderson José Pletsch; Jefferson Vieria; Maxciel Alcimar Gattelli

2009-01-01

82

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas  

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Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing) in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae), Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura). Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas), Leguminosas (Fabáceas), Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas.

P.S.L. Silva; K.M.B. Silva; P.I.B. Silva; V.R. Oliveira; J.L.B. Ferreira

2010-01-01

83

A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura/ Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos (more) casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro. Abstract in english Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experiment was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: (more) second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

Sangoi, Luís; Schmitt, Amauri; Vieira, Jefferson; Vargas, Vitor Paulo; Girardi, Daniélle; Zoldan, Sérgio Roberto

2012-08-01

84

A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date  

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Full Text Available Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro.Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experiment was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

Luís Sangoi; Amauri Schmitt; Jefferson Vieira; Vitor Paulo Vargas; Daniélle Girardi; Sérgio Roberto Zoldan

2012-01-01

85

Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L.) c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1) and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1) were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR) absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

Mehdi Dahmardeh

2011-01-01

86

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN  

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Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm))). Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP) in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM) ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR) was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10) and the time of MPR (tm) was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05) and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01). It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

D BABNIK; J SUŠIN; J VERBI?

2002-01-01

87

PHOSPHORUS SOURCES AND PLACEMENT ON MAIZE YIELD AND MINERAL NUTRITION  

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Full Text Available With the aim of evaluating the effect of phosphorus sources in different placement options on maize yield and mineral nutrition, a trial was carried out in field conditions on a clayey Typical Red Argisol under cerrado vegetation. The treatments were: triple superphosphate (TS), magnesium termophosphate (MT), Arad reactive rock phosphate (RP), and Araxá rock phosphate (AP), which were spread on the whole area or banded in the seeding furrow. All fertilizers were applied at the rate of 180 kg P2O5 ha-1, based on the total P2O5 of each fertilizer. A check, without P, was used as an additional treatment. It was measured the nutrient concentrations in the maize leaves at the flowering and in different plant parts at harvest. The shoot dry matter, grain yield, and accumulation of nutrients were also determined. Greater yields were obtained with the most soluble sources (TS and MT) when spread and with the reactive phosphate (RP) banded in the planting furrow. Placement of TS in the planting furrow decreased yield because of metabolic disorders due to the P and Zn interaction. The leaf analysis at the flowering showed to be appropriate for maize P/Zn balance evaluation.

IVÂNIA BARBOSA ARAÚJO; ANTONIO EDUARDO FURTINI NETO; ÁLVARO VILELA DE RESENDE; VERA MARIA DE CARVALHO ALVES; BRENO RODRIGUES MENDES

2004-01-01

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UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS  

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Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no desenvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura.

Luís Sangoi

2001-01-01

89

Yield response to plant density of maize and sunflower intercropped with soybean  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maize-soybean and sunflower-soybean intercrops have the potential for increasing yield per unit land area and time in fully mechanized farming systems. The objectives of this work were to measure the land equivalent ratio index of maize and sunflower intercropped to soybean, to assess the effects of plant density of its components, and to gain insight into ecophysiological processes affecting their yield determination. Maize-soybean and sunflower-soybean intercrops and their respective sole crops were grown at Balcarce, Argentina during two growing seasons. Treatments included a wide range of plant densities for sole and intercropped sunflower (2-9 plantsm?²) and maize (4-12 plantsm?²). Plants were harvested to determine shoot dry matter and grain yield per plot and at the individual plant level. Land equivalent ratio index (LER) increased 11% (mean of the two years) when plant density of sunflower was reduced from 6 to 3 plantsm?²; and LER increased 5% (year 1) or it was maintained (year 2) when maize plant density was reduced from 8 to 4 plantsm?². Yield response to plant density of sunflower and maize influenced LER. The response to plant density of intercropped sunflower and maize grain yield followed the same pattern than that in a sole crop, and grain yield of intercropped sunflower or maize were lower than those for the sole crops at each plant density except at the lowest sunflower plant density. Yield reductions from sole crop to intercrop at each plant density averaged 20% and were associated (i) with lower intra-row spacing in the intercrop and (ii) with a lower shoot production rather than to a change in the dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures; in addition, detrimental effects of soybean over maize or sunflower yield were undetectable.

Echarte L; Maggiora AD; Cerrudo D; Gonzalez VH; Abbate P; Cerrudo A; Sadras VO; Calviño P

2011-04-01

90

Effect of Various Levels of N and P on Yield and Yield Components of Maize  

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Full Text Available In order to study the effect of various levels of N and P (applied alone or in combinations) on maize, an experiment was conducted at Malakandher Research Farms, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 1997. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus had a significant effect on plant height, number of rows cob-1, thousand grains weight, shelling percentage, barrenness percentage, number of grains cob-1, number of cobs plant-1 and grain yield. Taller plants were attained by those plots, which received nitrogen and phosphorus in 150.60 kg ha-1 ratio. Similarly, plots treated with fertilizer combination of 150:90 NP kg ha-1 resulted in maximum, number of rows cob-1 (16.00), maximum number of cobs plant-1 (2.00) and maximum grain yield (3841.35 kg ha-1).

Johar Ali; Jehan Bakht; Mohammad Shafi; Sherin Khan; Wajid Ali Shah

2002-01-01

91

Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão/ Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N), que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa) e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus), visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos (more) na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1) no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca. Abstract in english The black oats use (Avena strigosa) as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N), that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa) and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus) is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N) disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experim (more) ents were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

Silva, Adriano Alves da; Silva, Paulo Regis Ferreira da; Suhre, Elias; Argenta, Gilber; Strieder, Mércio Luiz; Rambo, Lisandro

2007-08-01

92

Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N), que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa) e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus), visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1) no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa) as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N), that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa) and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus) is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N) disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

Adriano Alves da Silva; Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva; Elias Suhre; Gilber Argenta; Mércio Luiz Strieder; Lisandro Rambo

2007-01-01

93

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

2013-01-01

94

Maize Yield Response in a Long-term Rotation and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Northern Ghana  

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Full Text Available To sustain crop production, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, sorghum and cassava were compared for their potential in crop rotation or as an intercropping partner to maize over an eleven-year period in Northern Ghana. The trial in each year consisted of 12 treatments arranged in an RCBD with five replicates. There was a gradual decline in maize yield for groundnut-maize, soybean-maize and cassava-maize as compared to a rapid decline in the other rotation combinations over the years. The best combination was maize-groundnut rotation with grain yields above 3.0 t ha-1. Intercropping advantage for most combinations in the first two years was not sustained in later years, except for sorghum-maize and cassava-maize systems. Sorghum-maize combination was the best in terms of crop yield, based on Land Equivalent Ratio (LER). Cassava-maize and soybean-maize systems were the best in terms of energy value and protein yield respectively. Maize yields obtained were comparatively better in rotation than intercrops, underlining the superiority of rotation to intercropping in the long-term, consequently its potential to improve on household food security. The results so far indicate that good cropping system and proper agronomic practices can sustain maize production on the same piece of land for more than 10 years.

W.A. Agyare; V.A. Clottey; H. Mercer-Quarshie; J.M. Kombiok

2006-01-01

95

Production of grain whisky and ethanol from wheat, maize and other cereals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wheat replaced maize as the main cereal raw material for Scotch grain whisky production 20 years ago. However, other cereals might also have potential for use in grain distilleries and ethanol production. Studies of the properties of wheat, maize, sorghum and millet, showed that they had good potential for grain distilling and ethanol production at comparable nitrogen levels, and had physiological processing characteristics within the range accepted for wheat or maize. Rapid-Visco Analysis (RVA) studies of low and high nitrogen wheat confirmed that, as well as influencing the amount of alcohol produced, the total nitrogen content of the grain had a strong influence on its processing characteristics. In contrast, the alcohol yield potential of maize, sorghum and millet appeared to be largely unaffected by the grain nitrogen levels. The study shows that, while it is possible for wheat to produce similar alcohol levels to those previously associated with maize, cereals other than wheat can potentially be used without detriment to alcohol yield or processing performance. These could be possible long term alternatives, if the economic viability of wheat was to change. The extracted cereal starches also showed significant differences from the original cereals, which had important implications for successful processing, both in terms of cereal selection as well as cooking and fermentation performance.

Agu RC; Bringhurst TA; Brosnan JM

2006-01-01

96

Reduced tillage, mulching and rotational effects on maize (Zea mays L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (Walp) L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)) yields under semi-arid conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proponents of conservation agriculture (CA) argue that the CA approach offers the greatest opportunity to increase the productivity in smallholder agro-ecosystems. This study was designed to assess (1) first year maize, cowpea and sorghum yield responses to a combination of reduced tillage and mulching and (2) maize yield responses to rotation with cowpea and sorghum in reduced tillage systems. Two conservation tillage methods (ripping and planting basins) combined factorially with seven mulch levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10tha?1) were compared with conventional mouldboard ploughing. The experiment was run for four consecutive growing seasons allowing for a rotation of maize, cowpea, sorghum and maize in some fields used in the study. Crop yields were determined across all tillage and mulch combinations in each year. Tillage system had no significant effect on maize yield while maize grain yield increased with increase in mulch cover in seasons that had below average rainfall. Mulching at 2–4tha?1 gave optimum yields in seasons with below average rainfall. Tillage system and mulching had no significant effect on cowpea yield when soil moisture was not limiting. However, the ripper and basin systems had 142 and 102% more cowpea grain than the conventional system in 2006/2007 because of differences in planting dates used in three systems and poor rainfall distribution. The conventional and ripper systems gave 26 and 38% more sorghum grain than the basin system. Rotating maize with cowpea and sorghum resulted in 114, 123 and 9% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize in the conventional system. In the ripper system, maize–cowpea–sorghum–maize rotation gave 98, 153 and 39% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize rotation. In the basin system, maize–cowpea–sorghum–maize rotation gave 274, 240 and 43% more grain than first year maize, maize–maize monocrop and maize–cowpea–maize rotation. However, long term studies under different soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions still need to be conducted to substantiate the observations made in the reported study.

Mupangwa W; Twomlow S; Walker S

2012-06-01

97

YIELD PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE HYBRIDS IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL HIDROMORFIC SOILS  

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Full Text Available The agricultural diversification in RS lowlands aims to qualify the productive system historically based on rice/cattle raising binomial. Maize is one of the grain crop alternatives to these areas; benefiting the system of rotation and amplifying the maize supply in RS state. The maize hybrids grain yield is influenced by environmental factors, which can interact with plant genotype. A study was carried out with the objective of identifying stable and/or responsive maize hybrids to grain yield in RS hidromorfic soils. It was used yield data (t ha-1) of a group of maize trials developed in fifteen environments in the agricultural period from 1995/96 to 2000/01. The stability was analyzed by an unbalanced discontinuous bi-segmented model (Storck, 1998). Each hybrid was classified by the comparison of its yield average with the average of all hybrids, in a function of parameters from discontinuous bi-segmented equation (b1 and b2) and in a function of adjustment quality (R2). AG 6018, P 30F33, P 30K75, DKB 215 and DKB 344 hybrids were indicated for intermediate environments; AGN 2012, AGN 3150, BRS 3060, and P 30R07 hybrids, for higher than intermediate environments, and AG 5011, G 800 and P 3063 hybrids were indicated for all environments, indicating that these are responsive hybrids. The other hybrids were not indicated due to low stability or low grain yield (below hybrids average, 5.704 t ha-1).

MARILDA PEREIRA PORTO; LINDOLFO STORCK

2002-01-01

98

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho  

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Full Text Available Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot): BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%); mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.O minimilho (MM) é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga) e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG 1051 foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repetições (52 plantas por parcela): colheita de MM; colheita das espigas verdes (grãos com teor de umidade de 60 a 70%); colheita das espigas maduras; colheita de MM e colheita das outras espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes comercializáveis e de grãos, produzidos sem a remoção da primeira inflorescência, foram superiores aos rendimentos respectivos produzidos após a remoção da primeira inflorescência, colhida como minimilho. Colhendo-se somente a primeira espiga como minimilho e as demais espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras obtiveram-se menores rendimentos de minimilho que o obtido colhendo-se todas as espigas como minimilho. Economicamente, as melhores receitas líquidas seriam obtidas explorando-se a cultura para a produção de espigas verdes, espigas verdes + minimilho, minimilho, minimilho + grãos e grãos, nesta ordem.

Paulo Sérgio L e Silva; Paulo Igor B e Silva; Ana Karenina F de Sousa; Kamila M Gurgel; Israel A Pereira Filho

2006-01-01

99

Yield enhancement in plants by modulation of maize alfins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositions and methods for modulating flower organ development, leaf formation, phototropism, apical dominance, fruit development, initiation of roots, and for increasing yield in a plant are provided. The compositions include four ZmALF sequences. Compositions of the invention comprise amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences selected from SEQ ID NOS: 1-8 as well as variants and fragmentsthereof. Nucleotide sequences encoding the maize alfins are provided in DNA constructs for expression in a plant of interest are provided for modulating the level of one of four ZmALF sequences in a plant or a plant part are provided. The methods comprise introducing into a plant or plant part a heterologous polynucleotide comprising a ZmALF sequence of the invention. The level of the ZmALF polypeptide can be increased or decreased. Such method can be used to increase the yield in plants in one embodiment, the method is used to increase grain yield in cereals.

BRUCE WESLEY B; XIPING NIU

100

Yield Enhancement In Plants By Modulation of Maize Alfins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositions and methods for modulating flower organ development, leaf formation, phototropism, apical dominance, fruit development, initiation of roots, and for increasing yield in a plant are provided. The compositions include four ZmALF sequences. Compositions of the invention comprise amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences selected from SEQ ID NOS: 1-8 as well as variants and fragments thereof. Nucleotide sequences encoding the maize alfins are provided in DNA constructs for expression in a plant of interest are provided for modulating the level of one of four ZmALF sequences in a plant or a plant part are provided. The methods comprise introducing into a plant or plant part a heterologous polynucleotide comprising a ZmALF sequence of the invention. The level of the ZmALF polypeptide can be increased or decreased. Such method can be used to increase the yield in plants in one embodiment, the method is used to increase grain yield in cereals.

BRUCE WESLEY B; NIU XIPING

 
 
 
 
101

Ear growth and grain filling characteristics of different cultivars in waxy maize  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fifteen waxy maize eultivars were used in this experiment. There were significantly differences in fresh ear yield and grain yield among cuhivars and a positive correlation between fresh ear yield and grain yield. After silking, the dynamic changes of ear growth and grain filling were similar among cultivars. The dry weight increment of ear and grains presented an S-shaped curve, which could he simulated by Richards equation. The parameters of G_(max), V_(2), T_(2) had important effect to increase the ear weight and the parameters of T_(Gmax), D, V_(2), T_(2) had important effect to increase grain weight in the cultivars. The water content of grain and ear decreased linearly after silking, and their declining rate varied with different cultivars. Fresh ear weight reached the maximum when the range of ear water content was from 61.96% to 72.98%.

Liu Ping; Wang Congliang; Wang Fengge; Lu Weiping; Guo Jinglun; Wang Jifeng; Liu Xiaobing

2006-01-01

102

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals.

Grassini P; Cassman KG

2012-01-01

103

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2012-01-09

104

Relationship Between Different Growth and Yield Parameters in Maize under Varying Levels of Phosphorus  

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Full Text Available The investigation to see the effect of different phosphorus levels viz., 0, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg P2O5 ha?1 with a recommended constant dose of nitrogen @ 150 kg ha?1 on the leaf growth of two maize varieties was carried out. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (factorial) with four replications. The maize cultivars included were Composite-17 against a standard variety Akbar. Leaf extension rate (LER) was calculated as the slope of a linear regression fitted to the points along the A-B position of the graph. Final leaf length (FLL) was measured as lamina plus sheath when the individual leaf was fully expanded. Using data for final leaf length and the calculated LER, the duration of leaf extension rate (LED) was calculated. Standard procedures were adopted to record the yield component parameters. The values of linear correlation (r) were worked out to get a relationship between FLL, LER with other growth and yield parameters influencing grain yield in maize. FLL and LER were positively correlated with phosphorus applications. Similarly number of grains per cob, grain weight per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were also significantly correlated with FLL and LER. Therefore, the later two parameters were directly responsible for increasing the various yield components in maize.

Rana Muhammad Iqbal; Hafiz Qutub Iqbal Chauhan

2003-01-01

105

A Grain Flow Model to Simulate Grain Yield Sensor Response  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a flow model for grain combinesbased on the laboratory and field response of an impact based grain flow sensor. The grainflow model developed in this study is of first order with constant coefficients. A computercode was written to solve the model and to simulate the response of a yield sensor whoseresponse had been determined previously for various types of flow rate inputs both in fieldand laboratory experiments. The computer program for the simulation can alsocompensate for the time delay. The simulation results of the theoretical model suited wellto the experimental data and showed that the model effectively shows the input-outputrelationship of grain flow through a grain combine. This model could be used for periodicflow signals acquired from grain yield sensors. It was concluded that the model postulatedin this study could be further developed to determine the grain yield entering the combineusing the outlet flow rate measured by a yield sensor.

Selcuk Arslan

2008-01-01

106

Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation improved the N economy of the cropping system and enhances crop productivity. (author)

2010-01-01

107

METHOD FOR OBTAINING MAIZE GUM FROM RESIDUAL LIQUID RESULTING FROM MAIZE GRAIN NIXTAMALIZATION.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Described herein is a process for obtaining maize gum that comprises the following steps: (a) providing a nejayote solution from flour and tortilla industrial residues and other industrial sectors where maize grains are nixtamalized (b) filtering said nejayote suspension so as to separate maize grain residues and obtain a filtered liquid nejayote (c) centrifuging the filtered liquid nejayote for removing suspended polluting residues and obtaining a centrifuged liquid nejayote (d) acidifying the nejayote to a pH of about 5 so as to stop the alkaline hydrolysis of the gum suspended on the nejayote and obtain an acidified liquid nejayote suspension (e) precipitating the maize gum suspended on the acidified nejayote by adding ethanol and (f) recuperating the precipitated maize gum by filtration and drying the precipitated gum using solvents.

MILLAN ELIZABETH CARVAJAL; CHU AGUSTIN RASCON; ESCALANTE JORGE ALBERTO MARQUE

108

Effect of gamma irradiation on the grain yield of Nigerian Zea mays and Arachis hypogaea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a follow-up to our earlier investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on the germination and growth of certain Nigerian agricultural crops, the present study sought to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the grain yield of Zea mays (maize) and Arachis hypogaea (groundnut). The seeds were planted after irradiation without the application of fertiliser. The results show that for maize, grain yield for irradiated samples is increased to levels above the unirradiated yield at doses up to about 250 Gy with the optimum yield occurring at 150 Gy. The corresponding increase for groundnut is observed at doses up to about 930 Gy with optimum yield at a dose of 300 Gy. Inhibition in yield was observed to set in at a dose greater than 250 Gy for maize and 930 Gy for groundnut. The actual relationship between mean yield of these crops and gamma radiation dose was obtained using sixth-degree polynomial equations. (note)

Mokobia, C E; Okpakorese, E M; Analogbei, C; Agbonwanegbe, J [Department of Physics, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State (Nigeria)

2006-12-15

109

Effect of gamma irradiation on the grain yield of Nigerian Zea mays and Arachis hypogaea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a follow-up to our earlier investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on the germination and growth of certain Nigerian agricultural crops, the present study sought to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the grain yield of Zea mays (maize) and Arachis hypogaea (groundnut). The seeds were planted after irradiation without the application of fertiliser. The results show that for maize, grain yield for irradiated samples is increased to levels above the unirradiated yield at doses up to about 250 Gy with the optimum yield occurring at 150 Gy. The corresponding increase for groundnut is observed at doses up to about 930 Gy with optimum yield at a dose of 300 Gy. Inhibition in yield was observed to set in at a dose greater than 250 Gy for maize and 930 Gy for groundnut. The actual relationship between mean yield of these crops and gamma radiation dose was obtained using sixth-degree polynomial equations. (note)

2006-01-01

110

The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1) and wheat (5.48 t ha-1) were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

Ivica Kisi?; Ferdo Baši?; Milan Mesi?; An?elko Butorac; Željka Va?i?

2004-01-01

111

Comparação de métodos de adaptabilidade e estabilidade relacionados à produtividade de grãos de cultivares de milho Comparison of adaptability and stability methods related to grain yield of maize cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram usados dados de produtividade de grãos oriundos de 34 ensaios de competição de cultivares de milho, realizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, com o objetivo de comparar os métodos de análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade de: Yates e Cochran (1948), Plaisted e Peterson (1959), Wricke (1965), Annicchiarico (1992), Eberhart e Russell (1966), Tai (1971) e Lin e Binns (1988) modificado por Carneiro (1998). Para verificar as concordâncias e/ou discordâncias entre as estimativas dos parâmetros de adaptabilidade e estabilidade, obtidas pelos diferentes métodos, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Cultivares indicadas pelos métodos de Plaisted e Peterson e Wricke estão associadas à maior estabilidade, porém independem da produtividade média e da adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Cultivares indicadas pelo método YATES e COCHRAN, estão associadas a maior estabilidade, menor produtividade e mais indicadas a ambientes desfavoráveis. Cultivares com alta produtividade e associadas à alta instabilidade e adaptada à ambientes favoráveis são as mais indicadas pelos métodos de Lin e Binns modificado por Carneiro e Annicchiarico. O método de Eberhart e Russell, por considerar simultaneamente a produtividade, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis, deve ser a metodologia preferida.Grain yield data were used from 34 maize cultivar trials carried out in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul, in the agricultural years of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004, with the objective of comparing the following methods of adaptability and stability analysis: Yates and Cochran (1948), Plaisted and Peterson (1959), Wricke (1965), Annicchiarico (1992), Eberhart and Russell (1966), Tai (1971) and Lin and Binns (1988) modified by Carneiro (1998). In order to verify the degree of agreement among the estimates of adaptability and stability parameters, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used. The cultivars indicated by the methodologies of Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke are associated with the highest stability. However they are independent of the average yield and of the adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments. The cultivars indicated by Yates and Cochran method are associated with the highest stability, less yield and more appropriate to unfavorable environments. The cultivars with high yield and associated to high instability and adapted to favorable environments are preferably indicated by the LIN and BINNS modified by Carneiro and Annicchiarico methods. The Eberhart and Russell methodology must be preferred because of considering simultaneously the yield, the stability and adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments.

Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Dilermando Perecin; Euclides Braga Malheiros; José Paulo Guadagnin

2007-01-01

112

Comparação de métodos de adaptabilidade e estabilidade relacionados à produtividade de grãos de cultivares de milho/ Comparison of adaptability and stability methods related to grain yield of maize cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram usados dados de produtividade de grãos oriundos de 34 ensaios de competição de cultivares de milho, realizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, com o objetivo de comparar os métodos de análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade de: Yates e Cochran (1948), Plaisted e Peterson (1959), Wricke (1965), Annicchiarico (1992), Eberhart e Russell (1966), Tai (1971) e Lin e Binns (1988) modificado por Carneiro (1998). Para verificar (more) as concordâncias e/ou discordâncias entre as estimativas dos parâmetros de adaptabilidade e estabilidade, obtidas pelos diferentes métodos, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Cultivares indicadas pelos métodos de Plaisted e Peterson e Wricke estão associadas à maior estabilidade, porém independem da produtividade média e da adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Cultivares indicadas pelo método YATES e COCHRAN, estão associadas a maior estabilidade, menor produtividade e mais indicadas a ambientes desfavoráveis. Cultivares com alta produtividade e associadas à alta instabilidade e adaptada à ambientes favoráveis são as mais indicadas pelos métodos de Lin e Binns modificado por Carneiro e Annicchiarico. O método de Eberhart e Russell, por considerar simultaneamente a produtividade, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis, deve ser a metodologia preferida. Abstract in english Grain yield data were used from 34 maize cultivar trials carried out in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul, in the agricultural years of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004, with the objective of comparing the following methods of adaptability and stability analysis: Yates and Cochran (1948), Plaisted and Peterson (1959), Wricke (1965), Annicchiarico (1992), Eberhart and Russell (1966), Tai (1971) and Lin and Binns (1988) modified by Carneiro (1998). In order to verify the degree of (more) agreement among the estimates of adaptability and stability parameters, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used. The cultivars indicated by the methodologies of Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke are associated with the highest stability. However they are independent of the average yield and of the adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments. The cultivars indicated by Yates and Cochran method are associated with the highest stability, less yield and more appropriate to unfavorable environments. The cultivars with high yield and associated to high instability and adapted to favorable environments are preferably indicated by the LIN and BINNS modified by Carneiro and Annicchiarico methods. The Eberhart and Russell methodology must be preferred because of considering simultaneously the yield, the stability and adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments.

Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Perecin, Dilermando; Malheiros, Euclides Braga; Guadagnin, José Paulo

2007-01-01

113

Effect of non-uniform sprinkler irrigation and plant density on simulated maize yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Typical field conditions under sprinkler irrigation include low irrigation uniformity and non-uniform plant density, which can affect the crop yield and the environmental impact of irrigation. The effect of the uniformity of sprinkler irrigation and plant density on the variability of maize grain yi...

Salmerón Cortasa, Montserrat; Urrego, Y.; Isla Climente, Ramón; Cavero Campo, José

114

Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect of previous crop but not by results of tillage, because an unknown factor reduced growth in the no-tillage system. The hypothesis was supported at maturity by increased biomass allocation to grain relative to total shoot weight in treatments with greater shoot-P concentration at early stages.

Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

1998-01-01

115

Competition between maize and pigeonpea in semi-arid Tanzania: Effect on yields and nutrition of crops  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Productivity of maize-pigeonpea cropping systems is dependent on facilitative and competitive interactive effects on resource availability. Controlling these interactions may benefit farmers through increased productivity associated with optimized crop yields. Previous research on maize-pigeonpea culture in Sub-Saharan Africa has focused on yield and soil fertility, but provided inadequate information on the mechanisms of possible interspecific competition. We employed a factorial field experiment to examine yield and nutritional responses of maize and pigeonpea to cropping systems (sole maize, intercropping, and improved fallow), N and P fertilizer additions, and cattle manure additions in Dodoma, Tanzania. The study objectives were to assess competition between crops and to determine how manure or fertilizer inputs may mitigate such interactions to improve yields. Intercropping enhanced maize yield over sole maize only when fertilized, reflecting probable nutrient competition. Improved fallows alone or with fertilizers (1.2-1.6Mgha?¹) increased maize yields over sole maize (0.6Mgha?¹). These increases were attributed to pigeonpea facilitation through soil nutrient replenishment, reduced competition associated with sequential cropping arrangements, and added nutrients from fertilization. Combined fertilizer and manure applications also improved maize and pigeonpea yields. Plant nutrient diagnosis indicated primary and secondary P and Ca deficiencies, respectively associated with P-fixation and leaching of cations due to high soil acidity and exchangeable Al. Maize competed strongly in mixture suppressing biomass and grain yields of the unfertilized pigeonpea by 60% and 33%, respectively due to limited soil nutrients and/or moisture. These yield reductions suggest that the intercropped pigeonpea did not recover from competition after maize harvesting that reduced competition. Optimizing yields of both maize and pigeonpea would require the addition of prescribed fertilizer when intercropped, but applications can be reduced by half under the improved fallow system due to alleviating interspecific competition.

Kimaro AA; Timmer VR; Chamshama SAO; Ngaga YN; Kimaro DA

2009-11-01

116

Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas/ Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e (more) 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento) e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento). Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos. Abstract in english The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowding. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch (more) as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding) and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding). Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

Casa, Ricardo Trezzi; Moreira, Eder Novaes; Bogo, Amauri; Sangoi, Luís

2007-12-01

117

Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

2011-01-01

118

Long-term effects of improved legume fallows on soil invertebrate macrofauna and maize yield in eastern Zambia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Though improved fallows have been widely promoted as low-input technologies suitable for soil fertility replenishment in smallholder agriculture in southern Africa, their interaction with soil invertebrates has not been studied. In the present study we compared the population of soil macrofauna in maize grown in gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Leucaena diversifolia, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and acacia (Acacia anguistissima) and continuously cropped monoculture maize. The objectives of the study were to determine (1) the effect of the type and length of fallows on soil macrofauna communities and functional groups, and (2) the long-term effect of legume fallows on maize yield. The number of invertebrate orders per sampling unit was significantly influenced by the type of fallow but not by the length of fallow period. Maize grown in legume fallows had more numbers of invertebrate orders than monoculture maize. Among the soil invertebrate macrofauna, centipede and millipede populations were significantly influenced by fallow type. The density of earthworms varied with both the type and length of fallow practice. Earthworm populations under maize grown in gliricidia fallows were significantly higher than those under fully fertilized monoculture maize. The population densities of other invertebrate orders and functional groups did not significantly differ between maize grown continuously in monoculture and in legume fallows. The highest maize grain yield (3.0-6.0 t ha-1) was recorded in fully fertilized monoculture. Maize grown in gliricidia and leucaena fallows consistently gave 2.0-4.0 t ha-1 throughout the study period, while maize grown without fertilizer yielded less than 2 t ha-1. These legumes produced 0.4-2.9 t ha-1 of re-sprout biomass annually, which released nutrients contributing to higher maize yields over a long period of time. It is concluded that these legume fallows can improve maize yields in addition to their positive impact on the diversity and functions of soil invertebrates.

Sileshi G; Mafongoya PL

2006-07-01

119

Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic cover on maize to reduce evaporation. Growth patterns over time and yield were determined. Profiles of soil water content over depth and across rows in the intercrop were measured at three times to quantify water extraction and its spatial and temporal distribution. Several indices were calculated to characterize the efficiency of land and water use of intercrops as compared with sole crops of maize and pea. Land equivalent ratio ranged from 1.18 to 1.47, indicating that intercropping was an effective strategy for maximizing land use efficiency. Water equivalent ratio, WER, defined to characterize the use efficiency of the water resource in intercropping, in analogy with LER, ranged from 0.87 to 1.16, and ?WU, the relative departure of actual water use in intercropping from expected use, ranged from ?13.7% to 19.8%, indicating variability in the effect of intercropping on water use efficiency. Plastic film in maize increased yield and water use efficiency, but did not significantly affect LER or WER, indicating that intercropping advantage was not affected by plastic film mulch, and the advantages of film mulch were conserved under intercropping. A cropping system of 4 rows maize with 4 rows peas, with 30cm between maize rows and 20cm between pea rows, was superior in yield and water use efficiency to a system with 2 rows maize and 4 rows of pea with 40cm between maize rows and 20cm between pea rows. It is concluded that intercropping of maize and pea enhances land use efficiency compared to growing them as sole crops. Film mulch saves water in sole crops as well as intercrops.

Mao L; Zhang L; Li W; van der Werf W; Sun J; Spiertz H; Li L

2012-10-01

120

Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contai...

Courtman, C.; Van Ryssen, J.B.J.; Oelofse, A.

 
 
 
 
121

Dissection of Drought Stress as a Grain Production Constraint of Maize in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major objective of this study was to assess grain yield and its components in some genotypes of maize under different levels of drought stress. Therefore, eight medium maturity hybrids of maize were evaluated using a split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with four replications in three stress (the vegetative, reproductive and grain filling phases) and normal conditions, at the Agricultural Research station of Miando'ab, West Azerbaijan, North West of Iran. Some phenological and morphological characteristics were recorded during cropping season. Analysis of variance and mean comparisons revealed that yield loss due to drought stress at vegetative growth phase recorded highest role in crop yield reduction comparing to other stress media. The analysis of variability parameters revealed presence of substantial variability for all traits. The phenotypic correlation coefficients unfolded positive and significant associations of grain yield with 300-kernel weight, kernel girth, kernel rows/ear and kernels/row, at normal conditions. The maturity traits recorded significant and negative correlation with yield, at stress prone conditions. The path analysis revealed that the most important direct effects on grain yield are number of kernels/row, ear length, ear girth and kernel rows/ear thus, should be used as target traits for tailoring an ideal plant type for higher yield of maize exposed to drought stress at vegetative period. According to the results, at drought condition, anthesis to silking interval, days to silk emergence, green cover percentage and much more kernel number in row are major traits which recommended for selecting drought tolerant hybrid varieties of corn.

M. Khalily; M. Moghaddam; H. Kanouni; E. Asheri

2010-01-01

122

Efficacy of Different Herbicides on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research work was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize hybrid P-3203. The treatments were pre-emergence application of dual gold (S-metolachlor) at 1.92, primextra (atrazine + metolachlor) at 2.25, treflan (trifluralin) at 1.5, stomp (pendimethalin) at 0.75 and jinong (atrazine) at 0.90 kg a.i. ha-1 and post-emergence application of 2,4-D at 0.80 and banvel (dicamba) at 0.84 kg a.i. ha-1. The treatments increased plant height (cm), cob length (cm), biological yield (t ha-1), leaf area (cm2), number of leaves plant-1, number of kernels cob-1, 500 kernel weight (g) and grain yield (t ha-1) significantly (P? 0.05), while broadleaf weeds, number of cobs plant-1 and harvest index were not significantly affected by different treatments. For controlling weeds, dual gold suppressed 88, primextra 82, stomp 45, treflan 48, Jinong 38, 2,4-D 23 and banvel 5% as compared to 248.7 number of weeds m-2 in weedy check. The dominant weed species found were Leptochloa sp., Echinochloa crus-galli, Cyperus sp. and Digiteria sanguinalis. Hand weeded and dual gold treated plots produced significantly taller plants, more kernels per cob (548.7 and 544.7) and the highest 500 kernel weight (121.33 and 119 g), respectively. Hand weeded, dual gold and primextra treated plots increased grain yield by 22.7, 21 and 15.3%. Application of dual gold proved to be the best and most economical weed control, giving maximum returns of Rs. 42030 ha-1. Primextra emerged as the next best alternative for weed management in maize.

Muhammad Azim Khan; Khan Bahadar Marwat; Naeem Khan; Ijaz Ahmad Khan

2003-01-01

123

Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

124

High-yield irrigated maize in the Western U.S. Corn Belt: I. On-farm yield, yield potential, and impact of agronomic practices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantifying the exploitable gap between average farmer yields and yield potential (YP) is essential to prioritize research and formulate policies for food security at national and international levels. While irrigated maize accounts for 58% of total annual maize production in the Western U.S. Corn Belt, current yield gap in these systems has not been quantified. Our objectives were to quantify YP, yield gaps, and the impact of agronomic practices on both parameters in irrigated maize systems of central Nebraska. The analysis was based on a 3-y database with field-specific values for yield, applied irrigation, and N fertilizer rate (n=777). YP was estimated using a maize simulation model in combination with actual and interpolated weather records and detailed data on crop management collected from a subset of fields (n=123). Yield gaps were estimated as the difference between actual yields and simulated YP for each field-year observation. Long-term simulation analysis was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of YP to changes in selected management practices. Results showed that current irrigated maize systems are operating near the YP ceiling. Average actual yield ranged from 12.5 to 13.6Mgha?1 across years. Mean N fertilizer efficiency (kg grain per kg applied N) was 23% greater than average efficiency in the USA. Rotation, tillage system, sowing date, and plant population density were the most sensitive factors affecting actual yields. Average yield gap was 11% of simulated YP (14.9Mgha?1). Time trends in average farm yields from 1970 to 2008 show that yields have not increased during the past 8 years. Average yield during this period represented ?80% of YP ceiling estimated for this region based on current crop management practices. Simulation analysis showed that YP can be increased by higher plant population densities and by hybrids with longer maturity. Adoption of these practices, however, may be constrained by other factors such as difficulty in planting and harvest operations due to wet weather and snow, additional seed and grain drying costs, and greater risk of frost and lodging. Two key points can be made: (i) irrigated maize producers in this region are operating close to the YP ceiling and achieve high levels of N use efficiency and (ii) small increases in yield (<13%) can be achieved through fine tuning current management practices that require increased production costs and higher risk.

Grassini P; Thorburn J; Burr C; Cassman KG

2011-01-01

125

High-yield irrigated maize in the Western U.S. Corn Belt: I. On-farm yield, yield potential, and impact of agronomic practices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantifying the exploitable gap between average farmer yields and yield potential (Y P) is essential to prioritize research and formulate policies for food security at national and international levels. While irrigated maize accounts for 58% of total annual maize production in the Western U.S. Corn Belt, current yield gap in these systems has not been quantified. Our objectives were to quantify Y P, yield gaps, and the impact of agronomic practices on both parameters in irrigated maize systems of central Nebraska. The analysis was based on a 3-y database with field-specific values for yield, applied irrigation, and N fertilizer rate (n =777). Y P was estimated using a maize simulation model in combination with actual and interpolated weather records and detailed data on crop management collected from a subset of fields (n =123). Yield gaps were estimated as the difference between actual yields and simulated Y P for each field-year observation. Long-term simulation analysis was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of Y P to changes in selected management practices. Results showed that current irrigated maize systems are operating near the Y P ceiling. Average actual yield ranged from 12.5 to 13.6Mgha?¹ across years. Mean N fertilizer efficiency (kg grain per kg applied N) was 23% greater than average efficiency in the USA. Rotation, tillage system, sowing date, and plant population density were the most sensitive factors affecting actual yields. Average yield gap was 11% of simulated Y P (14.9Mgha?¹). Time trends in average farm yields from 1970 to 2008 show that yields have not increased during the past 8 years. Average yield during this period represented ?80% of Y P ceiling estimated for this region based on current crop management practices. Simulation analysis showed that Y P can be increased by higher plant population densities and by hybrids with longer maturity. Adoption of these practices, however, may be constrained by other factors such as difficulty in planting and harvest operations due to wet weather and snow, additional seed and grain drying costs, and greater risk of frost and lodging. Two key points can be made: (i) irrigated maize producers in this region are operating close to the Y P ceiling and achieve high levels of N use efficiency and (ii) small increases in yield (<13%) can be achieved through fine tuning current management practices that require increased production costs and higher risk.

Grassini Patricio; Thorburn John; Burr Charles; Cassman KennethG

2011-01-01

126

The Effect of NPK Application in Different Proportions on the Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

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Full Text Available Fertilizer levels were kept at 0, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N/ha with a constant dose of 100 kg/ha of phosphorus and potash. Maize variety Sunehri was used as a source of trial. Treatment (200-100-100 kg NPK ha-1 ) seems to be most appropriate to get increased grain yield under the Faisalabad conditions. More precise studies of this nature however, are recommended to be carried out for further confirmation.

Muhammad Maqsood; Riazat Ali; Nazakat Nawaz; Nadeem Yousaf

2000-01-01

127

Proteomic identification of genes associated with maize grain-filling rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grain filling during the linear phase contributes most of the dry matter accumulated in the maize kernel, which in turn determines the final grain yield. Endosperms and embryos of three elite maize hybrids (Zhengdan 958, Nongda 108, and Pioneer 335) were sampled 17, 22, 25, and 28 days after pollination, during the linear phase of grain filling, for proteomic analysis to explore the regulatory factors critical for grain filling rate. In total, 39 and 43 protein spots that showed more than 2-fold changes in abundance at P<0.01 between any two sampling stages in the endosperm and embryo were analyzed by protein mass spectrometry. The changing patterns in expression index of these proteins in the endosperm were evenly distributed, whereas up-regulation patterns predominated (74%) in the embryo. Functional analysis revealed that metabolism was the largest category, represented by nine proteins in the endosperm and 12 proteins in the embryo, of the proteins that significantly changed in abundance. Glycolysis, a critical process both for glucose conversion into pyruvate and for release of free energy and reducing power, and proteins related to redox homeostasis were emphasized in the endosperm. Additionally, lipid, nitrogen, and inositol metabolism related to fatty acid biosynthesis and late embryogenesis abundant proteins were emphasized in the embryo. One protein related to cellular redox equilibrium, which showed a more than 50-fold change in abundance and was co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for grain yield on chromosome 1, was further investigated by transcriptional profile implying consistent expression pattern with protein accumulation. The present results provide a first step towards elucidation of the gene network responsible for regulation of grain filling in maize.

Jin X; Fu Z; Ding D; Li W; Liu Z; Tang J

2013-01-01

128

CONSERVATION AND DETERMINATION OF THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE POLLEN GRAIN  

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Full Text Available In maize breeding programs, factors related to receptivity length of stigma, longevity of pollen grain in the plant, differences in the period of blossoming among plants and conservations of the genetics resources are some aspects that reinforce the importance of pollen grains storage. In this research the influence of water tenor, period and storage environment were evaluated in regard to the viability and germination of maize pollen grains. The assays took place in laboratories of Analyses of Seed Molecular Biology of the seeds sector and in the experimental area of Agricultural Department of UFLA. In the pre-tests, different culture methods were verified to evaluate the in vitro germination as well the best time to collect the pollen grains. The germination pollen grains in different water tenors was also evaluated: 51,7%; 29,4%, 21,7%; 17,7%; 17%. In a second experiment the pollen grains with water tenors of 51,7%; 29,4%; 21,7% were stored in deep freezer (-86oC), fridge (4oC), and liquid nitrogen (-193oC) for 14 and 30 days. After the storage, the germination and viability of pollen grains were evaluated in vitro in culture medium and through the tetrazoilium test, respectively. The viability of stored pollen grain for 14 days in different water tenors and storage places/environment was also tested in vivo through auto fecundation in plants of Le-57 inbred lines and GNZ 2004 hybrid, when both showed receptive style-stigmas. For the evaluation of germination and viability of pollen grains, a completely randomized design was used, in factorial scheme 2 (period of storage) x 3 (water tenors of pollen grains) x 3 (places storage), with four repetitions. In the pre-tests higher values of germination of pollen grains were observed in culture medium containing 10% sucrose; 0,03% boric acid; 0,15% calcium chloride (M2), and when the collection took place at 9 a.m. the viability of pollen grains was reduced substantially below 21,7% of water tenor indicating they don’t tolerate the desiccation. For a better conservation during the storage, the pollen grains should be dried until 21,7% of water tenor and storage in liquid nitrogen.

CLARISSA ALVES FERREIRA; ÉDILA VILELA DE REZENDE VON PINHO; PATRÍCIA DE OLIVEIRA ALVIM; VINÍCIUS DE ANDRADE; TANISMARE TATIANA DE ALMEIDA SILVA; DEISY LÚCIA CARDOSO

2007-01-01

129

Interacción gonotipo-ambiente del rendimiento y calidad de grano y tortilla de híbridos de maíz en Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México/ Genotype-environment interaction of yield and grain and tortilla quality of maize hybrids at the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Actualmente la baja productividad del maíz (Zea mays L.) en los Valles Altos del Centro de México se debe a condiciones ambientales adversas de sequía, temperatura más alta que la usual y heladas tempranas. Para aumentar la productividad es necesario desarrollar variedades estables con rendimiento alto y que cumplan con las características físicas de grano, nixtamal y tortilla que demandan las industrias procesadoras. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la in (more) teracción genotipo x ambiente sobre el rendimiento, las características físicas del grano y la calidad de nixtamal y tortillade 20 híbridos pre-comerciales y comerciales de maíz cultivados durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2009 en seis localidades de los Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano, peso hectolítrico, peso de 100 granos (PCG), índice de flotación (IF), color de grano y harina, y la calidad de nixtamal y tortilla. Los resultados para rendimiento y características físicas del grano fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI), y los de calidad de nixtamal y tortilla bajo un diseño completamente al azar. El modelo AMMI proporcionó buena descripción de la interacción genotipo x ambiente, y de la estabilidad de los 20 híbridos. Las condiciones de siembra y las ambientales modificaron las características físicas de los híbridos, especialmente el tamaño del grano y la dureza. Huamantla y Tlatempa fueron las mejores localidades en rendimiento (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), tamaño (PCG > 33 g), dureza (IF Abstract in english Currently, the low productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the central highlands of México is due to adverse environmental conditions such as drought, higher than usual temperatures and early frosts. To increase productivity, it is necessary to develop stable maize varieties with high yield which can meet the quality characteristics of grain, nixtamal and tortilla demanded by the processing industry. In this study, we determined the effect of the genotype x environment in (more) teraction on grain yield and on the physical traits of grain, nixtamal and tortilla of 20 pre-commercial and commercial maize hybrids, grown during the 2009 harvest season in six locations in the highlands of Tlaxcala, México. Grain yield, test weight, 100-grains weight (HGW), flotation index (FI), color of grain and flour, and nixtamal and tortilla quality were evaluated. The results for grain yield and grain physical traits were statistically analyzed using the model of additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), while data of nixtamal and tortilla quality were analyzed under a completely randomized design. The AMMI model provided a good description of the genotype x environment interaction and stability of the 20 hybrids. Both planting conditions and environment induced changes on the physical characteristics of hybrids, especially the grain size and hardness. Tlatempa and Huamantla were the best localities for yield (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), grain size (HGW > 33 g), hardness (FI

Vázquez Carrillo, María Gricelda; Santiago Ramos, David; Salinas Moreno, Yolanda; Rojas Martínez, Israel; Arellano Vázquez, José L.; Velázquez Cardelas, Gustavo A.; Espinosa Calderón, Alejandro

2012-09-01

130

Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707). Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare was recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare. While maximum grain oil and crude protein contents were recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively.

Iqrar Hussain; Tariq Mahmood; Aman Ullah; Amjed Ali

1999-01-01

131

Morphological and physiological changes during drought in critical periods and their effects on maize yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is of interest to find out the best way of increasing productivity of maize by water management as well as exposing grains to gamma rays to eliminate the effect of soil moisture stress. therefore this study was performed to investigate the mechanism of environmental stress on the morphology, physiology, yield and yield components of maize. three sets of experiments were performed to realize this target as follows: 1)effect of skipping an irrigation : two field experiments were conducted during 1980 and 1981 at the experimental farm of Ain shams university at Shoubra El-kheima, Kaluobia governorate to study the effect of skipping one irrigation at a certain stage of growth on maize plant. 2) effect of water deficit: two field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 at the experimental farm of Ain Shams university at Shubra El-kheima, Kalubia governorate to study the effect of soil moisture deficit on maize plant. 3) effect of salinity and gamma radiation: two pot experiments were performed in the greenhouse of agriculture department for soils and water research, atomic energy establishment, at Inshas in 1981 and 1982 growth seasons to study the effect of salinity and gamma rays on maize plant

132

Yield and Quality of Two Maize Hybrids as Affected by Different Planting Patterns  

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Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement and three replications to evaluate the effect of different planting patterns viz. 60-cm spaced single rows, 70-cm spaced single rows, 30/90 cm spaced double row and 35/105-cm spaced double rows on yield and quality of tow maize hybrids viz. `Highcorn 11` and `Cargil 777`. Max-1000 grain weight (438.47 g), grain yield (9.6 t/ha), and stover yield (15.85 t/ha) was recorded when Highcorn 1 1 was sown at 60 cm spaced single rows. While maximum no of grains/cob (372.45) was recorded from `Cargil 777` sown at 30/90 cm apart double row.

Khalid Iqbal; Tariq Mahmood; Muhammad Usman

2001-01-01

133

Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha-1 from improved soybean variety (TGx 1448-2E) and 17 kg N ha-1 from farmer soybean variety (Samsoy-2) as N balance, this did not significantly (p = 0.05) affect the maize yields. The soybean shed 90-100% of its leaves at physiological maturity which resulted in about 110 kg N ha-1 N uptake. This source of N might be one of the factors responsible for the increase in maize yield that followed soybean (20 to 24%) compared with continuous maize yield plot. Maize yield in previous Lablab plot was significantly (p = 0.05) higher than in all other treatments. Maize yield in farmer-managed plot ranged between 0.13 and 4.53 t ha-1, maize yield in researcher-managed plot was over 200% higher than maize yield in farmer-managed plot because of poor crop management on the part of the farmer.

J.A. Okogun; N. Sanginga; R.C. Abaidoo

2007-01-01

134

Grain filling parameters in high-yielding ns wheat cultivars  

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Grain yield of wheat is dependent on grain weight, which is the result of grain filling duration and rate. The study was undertaken to examine the relation between grain weight and rate and duration of grain filling in five high-yielding NS wheat cultivars. Stepwise multivariate analysis of nonlinea...

Brdar Milka D.; Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija M.; Kobiljski Borislav ?.

135

YIELD POTENTIAL OF SINGLE, THREE-WAY AND DOUBLE CROSS COMMERCIAL HYBRIDS MAIZE  

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Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul state, 45% of the commercial maize cultivars are single cross, 27% are three-way cross and 28% are double cross hybrids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate comparative performance and yield potential of different types of maize hybrids. The study used commercial maize hybrids, evaluated at RS state in the regional maize testing network, and conducted in 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05 cropping seasons. Hybrids were clustered according to the maturity period in two groups of trials, i.e. early and extra-early. Inside each group, the hybrids were classified as the type of cross, in single cross (HS), three-way cross (HT) and double cross (HD). The F test was used to evaluate the contrasts among types of hybrids (HS versus HT, HS versus HD and HT versus HD), to each cropping season, inside both maturing groups. Averaged across environments, statistically significant differences were shown among types of hybrids in both maturing groups. The average superiority of the single crosses over the double crosses, in grain yield, was 12% to the early maturing group and 16% to the extra-early maturing group. In considering the individual performance of the highest-yielding and the lowest-yielding hybrid inside each group, the superiority relation between the different categories of hybrids changed. Some double hybrids out-yielded some single and threeway cross hybrids, indicating that it is unsuitable to generalize inferences about yield potential of different maize hybrids based on the type of cross.

BEATRIZ MARTI EMYGDIO; JOÃO CARLOS IGNACZAK; ALBERTO CARGNELUTTI FILHO

2007-01-01

136

Determination of Optimum Level of Potash and its Effects on Yield and Quality of Maize  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of potassium on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield and quality. The potash level comprised 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Kg K2O ha?1 while the maize hybrid was 922 single supper cross. Amongst the eight potash treatments 150 kg ha?1 gave the highest yield of 7.74 t ha?1, but the overall effects of all treatments were non-significant. The yield components like cob length, 1000-grain weight and number of grains per cob remained unaffected but cob yield was significant by potash application. Similarly the parameters like plant height at maturity, number of grain rows per cob, days taken to tasseling and silking remained unaffected, however, stalk yield and protein contents were significantly affected. The optimum level lies between the range of 150-200 Kg K2O ha?1, beyond this level the application of potash is not profitable.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry; Javeed Khalid Malik

2000-01-01

137

Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economy of Production of Broilers Fed Maize-Grit and Brewers Dried Grain Replacing Maize  

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A 28-day feeding trial involving ninety-six (96) four weeks old broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of total replacement of maize with different combination ratios of maize grit and Brewers Dried Grain (BDG) on the performance, carcass characteristics and economy of finisher broil...

G.A. Anyanwu; F.C. Iheukwumere; C.O. Emerole

138

Maize dryers technology improvements and grain agroindustrial quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early 1980, the hot air temperature increase in maize dryers gave rise to quality problems for industrial users of this production (especially starch industry). Increase of air temperature from 90 to 140{sup 0}C leads to biochemical modifications of the endosperm constituents. Corrections of heterogeneity in hot air temperature, and especially in air and grain flows show, on industrial dryers, a real quality increase without having to lower too much temperature, and consequently productivity. Improvements in drying process (rest areas, slow cooling, or two steps drying) put in evidence the possibility of having simultaneously quality, low energy consumption, productivity and drying low cost. 8 refs.; 11 figs.

Lasseran, J.C.

1990-01-01

139

Effect of nitrogen doses on the chlorophyll concentration, yield and protein content of different genotype maize hybrids in Hungary  

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The chlorophyll (Chl) concentration of maize was compared to its grain yield and protein content in six different N treatments (0,30,60,90,120,150 kg N ha-1) in a multifactorial field experiment with four replications and a split plot design in Eastern Hungary (47o33' N, 21o26' E, 111 m asl) in two ...

Ványiné Széles Adrienn; Tóth Brigitta; Nagy János; Nagy János (1951-) (agrárménök, mérnök-tanár); Ványiné Széles Adrienn (1980-) (agrármérnök)

140

Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

On-farm evaluation of introduced maize varieties and their yield determining factors in East Timor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maize is the major food crop of East Timor. It is grown under subsistence farming and its yields are low (1.0–1.7tha?¹), with production insufficient to meet national needs. The “Seeds of Life” project, operating since 2001, has introduced open-pollinated maize varieties from other countries via the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and evaluated them for their suitability in local farming systems. Firstly, introductions were screened for yield potential and farmer-acceptable traits in replicated trials on research stations. Then, best selections were provided to farmers for evaluation against their local varieties under their own cultivation practices. More than 1000 on-farm trials were conducted across all of the agro-ecological zones of East Timor from the 2005/06 to the 2008/09 season. Mean annual yield advantage of the test varieties Suwan 5 and Sele over “local” varieties ranged from 36 to 54% and considerable initial adoption and diffusion to non-participating households was recorded. The large number of trials conducted over a wide range of agro-ecological and management conditions provided the opportunity to use analysis of variance to test the significance of factors contributing to yield. Major yield determinants were variety, agro-ecological zone, soil pH, plant density at harvest, frequency of project staff visits and wealth status of farmer. This combination of varietal testing with agronomic assessment has provided a basis for refinement of recommended cultivation practices for maize in East Timor. The project has demonstrated the feasibility of raising national maize production so as to approach national consumption needs. However, major constraints to realizing this potential are production of quality seed of improved varieties and its widespread distribution and effective extension of improved cultivation and grain storage practices.

Williams R; Borges LF; Lacoste M; Andersen R; Nesbitt H; Johansen C

2012-10-01

142

Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat  

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Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the final grain dry weight, rate and duration of grain filling were important parameters in differentiating among cultivars grain filling curves. The yield was positively correlated with number of grains/m2, grain weight and grain filling rate, and negatively correlated with grain filling duration. Correlation between grain weight and rate of grain filling was positive. Grain filling duration was negatively correlated with grain filling rate and number of grains/m2. The highest yield on three year average had medium late Mironovska 808, by the highest grain weight and grain filling rate and optimal number of grains/2 and grain filling duration.

Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balali?-Kraljevi? Marija

2006-01-01

143

[Effects of PASP-KT-NAA on the grain-filling of maize in different accumulated temperature zones of Hilongjiang Province, Norheast China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking the two maize varieties Zhengdan 958 and Fengdan 3 grown on the three accumulated temperature zones (I, II and III) in Heilongjiang Provice as test materials, a field investigation was made in 2010 and 2011 to study the effects of PASP-KT-NAA (PKN), a compound of exogenous plant growth regulators, on the grain filling and yield of the varieties under different environmental temperatures. From zone I to III, the air temperature at the grain filling stage had a decreasing trend, with the average minimum temperature being 12.16, 11.40, and 9.56, respectively. The effective accumulated temperature at the mid-ate amt sae stage of grain filling was too low to be sufficient for grain filling, which severely affected the grain filling process. Applying N, P and K promoted the dry matter accumulation of maize grain and the grain filling rate in the three zones, delayed the peak time (Tmax) of the grain filling rate of Fengdan 3 but advanced that of Zhengdan 958, promoted the growth capacity at peak time of grain filling rate and the maximum grain filling rate of the two varieties, and shortened their active grain filling period. Applying N, P, and K increased the grain yield of the two varieties in the three zones obviously, and, as compared with those in zones I and II , the grain yields of Zhengdan 958 and Fengdan 3 in zone III were increased by 8.2% and 5.1% , and 3.4% and 0.8% , respectively. Therefore, applying N, P and K could help maize utilizing the limited accumulation temperature, improve the grain filling rate, decrease the grain water content, and ultimately, increase the maize yield.

Xu TJ; Dong ZQ; Gao J; Chen CX; Jiao L; Xie ZX

2013-02-01

144

Influence of Post Emergence Application of Glyphosate on Weed Control Efficiency and Yield of Transgenic Maize  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the weed control efficiency and yield potential of glyphosate resistant transgenic maize. Treatments consisted of two transgenic maize hybrids named Hishell and 900 M gold with application of glyphosate as post emergence at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/hathese were compared with non-transgenic counterpart maize hybrids with application of atrazine as pre-emergence at 0.5 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 40 Days After Sowing along with need based insect control practices. Post emergence application of glyphosate at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic maize hybrids was recorded with lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency compared to other treatments. Higher grain yield was recorded with post emergence application of glyphosate at 1800 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid 900 M Gold and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid Hishell during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 seasons, respectively.

Duraisamy Ravisankar; Chinnagoundar Chinnusamy; Purushothaman Muthukrishnan

2013-01-01

145

Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat  

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Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and...

Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balali?-Kraljevi? Marija

146

Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Yield and Seed Quality of Maize (cv. Barnali)  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from November 2000 to May 2001 to find the effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the yield and seed quality of maize (cv. Barnali). The study included three levels of Sulphur, viz., 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 and four levels of Nitrogen, viz., 0, 60, 100 and 120 kg ha-1. Gypsum and urea were used as the sources of Sulphur and Nitrogen, respectively. The highest grain yield and 1000-grain weight were obtained with 20 kg S ha-1. The maximum no of grains/cob, the highest shelling percentage, the highest 1000-gain weight, Maximum grain yield and maximum stover yield were produced by the application of 120 N ha-1. Grain yield increased with the increasing rates of both Sulphur and Nitrogen but their interaction effects were not significant for all the quantitative characters under study. Seed quality attributes like germination percentage, vigour index, seedling shoot and root length and shoot and root dry weights were not influenced by Sulphur application. Nitrogen application had significant effect on vigour index, seedling shoot and root dry weights. The interaction between Sulphur and Nitrogen levels showed significant effect on seedling shoot and root dry weights. Maximum vigour index and root dry weights/ seedling of maize were found with 120 kg but the highest shoot dry weight/seedling was obtained with 100 kg N ha-1. Maximum shoot and root dry weights/seedling was obtained by applying 120 kg N ha-1 in combination with 20 kg S ha-1.

Muhammad Morshed Alam; Md. Nazrul Islam; Shah Md. Munirur Rahman; Md. Halaluddin; Md. Moynul Hoque

2003-01-01

147

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)  

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Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Pods per plant, 100 grain weight and branches per plant were the most important determinants of grain yield.

Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

2000-01-01

148

Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids/ Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3) foram realizados em Mossoró-RN com o objetivo de se avaliar, respectivamente, os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho (AG 1051 e BRS 2020), em resposta ao despendoamento (com e sem pendão). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas (cultivares nas parcelas) e dez repetições. Os três experimentos foram plantados no mesmo dia e em áreas vizinhas. Os h? (more) ?bridos não diferiram, nos três experimentos, quanto à massa da matéria seca e quanto ao número de ramificações do pendão. Em E1 (produção de minimilho na densidade de 180 mil plantas ha-1), em ambos os híbridos, os seguintes efeitos foram observados devido ao despendoamento: um aumento no número e peso totais de espigas e no número e peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis; b) nenhuma mudança foi observada no número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao híbrido BRS 2020 quanto ao peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, mas os dois híbridos não diferiram quanto às outras características utilizadas para avaliar o rendimento de minimilho. Em E2 (produção de espigas verdes na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não alterou as seguintes características em ambos os híbridos: números e pesos totais de espigas e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O despendoamento reduziu o número de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis no híbrido AG 1051, mas não em BRS 2020. Os híbridos não diferiram quanto aos números total e de espigas verdes empalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao BRS 2020 quanto aos pesos total e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e quanto ao número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. Em E3 (produção de grãos na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não afetou o rendimento de grãos e o híbrido AG 1051 foi superior quanto ao RG. Abstract in english Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3) were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020), in response to detasseling (with or without tassel). A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids defined as plots) and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ f (more) rom each other on the dry matter mass and number of tassel branches. In E1 (baby corn production at 180 thousand plants ha-1), for both hybrids, the following effects were observed due to detasseling: a) an increase in ear total number, in ear total weight, in marketable unhusked ears number and in marketable unhusked ears weight; b) no change was observed in the number and weight of marketable husked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for weight of marketable husked ears, but the two hybrids did not differ in other traits utilized to evaluate baby corn yield. In E2 (green ear yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not change the following traits in both hybrids: total number and weight of ears; number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and marketable husked ear weight. Detasseling reduced the number of marketable husked ears in cultivar AG 1051, but not in BRS 2020. The two hybrids did not differ in total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 in regard to the total ears weight, marketable unhusked ears weight and number and weight of marketable husked ears. In E3 (grain yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not affect grain yield (RG) and hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for grain yield.

Moreira, Joserlan N; Silva, Paulo Sérgio L; Silva, Kathia MB; Dombroski, Jeferson LD; Castro, Renato S

2010-12-01

149

Mulch Induced Eco-physiological Growth and Yield of Maize  

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Full Text Available Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on growth, dry matter partitioning, earliness, yield attributes and yield of maize were studied. All mulches except sawdust significantly influenced the SLA, CGR, NAR and DM partitioning, but with no apparent effect on RGR. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches hastened the tasseling, silking and maturity time by 6, 8 and 8 days respectively and produced double the amount of biological and economic yield as compared to the control and sawdust, the ash mulch behaved intermediately. Significantly higher harvest index was also observed under water hyacinth and rice straw mulches.

M. A. Awal; M.A.H. Khan

2000-01-01

150

Criterios para elegir el mejor probador de la aptitud combinatoria general para rendimiento de grano de líneas autofecundadas de maíz/ Criteria to choose the best tester of the general combining ability for grain yield of maize inbred lines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En un programa de mejoramiento genético por hibridación de maíz (Zea mays L.) es importante disponer de un probador confiable y eficiente de la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de líneas autofecundadas de maíz. Con el propósito de aportar más evidencia experimental relativa a la identificación del mejor probador de la ACG de líneas autofecundadas de maíz, en el presente trabajo se usaron 50 líneas S1 derivadas de la variedad Compuesto Universal original (vari (more) edad original), más cuatro líneas de alta y cuatro de baja ACG derivadas de las poblaciones de maíz Xolache y Mex. Gpo. 10. Las líneas S1 fueron cruzadas con tres probadores: una línea de baja ACG (P1), una línea de alta ACG (P2) y la variedad original (P3). La hipótesis fue que la línea de baja ACG es el mejor probador. Para evaluar los probadores los criterios fueron: 1) la variación fenotípica y genotípica de los mestizos (línea×probador); 2) la clasificación de las ocho líneas de ACG conocida, con cada uno de los tres probadores; 3) el coeficiente de divergencia (CD); 4) el efecto del probador, el efecto y la varianza de interacción línea×probador. La variable estudiada fue el rendimiento promedio de mazorca por planta. Con base en los criterios señalados, el mejor probador fue la línea de baja ACG en comparación con la línea de alta ACG y la variedad original; además, la variedad original fue también un buen probador, pero con menor valor discriminatorio que la línea de baja ACG. Abstract in english In a maize (Zea mays L.) breeding program by hybridization it is important to have a reliable and efficient tester for the general combining ability (GCA) of maize inbred lines. With the aim to contribute more experimental evidence relative to the identification of the best tester of GCA of maize inbred lines, in this study 50 S1 lines derived from the Compuesto Universal original (original variety), plus four lines of high and four of low GCA derived from populations of (more) Xolache and Mex. Gpo. 10 were used. The S1 lines were crossed with three testers: a line of low GCA (P1), a line of high GCA (P2), and the original variety (P3). The hypothesis was that the line of low GCA is the best tester. The criteria to evaluate the testers were: 1) the phenotypic and genotypic variation of top crosses (line × tester); 2) the classification of the eight lines of known GCA, with each of the three testers, 3) the coefficient of divergence (CD), 4) the effect of the tester, effect and variance of interaction line × tester. The variable studied was the average yield of ear by plant. Based on the mentioned criteria, the best tester was the line of low GCA compared to the line of high GCA and the original variety; besides, the original variety was also a good tester, but with less discriminatory value than the low GCA line.

Lobato-Ortiz, Ricardo; Molina-Galán, José D.; López-Reynoso, José de J.; Mejía-Contreras, José A.; Reyes-López, Delfino

2010-02-01

151

Modeling kinetics of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in maize-based medium and maize grain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predictive mycology has dealt mainly with germination, growth and inactivation of fungi while the issue of mycotoxin production remains relatively unexplored. Very few studies provide biomass dry weight/colony size data along with mycotoxin data for the same sample times, thus the ratio mycotoxin accumulation per fungal biomass dry weight/colony size has rarely been reported. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to model the kinetics of mycotoxin production under the assumption of existing both no-growth-associated and growth-associated production. Aspergillus flavus was chosen as a model mycotoxigenic microorganism, and it was grown in maize agar medium and maize grain at 0.90 and 0.99 aw at 25°C. A significant positive correlation (p<0.05) was observed among the biomass responses (colony radius and biomass dry weight) in agar medium and colony radius in maize at both aw levels assayed. The Luedeking-Piret model was used to model AFB1 production and reasonable percentages of variability were explained. Moreover, AFB1 production was in general slightly better predicted through colony area. As conclusion, aflatoxin production may follow a mixed-growth associated trend, confirming that toxin formation does not present a clear delay in relation to growth under certain conditions.

Garcia D; Ramos AJ; Sanchis V; Marín S

2013-03-01

152

Grain filling parameters in high-yielding ns wheat cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat is dependent on grain weight, which is the result of grain filling duration and rate. The study was undertaken to examine the relation between grain weight and rate and duration of grain filling in five high-yielding NS wheat cultivars. Stepwise multivariate analysis of nonlinear regression estimated grain filling parameters was used to examine cultivar differences in grain filling. On the basis of three-year average, the highest grain dry weight had cultivar Renesansa, and the lightest grains were measured for cultivar Evropa 90. Stepwise multivariate analysis indicated that all three nonlinear regression estimated parameters (grain weight, rate and duration of grain filling) were equally important in characterizing the grain filling curves of the cultivars studied, although sequence of their significance varied in different years, which is probably caused by different environmental conditions in three years of experiment.

Brdar Milka D.; Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija M.; Kobiljski Borislav ?.

2008-01-01

153

The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain  

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Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01) in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01) in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

Van?etovi? Jelena; Jankuloski Ljupcho; Božinovi? Sofija; Dodig Dejan

2009-01-01

154

In vitro digestibility of phenolics in grain of maize hybrids  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the quantity of phenolic compounds in the grain of maize hybrids and their in vitro release in pig small intestine. Six maize hybrids belonging to the FAO maturity groups 200-600 were produced under the same agroclimate conditions. Phenolics were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method as gallic acid equivalents. The enzymatic digestion of phenolics was carried out using in vitro procedure for pigs mimicking digestion in stomach and small intestine. The concentration (mg/100g) of free (100.02-157.29), bound (973.41-1160.86) and total phenolics (1105.82- 1293.38) varied (P<0.001) among hybrids. In addition, the digestibility of phenolics significantly differed among tested hybrids (P<0.001) and ranged from 37.09 to 45.46%. Content of phenolics in soluble fraction after digestion was higher (486.23 vs. 128.38 mg/100g) than the content of free phenolics suggesting that some amount of bound phenolics was released in small intestine.

Kristina Kljak; Goran Kiš; Darko Grbeša

2010-01-01

155

Modern maize hybrids in Northeast China exhibit increased yield potential and resource use efficiency despite adverse climate change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of global changes on food security is of serious concern. Breeding novel crop cultivars adaptable to climate change is one potential solution, but this approach requires an understanding of complex adaptive traits for climate-change conditions. In this study, plant growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, and yield in relation to climatic resource use efficiency of nine representative maize cultivars released between 1973 and 2000 in China were investigated in a 2-year field experiment under three N applications. The Hybrid-Maize model was used to simulate maize yield potential in the period from 1973 to 2011. During the past four decades, the total thermal time (growing degree days) increased whereas the total precipitation and sunshine hours decreased. This climate change led to a reduction of maize potential yield by an average of 12.9% across different hybrids. However, the potential yield of individual hybrids increased by 118.5 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) with increasing year of release. From 1973 to 2000, the use efficiency of sunshine hours, thermal time, and precipitation resources increased by 37%, 40%, and 41%, respectively. The late developed hybrids showed less reduction in yield potential in current climate conditions than old cultivars, indicating some adaptation to new conditions. Since the mid-1990s, however, the yield impact of climate change exhibited little change, and even a slight worsening for new cultivars. Modern breeding increased ear fertility and grain-filling rate, and delayed leaf senescence without modification in net photosynthetic rate. The trade-off associated with delayed leaf senescence was decreased grain N concentration rather than increased plant N uptake, therefore N agronomic efficiency increased simultaneously. It is concluded that modern maize hybrids tolerate the climatic changes mainly by constitutively optimizing plant productivity. Maize breeding programs in the future should pay more attention to cope with the limiting climate factors specifically.

Chen X; Chen F; Chen Y; Gao Q; Yang X; Yuan L; Zhang F; Mi G

2013-03-01

156

[Extraction and use of pigments from maize grains (Zea mays L) as colorants in yogur].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present work was to determine the potential use of anthocyanins from maize grains as colorants in yogurt. Pigments were extracted from four native maize varieties (Arrocillo, Peruano, Purepecha and Cónico), which possess a high anthocyanin concentration in the pericarp. Pericarp and aleurone layer were mechanicallly removed from grain using a Strong-Scott barley pearled. Yields of pericarp and aleurone layer fraction (PALF) were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content in this fraction was determined by a conventional spectrophotometric method and the anthocyanin profile was obtained by HPLC. One mg of anthocyanin extracts from the PALF was added to 100 g of a commercial plain yogurt. Yogurt samples were kept under refrigerated conditions and color and pH were monitored every 5 days interval, during three weeks. The yields of PALF were 48.4%, 55.1%, 40.2%, and 40.0% for Arrocillo, Peruano, Cónico and Purepecha varieties, respectivelly. The highest total anthocyanin content (259.4 mg of anthocyanins/100 g sample) was observed in Peruano PALF. The color of yogurts dyed with each of the four extracts was different. Yogurts dyed with Peruano and Arrocillo extracts showed a more intense reddish tone than those dyed with Cónico and Purepecha. After 5 to 10 days under refrigerated storage, the color of all yogurt samples changed to a slight yellowish tone according to the Hue values, Nevertheless, these changes were not visually evident.

Salinas Moreno Y; Rubio Hernández D; Díaz Velázquez A

2005-09-01

157

Effect of Pakistan lignitic derived humic acids on the agriculture growth part II: studies on the effect of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein content of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various minute concentrations of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein contents of maize were studied. The results revealed that the humic acid application in small doses produce higher grain yield, more protein content and better developed plants and roots compared to control. There was a positive correlation between the grain yield, protein contents and plant growth of maize to different levels of humic acid application. (author).

1994-01-01

158

High-yield irrigated maize in the Western U.S. Corn Belt: II. Irrigation management and crop water productivity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Appropriate benchmarks for water productivity (WP), defined here as the amount of grain yield produced per unit of water supply, are needed to help identify and diagnose inefficiencies in crop production and water management in irrigated systems. Such analysis is lacking for maize in the Western U.S. Corn Belt where irrigated production represents 58% of total maize output. The objective of this paper was to quantify WP and identify opportunities to increase it in irrigated maize systems of central Nebraska. In the present study, a benchmark for maize WP was (i) developed from relationships between simulated yield and seasonal water supply (stored soil water and sowing-to-maturity rainfall plus irrigation) documented in a previous study; (ii) validated against actual data from crops grown with good management over a wide range of environments and water supply regimes (n =123); and (iii) used to evaluate WP of farmer's fields in central Nebraska using a 3-y database (2005-2007) that included field-specific values for yield and applied irrigation (n =777). The database was also used to quantify applied irrigation, irrigation water-use efficiency (IWUE; amount of yield produced per unit of applied irrigation), and the impact of agronomic practices on both parameters. Opportunities to improve irrigation management were evaluated using a maize simulation model in combination with actual weather records and detailed data on soil properties and crop management collected from a subset of fields (n =123). The linear function derived from the relationship between simulated grain yield and seasonal water supply, namely the mean WP function (slope=19.3kgha?¹ mm?¹; x-intercept=100mm), proved to be a robust benchmark for maize WP when compared with actual yield and water supply data. Average farmer's WP in central Nebraska was ?73% of the WP derived from the slope of the mean WP function. A substantial number of fields (55% of total) had water supply in excess of that required to achieve yield potential (900mm). Pivot irrigation (instead of surface irrigation) and conservation tillage in fields under soybean-maize rotation had the greatest IWUE and yield. Applied irrigation was 41 and 20% less under pivot and conservation tillage than under surface irrigation and conventional tillage, respectively. Simulation analysis showed that up to 32% of the annual water volume allocated to irrigated maize in the region could be saved with little yield penalty, by switching current surface systems to pivot, improving irrigation schedules to be more synchronous with crop water requirements and, as a fine-tune option, adopting limited irrigation.

Grassini Patricio; Yang Haishun; Irmak Suat; Thorburn John; Burr Charles; Cassman KennethG

2011-01-01

159

High-yield irrigated maize in the Western U.S. Corn Belt: II. Irrigation management and crop water productivity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Appropriate benchmarks for water productivity (WP), defined here as the amount of grain yield produced per unit of water supply, are needed to help identify and diagnose inefficiencies in crop production and water management in irrigated systems. Such analysis is lacking for maize in the Western U.S. Corn Belt where irrigated production represents 58% of total maize output. The objective of this paper was to quantify WP and identify opportunities to increase it in irrigated maize systems of central Nebraska. In the present study, a benchmark for maize WP was (i) developed from relationships between simulated yield and seasonal water supply (stored soil water and sowing-to-maturity rainfall plus irrigation) documented in a previous study; (ii) validated against actual data from crops grown with good management over a wide range of environments and water supply regimes (n=123); and (iii) used to evaluate WP of farmer's fields in central Nebraska using a 3-y database (2005–2007) that included field-specific values for yield and applied irrigation (n=777). The database was also used to quantify applied irrigation, irrigation water-use efficiency (IWUE; amount of yield produced per unit of applied irrigation), and the impact of agronomic practices on both parameters. Opportunities to improve irrigation management were evaluated using a maize simulation model in combination with actual weather records and detailed data on soil properties and crop management collected from a subset of fields (n=123). The linear function derived from the relationship between simulated grain yield and seasonal water supply, namely the mean WP function (slope=19.3kgha?1mm?1; x-intercept=100mm), proved to be a robust benchmark for maize WP when compared with actual yield and water supply data. Average farmer's WP in central Nebraska was ?73% of the WP derived from the slope of the mean WP function. A substantial number of fields (55% of total) had water supply in excess of that required to achieve yield potential (900mm). Pivot irrigation (instead of surface irrigation) and conservation tillage in fields under soybean–maize rotation had the greatest IWUE and yield. Applied irrigation was 41 and 20% less under pivot and conservation tillage than under surface irrigation and conventional tillage, respectively. Simulation analysis showed that up to 32% of the annual water volume allocated to irrigated maize in the region could be saved with little yield penalty, by switching current surface systems to pivot, improving irrigation schedules to be more synchronous with crop water requirements and, as a fine-tune option, adopting limited irrigation.

Grassini P; Yang H; Irmak S; Thorburn J; Burr C; Cassman KG

2011-01-01

160

Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

Berta G; Copetta A; Gamalero E; Bona E; Cesaro P; Scarafoni A; D'Agostino G

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cum...

D BABNIK; J SUŠIN; J VERBI?

162

Use of Compost Manure Enriched with High Quality Organic Residues to Improve Growth and Yield of Maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field trial was conducted to test whether composed manure with tithonia or lantana would improve growth and yield of maize. A field trial consisting of five compost types and inorganic N fertilizer was carried out in a site low N using maize (Zea mays Var. Hybrid 513) as a test crop. The compost and fertilizer were applied at an equivalent rate of 100 kg N ha-1. Above-ground maize biomass was taken at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after crop emergence, dried and N content determined. Amongst the compost, the highest dry matter accumulation N uptake and grain yield were observed in FYM composted with tithonia at 1:1 ratio. At all stages of crop growth, inorganic fertilizer treatment gave the highest dry matter and N uptake. Based on the growth and N uptake in the fertilizer treatment it was concluded that the N release in all the compost was lower than the crop demand

2002-01-01

163

A Grain Flow Model to Simulate Grain Yield Sensor Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to develop a flow model for grain combinesbased on the laboratory and field response of an impact based grain flow sensor. The grainflow model developed in this study is of first order with constant coefficients. A computercode was written to solve the model and to si...

Selcuk Arslan

164

The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

2012-01-01

165

Toxicity of Powders from Indigenous Plants Against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch on Stored Maize Grains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erythrophleum guineense (stem bark and leaf), Aloe vera (leaf) and Dacryodes edulis (seed) were separately treated at three different rates (0, 10 and 20% w/w) on stored maize grains and tested against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais...

A.M. Oparaeke; G.C. Kuhiep

166

Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal  

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Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM) genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check) and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check) were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E) was highly significant and genotypes (G) and genotype x environment interaction (GEI) were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2) for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

Jiban Shrestha

2013-01-01

167

Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY), leaf width (LW3, LW4) plant height (PH), ear height (EH), leaf number (NL), tassel branch number (TBN) and tassel length (TL) were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

Nikoli? Ana; An?elkovi? Violeta; Dodig Dejan; Ignjatovi?-Mici? Dragana

2011-01-01

168

Moisture/yield monitor grain simulator  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A monitor for measuring the moisture content of grain comprises an AC signal source for transmitting a measurement signal along a measurement signal path that includes a sensor region in which grain may, or may not, be present, and an analyzer for determining the attenuation of the measurement signal along the path, the analyzer producing an indication of the moisture content of grain in the sensor region that is dependent on the attenuation. A simulator is provided to permit calibration, testing, maintenance and/or demonstration of the monitor without the requirement of grain in the sensor region. The simulator includes a programmable attenuator that is selectively electrically inserted in the measurement signal path and a control circuit for controlling the attenuator so that the measurement signal is attenuated and the analyzer produces an indication of grain moisture content even though no grain is present in the sensor region. The attenuator may be a PIN diode or a programmable capacitor.

NELSON GEORGE F

169

Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterise the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (~40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ~20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought-stress were reduced by ~15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought-stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for studies examining genetic and physiological crop responses to environmental stresses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Harrison MT; Tardieu F; Dong Z; Messina CD; Hammer GL

2013-09-01

170

Global climate change and maize production in Spain: Risk assessment and impacts of weather on yields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on maize production in Spain, combining climate models, a crop productivity model, a decision support system and a yield-response model. The study was carried out for two agricultural regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of grain yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). A yield response model was estimated using simulated data from the crop model. Weather variables are included. Typically, temperature and precipitation are the only weather variables included in these models. However, solar radiation is another important climate factor for plant growth and development and were included in the yield response model.

Feijoo, M.L.; Mestre, F.; Iglesias, A.; Rosenzweig, C. [Univ. de Zaragoza (Spain)

1996-12-31

171

Treatment of cooked and storage maize grains with the insecticide 14C - malathion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The residues of the insecticide 14C-malathion was determined in cooked maize grains, after storage as raw maize up to 24 weeks under laboratory conditions. Results showed a higher concentration of 14C - malathion residues bound to the grains in cooked maize, as compared to previous experiments conducted with raw maize, where the highest concentration was found on the surface of the grains. (author)[pt] Foram conduzidos estudos para determinar os residuos do inseticida malation - 14C em graos de milho cozido depois de armazenado sob a forma de milho cru ate 24 semanas, em laboratorio. Os resultados mostraram que houve maior concentracao de residuos de malation - 14C ligado aos graos de milho cozido em comparacao com experimentos anteriores conduzidos com milho cru, onde a maior concentracao de radiocarbono foi encontrada na superficie dos graos. (autor)

1988-01-01

172

[Effects of different accumulated temperature on photosynthetic performances of spring maize varieties during grain-filling period].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking cold-resistant maize variety Fengdan 3 and cold-sensitive maize variety Zhengdan 958 as test materials, field experiments were conducted in I, II, and III accumulated temperature zones in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China to study the effects of different accumulated temperature on the photosynthetic performances of different types of cold-resistant spring maize varieties during their grain-filling period. In the three accumulated temperature zones, the tasseling and maturing periods of Fengdan 3 and Zhengdan 958 were prolonged in the order of I > II > and III, and the grain bulk density decreased in the same order. The RuBPCase and PEPCase activities of Fengdan 3 and Zhengdan 958 leaves had different temperature sensitivity. For Fengdan 3, its leaf RuBPCase and PEPCase activities were high in early grain filling period (0-20 days after anthesis), and the variety could ripen in temperature-limited region. For Zhengdan 958, its leaf RuBPCase and PEPCase activities were high within 0-10 days and 40-60 days after anthesis but not sensitive to the active accumulated temperature during 10-40 days after anthesis, and the variety could not ripen in temperature-limited region. The photosynthetic rates of the two varieties were significantly positively correlated with the active accumulated temperature during 0-10 days and 30-40 days after anthesis. The effects of the accumulated temperature in the three zones on the photosynthetic performances were significant at both early and later grain filling stages. For the same varieties, the higher the active accumulated temperature in grain filling period, the higher the grain yield. Zhengdan 958 had higher yield than Fengdan 3.

Chen CX; Dong ZQ; Gao J; Xu TJ; Jiao L; Lu L; Zhang FL

2013-06-01

173

[Effects of different accumulated temperature on photosynthetic performances of spring maize varieties during grain-filling period].  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking cold-resistant maize variety Fengdan 3 and cold-sensitive maize variety Zhengdan 958 as test materials, field experiments were conducted in I, II, and III accumulated temperature zones in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China to study the effects of different accumulated temperature on the photosynthetic performances of different types of cold-resistant spring maize varieties during their grain-filling period. In the three accumulated temperature zones, the tasseling and maturing periods of Fengdan 3 and Zhengdan 958 were prolonged in the order of I > II > and III, and the grain bulk density decreased in the same order. The RuBPCase and PEPCase activities of Fengdan 3 and Zhengdan 958 leaves had different temperature sensitivity. For Fengdan 3, its leaf RuBPCase and PEPCase activities were high in early grain filling period (0-20 days after anthesis), and the variety could ripen in temperature-limited region. For Zhengdan 958, its leaf RuBPCase and PEPCase activities were high within 0-10 days and 40-60 days after anthesis but not sensitive to the active accumulated temperature during 10-40 days after anthesis, and the variety could not ripen in temperature-limited region. The photosynthetic rates of the two varieties were significantly positively correlated with the active accumulated temperature during 0-10 days and 30-40 days after anthesis. The effects of the accumulated temperature in the three zones on the photosynthetic performances were significant at both early and later grain filling stages. For the same varieties, the higher the active accumulated temperature in grain filling period, the higher the grain yield. Zhengdan 958 had higher yield than Fengdan 3. PMID:24066545

Chen, Chuan-Xiao; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Jiao; Xu, Tian-Jun; Jiao, Liu; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Feng-Lu

2013-06-01

174

Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-...

J.A. Okogun; N. Sanginga; R.C. Abaidoo

175

On-farm evaluation of yield and economic benefit of short term maize legume intercropping systems under conservation agriculture in Malawi  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low crop yields due to continuous monocropping and deteriorating soil health in smallholder farmers’ fields of sub-Saharan Africa have led to a quest for sustainable production practices with greater resource use efficiency. The aim of the study was to elucidate the short term effects of conservation agriculture (CA) systems on soil quality, crop productivity and profitability. In Balaka market and Ntonda sections of Manjawira Extension Planning Area (EPA), in Ntcheu district, central Malawi, we compared continuous monocropped maize (Zea mays) under conventional tillage practice (CP) with different CA systems in continuous monocropped maize (CAM) and intercropping with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) (CAMP), Mucuna pruriens (CAMM), and Lablab purpureus (L.) (Sweet) (CAML). The study was conducted from 2008 to 2011 in 72 plots in 24 farmers’ fields. In Balaka market section CA plots with maize+legumes produced up to 4.3Mgha?1 of vegetative biomass against 3.5Mgha?1 for maize alone in CP. In Ntonda section CA plots with maize+legumes produced up to 4.6Mgha?1 of vegetative biomass against 2.4Mgha?1 for maize alone in CP. In both sections, during the entire study period, CA did not have a negative effect on crop yields. During the drier seasons of 2009/10 and 2010/11, CA had a positive effect on maize grain yield at both sites (average yield of 4.4 and 3.3Mgha?1 in CA and CP respectively). However, associating maize with legumes reduced maize yields compared to CAM particularly in drier years of 2009–10 and 2010–11. Farmers spent at most 47daysha?1 producing maize under CA systems compared to 65daysha?1 spent under conventional tillage practices. However, total variable costs were higher in CA systems compared to conventional practice (at most US$416 versus US$344ha?1). CAMP resulted in more than double gross margin compared to CPM (US$705 versus US$344ha?1). Infiltration estimated as time to pond was highest in CA maize legume intercrops (8.1s) than CP (6.8s). Although it was not feasible to directly estimate effects on water balances of these farmer-managed experiments, it can be assumed that the yield differences between CA and CP could be attributed to tillage and crop residue cover since other farm operations were generally the same. Intercropping maize and pigeonpea under CA presents a win-win scenario due to crop yield improvement and attractive economic returns provided future prices of maize and pigeonpea grain remain favourable.

Ngwira AR; Aune JB; Mkwinda S

2012-06-01

176

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis...

Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

177

Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations) and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations): GO-D (DENTADO), GO- F (FLINT), GO-A (AMARELO), GO-B (BRANCO), GO-L (LONGO), GO-G (GROSSO), GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP) and Rio Verde (GO) in 1998/99 (normal season crop) and Piracicaba (SP) in 1999 (off-season crop). All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1) and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746) was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547) was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

Silva Ricardo Machado da; Miranda Filho José Branco de

2003-01-01

178

Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha). There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

Karoline Guedes Araújo; Severino Delmar Junqueira Villela; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Patrícia Monteiro Costa; Leonardo de Oliveira Fernandes; Wagner Pessanha Tamy; Vinícius Raimundi Andrade

2012-01-01

179

Diallel Analysis for the Estimation of the Genetic Parameters of Grain Yield and Grain Yield Components in Bread Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diallel analysis was used to estimate the combining ability, gene action, gene number, heritabilties and other genetic parameters of a set of wheat genotypes. For this purpose, nine parents and their 36 crosses were evaluated for 9 traits in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 1996. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for all traits. Estimates of general and specific combining ability mean squares based on Griffing’s Method 2 indicated the importance of additive and non additive effects in the expression of all traits. Alvand and Roshan cultivars for grain yield per plant, Alvand for grain number per main spike and main spike weight, and Alvand and Alamoot for 1000 grain weight were the best combiners, thus use of them is beneficial for these traits. Based on the estimates of average degree of dominance and results of graphical analysis, the gene action for grain number and spikeletes per main spike were partial dominance, while for grain yield per plant, biological yield, plant height, harvest index and 1000 grain weight, overdominance gene actions were observed. Moreover, genotypic correlation coefficients of grain yield per plant with grain number per main spike, 1000 grain weight, grain weight per main spike and main spike weight were positive and significant.

B. Heidari; A. Rezaie; S. A. M. Mirmohammadi Maibody

2006-01-01

180

Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry) stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

Passoth Volkmar; Eriksson Anna; Sandgren Mats; Ståhlberg Jerry; Piens Kathleen; Schnürer Johan

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 µg selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor sour (more) ce of Se for animals and humans. The geographical distribution of Se values of maize grain is consistent with that of previous studies on the Se status of herbivores in South Africa, suggesting that plants growing in most of the maize-producing areas of the country contain low concentrations of Se. However, these findings contradict those of the soil Se status in the country as reported by the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, which states that the eastern part of the maize-producing areas of the country tends to have adequate to high soil Se levels and the western areas to have low levels. These contradictory results can be explained to a large extent by the varying soil pH throughout the country. Soil pH plays a primary role in the availability of selenium to plants. Although the eastern parts of the country tend to have high Se concentration in the soil, it is not available to the maize plant owing to a low soil pH, while in the western parts of the country, where soil pH may be suitable for Se uptake by plants, there seems to be an inadequate concentration of available Se in the soil.

Courtman, C.; van Ryssen, J.B.J.; Oelofse, A.

2012-01-01

182

The Effects of Rate and Placement of Boma Manure on Maize Yield in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A six session study on the response of maize to boma manure was conducted on farmer's field in Wamuyu, Machakos District in the Eastern province of Kenya to; a) determine the yield response of maize to application of boma manure in the 0-100 t ha-1 range, b)evaluate the benefits of banding of boma manure as compared with broadcasting, c)determine the residual response to boma manure application; d)compare the response of boma manure with that of inorganic fertiliser. The soil on the experimental site was a well drained ,dark red, loamy sand with an average of 16.64 mg kg-1 extractable P and 0.065 % total N in the 0-1 cm depth. Maize grain yield and total dry matter markedly increased with increasing rates of boma manure while placement method and interaction between placement and rate of application effect. A combined analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in grain yield above the rate of 40 t ha -1 of manure. Using inorganic fertiliser at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 + 20 kg P ha-1 was found to be the best option in terms of economic benefits. The residual effects of the manure were, however, still very evident in the last season, indicating that more benefits would have been obtained from manure over a number of succeeding seasons, especially from the high rates (60-100 t ha-1)

1999-01-01

183

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND GRAIN YIELD FOR SOYBEAN CULTIVARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain yield components are important indicators of the grain yield level of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). The objective of this study was to estimate the efficiency and reliability of soybean yield components as selection criteria for grain yield and to evaluate agronomic value of domestic soybean cultivars as potential parents in hybridizations for further genetic improvement of soybean grain yield. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of The Agricultural Institute Osijek over five years, from 1996 to 2000. The study involved 14 domestic soybean cultivars (cv.) ranging maturity groups 0 to II. Mean values, coefficient of variation and broad-sense heritability were calculated for grain yield and the following yield components: plant height (cm), number of plant-1fertile nodes, plant-1 pod number, plant-1seed number, plant-1 of seeds weight (g), plant-1 harvest index (%) and 1000 seed weight (g). Path-coefficient analysis was applied to determine the effects of analyzed yield components on grain yield. The obtained results of quantitative genetic analysis showed that components weight and number of plant-1seeds had the lowest variability, the highest heritability and the highest positive direct effect on grain yield among analyzed yield components. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Ika had the highest mean for both yield components. The obtained results suggest that the indirect selection for higher soybean grain yield using the yield components, seed weight and number of seeds per plant was more efficient and more reliable than selection over the other yield components. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Ika appeared to be the most suitable as a parent in future hybridizations to achieve further genetic advance in soybean grain yield.

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Tomislav Duvnjak

2002-01-01

184

Energy maize. The influence of production technique on the yield of biomass and biogas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economy of biogas plants is not only affected by their technology, but also by the used biomass. In typical maize regions energy maize for biogas production is superior to other field crops because of its high potential of yield, its good mechanized cultivation and good fermentation quality. Depending on yield and quality approx. 17.000 KW/h can be produced with the energy maize yield of 1 hectare. The requirements of energy maize production are very high. High dry matter yields with dry matter contents between 28 and 35% are very important. At the same time however the cultivation of maize raises some questions to the biogas production: Does energy maize require another technique of cultivation? Are there particularly suitable maturity groups? Do the new varieties of energy maize have higher yields of dry matter and methane per hectare? We tested the influence of harvest time; variety and plant density on the energy maize yield under the conditions of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern on the experimental fields Guelzow and Vipperow since 2004. (orig.)

Klostermann, I. [LFA M/V - State Research Centre of Agriculture and Fishery Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow (Germany)

2006-07-01

185

Improvement in the grain yield capacity by mutagenesis in barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two barley varieties, Kaya and Quantum, were treated with gamma rays to increase the grain yield capacity without changing the other agronomic and malting characteristics of the varieties. All the visible mutants were selected in the M2 generation; the base populations were constructed by randomly selecting normal looking plants. Repeated positive selection for grain yield was exercised from the M2 to the M5 in the mutant and the control populations. Selection pressure applied for grain yield has eliminated the visually selected mutants. Although it is difficult to detect polygenic mutations, it may be possible to improved the grain yield capacity by employing a micromutation technique, especially in the case of a good responding variety such as Kaya and a suitable dose such as 15 krad. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

186

Ectopic expression of bacterial amylopullulanase enhances bioethanol production from maize grain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KEY MESSAGE: Heterologous expression of amylopullulanase in maize seeds leads to partial starch degradation into fermentable sugars, which enhances direct bioethanol production from maize grain. Utilization of maize in bioethanol industry in the United States reached ±13.3 billion gallons in 2012, most of which was derived from maize grain. Starch hydrolysis for bioethanol industry requires the addition of thermostable alpha amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) enzymes to break down the ?-1,4 and ?-1,6 glucosidic bonds of starch that limits the cost effectiveness of the process on an industrial scale due to its high cost. Transgenic plants expressing a thermostable starch-degrading enzyme can overcome this problem by omitting the addition of exogenous enzymes during the starch hydrolysis process. In this study, we generated transgenic maize plants expressing an amylopullulanase (APU) enzyme from the bacterium Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. A truncated version of the dual functional APU (TrAPU) that possesses both alpha amylase and pullulanase activities was produced in maize endosperm tissue using a seed-specific promoter of 27-kD gamma zein. A number of analyses were performed at 85 °C, a temperature typically used for starch processing. Firstly, enzymatic assay and thin layer chromatography analysis showed direct starch hydrolysis into glucose. In addition, scanning electron microscopy illustrated porous and broken granules, suggesting starch autohydrolysis. Finally, bioethanol assay demonstrated that a 40.2 ± 2.63 % (14.7 ± 0.90 g ethanol per 100 g seed) maize starch to ethanol conversion was achieved from the TrAPU seeds. Conversion efficiency was improved to reach 90.5 % (33.1 ± 0.66 g ethanol per 100 g seed) when commercial amyloglucosidase was added after direct hydrolysis of TrAPU maize seeds. Our results provide evidence that enzymes for starch hydrolysis can be produced in maize seeds to enhance bioethanol production.

Nahampun HN; Lee CJ; Jane JL; Wang K

2013-09-01

187

Effect of Variability in Rainfall Characteristics on Maize Yield in Gboko, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the impact of variability in rainfall characteristics on maize yield in a tropical setting. The study design involves the collection and analyses of data on rainfall characteristics and maize yield at Gboko LGA in Benue State, Nigeria. The methodology adopted is the use of archival data on rainfall and maize yield for 30 years, collected from the Agro-Meteorological Unit and Farm Department of Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture, Yandev (AOCAY). The data was analyzed using mean, correlation and regression analysis to establish cause and effect relationship between rainfall characteristics and maize yield at the study area. The result of the correlation analysis showed that rain days and rainfall amount had strong positive relationship (r = 0.747 and r = 0.599, respectively) with maize yield. It was also observed that the rainfall characteristics jointly contributed 67.4% in explaining the variations in the yield of maize per hectare. The study concludes with the development of a model for predicting maize yield in Gboko LGA. The study also recommended the application of irrigation technology, use of appropriate management practices that ensured moisture conservation and improved crop species with shorter growing periods/less moisture consumption as adaptive measures to the changing rainfall pattern within the study area.

Emmanuel Msughter Adamgbe; Fanan Ujoh

2013-01-01

188

Effects of Water Saving Materials on Soil Physical Characters and Maize Yield in Loess Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the comparison of soil aggregates, soil bulk density and total porosity, soil water content and maize yield were made among four water saving materials in Qingshuihe County of Inner Mongolia, the results showed that all the four water saving materials can change soil aggregates, increase soil total porosity, soil water content and maize yield, the order of their effects is treatment A (using PAA) >treatment B (using PAM) >treatment D (using bentonite) >treatment C (using humic acid). And in the 0-20 cm soil layer, the content of soil aggregates of >0.25 mm of A, B, C and D increased by 20.60, 15.95, 9.70 and 11.27%, respectively than that of CK, the soil bulk density of treatment decreased by 7.14, 5.00, 2.35 and 2.86%, respectively, the soil porosity increased by 6.91, 4.84, 2.07 and 2.76%, respectively. The water content of A, B, C and D of 10-20 cm in seedling stage increased by 43.26, 38.10, 5.91 and 17.20%, respectively than that of CK. The grain yield increased by 19.48, 15.22, 2.64 and 7.82%, respectively. So four water saving materials all had the effects of improving soil physical characters and crop yield, they can play important roles in improving soil quality of Loess Plateau, but the effects of PAA and PAM were better than the other two in the Loess Plateau.

Lu Tian; Jinghui Liu; Xiaoxia Guo; Lijun Li; Xia Liu

2013-01-01

189

Fusarium species complex and mycotoxins in grain maize from maize hybrid trials and from grower's fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To quantify and to compare the occurrence of Fusarium species in maize kernels and stalk pieces, to analyse mycotoxins in kernels and maize crop residues, to evaluate two approaches to obtain kernel samples and to compare two methods for mycotoxin analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of Fusarium species in maize kernels and stalk pieces from a three-year maize hybrid trial and 12 kernel samples from grower's fields was assessed. Nine to 16 different Fusarium species were detected in maize kernels and stalks. In kernels, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were the most prevalent species whereas in stalks, they were F. equiseti, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. In 2006, 68% of the kernel samples exceeded the recommended limit for pig feed for deoxynivalenol (DON) and 42% for zearalenone (ZON), respectively. Similarly, 75% of the samples from grower's fields exceeded the limits for DON and 50% for ZON. In maize crop residues, toxin concentrations ranged from 2.6 to 15.3 mg kg(-1) for DON and from 0.7 to 7.4 mg kg(-1) for ZON. Both approaches to obtain maize kernel samples were valid, and a strong correlation between mycotoxin analysis using ELISA and LC-MS/MS was found. CONCLUSIONS: The contamination of maize kernels, stalk pieces and remaining crop residues with various mycotoxins could pose a risk not only to animal health but also to the environment. With the hand-picked sample, the entire Fusarium complex can be estimated, whereas combine harvested samples are more representative for the mycotoxin contents in harvested goods. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first multi-year study investigating mycotoxin contamination in maize kernels as well as in crop residues. The results indicate a high need to identify cropping factors influencing the infection of maize by Fusarium species to establish recommendations for growers.

Dorn B; Forrer HR; Jenny E; Wettstein FE; Bucheli TD; Vogelgsang S

2011-09-01

190

Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

Paji? Zorica; Eri? Uroš; Srdi? Jelena; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Filipovi? Milomir

2008-01-01

191

INFLUENCE OF HERBICIDE APPLICATION TIMINGS, RATES AND ADJUVANT TYPE ON WEED CONTROL AND YIELD OF MAIZE GROWN FOR FORAGE  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 2008 and 2009 to develop an efficacious and cost-effective weed control program for maize. Herbicides containing terbuthylazine (Click 500 SC), nicosulfuron (Accent 75 WG) and tritosulfuron + dicamba (Mocarz 75 WG) were applied in tank-mixtures at reduced rates, sequentially at 14- to 18-day intervals with nonionic surfactant Trend 90 EC or methyleted seed oil adjuvant Atpolan Bio 80 EC. These standard herbicides were also applied once at recommended timing and rates, without adjuvant. Maize was infested mostly with Chenopodium album L., Polygonum convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. Broadleaf plus grass weed control with standard herbicide treatment of Click 500 SC, Accent 75 WG and Mocarz 75 WG was only 28, 6 and 21%, respectively. Herbicide tank-mixtures applied sequentially at reduced rates with adjuvants greatly increased weed control and weed control consistency that ranged between 92 and 99%. Atpolan Bio 80 EC was more effective adjuvant then Trend 90 EC. Sequential application of herbicide mixtures with adjuvants provided high increase of maize grain yield (as compared with the control by 9.36-10.38 t•ha-1) and high net return (from 4037 to 4482 PLN•ha-1). Benefits from standard herbicide treatments applied once at recommended rates without adjuvant were significantly lower (grain yield increase by 0.49-2.60 t•ha-1 and net return from -6 to1080 PLN•ha-1).

Zenon Wo?nica; Robert Idziak

2010-01-01

192

Determination of Optimum Level of Potash and its Effects on Yield and Quality of Maize  

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A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of potassium on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield and quality. The potash level comprised 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Kg K2O ha?1 while the maize hybrid was 922 single supper cross. Amongst the...

Aman Ullah Chaudhry; Javeed Khalid Malik

193

Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L.) Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I) Three Year Yield Performances  

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Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006) field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively) were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1) as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

Vincenzo Tabaglio; Carolina Gavazzi

2011-01-01

194

Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L.) Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I) Three Year Yield Performances  

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Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006) field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively) were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1) as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

Vincenzo Tabaglio; Carolina Gavazzi

195

Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris M.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host) were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control) was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control). Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid; Asif Tanveer

2012-01-01

196

Improving yield and nitrogen nutrition of maize (zea mays, L) through azotobacterization and sulphur fertilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The experiment was conducted in plastic pots each, containing 20 kg soil to study the effect of sulphur (20, 40, 60 kg S/ha) and azotobacter inoculation alone and in combination on the yield and nutrition of maize (cv. Azam). A basal dose of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and potash (K/sub 2/O) at 40, 80, 40 kg/ha was applied to each pot. The results revealed that increasing rates of sulphur application significantly improved the total biomass yield by 31.4 to 34.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 61.0 to 65.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. The effect of sulphur application in improving the total biomass and biomass N yield of maize was statistically at par with that of azotobacter inoculation alone. Application to sulphur at all the applied levels along with azotobacter inoculation further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 66.0 to 70.0 percent and total biomass N yield by 99.0 to 104.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. Azotobacterization of maize in the presence of sulphur fertilization further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 24.1 to 29.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 13.0 to 17.0 percent as compared to control receiving azotobacter alone. Inoculation of maize with azotobacter alone or in combination with sulphur markedly stimulated the azotobacter population in the root rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil sulphur alone had no effect in stimulating the azotobacter population in the rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil of maize plant. Azotobacterization of maize alone or in the presence of sulphur fertilization significantly improved the maize height. (author)

2001-01-01

197

Effects of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and efficiency of maize-bean intercropping  

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Full Text Available Nitrogen supply and plant population are basic parameters for cereal-legume intercropping. In order to study plant population and nitrogen fertilizer effects on yield and yield efficiency of maize-bean intercropping, a field experiment was established. Three bean plant populations and three nitrogen levels were used. Maize dry matter accumulation decreased with increases in bean plant population. Competitive effect of intercrop beans on maize yields was high at higher plant populations, being decreased by nitrogen fertilizer; application of 50 kg ha-1 N was very efficient in increasing maize cob yield. Intercropping significantly decreased harvest index of beans in all plant population and nitrogen fertilizer situations. The efficiency of intercropping, compared to sole cropping, was evidenced by the values obtained for Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) for biomass, cob and pod yields that increased with increases in bean plant populations and nitrogen fertilizer levels.

Morgado Luiz Balbino; Willey Robert William

2003-01-01

198

Soil physical characteristics and yield of wheat and maize as affected by mulching materials and sowing methods  

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Full Text Available Soil physical degradation due to agriculture activity is a pressing issue in Pakistan causing reduction in crop yields. The study was conducted to assess the effects of two sowing methods and two mulching materials on soil physical characteristics and yields of wheat and maize during 2008-10 at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results showed that Bed sowing method along with wheat straw mulch increased Leaf Area Index of wheat by 5 to 16%, and of maize by 4 to 14% compared with other treatments. This treatment also produced maximum 1000-grain weight (50.5 g) of wheat and maize (439.2g) as compared to flat sowing method where no mulch was applied. The highest grain yields of wheat (5017 kg ha-1) and maize (10.6 Mg ha-1) were recorded in Bed sowing + wheat straw mulch plots. Bed sowing alone decreased bulk density by 4% at 0-15 cm soil depth and 13.7% less soil penetration resistance (788.2 kPa) was noted. About 23.0% higher soil organic carbon contents (4.2 g kg-1) at 0-15 cm soil depth, 39.1% higher field saturated hydraulic conductivity (24.3 mm hr-1) and 14.2% higher infiltration rate (58.5 mm hr-1) were recorded compared to flood irrigated flat sowing. Furrow irrigated raised bed technique was found to be environment friendly in combination with farm manure compared to wheat straw having enhanced soil organic carbon contents.

Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Anwar-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Ghafoor; Allah Bakhsh

2013-01-01

199

FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD PERFORMANCES OF SOYBEAN LINES  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of twelve soybean genotypes as a forage and a grain crop in Marmara Region of Turkey in 2003-2004 growing seasons. Forage and dry matter yield and yield components at one vegetative stage (V5) and two reproductive stages (R2, and R4) and seed yield was determined in all soybean genotypes. The experiments showed that the harvest stages had signifi cant effects on forage and dry matter yield, and R4 reproductive stage had the highest forage and dry matter yield. Dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts was greatly affected by harvest stages, while the genotypes had little effect on dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts. There were statistically signifi cant differences between soybean genotypes in seed yield, but the differences were small. The correlations between forage and dry matter yield and seed yield were not statistically signifi cant.

Ugur BILGILI; Mehmet SINCIK; Abdurrahim GOKSOY; Zeki TURAN; Esvet ACIKGOZ

2006-01-01

200

Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain  

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Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-04-15

202

Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and Some Yield Components in Pea (Pisum sativum L.)  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the general and specific ability, the heterosis, heterobeltiosis for grain yield and some yield components in pea as a good source of plant protein. Grain yield and its inheritance were studied in four pea cultivar and three winter pea genotypes by crossing them in line x tester fashion. The General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) effects were highly significant, indicating the presence of both additive and non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of additive variance to dominance variance indicated the predominant role of non-additive gene action for all traits. Heterosis was determined as the superiority over the mid-parent (HMP) and also over the better parent (HBP). Hybrids generally showed a better yielding than their parental genotypes. Grain yield showed highly significant heterosis: 83.2% heterosis over mid-parent and 66.8% heterosis over better-parent, respectively. An estimate of heritability (narrow sense) was low due to the major role of environmental factors in expression of grain yield and yield components in pea. Thus, delay selection was suggested for breeding of stable yielding lines. Correlation studies showed that the grain yield was significant positive correlated with plant height, pod number, seeds of pod and pod yield. The highest direct effect was exhibited by pod yield, indirect effects, especially through the pod number in the parents and hybrids.

Ercan Ceyhanand Mehmet Ali Avci

2005-01-01

203

Vulnerability of maize yields to climate change in different farming sectors in Zimbabwe  

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The possible impact of climate change on maize (Zea mays L.) production in Zimbabwe was evaluated simulating crop production under climate scenarios generated by global climate models (GCMs). The baseline climate data for each site also was modified by increasing daily air temperatures by 2 and 4 C for a sensitivity analysis. Temperature increases of 2 and 4 C, reduced maize yields at all sites. Maize yields also decreased under the GCM climate change scenarios, even when the direct beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} are included in the simulation. Major changes in the farming system can compensate for some of the yield decreases under climate change, but the additional fertilizer, seed supplies, and irrigation required could be costly. The semi-extensive farming zone seems to be particularly sensitive to the changes in climate simulated. Farmers in this zone would be further marginalized if the risk of low maize yields increases as projected by the results of this study.

Muchena, P. [Plant Protection Research Inst., Causeway (Zimbabwe); Iglesias, A. [Inst. Nacional de Investigacion Tecnologia, Madrid (Spain). Centre de Investigacion Forestal

1995-12-31

204

Performance of Maize Genotypes on the Basis of Stability Analysis in Pakistan  

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Six maize genotypes were evaluated in National Uniform Maize Yield Trials across six contrasting locations having different agro-climatic conditions. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield indicated significant differences for genotypes across the environments, environment across genotypes and ...

H.I. Javed; M.A. Masood; S.R. Chughtai; H.N. Malik; M. Hussain; A. Saleem

205

Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum Cultivars Grown as Second Crop  

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Full Text Available This research was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 second crop season in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Block with three Replications. In the research, were used 24 grain sorghum cultivars to determine high yielding cultivars. The grain yields of the grain sorghum cultivars varied between 3383.8-8248.0 kg ha-1 in the research. In all the observed characters, statistically significant differences were determined among cultivars. As a result, DK 64 was determined as high yielding cultivars under Southeastern Anatolia Region irrigated conditions as second crops season.

Ismail Gul; Veysel Saruhan

2005-01-01

206

The distribution of crude protein and amino acid content in maize grain and soybean meal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the assumptions of normal distributions for crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) contents in feedstuffs. Data for maize grain and soybean meal (SBM) were collected from the Ajinomoto Heartland LLC laboratory analysis database between 2002 and 2008. Tests of normality for CP and selected AA were performed for both feedstuffs by using graphical methods (histogram and normal quantile-quantile plot) and numerical methods (skewness and Shapiro-Wilk procedure (W)). Relationships between CP and AA were also computed using linear and quadratic regression and W were used to test for normality of the internally Studentized residuals of the regression model. Results indicated that methionine (Met) and arginine (Arg) were not normally distributed in maize grain (P<0.05). In addition, CP, lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), Met, isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were not normally distributed in SBM (P<0.05). There were linear relationships between CP and most of the AA in maize grain and SBM, except for the relationship between CP and Thr, and CP and Ile in maize grain and CP and total sulfur amino acids (TSAA), and CP and Arg in SBM which were found to be non-linear (significant quadratic terms at P<0.05). The results indicate the need for normality testing of AA levels in feed ingredients prior to generating prediction equations for AA levels from CP. Assuming a normal distribution of CP and AA in critical feed ingredients may lead to an over or under estimated nutrient content in feed formulation. Even though the regression residuals are normally distributed in maize grain and SBM, other models beside linear and quadratic regression could be applied in order to accurately predict AA contents based on CP.

Sriperm N; Pesti GM; Tillman PB

2010-08-01

207

Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

2012-01-01

208

RELATIONS AMONG SIX MICRONUTRIENTS IN GRAIN DETERMINED IN A MAIZE POPULATION  

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Full Text Available Limited results are published about the relations among micronutrients in cereal grains, although micronutrients play important physiological roles in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine relations among boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in grain of 297 genotypes of a maize population measured by inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in two years. Correlation coefficients showed generally weak, though positive associations between individual micronutrient concentrations in both years. Principal component analysis revealed not the same relations among the micronutrients across two years, indicating the importance of environment. Still, close relations between Cu and Fe, and to lesser extent between B and Mo were observed in both years. Mn was consistently one of the least related micronutrients to others. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve density of various micronutrients in maize grain simultaneously, although the progress would be very slow.

Domagoj Šimi?; Zvonimir Zduni?; Antun Jambrovi?; Tatjana Leden?an; Ivan Brki?; Vinko Duvnjak; Vlado Kova?evi?

2009-01-01

209

Influence of Integrated Nutrients on Growth, Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrated nutrients effect on growth, yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) during spring, 2009, at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The ex-periment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications with following treat-ments: T1 (control), T2(recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1), T3 [single spray of multinutrient (a solution mixture of micronutrients i.e; Zn = 2%, Fe = 1%, B = 1%, Mn = 1%, Cu = 0.2% and macronutrients N = 1%, K2O = 2%, S = 2%) @ 1.25Lha-1], T4 (recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1 + single spray of multinutrient @ 1.25L ha-1), T5 (recom-mended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1 + two spray of multinutrient @1.25Lha-1) and T6 (recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1+ three spray of multinutrient @ 1.25Lha-1).The recommended dose of NPK in addition with single spray of Multi-nutrients substationally improved all growth parameters, ear characteristics and also enhanced macronutrients use efficiency up to 11.5% which induced significant increase in grain yield as compared to control and also in the treatment where recommended dose of NPK was applied alone. The quality parameter of maize (oil contents) significantly improved by foliar application of multinutrients solution but recommended dose of fertilizer in addition to single spray of Multi-nutrients was economical.

Ayten Saracoglu; Kemal Tolga Saracoglu; Belkis Aylu; Vural Fidan

2011-01-01

210

PHENOTYPIC GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS  

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Full Text Available Objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield as well as adaptability level of several domestic soybean cultivars. The trials were conducted on three locations in the region of the eastern Croatia (Osijek, Brijest, Donji Miholjac) in the period from 1998-2002 and involved 14 soybean cultivars. Tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. They belong to maturity groups 0, 0-I and I according to vegetation period length. Two parameters are used in the analysis of yield stability and cultivar adaptability: portion of variance of genotype x environment interaction of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxE) and regression coefficient (bi). Obtained results indicated significant differences in level and stability of grain yield as well as level of cultivar adaptability. Six of the 14 tested cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Smiljana, Kuna, Anica and Tisa had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Other tested cultivars had unstable grain yield and narrow (specific) adaptability.

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Tomislav Duvnjak; Juraj Klari?

2003-01-01

211

Spatial variability of rainfall and yield of maize in a semiarid region. [Zea mays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of nonuniform rainfall distribution patterns on the variability of maize yield and soil water use was studied with the aid of the analyses of rainfall and evapotranspiration data of a semiarid region. The analyses enabled the authors to define homogeneous areas of soil water availability through the application of a geostatistic algorithm developed for the computation of semivariograms, autocorrelograms and crosscorrelation functions. Water economy and yield of nonirrigated maize grown at each homogeneous area is evaluated through the application of a modification of Hank's yield-evapotranspiration model. To optimize rainfall use by the crop under semiarid conditions, the effect of differences in soil water availability and maize varietal responses to water stress are evaluated. Results indicate that, when these differences are considered in the selection of maize cultivars, a significant increment in total regional production can be expected.

Gurovich, L.A.; Ramos, R.

1985-01-01

212

Análise econômica da produtividade de grãos de milho consorciado com forrageiras dos gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum em sistema plantio direto/ Economic analysis of grain yield of maize intercropped with forage plants of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in no-tillage system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) é uma alternativa de recuperação e renovação de pastagens degradadas, contudo, é importante mostrar sua viabilidade econômica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na ILP, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2009/2010, em Selvíria-MS, em (more) Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com as forrageiras Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e cv. Mombaça. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de cultivo não reduziram a produtividade de grãos em relação ao milho cultivado sem consórcio, e o consórcio mais recomendado é o milho cultivado com B. ruziziensis, principalmente em semeadura simultânea, pois além de ter sido um dos mais produtivos, o preço dessa semente é o mais acessível, vindo alcançar maior Índice de Lucratividade que os demais tratamentos. Em geral, os cultivos simultâneos foram os mais produtivos, vindo a apresentar maior Receita Bruta, Custo Operacional Total (devido à aplicação do herbicida Sanson), menor Lucro Operacional (com exceção do MBS) e maior Índice de Lucratividade. Abstract in english The integrated crop-livestock (ILP) is an alternative recovery and renewal of degraded pastures; however, it is important to show its economic viability. The objective of this research was to analyse the yields and economic outcomes of modalities of growing corn with fodder of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in the ILP under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2009/2010 in Selvíria - MS, Brazil, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol). The (more) experimental design was a randomized complete block with four repetitions and the treatments consisted of eight methods of cultivation of maize intercropped with Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania, Panicum maximum jacq cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst.) Stapf cv. MG-5, or Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, sown simultaneously or at side dressing nitrogen fertilization, besides single grown corn. The operating cost analysis was based on prices of inputs and operations, and gross revenue in the average selling price of corn in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The cropping systems didn't reduce the grain yield for maize comparatively to single grown, and the consotium more recommended is corn with B. ruziziensis, especially in simultaneously sowing, because besides being one of the most productive, the price of this seed is the most affordable, obtaining larger Profitability Index than the other treatments. In general, the simultaneous crops were the most productive, having a higher Gross Income, Total Operating Cost (due to herbicide application Sanson), lower Operating Profit (excluding MBS) and higher Profitability Index.

Garcia, Cássia Maria de Paula; Andreotti, Marcelo; Tarsitano, Maria Aparecida Anselmo; Teixeira Filho, Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto; Lima, Ana Elisa da Silva; Buzetti, Salatiér

2012-04-01

213

Effect of Sowing Methods and Seed Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Pak-81  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results revealed that sowing method greatly affected the number of fertile tillers, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index value whereas grain spike-1 and 1000-grain weight were non significant. Among the method pora method supersede broadcast method. Similarly seed rates also highly significantly affected the grain yield and yield components except 1000- grain weight. Seed rate of 175 kg ha-1 produced grain yield of 5325. 13 kg ha-1 and proved to be the most economical seed rate. Though the interaction of methods and seed rates on number of fertile tillers and biological yield were highly significant, all other parameters were non significantly affected

Hayatullah Khan; Muhammad Ayaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain; Muhamad Zaman Khan; Masood Khan Khattak

2000-01-01

214

FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

Oliveira, Antônio Costa de; Carvalho, Fernando Irajá Félix de; Maia, Luciano Carlos da; Silva, José Antônio Gonzalez da; Crestani, Maraisa; Nornberg, Rafael; Hartwig, Irineu; Benin, Giovani

2012-06-01

215

Estimating irrigation use and effects on maize yield during the 2003 heatwave in France  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The decline in maize yield and production during the 2003 heatwave and associated drought in France was only partly minimized by irrigation. National 2003 maize yield loss equalled ?1.5tha?¹ compared to the 2000-2006 average. Spatially distributed maize irrigated area percentages were calculated earlier () and correlate negatively to the 2003 yield anomaly between 44.5° and 48° latitude. The percentages are used to weigh irrigated and rainfed simulations with the EPIC crop growth model that runs on a 10 by 10km grid with relevant land use, terrain, soil and management information. Maize was not irrigated in one simulation while other simulations allowed for daily, weekly and biweekly irrigation with a maximum application of 60mmday?¹. The model reasonably reproduces regionally reported yields from 1999 to 2003. In regions with maize area irrigation percentages >20% yield loss in 2003 was reduced by ?53% relative to regions with maize irrigation percentages <20%. Similarly, simulated yield loss was compensated by irrigation by ?25% with biweekly and by ?42% with weekly irrigation in these regions. Even though yield loss was lower in regions with higher maize irrigation percentages; yield loss was still very considerable. Modelling suggests that regional drought mitigation increased with increasing maize irrigation percentages between 0 and 40%. At higher irrigation percentages the compensating effect of irrigation was small. Although the current irrigation infrastructure is sufficient under normal meteorological conditions, areas without irrigation infrastructure experienced high irrigation requirements during the extreme conditions in 2003. Since increasing the irrigation frequency from two weeks to one week had a significant impact on maize yield in 2003, but not in 2002, the most appropriate difference in irrigation rate is provided by the difference between the biweekly rate in 2002 (484mmyear?¹) and the weekly rate in 2003 (743mmyear?¹) which equals 259mmyear?¹. This corresponds to an increase in irrigation water use of ?1761millionm³ compared to 2002 (?0.68millionha of irrigated maize). Adapting to increased frequency of droughts under further climate change will require robust water allocation policies.

van der Velde Marijn; Wriedt Gunter; Bouraoui Fayçal

2010-01-01

216

Yield and Quality of Barley Grain as Influenced by Nitrogen Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels (0, 50, and 100 kg ha-1) on grain yield, yield components and quality of barley grain. Grain yield was increased progressively with nitrogen application up to 100 kg ha-1. Higher grain yield with nitrogen ...

M. Ayub; I. A.P. Dewi; A. Tanveer

217

Suitability of some selected maize hybrids from Serbia for the production of bioethanol and dried distillers' grains with solubles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is mostly produced from starchy parts of the corn grain kernel leaving significant amounts of valuable by-products such as dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) which can be used as a substitute for traditional feedstuff. The suitability of six maize hybrids from Serbia was investigated for bioethanol and DDGS production. The correlation between physical and chemical characteristics of the grain, bioethanol yield and quality of the corresponding DDGS was assessed. RESULTS: All hybrids had very different chemical composition and physical characteristics which could allow various applications. The highest bioethanol yield (94.5% of theoretical) and volumetric productivity (2.01 g l(-1) h(-1)) were obtained with hybrid ZP 434 and the lowest with ZP 611k. Regarding chemical composition, all DDGS samples manifested good properties as feed components. Their protein content was higher compared to the kernel. In addition, the samples showed high digestibility and high mineral content, especially of calcium and phosphorus. CONCLUSION: A hybrid ZP 434 was selected as the most promising bioethanol producer. This property is attributed to the highest level of soft endosperm which is more susceptible to starch-hydrolysing enzymes. A high yield potential per hectare makes it the best candidate for commercial bioethanol production.

Semen?enko VV; Mojovi? LV; Duki?-Vukovi? AP; Radosavljevi? MM; Terzi? DR; Milašinovi? Šeremeši? MS

2013-03-01

218

Closing the yield gap could reduce projected greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of maize production in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the goal of doubling food demand while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental damage has become widely accepted, the dominant agricultural paradigm still considers high yields and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity to be in conflict with one another. Here, we achieved an increase in maize yield of 70% in on-farm experiments by closing the yield gap and evaluated the trade-off between grain yield, nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and GHG emissions. Based on two groups of N application experiments in six locations for 16 on-farm site-years, an integrated soil-crop system (HY) approach achieved 93% of the yield potential and averaged 14.8 Mg ha(-1) maize grain yield at 15.5% moisture. This is 70% higher than current crop (CC) management. More importantly, the optimal N rate for the HY system was 250 kg N ha(-1) , which is only 38% more N fertilizer input than that applied in the CC system. Both the N2 O emission intensity and GHG intensity increased exponentially as the N application rate increased, and the response curve for the CC system was always higher than that for the HY system. Although the N application rate increased by 38%, N2 O emission intensity and the GHG intensity of the HY system were reduced by 12% and 19%, respectively. These on-farm observations indicate that closing the yield gap alongside efficient N management should therefore be prominent among a portfolio of strategies to meet food demand while reducing GHG intensity at the same time.

Cui Z; Yue S; Wang G; Meng Q; Wu L; Yang Z; Zhang Q; Li S; Zhang F; Chen X

2013-08-01

219

Relationship Between Grain Filling Rate, Grain Filling Duration, Yield Components and Other Physiological Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

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Full Text Available Relationship between grain filling rate , grain filling duration, yield components and other physiological traits of rice was investigated in 93 genotypes of rice at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht, Iran) during the growing season of 2001-2002. The experiment was performed without any statistical design. Panicles of main stem were tagged and taken at 3- day intervals during the grain filling period. A cubic polynomial model was used to fit the grain dry weight data (mean of R2= 0.98 for all genotypes) and the grain filling rate and duration estimated for the genotypes. Traits related to sink capacity such as grain weight, grain size and grain number per panicle correlated with grain filling rate but source -capacity- related traits except chlorophyll content of flag leaf and secondary leaf did not correlate with grain filling rate. Stepwise regression showed that final grain weight, grain filling duration and flag leaf angle contributed to grain filling rate, however, path analysis showed that only final grain weight and grain filling duration had the greatest effect on grain filling rate. The results of stepwise regression irrespective of final grain weight showed that chlorophyll content of flag leaf, grain width, grain filling duration and grain length contributed to grain filling rate. Path analysis results showed that the final grain weight had the greatest direct positive effect on grain filling rate, while grain filling duration had negative effect on grain filling rate.

M. Mojtabaie Zamani; M. Esfahany; R. Honarnejad; M. Alahgholipour

2007-01-01

220

AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY AND YIELD MONITOR DATA FOR ESTIMATING GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD VARIABILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

As hyperspectral imagery is becoming more available, it is necessary to evaluate its potential for crop monitoring and precision agriculture applications. In this study airborne hyperspectral imagery was examined for estimating grain sorghum yield variability as compared with yield monitor data. H...

 
 
 
 
221

Grain and tortilla quality in landraces and improved maize grown in the highlands of Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The maize produced in the highlands of Mexico (>2,400 masl) is generally not accepted by the flour and masa and tortilla industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain quality and tortilla properties of maize landraces commonly grown in the highlands of Mexico and compare them with improved germplasm (hybrids). Germplasm analysis included 11 landraces, 32 white hybrids, and six yellow hybrids. Grain quality was analyzed for a range of physical and chemical factors, as well as for alkaline cooking quality. Landrace grains tended to be heterogeneous in terms of size, hardness and color. All landraces had soft-intermediate grains with an average flotation index (FI) of 61%. In contrast, hybrid grains were homogenous in size and color, and harder than landrace grains, with a FI of 38%. Protein, free sugars, oil and phenolic content in landraces were higher than in the hybrids. Significant correlations were found between phenolic content and tortilla color (r=?-0.60; p<0.001). Three landraces were identified as appropriate for the masa and tortilla industry, while all the hybrids evaluated fulfilled the requirements of this industry.

Vázquez-Carrillo G; García-Lara S; Salinas-Moreno Y; Bergvinson DJ; Palacios-Rojas N

2011-06-01

222

Yield and water consumption characteristics of wheat/maize intercropping with reduced tillage in an Oasis region  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Higher irrigation quota for conventional farming causes substantial conflicts between water supply and demand in agriculture, and wind erosion near soil surface is one of the major causes of farmland degradation and desertification in arid areas. This research investigated the effect of the amounts of irrigation in combination with tillage practices on soil evaporation (E), water consumption (ET) characteristics, and grain yield performance and water use efficiency (WUE) for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) in strip planting in an Oasis region. The field experiment, conducted at Wuwei station during 2008–2010, had two tillage systems (reduced tillage with wheat stubble retention vs. conventional tillage without stubble retention), and three (low, medium, and high) levels of irrigation, in a randomized complete block design. Averaged across three years, soil evaporation with medium and high levels of irrigation was 6.8% and 5.4% greater than that with low level of irrigation, respectively. Total water consumption of wheat/maize crops under the medium and high irrigation levels was 8.5% and 18.5% greater, respectively, than that under low irrigation. However, grain yields were similar under the medium and high levels of irrigation, so was WUE. The effect of tillage on the wheat/maize intercropping was inconsistent across years or among treatments: soil moisture at harvest was 3.0–7.6% greater in the fields with reduced tillage compared with those with conventional tillage in 2008 and 2009, but no difference was found in 2010; the E/ET ratio of reduced tillage was 9% lower than the ratio under conventional tillage in 2008, 3% higher in 2010, but no difference between the two tillage systems in 2009. Across three years, there was a general trend that the WUE of the wheat/maize intercropping system with reduced tillage was greater (by 4–11%) than that with conventional tillage. We conclude that a medium level of irrigation is sufficient to achieve crop yields and WUE equivalent to those under high level of irrigation, provided that a reduced tillage practice is applied to the wheat/maize intercropping in Oasis areas.

Fan Z; Chai Q; Huang G; Yu A; Huang P; Yang C; Tao Z; Liu H

2013-02-01

223

CREEPING THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE (L.) SCOP.) – AN IMPORTANT COMPETITOR OF NUTRIENTS CONSUMPTION IN GRAIN MAIZE STANDS (ZEA MAYS L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the competition ability of creeping thistle to grain maize stands during vegetation period, to establish the nutrient equivalents according the elements content in plants and to find out the coherence between competitive relations of grain maize and creeping thistle. In 2002 – 2004 nutrient equivalents of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) in grain maize stands (Zea mays L.) were researched on experimental fields of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (locality Nitra – Dolná Malanta). The ratio between nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in dry mass weight of creeping thistle and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in dry mass weight of grain maize was compute as nutrient equivalent. The creeping thistle has shown the higher competitive ability against grain maize expressed as nutrient equivalent in May 2004 (soil dryness condition). It declined about in order June 2003 ? June 2004 ? May 2003 ? May 2002 ? June 2002. Creeping thistle with comparison to grain maize absorbed in average 1.09 – 1.65 N, 1.12 – 1.16 P, 0.87 – 2.51 K, 2.59 – 11.29 Ca and 0.82 – 1.74 Mg (table 3). Ca was the most drawn element from soil during all observed period 2002 – 2004. The competitive ability of creeping thistle in grain maize was the highest in water deficit conditions mainly, lower competition ability was recorded in sufficient soil moisture conditions. Nutrients absorption by grain maize and creeping thistle was affected by an individual climatic characteristics in each year.

Emil LÍŠKA; Elena HUNKOVÁ; Eva DEMJANOVÁ

2008-01-01

224

Yield and Quality of Barley Grain as Influenced by Nitrogen Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels (0, 50, and 100 kg ha-1) on grain yield, yield components and quality of barley grain. Grain yield was increased progressively with nitrogen application up to 100 kg ha-1. Higher grain yield with nitrogen application was related to higher number of fertile tillers, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 gave significantly lower grain crude protein percentage both in grain and straw than O kg N ha-1. Modified acid detergent fibre percentage of straw and grain was not affected by the application of nitrogen.

M. Ayub; I. A.P. Dewi; A. Tanveer

1999-01-01

225

Dry matter partitioning, grain filling and grain yield in wheat genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an experiment with new hexaploid wheat lines existing lines and other tetraploids was conducted in the Rabi (post-rainy) 2001 and 2002 dry seasons. The data on yield and yield components shows that the tetraploids had more spikes plant-1 but fewer seeds spike-1 and a lower seed weight spike-1. The most important yield component the 1000-grain yield was shown by the hexaploids. The new hexaploid lines DL-1266-1 and DL-1266-2 had the maximum grain growth rate at 5 – 15 days after anthesis (DAA). Line DL-1266-2 had the highest grain growth rate 0.09 g g-1 day-1. Photosynthetic rate values showed that the hexaploids had a higher rate than the tetraploids. Generally, at 7 and 15 DAA, the photosynthetic rate was higher compared to 25 DAA and 35 DAA. It appears that in the high yielding hexaploids (DL-1266-1 & DL-1266-2) a better photosynthetic rate and better mobilization of photosynthates during grain filling contributes to their higher yield

Sridhar Gutam

2011-01-01

226

Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The maize area in northern Europe has increased dramatically during the last 20 years, in Denmark from 19,000 ha in 1990 to 172,000 ha in 2010. Knowledge about nitrogen (N) leaching from maize under temperate coastal climate conditions is sparse. In 2009 an N leaching study was started in a field trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize, each previous long-term treatment with soil tillage and cover crop was sub-divided into two, one with perennial ryegrass as cover crop and one without cover crop. The maize was sown in 2009 and 2010 and fertilized with 140 kg N ha-1. The objectives were to determine the effects on leaching of i) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn due to strong competition from the maize crop. The experiment shows that it is difficult for the perennial ryegrass variety used as cover crop to survive until harvest of grain maize and to reduce leaching substantially.

Hansen, Elly MØller

227

Genetics and statistical association between lethal alleles and quantitative yield factors in maize (Zea mays l.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los procesos genéticos relacionados con el vigor híbrido (heterosis) y la identificación de QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) en el maíz. Para obtener los resultados, se construyó un modelo biométrico usando los formalismos relacionados a las cadenas absorbentes discretas de Markov en forma canónica, con el fin de analizar la evolución de segmentos cromosómicos, con genes recesivos letales ligados con factores de rendimiento e (more) n grano a través de las sucesivas generaciones. El rendimiento en grano obtenido de una línea de maíz regulada por un sistema de letales balanceados y otras líneas sin este sistema como testigo, se evaluó durante 5 generaciones de endocría. El uso de la teoría de las cadenas de Markov con el fin de estudiar la evolución durante estas generaciones fue una aproximación diferente a los métodos matemáticos clásicos. Abstract in english The objective of this work is to study the genetic process related to the hybrid vigour (heterosis) and the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in maize. A biometric model was built using the mathematical formalism relating to the discrete absorbent Markov chain in canonical form, in order to analyse the evolution of chromosome segments, with recessive lethal genes linked with grain yield factors through generations. The grain yield obtained from an inbred mai (more) ze line regulated by a balanced lethal system, and other lines without this system as control, were evaluated during five inbreeding generations. The use of the Markov chain theory for the study of evolution during these generations was a different approach of the classical mathematical ones.

Salerno, Juan Carlos; Kandus, Mariana; Boggio Ronceros, R.; Sorarrain, O.; González, Cecilia; Almorza, David

2007-06-01

228

Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Khorramabad, Lorestan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is necessary to use organic fertilizers and decrease chemical fertilizers consumption to reach sustainable agriculture. Thus, to study the effects of manure incorporation methods, and integrated effects of poultry manure with chemical fertilizers on the grain yield and yield components of maize, an experiment was conducted in 2004 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Lorestan Weather Department, 30 kms northeast of Khorramabad. The treatments were arranged in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of incorporation of fertilizer with soil by furrower or disk. The subplots included T0: control (no consumption of fertilizer and poultry manure); T1: 200, 100, and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively; T2: 80% of T1+ 4 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T3: 60% of T1+ 8 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T4: 40% of T1+ 12 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T5: 20% of T1+ 16 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; and T6: 20 ton ha-1 of poultry manure. The results showed that incorporation of fertilizer by furrower, compared with disk, led to significant increase in plant height, 1000 seed weight and grain and biological yields. However, there were not significant differences in the number of seed per ear and harvest index between the two fertilizer incorporation methods. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increase of the treats mentioned except for the harvest index. The interaction effects were not significant for any traits. T5 treatment produced the highest grain yield, and was significantly different from T0, T1, T3 and T6 treatments. The differences between T1 (chemical nutrition system) and T6 (organic nutrition system) were not significant either. Effectiveness of integrated poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on maize yield components was higher than either poultry manure or chemical fertilizer. The results of this experiment indicated that incorporation of 16 ton poultry manure + 40, 20 and 20 kg ha-1 N, P and K with furrower might be appropriate for maize prodution under conditions similar to this experiment.

S. Fallah; A. Ghalavand; M. R. Khajehpour

2007-01-01

229

A rapid technique for detection of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus from maize grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty-five isolates of Aspergillus flavus isolated from maize grains were tested by cultural method for aflatoxin detection, which is inexpensive and rapid. Four isolates were found highly toxigenic with dark red colour development while 8 were moderately toxigenic and 10 mildly toxigenic, which showed dark pink and light pink colour after treatment, respectively. Among all isolates tested, only three isolates viz. AF14 AF20 and AF25 were found non-toxigenic by ammonia vapour test. Among the media tested, maximum colour change was observed for colonies grown on Yeast Ex1ract Sucrose Agar followed by Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapek Dox Agar. All media tested, favoured the aflatoxin production. The results of Ammonia Vapour Test were in agreement up to 92% with the result of toxin detection by thin layer chromatography. The nontoxic strains of A. flavus are being further evaluated for their efficacy as potential biocontrol agent to reduce mould infection in maize grains.

SANGITKUMAR, MEENA SHEKHAR*, ASHRAF All KHAN and PANKAJ SHARMA

2011-01-01

230

Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought.

Swamy BP Mallikarjuna; Vikram Prashant; Dixit Shalabh; Ahmed HU; Kumar Arvind

2011-01-01

231

Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. RESULTS: The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought.

Swamy BP; Vikram P; Dixit S; Ahmed HU; Kumar A

2011-01-01

232

Produtividade de milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde/ Yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A utilização de espécies antecessoras ao milho, capazes de fornecer nitrogênio pela fixação simbiótica ou reciclagem de nutrientes, é importante para a manutenção da produtividade. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produtividade do milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: milho cultivado sobre a palhada de aveia preta, aveia preta + na (more) bo forrageiro, aveia preta + tremoço branco, tremoço branco, crambe, vegetação espontânea e vegetação espontânea + adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, para a produtividade de grãos. O milho cultivado com a utilização de palhada de aveia preta + tremoço branco foi o mais produtivo (10.817 kg ha-1), apresentando rendimento superior e diferindo do milho cultivado sobre palhada de aveia preta, crambe e vegetação espontânea. O uso de tremoço branco, aveia preta + tremoço branco e aveia preta + nabo forrageiro é uma alternativa viável para se obter maior rendimento de grãos de milho, dispensando a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Abstract in english The use of previous crops which have the capacity of supplying nitrogen to maize by symbiotic fixation or nutrient recycling is important to yield maintenance. This study aimed at evaluating the yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization. A completely randomized blocks design was used with four replications and the following treatments: maize grown on black oat, black oat + oilseed radish, black oat + white lupin, white lupin, crambe, spontaneous vegetation (more) (fallow ground) and spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) + topdressing nitrogen fertilization. Concerning grain yield, significant differences were observed among treatments. The maize grown on black oat + white lupin straw reached the highest yield (10,817 kg ha-1), resulting in a higher income and differing from the one grown on black oat and crambe straw and spontaneous vegetation. The use of white lupin, black oat + white lupin and black oat + oilseed radish showed to be a viable alternative for a higher grain yield, making the topdressing nitrogen fertilization unnecessary.

Lázaro, Rafael de Lima; Costa, Antonio Carlos Torres da; Silva, Keoma de Freitas da; Sarto, Marcos Vinicius Mansano; Duarte Júnior, José Barbosa

2013-03-01

233

Correlations of yield and grain yield components of winter wheat varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mean positive correlation (r = 0,47**) between grain yield and number of plants per m² and strong correlation between grain yield and number of spikes per m² were established (r = 0,55**). Weak correlation was established between grain yield and productive tillering (r = 0,24**). Strong positive correlation (r = 0,51**) is between the number of spikes per m² and productive tillering, as well as between the number of plants per m² and number of spikes per m² (r = 0,68**). Very weak negative correlation (r = -0,12*) is between productive tillering and the number of plants per m². Regression equations of grain yield and other investigated traits, on the level of significance 5% and 1%, have linear form. By increasing one plant per m², the number of spikes for one per m², productive tillering for one, grain yield will be increased for 0,006 t/ha, 0,005 t/ha and 1,174 t/ha on the average. The other regression equations between the number of spikes per m², number of plants per m² and productive tillering have linear form. By increasing one plant per m² and productive tillering for one, the increase of number of spikes per m² is 1,087 and 312,21 on the average. By increasing the number of plants per m², productive tillering is reduced for 47,59 on the average.

Proti? Rade; Todorovi? Goran; Proti? Nada

2009-01-01

234

Efficacy of grain protectants against four psocid species on maize, rice and wheat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psocids are emerging pests in stored products, particularly in amylaceous commodities such as grains. Currently, their control is based on the use of fumigants and contact insecticides; however, newer data indicate that psocids are tolerant to insecticides used to control other stored-grain species. This study evaluated the insecticides registered in the USA for use on stored maize, rice and wheat for control of the psocid species Lepinotus reticulatus, Liposcelis entomophila, L. bostrychophila and L. paeta. Mortality of exposed adult females was recorded after 7 and 14 days of exposure, while progeny production was assessed after 30 days of exposure. RESULTS: On wheat and rice, chlorpyriphos-methyl + deltamethrin was generally more effective against exposed parental adults than spinosad or pyrethrin, while pirimiphos-methyl was more effective on maize than spinosad or pyrethrin. In most cases, progeny production was suppressed in the treated grains. Progeny production was consistently lowest on wheat and rice treated with chlorpyriphos-methyl + deltamethrin and maize treated with pirimiphos-methyl. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorpyriphos-methyl + deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl were the most effective insecticides for all species and commodities. Conversely, efficacy of spinosad or pyrethrum was highly dependent on the psocid species and commodity.

Athanassiou CG; Arthur FH; Throne JE

2009-10-01

235

Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h.

1988-01-01

236

Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient ? for maize grains (Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

2013-06-01

237

Effects of heat stress during grain filling on the structure and thermal properties of waxy maize starch.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clarifying the waxy maize starch physicochemical characteristics response to heat stress could modify starch quality. The effects of heat stress during grain filling (1-40day after pollination) on starch structure and thermal properties of four waxy maize varieties were investigated. The mean day/night temperature during grain filling for heat stress and control treatments was 35.2/16.1°C and 27.4/15.6°C, respectively. Heat stress during grain filling increased the starch average granule size and the proportion of long chains in amylopectin. Starch granules under heat stress presented more pitting or uneven surfaces. X-ray peak intensities in response to heat stress were variety dependent. Heat stress during grain filling decreased the swelling power and increased the gelatinization temperature and retrogradation percentage, while the gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. In conclusion, heat stress during grain filling significantly affected structural characteristics of waxy maize starch and consequently, changed its swelling and thermal properties.

Lu D; Shen X; Cai X; Yan F; Lu W; Shi YC

2014-01-01

238

Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols) were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and Mollic gleysols. Farmers also identified the soil fertility management niches in terms of topography, physical discontinuities, management and classified them as productive or unproductive. The productive niches occupied between 0.25 to 0.30 ha and were used for maize, bananas and vegetables production. Non-productive niches were between 1.5 to 6.0 ha and were either left fallow or used for maize and sweet potato production. Productive niches had a pH of 5.3% C of 2.3 and silt fraction of 232 g kg-1 and maize yield of 4.3 t ha-1. Non productive niches had a pH of 3.99, % C of 1.9 and a silt fraction of 193 g kg-1 and maize yield of 2.8 t ha-1. Management should target processes that enhance these variables in addition to incorporating the farmers` local knowledge.

I.M. Tabu; R.K. Obura; A. Bationo; L. Nakhone

2005-01-01

239

The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

Deleti? Nebojša; Stojkovi? Slaviša; Gudži? Slaviša; Biberdži? Milan

2009-01-01

240

Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf.) in Thrace Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lüleburgaz and Edirne) during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003). Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, K?z?ltan95, Ayd?n 93 and Alt?n 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

O.Bilgin; K.Z. Korkut; I. Baser; O. Daglioglu; I. Ozturk; T. Kahraman

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

2006-01-01

242

Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002) was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma) had acacia (Aftl), four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino) normal (AfTl) and four (Jezero, 4(1993), CD and Primeroy) afila (afTl) leaf type. Average plant height (PH), first pod height (FPH), internode number (IN), pod number per plant (PNP), grain number per plant (GNP), plant mass (PM), grain yield per plant (GYP) and per area unit (GYA), harvest index (HI) and thousand grains weight (TGW) were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm), FPH (43.5 cm), IN (18.9), PNP (8.7), GNP (34.2), PM (15.89 g) and GYP (6.97 g). The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56), GYA (2980 t/ha) and TGW (255 g). As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm), FPH (68,6 cm). IN (22.2), PNP (11.3), GNP (42.5) and PM (17.95 g). Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g), while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993)(0,60). The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha) and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g).

Mihailovi? Vojislav M.; Miki? Aleksandar M.

2004-01-01

243

Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation ...

Brou Kouakou; Gbogouri Albarin; Ocho Anin Louise; Djeni N`Dede Theodore; Kone Youssouf; Gnakri Dago

244

Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains  

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Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti), originating from maize kernels (61) and wheat grains (32), were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7) or apathogenic (10). Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

Sonja Tan?i?; Slavica Stankovi?; Jelena Levi?

2009-01-01

245

Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos/ Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N) disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF), a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE) em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M), aveia + ervilhaca (more) /milho + caupi (A+E/M+C) e ervilhaca/milho (E/M) e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1) aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M) e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C). Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1). Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE), o maior IAF (4,41) e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%), enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE) e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE). O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N) to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI), shoot dry matter (SDM) production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata) and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg (more) ha-1) applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1). The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1). With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41) and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

França, Solange; Mielniczuk, João; Rosa, Luís M. G.; Bergamaschi, Homero; Bergonci, João I.

2011-11-01

246

An Approach on Yielding Performance in Maize under Varying Plant Densities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the yielding performance of F1 single maize hybrids and their mechanical mixture in three plant densities and in two different years. Experiments were conducted in the farm of TEI of Larissa in 2000 and 2001. The genetic material used was consisted of commercial and experimental F1 single-cross maize hybrids and their balanced mechanical mixture for each year. It was found that there was a tension for increasing field yields of almost all hybrids when the plant density was increasing. This was very clear for year 2000, but in 2001 this was found only for the middle density in comparison to the low density because of the presence of common smut. Only hybrid Dias was the exception, with decreasing field yield when the plant density was increasing. The increasing plant density resulted in increasing CV values and number of barren plants. The performance of the mechanical mixture of all hybrids was similar to the mean performance of the hybrids when grown separately. This kind of performance was rendered to the genetic background of modern hybrids, in a way that under stress conditions (allocompetition, density effects) they express stable performance. In general, modern commercial maize hybrids increase field yields under increasing plant density and they can be used as a mixture without decreasing yielding performance. It is possible that allocompetition is not a stronger stress factor than isocompetition in modern maize hybrids.

B. Vafias; C.G. Ipsilandis; C. Goulas; P.N. Deligeorgidis

2006-01-01

247

Effect of Sowing Methods and Seed Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Pak-81  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results revealed that sowing method greatly affected the number of fertile tillers, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index value whereas grain spike-1 and 1000-grain weight were non significant. Among the method pora method supersede broadcast method. Similarly seed rates als...

Hayatullah Khan; Muhammad Ayaz Khan; Iqtidar Hussain; Muhamad Zaman Khan; Masood Khan Khattak

248

Effect of Soil Fertility Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Maize Yield in Smallholder Farmers Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soil fertility management and N fertilizer rates on maize yield in farmers` fields. Participatory (transect walks and soil mapping) and laboratory analysis methods were used to identify and quantify the soil fertility management niches. A Completely Randomized Block Design experiment was then conducted whereby hybrid maize (H625) was planted in plot sizes (4 x 5) m2 and N treatments 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1 applied. A significant interaction between soil type and soil fertility management niche showed that farmers` practice could improve crop yield irrespective of indigenous fertility. Optimal N fertilizer rate in the productive niches ranged from 20 to 40 kg N ha-1. The non-productive soil fertility niches required more than 60 kg N ha-1 leading to the conclusion that site-specific nitrogen management is important for maize production in farmers` fields.

I.M. Tabu; R.K. Obura; A. Bationo; L. Mumera

2006-01-01

249

YIELD OF MAIZE-BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA INTERCROPPING AFFECTED BY FERTILIZER LOCATION AND APPLICATION OF HERBICIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The maize-brachiaria brizantha intercropping (Zea mays-Brachiaria brizantha) is the technology ofgreatest interest in crop-livestock integration. In order to study this intercropping system, different base fertilizationstrategies were evaluated (intra and inter-row of maize) and also the use of suboptimal doses of herbicide to control theBrachiaria growth in soil with improved fertility. Growth and yield of maize were not affected neither by intercroppingwith Brachiaria, even without chemical control of the grass, nor by the location of the fertilizer. On the other hand,the growth of signal grass was lower when intercropped and presented lower growth within the maize row comparedto plants cultivated inter-rows. The herbicide delayed Brachiaria growth. The greatest growth of inter-row Brachiariacompared to that of intra-rows was attributed to the lower pressure exerted by maize and to the inter-row fertilization. Theresults allow to recommend (to chemically recovered soil), the base fertilization of maize-Brachiaria intercropping at theproportion 33.3-33.3-33.3% or 25-50-25% at planting furrows and only side-fertilization for Brachiaria, for integratedcrop-livestock, rather than the current recommendation of 100% of the fertilizer in the row of corn (00-100-00).

RAMON COSTA ALVARENGA; MIGUEL MARQUES GONTIJO NETO; ANDRÉA APARECIDA DUTRA NAVES DE CASTRO; ANTÔNIO MARCOS COELHO; ELIANE DE PAULA CLEMENTE

2011-01-01

250

EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE AND COLOR OF WHOLE-GRAIN FLOURS OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE (QPM) AND NORMAL MAIZE CULTIVARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whole-grain flours of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) and normal maize were extruded under controlled conditions in order to evaluate the effect of extrusion on the essential amino acids profile and color of the raw material used in the production of maize based extrudates. Flours were conditioned to 150g/kg moisture and processed in a single screw extruder at a screw compression ratio of 3:1, screw speed of 80 rpm, and die head temperature of 1300C, using two different die nozzle diameters (3 and 5 mm). Extrusion caused a diminishment in the contents of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine and valine when compared to their original flours (P0.05). QPM samples, either raw or extruded, were significantly higher in lysine, methionine and tryptophan compared to samples of normal maize (P<0.05). Extrudates produced with yellow QPM flours were lighter than their correspondent raw material (P<0.05), different from that of yellow normal maize. This trend was also observed for redness (a values) in extrudates. On the other hand, white and yellow extrudates presented higher b values (yellowness) than their correspond raw flour. Despite the adverse effect of extrusion in the amino acid retention, the use of QPM flours in replacement of normal maize flours can provide maize extrudates with superior protein quality.

MARIA CRISTINA DIAS PAES; JOSEPH MAGA

2004-01-01

251

Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM) is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM) as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L.) (AH). The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM) digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP) concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample) of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM) were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1) into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05) in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1). Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI) (P<0.05), dry matter intake (DMI) (P<0.05) and water intake (P<0.05) was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

Marina Vrani?; Mladen Kneževi?; Goran Per?ulija; Krešimir Bošnjak; Josip Leto; Hrvoje Kutnjak; Martina Horg

2011-01-01

252

Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant) ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant) were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

Salami Olusola Abiodun; Osonuhi Oluuolc

2006-01-01

253

Yield of Silage Maize as Affected by Compaction Treatments at the Planting Time  

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In this study, effects of the different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and plant properties and dry matter yield of second crop silage maize were investigated. Soil compaction was applied in the forms of the following treatments; Compaction on Furrow Surface (...

Ebubekir Altuntas; O. Faruk Taser; O. Kara

254

[Effects of nitrogen application period on the nitrogen metabolism key enzymes activities and antioxidant characteristics of high-yielding summer maize].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking the high-yielding summer maize cultivars Denghai 661 (DH661) and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study their grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, key enzymes activities of nitrogen metabolism, and antioxidant enzymes activities under effects of different nitrogen application periods. One-dose nitrogen application at jointing stage was not beneficial to the increase of grain yield and the nitrogen accumulation in plant and grain, while split application in combination with application after anthesis increased the nitrogen accumulation in plant and grain significantly and increased the grain yield. When the nitrogen was applied at a ratio of 2:4:4 at jointing stage, 10-leaf stage, and 10 days after anthesis, the grain yield of DH661 was up to 14123.0 kg x hm(-2); when the nitrogen was applied at a ratio of 1:2:5:2 as the basal and at jointing stage, 10-leaf stage, and 10 days after anthesis, the grain yield of ZD958 was up to 14517.1 kg x hm(-2). These two nitrogen application modes increased the grain yield of DH661 and ZD958 by 14.5% and 17.5%, respectively, as compared with one-dose nitrogen application at jointing stage. Split nitrogen application before anthesis increased plant nitrate reductase activity significantly. In the 0-42 days after anthesis under split nitrogen application, the glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities of DH661 and ZD958 were averagely increased by 32.6%, 47.1% and 50.4%, and 14.5%, 61.8% and 25.6%, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were increased by 22. 0% and 36.6%, and 13.4% and 62.0%, respectively, and the malondialdehyde content was decreased significantly, as compared with one-off nitrogen application. It was suggested that for the high-yielding of summer maize, split application of nitrogen and appropriately increasing the nitrogen application ratio after anthesis could enhance the plant key nitrogen metabolism enzymes activities, delay leaf senescence, promote plant nitrogen uptake and its utilization, and increase grain yield.

Lü P; Zhang JW; Liu W; Yang JS; Dong ST; Liu P; Li DH

2012-06-01

255

ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.)  

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Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process) as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002). Six (five foreign and one inland) cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process), Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978) and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966). According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2di=0.010) and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2di =0.160). Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2di =0.034) was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

Tihomir ?upi?; Svetislav Popovi?; Marijana Tucak; Mirko Stjepanovi?; Sonja Grljuši?

2003-01-01

256

Effects of storage temperature on the fungal and chemical spoilage of maize grains and flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical and fungal spoilage of maize grains and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow varieties in relation to time temperature (10 C, 15 C, 20 C and room (30-56 C) storage period at 8-12 months was studied. The results showed that total fungal counts and percent infestation markedly increased with advanced storage and increased temperature. Percentage germination generally decreased during extended storage. Peroxide values of both the grain and flour increased with increasing temperature and storage time. At the end of one year storage the total fungal counts in the grain and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 13.6x10/sup 12/ - 20.0x10/sup 13/ and Yellow ranged 17.1x10/sup 13/ - 22.1x10/sup 14/ respectively. germination and infestation percentage of the grains of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 76-78% and 96-99%. The peroxide value ranged 6.6-7.0 and 6.4-6.8 meg/Kg in the grain and flour of Sarhad White respectively after one year storage. There was more fungal infestation, fungal counts and peroxidation in the grain and flour Sarhad Yellow than that of Sarhad White. (author).

1989-01-01

257

Interactions among Bt maize, entomopathogens, and rootworm species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the field: effects on survival, yield, and root injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 yr field study was conducted to determine how a blend of entomopathogens interacted with Bt maize to affect mortality of Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), root injury to maize (Zea maize L.) and yield. The blend of entomopathogens included two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, and one entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Bt maize (event DAS59122-7, which produces Bt toxin Cry34/35Ab1) decreased root injury and survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) but did not affect yield. During year 1 of the study, when rootworm abundance was high, entomopathogens in combination with Bt maize led to a significant reduction in root injury. In year 2 of the study, when rootworm abundance was lower, entomopathogens significantly decreased injury to non-Bt maize roots, but had no effect on Bt maize roots. Yield was significantly increased by the addition of entomopathogens to the soil. Entomopathogens did not decrease survival of corn rootworm species. The results suggest that soil-borne entomopathogens can complement Bt maize by protecting roots from feeding injury from corn rootworm when pest abundance is high, and can decrease root injury to non-Bt maize when rootworm abundance is low. In addition, this study also showed that the addition of entomopathogens to soil contributed to an overall increase in yield. PMID:23786047

Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Clifton, Eric H; Dunbar, Mike W; Jackson, Mark A; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-04-01

258

Interactions among Bt maize, entomopathogens, and rootworm species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the field: effects on survival, yield, and root injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2 yr field study was conducted to determine how a blend of entomopathogens interacted with Bt maize to affect mortality of Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), root injury to maize (Zea maize L.) and yield. The blend of entomopathogens included two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, and one entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Bt maize (event DAS59122-7, which produces Bt toxin Cry34/35Ab1) decreased root injury and survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) but did not affect yield. During year 1 of the study, when rootworm abundance was high, entomopathogens in combination with Bt maize led to a significant reduction in root injury. In year 2 of the study, when rootworm abundance was lower, entomopathogens significantly decreased injury to non-Bt maize roots, but had no effect on Bt maize roots. Yield was significantly increased by the addition of entomopathogens to the soil. Entomopathogens did not decrease survival of corn rootworm species. The results suggest that soil-borne entomopathogens can complement Bt maize by protecting roots from feeding injury from corn rootworm when pest abundance is high, and can decrease root injury to non-Bt maize when rootworm abundance is low. In addition, this study also showed that the addition of entomopathogens to soil contributed to an overall increase in yield.

Petzold-Maxwell JL; Jaronski ST; Clifton EH; Dunbar MW; Jackson MA; Gassmann AJ

2013-04-01

259

Effect of Row Spacing on the Grain Yield and the Yield Component of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different row spacing on grain yield and yield components of wheat variety Inqilab 91 at the agronomic research area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan. The results revealed that different row spacing significantly affected plant population m G 2, number of spikes m G 2, 1000 grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Number of grains spike G 1, spikelets spike G 1, spike length and harvest index remained non significant. Maximum tillers m G 2 (418.5) and spikes m G 2 (408) were observed at cross drill sowing techniques of 30 H 30 cm2. While maximum 1000 grain weight (48.70 g) were recorded at wider row spacing of 60 cm. Maximum biological yield (14.13 t ha G 1) and grain yield (5.65 t ha G 1) were also observed in cross drill sowing (30 H 30 cm2).

Iqtidar Hussain; Muhammad Ayyaz Khan; Khalil Ahmad

2003-01-01

260

Effect of land clearing and tillage methods on reduced weed incidence and growth and yield of maize-cassava intercrop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural activities have been identified as the most common causes of land transformation. Such transformation results in changes in ecological features, such as weed flora succession. It is in view of this that a work is carried out to evaluate the effect of land clearing and tillage methods on weed incidence under maize - cassava intercropping system. The experiment was carried out at the International Board for Soil Research and Management experimental site, Epemakinde Nigeria. (40 45 0 E, 60 450 N) after three cropping years. The treatments consist of three land clearing methods thus, given a split plot fitted into Randomized complete block design (RCMD) in which case the three land clearing methods: Slash and burn (SB), bulldozed not windrowed (BNW) and bulldozed windrowed (BW) are the main treatments while the four tillage methods namely (zero, conventional, traditional and minimum tillage) constituted the sub-treatments. Data were generated on maize and cassava morphological characteristics as well as weed incidence at 6 and 16 weeks after planting (WAP). The result indicates BW and BNW had more grain yield (2.66 tha-1and 2.65 tha-1) respectively, on the average representing 5.1% and 4.7% increase in yield above slash and burn (2.53tha-1). Traditional and minimum tillage had more grain (2.94 and 2.59 tha-1) on the average which represents 22.5% and 7.9% increase in yield above convectional tillage (2.40 tha-1). Cassava fresh weight was significantly (p0.05) among the land clearing treatments, although slash and burn had the least weed coverage (55.5%) on the average representing 9.2% and 8.9% lower than those of bulldozed windrowed (60.63%) and bulldozed not windrowed (60.46%). Zero tillage and traditional practices had the highest weed coverage of 86.11% and 82.17% respectively, representing 207.5% and 193.5% increase over conventional tillage (28.00%). In conclusion, slash and burn under minimum tillage treatment, which gave a better maize and cassava yield as well as reduced weed problem, appears a better option.

Ekeocha A.H.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during the summer of 2009. Average content of proteins, oil and starch of analyzed maize hybrids was 10.5%, 4.7% and 80.8%, respectively. Hybrids from FAO maturity group 600 had highest grain mass (in average 419.5 g). Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 2.64 to 3.75, averaged 3.44 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations were between 0.120 µ g g-1 (ZP 805) to 0.415 µ g g-1 (ZP 588ex), averaged 0.24 µ g g-1. Content of soluble proteins varied from 54.33 to 78.74 mg g-1. The high positive correlation was observed between total proteins and oil content in hybrids, as well as between starch and phenolics content. Phytate content was positively correlated with proteins, but this correlation was not significant, while the correlation between phytate and mass of 1,000 grains was positive and significant. A negative correlation occurred between phytate and starch. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Stevanovi? Milan; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Dragi?evi? Vesna; Camdžija Zoran; Filipovi? Milomir; Veli?kovi? Nevena; Stankovi? Goran

2012-01-01

262

Effects of nitrogen and potassium combinations on yields and infestations of maize by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the humid forest of Cameroon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field trials were set up in the humid forest zone of Cameroon to investigate the effects of combinations of different rates of nitrogen (N) (0, 60, and 120 kg N ha(-1)) and potassium (K) (0, 80, and 160 kg K ha(-1)) applied to the soil on the incidence and damage of the noctuid stemborer Busseola fusca (Fuller), and on maize, Zea mays L., yield. Each N/K combination had an insecticide control to assess yield losses due to borers. In contrast to N, K had no effect on plant growth and borer incidence and damage. Across seasons and days after planting, total plant dry matter (DM) production increased with N level and it was 1.2-1.9 and 1.7-2.2 times, respectively, higher at 60 and 120 kg N ha(-1) compared with 0 kg N ha(-1). Total DM at harvest was strongly related to the N content of the plant at 63 d after planting. At the early growth stage, borer abundance and stem tunneling tended to increase with N level, but percentages of dead hearts did not vary with treatment. Maize grain yields increased linearly with N level, but grain yield losses decreased depending on season. Grain yield losses were 11-18.2 times higher with 0 kg N ha(-1) compared with 120 kg N ha(-1). The findings so far indicated that, soil application of N improves the nutritional status of maize, which consequently enhanced its tolerance to stemborer attacks. Improving soil fertility can thus be a very effective means of complementing integrated stemborer control in the humid forest zone of Cameroon.

Chabi-Olaye A; Schulthess F; Borgemeister C

2008-02-01

263

EFFECT OF MAIZE HARVEST DELAY ON THE INCIDENCE OF SPOILED GRAINS AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of harvest delay on the incidence of spoiled grains and pathogenic fungi on maize grains of the hybrids XL 212 and XL 344, sowed through direct planting system in two areas of 60 x 100 m, with 55.000 plants per hectare and cultivated above soil vegetal coverage, black oat and foraging turnip. The spoiled grains (SG) incidence was determined through the average of four repetitions of 250g per sample and the fungus incidence was determined on 400 grains incubated in potato-dextrose-agar, in growth chamber at 25ºC and photoperiod of 12 hours for seven days. The SG incidence increased in all treatments until the fourth evaluation, considering that the hybrid XL 344, cultivated above turnip coverage, reached 6.2% of SG and, above the oat coverage, reached 3.5%. In the XL 212 hybrid, the maximum incidence was 2.3% and 2.0% above oat and turnip coverage, respectively.The delay did not influence the increase of the spoiled grains incidence, but it influenced the decrease of the F. moniliforme and the raise of the incidence of the F. graminearium and the Aspergillus, Cephalosporium and Penicillium genus species.

JOÃO ANARACY SANTIN; ERLEI MELO REIS; AIDA TEREZINHA SANTOS MATSUMURA; MARCELO GRAVINA DE MORAES

2004-01-01

264

Effect of Different Sowing Rates and Nitrogen Levels on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Some Quality Traits of Triticale  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effects of nitrogen level (0, 60 120, 180 kg ha- 1), sowing rate (200, 350, 500, 650 seed m- 2) on grain yield, yield components and some quality traits of two triticale cultivars under rainfed conditions in Samsun, Turkey, in the 2001-02 and 2002-03. Increasing nitrogen applications increased grain yield, plant height, number of ear m- 2, number of kernel ear- 1, thousand-grain weight, test weight and grain protein content. Plots treated with 500 number seed m- 2 recorded maximum grain yield. This study indicated that sowing rate should be 500 number seed per square meter and nitrogen dose should be between 120 and 180 kg ha- 1 to obtain high grain yield from triticale in Samsun located in the middle Blacksea region and similar ecological conditions.

Zeki Mut; Ismail Sezer; Ali Gulumser

2005-01-01

265

Stability analysis for grain yield and yield components in chick pea (Cicer arietinum l.)  

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Full Text Available Twenty one advanced breeding lines selected from All India Coordinated trials and one local popular variety “annegiri’ werestudied over three years to identify high yielding stable genotypes. Genotype , environment and G x E interaction variance foundto be significant. Genotypic variance over environments was significant for grain yield , pods/plant and 100 seed weight. Bothlinear and non linear components were found to be important for the traits studied. Significant non linear component for grainyield indicated the predictability of the trait. Of all the genotypes C-506 and C-527 were found to be stable

P.J.M.Rao

2011-01-01

266

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg) and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21%) as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity).

Gerard Cornelissen; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Vanja Alling; Gijs D. Breedveld; David W. Rutherford; Magnus Sparrevik; Sarah E. Hale; Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder

2013-01-01

267

Effects of high temperature during grain filling under control conditions on the physicochemical properties of waxy maize flour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of high temperature during different grain filling stages (1-15d and 16-30d after pollination) on the physicochemical properties of four varieties of waxy maize grain were studied. Heat stress during grain filling decreased grain weight and starch deposition, while it increased protein content, starch granule size, abnormal granule numbers and iodine binding capacity. These effects were more severe when heat stress was introduced at early development stage than at late grain filling stage. The peak intensities and crystallinities were decreased when plants were exposed to high temperature at early development stage. By contrast, responses to high temperature at late development stage were variety-dependent. High temperature during grain filling decreased the peak and breakdown viscosities and increased the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy, and retrogradation percentage of flours, especially during early development stage. In conclusion, high temperature during grain filling changed the grain proximate and starch structure, resulting in the deterioration of pasting and thermal properties.

Lu D; Sun X; Yan F; Wang X; Xu R; Lu W

2013-10-01

268

Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS), municipal compost (MC) and cow manure (CM) on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.). The treatments were control (without any organic waste) and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 and 45 t ha-1). This research was done in the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology (Lavark-Najafabad). The experimental design was a randomized, complete block with three replications. Treatments were incorporated into the soil before the maize planting (on 23 June 2008) and soil sampling was performed after 132 days (Simultaneously with maize harvesting). Application of the organic wastes resulted in significant increase soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and significantly decreased bulk density. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was decreased by application of PSS. Application of 15 and 45 t ha-1 of PSS reduced Ks more than 14% and 42%, respectively, compared with control; however, the reduction was significant only in the plots which received 45 t ha-1 of PSS compared with control. The results of plant yield and growth showed that leaf area index (LAI), plant length, biological yield, 1000 seed weight and seed yield increase due to the application of organic wastes.

J. Zamani Babgohari; M. Afyuni; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; H. R. Eshghizadeh2

2011-01-01

269

GENETIC ADVANCE IN GRAIN YIELD QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND GRAIN QUALITY OF SOYBEAN OS-LINES I. MATURITY GROUP  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the genetic advance in soybean grain yield and grain quality of 29 promising lines in comparison to four standard cultivars within I. maturity group during the three-year period (1998-2000) at Osijek. Phenotypic variability, wide-sense heritability, genetic gain and relative genetic gain from selection were calculated for grain yield, protein and oil content in grain. The obtained results of biometrical analysis indicated on achieved advance in soybean breeding on grain yield and grain quality in the frame of the Soybean Breeding Program at the Institute. Results of this research indicate the values of promising lines and also will be able to use for further genetic improvement of soybean cultivars.

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Tomislav Duvnjak; Rezica Sudar

2001-01-01

270

Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations/ Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As populações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendim (more) ento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize populations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, al (more) anine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

Mittelmann, Andréa; Miranda Filho, José Branco de; Nass, Luciano Lourenço; Lima, Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de; Hara-Klein, Claudete; Silva, Ricardo Machado da

2011-02-01

271

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) parents (n = 11) and their F1 (n = 55) and F2 (n = 55) offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD), GFD for growing degree days (GDD), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits st (more) udied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low). The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

Kamaluddin; Singh, Rishi M.; Prasad, Lal C.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Joshi, Arun K.

2007-03-01

272

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) parents (n = 11) and their F1 (n = 55) and F2 (n = 55) offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD), GFD for growing degree days (GDD), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low). The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

Kamaluddin; Rishi M. Singh; Lal C. Prasad; Malik Z. Abdin; Arun K. Joshi

2007-01-01

273

Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p < 0.001) and a higher pH range (0.79 vs. 0.94; p = 0.003). In this study, grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations.

De Nardi R; Marchesini G; Stefani AL; Barberio A; Andrighetto I; Segato S

2013-07-01

274

HETEROSIS AND HETEROBELTIOSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD COMPONENTS IN SOYBEAN  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate heterosis and heterobeltiosis for four grain yield components in soybean and to compare performances of the F1 hybrids with those of the parents. The research involved 29 genotypes: 11 parental and 18 F1hybrids. Positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis were evaluated for the pod number per plant (18.75%; 7.9%), seed number per plant (16.14%; 3.98%) and for the seed weight per plant (25.72%; 11.8%). Low positive heterosis (6.62%) and negative heterobeltiosis (-1.08%) were determined for the trait harvest index per plant. The cross combinations characterized by high mean values and positive evaluations of heterosis for most analyzed traits (Ika x Vita, Podravka 95 x Ika, Ika x OS-1212-05) are populations from which selection of new superior lines are expected. Generally, the obtained results of this study will contribute to the efficiency of the breeding process to the increasing of yield genetic potential in the domestic soybean germplasm.

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Mirna Volenik; Maja Matoša; Vinko Duvnjak

2009-01-01

275

Factor Analysis for Quantitative Traits and Path Analysis for Grain Yield in Wheat  

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Full Text Available   In this study, factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors which contributed to the variation of quantitative traits and path analysis was performed to find the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in bread wheat. A doubled haploid population of 157 lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was evaluated for agronomic and morphological traits, using a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2003 and 2004. The results of factor analysis based on maximum likelihood indicated five factors explaining 80.4% and 73.9% of total variation in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The first factor in 2003 had 30.5% contribution to the total variation, strongly influenced by the traits of pollination date, heading date, flag leaf length and days to maturity. This factor also indicated the negative relationship among the yield components and the importance of relationship between grain yield and some morphological traits. The first factor in 2004 was more affected by grain weight/spike, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, thus it was named as grain yield factor. The second and third factors in 2003 were considered as plant height and grain yield and in 2004 as maturity and plant height, respectively. The results of path analysis showed that grains/spike had the most direct and positive effects on grain yield in 2003 (1.33) and 2004 (0.87). Because of the negative and high indirect effects of grains/spike via fertile spikes/m2 and 1000-grains weight on grain yield, the correlation coefficient between grain yield and grains/spike was very low. There was not much difference between the phenotypic and genetic direct effects of spike/m2 on grain yield, indicating that their relationship was less affected by environmental conditions. In general, the results showed that grains/spike and spikes/m2 can be more efficient compared to 1000- grains weight for increasing grain yield and can be used as selection indices in breeding programs. Also, according to the results of factor analysis, selection based on the fourth factor including biological yield, spike/m2 and grain yield as selection index can be effective to improve grain yield in breeding programs.

B. Heidar; G.H. Saeidi; B.E. Sayed-Tabatabaei

2008-01-01

276

Evaluation of the yield and nitrogen use efficiency of the dominant maize hybrids grown in North and Northeast China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breeding high-yielding and nutrient-efficient cultivars is one strategy to simultaneously resolve the problems of food security, resource shortage, and environmental pollution. However, the potential increased yield and reduction in fertilizer input achievable by using high-yielding and nutrient-efficient cultivars is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of 40 commercial maize hybrids at five locations in North and Northeast China in 2008 and 2009. The effect of interaction between genotype and nitrogen (N) input on maize yield was significant when the yield reduction under low-N treatment was 25%-60%. Based on the average yields achieved with high or low N application, the tested cultivars were classified into four types based on their NUE: efficient-efficient (EE) were efficient under both low and high N inputs, high-N efficient (HNE) under only high N input, low-N efficient (LNE) under only low N input, and nonefficient-nonefficient under neither low nor high N inputs. Under high N application, EE and HNE cultivars could potentially increase maize yield by 8%-10% and reduce N input by 16%-21%. Under low N application, LNE cultivars could potentially increase maize yield by 12%. We concluded that breeding for N-efficient cultivars is a feasible strategy to increase maize yield and/or reduce N input.

Chen F; Fang Z; Gao Q; Ye Y; Jia L; Yuan L; Mi G; Zhang F

2013-06-01

277

Determinantes de la oferta de maíz grano en México/ Supply determinants of grain maize in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y analizar los factores que afectan la oferta de maíz grano en México. Se usó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto por dos de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad; durante el periodo de 1980 a 2010. La oferta de maíz grano en México, con base en los resultados, responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y temporal, con elastici (more) dades precio-propias de 0,3025 y 0,2282; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta total de maíz son los registrados en el precio del plaguicida con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,4108; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactaron fueron los registrados en el sorgo, con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,2898, si es producido bajo riego y de -0,1531 en temporal. El precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal en México es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0,64 y 0,62% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el de mayoreo a niveles de 0,31 y 0,24% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en estos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine and analyze the factors that affect maize grain supply in Mexico. An econometric model of simultaneous equations composed of two supply equations, three transmission prices and one identity; during the period from 1980 to 2010. Based on the results of the model, the supply of maize grain in Mexico responds inelastically to changes in the price of maize produced under irrigation and temporary, with elasticities own-price of 0,302 (more) 5 and 0,2282, changes in input prices that more affect the total offer are pesticide prices, with a cross-price elasticity of -0,4108; changes in the competitive product that more impacted maize supply was sorghum, with a crossprice elasticity of -0,2898, if produced under irrigation and -0,1531 if produced in temporary. The price to the producer of maize grown under irrigation and temporary in Mexico is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0,64 and 0,62% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence the wholesale price at levels of 0,31 and 0,24% for every unit percentage change in them.

Guzmán-Soria, Eugenio; de la Garza-Carranza, María Teresa; García-Salazar, José Alberto; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel

2012-12-01

278

Rendimiento de las generaciones F1 y F2 de híbridos trilineales de maíz en los valles altos de México/ Grain yield of the F1 and F2 generations of three-way maize hybrids in the high valleys of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En México se usa 25% de semilla mejorada de maíz y 75% de semillas criollas ó variedades mejoradas acriolladas (generaciones avanzadas de híbridos). El precio de la semilla híbrida F1, es el más alto del mundo, esto limita un mayor uso, por lo que se emplea semilla obtenida de la propia parcela de híbridos, dado que en los Valles Altos los híbridos que se siembran en mayor superficie son H-50 y H-48, en este trabajo se estableció como objetivo definir la producti (more) vidad de las generaciones F1 y F2 de los híbridos H-48, H-50, H-153, H-50 AE y H-47 AE, los cuales se evaluaron en el ciclo primavera-verano 2007 en dos experimentos; en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) de la UNAM y en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del INIFAP. El análisis estadístico combinado detectó para rendimiento diferencias altamente significativas para localidades, genotipos, generaciones F1 F2, así como para la interacción genotipos x generaciones F1 F2. La media de rendimiento fue 8 560 kg ha-¹ y el coeficiente de variación fue 18.8%. En CEVAMEX la media de rendimiento fue 10 053 kg ha-¹ diferente estadísticamente a la FESC donde la media fue 7 069 kg ha ¹. La generación F1 en promedio rindió 9 985 kg ha-¹ que representó 139.9% con respecto a la generación F2 que produjo 7 137 kg ha-¹. Los resultados obtenidos ratifican que no es conveniente el uso de semilla de la generación F2, por el decremento en productividad ya que la diferencia en rendimiento justifica la adquisición de semilla nueva cada ciclo. Abstract in english In Mexico, 25% of improved maize seed and 75% of native seed or improved native varieties (advanced generations of hybrids) are used. The price of the F1 hybrid seed is the highest in the world, limiting its greater use, for which reason farmers use seeds from their own plots of hybrid seeds. In the high valleys of Mexico, the maize hybrids most planted are the H-50 and H-48. The purpose of this study was to determine the productivity of the F1 and F2 generations of the h (more) ybrids H-48, H-50, H-153 H-50 AE and H-47 AE. They were evaluated during the 2007 Spring-Summer season in two experiments carried out at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) of the UNAM and the experimental station Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) of the INIFAP. With respect to yield, the combined statistical analysis detected highly significant differences for localities, genotypes and F1 F2 generations, as well as for the interaction genotypes x F1 F2 generations. Mean yield was 8 560 kg ha-¹ and the coefficient of variation was 18.8%. The mean yield obtained at the CEVAMEX was 10 053 kg ha¹. This was statistically different from that recorded in the FESC where a mean of 7 069 kg ha-¹ was logged. The F1 generation yielded 9 985 kg ha-¹ on average, which represented 139.9% with respect to the F2 generation that produced 7 137 kg ha¹. The results indicate that the use of F2 generation seeds is not convenient due to a decrease in productivity, and that the difference in yield justifies acquiring new seeds every season.

Espinosa-Calderón, A; Tadeo-Robledo, M; Arteaga-Escamilla, I; Turrent-Fernández, A; Sierra-Macías, M; Gómez-Montiel, N; Palafox-Caballero, A; Valdivia-Bernal, R; Trejo-Pastor, V; Canales-Islas, E

2012-04-01

279

An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity.

Mengü GP; Ozgürel M

2008-02-01

280

An Evaluation of Water-Yield Relations in Maize Zea mays L.) in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha-1 for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha-1 for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m-3, while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m-3 in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity.

Gulay Pamuk Mengu; Mustafa Ozgurel

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Influence of Relative Humidity and Temperature on the Changes in Grain Moisture in Stored Soybean and Maize  

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Full Text Available These investigations aimed to determine influence of the changes in relative humidity and temperature in storage facilities on the moisture in grain of stored soybean and maize. Soybean (“Podravka 95” variety) and maize (“OSSK 644” hybrid) were stored during 34 days at the temperatures of 0oC and 20oC, and relative humidity of 55%, 73%, 80% and 98%. At the temperature of 0oC and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased, 2.4% and 1.9%, while at the relative humidity of 80% and 98% it increased, 0.2% and 0.6% aft er 34 days storage. At the temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased 4.0% and 0.7%, while at the relative humidity of 80% and 98% it increased 0.8% and 2.3%, as following. During 34 days storage at 0°C and relative humidity of 55%, moisture in maize grain decreased 0.2%, while at the relative humidity of 73%, 80% and 98% it increased 0.4%, 1% and 1.5%. At the temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 55%, moisture in maize grain decreased 1.5% and at the relative humidity of 73%, 80% and 98% increased, 0.2%, 0.9% and 1.7%. Such investigations enable additional insights into the rate of changes in grain, and the influence on the grain viability in changed storage conditions.

Mirna Volenik; Vlatka Rozman; Irma Kalinovic; Anita Liska; Darko Kiš; Branimir Šimi?

2007-01-01

282

Agronomic studies on irrigated soybeans in central Sudan: II. Effect of sowing date on grain yield and yield components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field trial was conducted for two consecutive seasons (2009/10 and 2010/11), at the Gezira Research Station, central Sudan, to study the effect of sowing date on grain yield and yield components of irrigated soybeans. The experimental design was a split-plot randomized complete block with four replicates. Main plots were mid-, late-June, mid-, late-July, and mid-, late-August sowing dates. Subplots were six soybean varieties. Data were collected on days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), height to first pod (cm), number of pods/plant, grain yield (kg/ha), fodder yield (kg/ha) and 100-seed weight (g). Sowing date had a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained at mid June sowing date, in both seasons. In the first season, TGx 1905-2E variety achieved a maximum grain yield at mid June sowing date (2322 kg/ha) but declined 12.4 % when sowing date was delayed to late June (2035 kg/ha). In the second season, TGx 1905-2E variety achieved a maximum grain yield at mid June sowing date (2209 kg/ha) but declined 19.9 % when sowing date was delayed to late June (1812 kg/ha). The result of this study illustrates the importance of early sowing for maximizing the yield potential of irrigated soybean. The optimum sowing date for irrigated soybean in central Sudan is mid June.

Ibrahim S. E.

2012-01-01

283

Effect of combination treatments on fungal spoilage of stored maize grains flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total fungal counts of maize grains and flour were determined in relation to irradiation doses (0.5-5.0 kGy) and storage temperatures (5 deg. C - 30 deg. C) during a period of 12 months. Initial total fungal counts of the grains and flour ranged 6.0x10/4-9.0x10/4 colonies/g. In the unirradiated grains the total fungal counts increased to a level of 8.3x10/7 while in the flour to 9.8 kGy. Storage temperatures also greatly affected the fungal growth and the lease development of fungal growth was at 5 deg. C during successive storage intervals. Among all the treatments tested, although minimum fungal growth was noted in the sample treated with 4 kGy and kept at 5 deg. C (6.2x10 4/9) for 12 months, in view of economic consideration 2 kGy treatment and temperature of 20 deg. C is recommended for safe storage. (author).

1997-01-01

284

Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Phosphorus Fertilizer Use Efficiency, Mycorrhizal Dependence and Maize Yield under Water Deficit Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency, mycorrhizal dependence and grain yield and dry matter yield of maize under water deficit conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments in this experiment were included as follows: irrigation (normal irrigation and water deficit stress based on evaporation from class A pan evaporation); combined different seed inoculations with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment of chemical phosphate fertilizer (non- consumption of phosphate fertilizer, consumption of 50 percent of triple superphosphate fertilizer needed, and consumption of rock phosphate, based on the quantity of consumed phosphorus of triple superphosphate source). The results showed that effects of irrigation, seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens biological phosphate fertilizer and chemical phosphate fertilizer were significant on yield and yield components, dry matter yield, relative agronomic efficiency and root colonization. Mild stress significantly reduced grain yield, relative agronomic efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency compared to optimum irrigation. Results showed that grain and dry matter yield are highly correlated with root colonization under mild stress condition. Maximum mycorrhizal dependence was obtained in mild stress condition. Maximum relative agronomic efficiency, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, yield and yield components was related to seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of triple superphosphate fertilizer were increased grain yield in comparison with rock phosphate along with inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. However, maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal dependence was achieved in non- consumption treatment of phosphate fertilizer.

M. Ghorchiani; GH. Akbari; H. A. Alikhani; M. Zarei; I. Allahdadi

2013-01-01

285

Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

2012-01-01

286

Maize Kernel Oil and Episodes of Shading during the Grain-Filling Period  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies documented the stability of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel oil concentration for a wide range of kernel weights promoted by contrasting post-flowering assimilate availabilities per kernel (i.e., source–sink ratios). These studies mainly modified the sink size with a low impact on the source size. In this study, we focused on kernel oil concentration response to source–sink ratio alterations promoted by different timings and intensities of shading during the effective grain-filling period. Two crosses with contrasting kernel oil concentration (‘DK752’ x DK752 and DK752 x ‘5MG’) were tested. Kernel oil concentration was positively related to the embryo–kernel ratio (r = 0.96, P < 0.001) and embryo oil concentration (r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and crosses differed in both traits. Severe shading (85% reduction of incident solar radiation) at early stages of kernel growth reduced the final embryo–kernel ratio and the embryo oil concentration of both crosses. Contrarily, moderate shading (45% reduction of incident solar radiation) did not modify the kernel oil determinants. Kernel oil concentration and kernel weight declined when severe shading shortened the kernel growth period. Our results collectively sustain the hypothesis that maize kernel oil concentration is commonly sink-limited. We established that kernel oil concentration of both crosses was reduced when post-flowering plant growth rate per kernel was less than 50% of kernel growth rate.

Tanaka Walter; Maddonni GustavoÁngel

2009-11-01

287

Thirteen week rodent feeding study with grain from molecular stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran protected (DP-OO4114-3) maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results from a subchronic feeding study conducted in Sprague–Dawley rats fed with diets containing grain from 4114 (OECD unique identifier: DP-ØØ4114-3) maize that was untreated (4114) or sprayed in field with glufosinate ammonium (4114GLU) in a design similar to previous studies are reported. The test material, 4114 maize, is a hybrid maize produced by transformation with a DNA construct encoding 4 different transgenic proteins for resistance to lepidopteran pests, coleopteran pests, and tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate ammonium. There were a total of 144 rats divided into 12 groups of 12 rats/sex/group. All experimental diets were formulated by Purina Mills, LLC (St. Louis, MO) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet® Certified Rodent LabDiet® 5002. The incorporation rate of maize grain in all diets was 32% (wt/wt). No biologically significant, treatment related differences in body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, or organ weight) were observed in rats consuming the diets containing 4114 maize grain compared with rats fed conventional maize diets. A number of histologic observations were noted in this study but were background lesions and representative of what would be expected for rats of this age and strain. An independent panel of experts determined certain observations to be spontaneous and not related to the test diet. Accordingly, these results support the conclusion that 4114 maize grain is as safe and nutritious as conventional maize grain.

Delaney B; Karaman S; Roper J; Hoban D; Sykes G; Mukerji P; Frame SR

2013-03-01

288

Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. RESULTS: Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber) and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. CONCLUSION: Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

Lorenz AJ; Anex RP; Isci A; Coors JG; de Leon N; Weimer PJ

2009-01-01

289

Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits was performed with twenty four lines, three testers and theresulting 72 hybrids using Line x Tester analysis. The interaction of Line x Tester was highly significant for all thecharacters studied except number of leaves per plant. Variance due to sca was greater than gca variance for the traits viz.,grain yield per plant, cob diameter, cob length, plant height, ear height, leaf length, 100 grain weight, grain rows per cob,days to 50 per cent tasseling and days to 50 per cent silking. The variance due to SCA was higher than due to GCAindicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action in the governance of above mentioned traits. Among thelines, the line UMI 1093 was found as the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yieldcontributing traits followed by UMI 1044-7, UMI 1053-6, UMI 1029-5 and UMI 2244-1. Considering the testers, UMI 61was found as the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yield contributing traits followed byUMI 1119. Among the crosses, UMI 1044-7 x UMI 61 was found to be the superior with positive significant SCA effectsand better mean performance for grain yield, cob length and grains per row. Similar superior positive significant SCA effectswith better mean performance were also observed in UMI 1093 x UMI 61 (grain yield per plant) and UMI 2244-1 x UMI1119 (grain yield per plant and grain rows per cob).

S. Kanagarasu, G. Nallathambi and K.N. Ganesan

2010-01-01

290

Effects of heat stress during grain filling on the structure and thermal properties of waxy maize starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clarifying the waxy maize starch physicochemical characteristics response to heat stress could modify starch quality. The effects of heat stress during grain filling (1-40day after pollination) on starch structure and thermal properties of four waxy maize varieties were investigated. The mean day/night temperature during grain filling for heat stress and control treatments was 35.2/16.1°C and 27.4/15.6°C, respectively. Heat stress during grain filling increased the starch average granule size and the proportion of long chains in amylopectin. Starch granules under heat stress presented more pitting or uneven surfaces. X-ray peak intensities in response to heat stress were variety dependent. Heat stress during grain filling decreased the swelling power and increased the gelatinization temperature and retrogradation percentage, while the gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. In conclusion, heat stress during grain filling significantly affected structural characteristics of waxy maize starch and consequently, changed its swelling and thermal properties. PMID:24054245

Lu, Dalei; Shen, Xin; Cai, Xuemei; Yan, Fabao; Lu, Weiping; Shi, Yong-Cheng

2013-07-27

291

STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000) and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi), ecovalence (Wi) and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY). Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wiand S2GxY indicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?

2001-01-01

292

Attempts to combine high yield and increased grain protein in wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The best mutant obtained in our programme (TW-1) has given grain yields ranging from 80 to 92% of the parent cultivar Kalyan Sona and has consistently shown an increase in grain protein content of about two percentage points. A hybridization programme was therefore initiated to obtain selections with yield potential equal or better than that of Kalyan Sona and with increased grain protein content. Transgressive segregation for plant height, spike length and days to flowering was observed in the F2 generation of a cross between the parent Kalyan Sona and the high-protein mutant. Selections in the F2 generation were made on the basis of grain yield components and grain protein per cent and have been studied up to the F4. Most of the selections in F4 were between the two parents for both grain yield and grain protein content. (author)

1977-04-01

293

RESPONSE OF MAIZE HYBRID (Zea mays L.), STAY-GREEN TYPE TO FERTILIZATION WITH NITROGEN, SULPHUR, AND MAGNESIUM PART I. YIELDS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out in the Didactic and Experimental Department in Swadzim near Pozna?, in years 2004-2005 (52o26’ N; 16o45’ E). The experiment was established in a „split-plot” design with two factors and four field replications. The primary factor consisted in three nitrogen doses: 0, 60, and 120 kg N·ha-1, while the secondary factor included four doses of kieserite (magnesium sulphate): 0 kg fertilizer·ha-1, 100 kg fertilizer·ha-1 (25 kg MgO·ha-1 + 20 kg S·ha-1), 200 kg fertilizer·ha-1 (50 kg MgO·ha-1 + 40 kg S·ha-1), and 300 kg fertilizer·ha-1 (75 kg MgO·ha-1 + 60 kg S·ha-1). An increase in the nitrogen dose increased grain yield, its moisture, and weight of 1000 grains but it decreased the yield index and the number of production ears. Under the influence of the magnesium sulphate fertilizer (kieserite), maize produced a higher yield of grains while limiting the vegetative biomass. The level of fertilization with nitrogen and kieserite differentiated the nitrogen content in the dry matter of grain and the magnesium content in the dry matter of ears. With an increased nitrogen fertilization, the content of crude fibre in the dry matter of grain increased, while the number of extraction compounds decreased. An increased dose of kieserite decreased the quantity of crude fibre in the dry matter of grain but, at the same time, it increased the amount of N-free extract. The highest yield of net energy, yield of digestible protein, and total protein were obtained for the dose of 120 kg N·ha-1.

Szulc P.

2010-01-01

294

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author).

1995-01-01

295

Diallelic analysis for lysine and oil contents in maize grains/ Análise dialélica para conteúdos de lisina e óleo em grãos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Seis linhagens S5 de milho, com diferenças para conteúdos de óleo e de lisina nos grãos, foram usadas para realizar uma série completa de cruzamentos dialélicos. Os 15 híbridos resultantes foram cultivados em campo com dois níveis de nitrogênio (10 e 130 kg N ha-1). A capacidade geral de combinação (CGC) e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC) foram obtidas com o método 4, modelo I de Griffing para produtividade de grãos e concentração de lisina e (more) óleo nos grãos. Interação significativa (p Abstract in english Six S5 lines of maize, with differences for lysine and oil contents in grains, were used to carry out a complete series of diallelic crosses. The resulting 15 hybrids were grown in a field at two nitrogen levels (10 and 130 kg N ha-1). The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were obtained by using the method 4, model I of Griffing for grain yield, and grain lysine and oil contents. Significant (p (more) CA and N levels for grain yield, indicating the selection of different lines for each N level. This interaction was not significant for lysine content, but there were significant effects of GCA for this trait at both N levels (p

Medici, Leonardo Oliveira; Gaziola, Salete Aparecida; Varisi, Vanderlei Aparecido; Paula, José Antonio Carmezini de; Ferreira, Renato Rodrigues; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

2009-04-01

296

The effect of improved potential yield per plant on crop yield potential and optimum plant density in maize hybrids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Honeycomb selection in the F2 generation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid PR 3183, based on line performance per se in the absence of competition, led to recycled hybrids with improved potential yield per plant (mean yield per plant in the absence of competition). In the present study six S6 X S6 recycled hybrids and two commercial single-cross hybrids (PR 3183 and B73 X Mo17) were tested at three plant densities (25000, 41667 and 83333 plants/ha), in two locations (Technological Education Institute farm of Florina, Greece and University farm of Thessaloniki, Greece), for 2 years (1998, 1999). The study was undertaken to assess indirectly the potential yield per plant (p), the crop yield potential (Ymax), and the optimum plant density (Dopt) of the hybrids. Estimate of p and Ymax were obtained through linear regression analysis of yield per plant (Yp) on plant density (D), expressed by the equation Yp = p - qD, with Ymax being equal to (1/4)p2q-1. Optimum plant density was assessed through linear regression analysis of natural logarithm of yield per plant on plant density, expressed by the equation ln(Yp) = alpha - bD, with Dopt being equal to 1/b. The recycled hybrids had higher estimated potential yield per plant (p), than the two check hybrids, with p values being positively correlated with yield per plant of hybrids obtained experimentally in the absence of competition. Results indicated that the higher potential yield per plant decreases the optimum plant density, and renders the hybrids less density-dependent.

Tokatlidis IS

2001-11-01

297

Effects of grain size and grain boundary structure on yield strength of micro- and submicrocrystalline TiAl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechanical properties of polycrystalline intermetallics strongly depend on their type of grain boundaries. An interesting example of the structure and properties being affected by grain boundaries is related to TiAl. By processing TiAl in certain special modes, it is possible to obtain structural states with practically the same grain size, but different content of random and special boundaries. Comparing the mechanical properties of the intermetallic compound in the above states has indicated that, with one and the same grain size, the growth of the fraction of special boundaries and, hence, the reduction of the fraction of random ones result in a considerable deterioration of the TiAl ductility above 600C and in an abrupt reduction of its strength below 750C. The latter effect is rather interesting, for it implies a question of whether TiAl obeys to the Hall-Petch equation, which is known to related yield strength to grain size. At the same time, the TiAl yield strength largely depends on the slip character which, in its turn, is determined by the grain size and grain boundary structure. As the grain size grows up to d[approximately]10 [mu]m and the number of special boundaries increases, a transition from very fine and homogeneous slip to planar slip can be observed, which dramatically reduces the yield strength. This experimentally confirmed fact also causes doubt about the validity of the Hall-Petch relationship for TiAl.

Imayev, R.; Imayev, V.; Salishchev, G. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation). Inst. for Metals Superplasticity Problems)

1993-09-01

298

Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB), toasted and pelleted barley (TPB), pelleted maize (PM) and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM) were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Each feed sample (0.5g) was incubated (3 replications), with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd) and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA) were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05) reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%), the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd) and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h). On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05) and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05). Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

Robert Tóthi; Franco Tagliapietra; Seerp Tamminga

2010-01-01

299

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

1996-01-01

300

Synthesis of (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan in the Golgi apparatus of maize coleoptiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Membranes of the Golgi apparatus from maize (Zea mays L.) were used to synthesize in vitro the (1 [yields] 3), (1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucan (MG) that is unique to the cell wall of the Poaceae. The MG was about 250 kDa and was separated from a much larger (1 [yields] 3)-[beta]-D-glucan (callose) by gel-permeation chromatography. Diagnostic oligosaccharides, released by a sequence-dependent endoglucanase from Bacillus subtilis, were separated by HPLC and GLC. The trisaccharide [beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, the tetrasaccharide [[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 4)][sub 2]-[beta]-D-Glcp-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc, and longer cellodextrin-(1 [yields] 3)-D-Glc oligosaccharides were synthesized in proportions similar to those found in purified MG. Activated charcoal added during homogenization enhanced synthesis of MG, presumably by removing inhibitory compounds. The Golgi apparatus was determined as the site of synthesis by a combination of downward and flotation centrifugations on sucrose step gradients. The rate of synthesis did not reach saturation at up to 10 mM UDP-Glc. Chelators completely abolished synthesis, but synthase activity was restored by addition of either MgCl[sub 2] or, to a lesser extent, MnCl[sub 2]. Synthesis continued for well over 1 h; addition of KOH to raise the pH from 7.2 to 8.0 during the reaction increased the rate of synthesis, which indicates that a transmembrane pH gradient may facilitate synthesis of MG. 36 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Weed control and yield are improved when glyphosate is preceded by a residual herbicide in glyphosate-tolerant maize (Zea mays)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In glyphosate-tolerant maize, a delay in glyphosate application may be required to ensure late germinating weeds do not reach reproductive maturity. Alternatively, full season weed control may be achieved by frequent applications of glyphosate throughout the growing season. Another approach that may improve weed control and aid in the stewardship of glyphosate use is to apply a pre-emergence residual herbicide prior to one in-crop application of glyphosate. There is limited information on the optimal glyphosate application timing in glyphosate-tolerant maize (Zea mays) following the application of a residual herbicide. Six factorial field trials were conducted over a 2 year period (1999 and 2000) at two Ontario locations, Ridgetown, and Woodstock to evaluate the efficacy of the residual herbicide flufenacet plus metribuzin applied preplant, pre-emergence or at the maize spike stage followed by a post-emergence application of glyphosate in glyphosate-tolerant maize. At Ridgetown, crop tolerance was acceptable at all flufenacet plus metribuzin, glyphosate and flufenacet plus metribuzin followed by glyphosate application timings. Visual crop injury of up to 40% was recorded at Woodstock after the application of flufenacet plus metribuzin. Control of Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Chenopodium album with flufenacet plus metribuzin followed by an in-crop application of glyphosate was better than with one in-crop application of glyphosate. The application timing of glyphosate and flufenacet plus metribuzin was not a significant factor in weed control or grain yield. In maize, the application of a residual herbicide such as flufenacet plus metribuzin prior to glyphosate may provide better early season weed control and allow for the delayed in-crop application of glyphosate.

Nurse RE; Swanton CJ; Tardif F; Sikkema PH

2006-11-01

302

Path Analysis for Rice Grain Yield and Related Traits in Tow Planting Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Rasht Rice Research Institute, in 2001 to study trait relationships and to determine the direct and indirect effects of different characteristics on grain yield of rice (Orgza sativa L.). A 9x2 factorial experiment in complete randomized block design with 3 replications was used. The two factors were 9 cultivars, namely: Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Binam, Sepeedroud, Nemat, Khazar, Taichung, Chanto, and Usen, and 2 planting patterns (15x15 cm and 30x30 cm). Significant differences were detected among cultivars, between planting patterns, and their interaction effects. The direct effect of the number of panicles/m2 on grain yield was positive and significant in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Heading date had a positive and significant direct effect on the number of panicles/m2 in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Only in 30x30 cm planting pattern, a positive correlation was found between biomass at heading date and the number of panicles/m2. Grain weight per plant had a direct and positive effect on panicle weight in the 3 cases studied. Also, in all the cases studied, flag leaf area had positive direct effects on grain weight per plant. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period increased in 30x30 cm planting pattern. Native cultivars demonstrated longer latent period. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period showed positive direct effects on grain yield in both plantings. According to the results obtained, an increase in the number of panicles/m2, rate of grain filling, and effective grain filling period would enhance grain yield. Selection for heading date, grain yield per plant, and flag leaf area would also indirectly increase grain yield.

H. Sabori; A. Rezai; S. A. M. Mirmohammady Maibody; M. Esfahani

2005-01-01

303

Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

1981-05-01

304

Sustainability of maize-based cropping systems in rural areas of Zimbabwe: an assessment of the residual soil fertility effects of grain legumes on maize (Zea mays [L.]) under field conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The residual soil fertility benefits of the preceding legumes to the following maize crop were demonstrated in the study. Incorporating stover of Bambara nut, cowpea, groundnut dry bean and soyabean gave higher maize yields compared to plots where the stover was removed. Total maize dry matter yield increases of 1.30 tha-¹ to 5.19 ha-¹ were recorded following legume stover incorporation compared to stover removal. Even removal of stover of these same legumes gave significant maize yield increases compared to those from the maize after maize or after fallow plots. The total maize dry matter yield was greater after legumes with stover removed (ranging from 4.41 to 9.91 tha¯¹) than after maize (2.16 to 2.26 tha¯¹) or one season fallow (1.57 to 1.84 tha¯¹). So farmers who keep livestock can still remove legume residues as fodder to supplement grazing in the dry winter period and still benefit from improved maize yields.

Oniward Svubure; Sheunesu Mpepereki; Fred Makonese

2010-01-01

305

Effects of autoclaving and pullulanase debranching on the resistant starch yield of normal maize starch  

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Full Text Available In this study, resistant starch (RS), type 3, was prepared by the autoclaving and debranching of normal maize starch isolated from a selected ZP genotype. The objectives of this study were to optimize both starch autoclaving and debranching with pullulanase (PromozymeBrewQ) for the production of RS. Autoclaving at 120 °C (30 min) increased the RS content of all samples, whereas freezing at –20 °C did not have an obvious effect on the RS contents. The highest RS yield in the autoclaved starch samples was 7.0 % after three autoclaving–cooling cycles. After pullulanase debranching at 50 °C and retrogradation at 4 °C, the RS yields ranged from 10.2 to 25.5 % in all samples (depending on the hydrolysis time). Debranched starch samples with a maximum RS yield of 25.5 % were obtained after a debranching time of 24 h. This study showed that starch from the selected ZP maize genotype is suitable for pullulanase treatment and RS preparation but that additional studies with a greater number of different treatments (incubation time/temperature) are necessary to manipulate and promote crystallization and enhance RS formation.

MARIJA S. MILAŠINOVI?; MILICA M. RADOSAVLJEVI?; LJUBICA P. DOKI?

2010-01-01

306

Maize radiosensitivity. Francisco mejorado variety taken yield components as biological indexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Height under laboratory conditions and survival under field conditions have been the classical criteria to determine radiosensitivity in different cultivations. There are criteria referring that when productivity indexes are measured and expressed as control percentage, this would allow to make a radiosensitivity curve and to obtain dose-50. Our purpose was to obtain this relationships from the productivity indexes in a first-generation from the maize plants irradiated. It can be said that yield components, the ear's weight and the ear's fertility were the most radiosensible

1987-01-01

307

Planting date and row spacing affects grain yield and height of pearl millet Tifgrain 102 in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a drought tolerant cereal grain typically grown as a forage crop in the United States. New high-yielding dwarf grain pearl millet hybrids have generated interest in millet as a substitute for maize and sorghum because of its ability to reliably produce grain on sandy, acidic, low fertility soils of the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to determine optimum planting date, row spacing, and nitrogen rate for grain production. Rust resistant hybrid Tifgrain 102 was drilled in a split-split plot, randomized complete block design with four replications nested in date. Planting date was the main effect, andthere were 7, 8 and 9 planting dates in 2001, 2002 and 2006, respectively. Planting date was split into four row spacings (0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.5 m and 0.9 m), and further split for two nitrogen levels (90 kg ha-1 and 140 kg ha-1). There was a significant (P ?0.001) interaction of year by planting date for both yield and height. Planting date within years was significant (P ?0.001) for yield andheight. Yield at 0.4 m row spacing was greater than at 0.9 m spacing and nearly significant for yield at 0.5 m spacing and 0.2 m. Height significantly (P ?0.005) increased with wider row spacing. Yield and height were not affected by nitrogen rate.

AL Maas; WW Hanna; BG Mullinix

2007-01-01

308

Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeability and toughness, the studied cereal grains could be ranked as follow: rice > corn > thousand. Mushes flours also showed very low moisture content, high starch and carbohydrates contents, poor levels in lipids and proteins. They contain some essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in variable concentrations. Contents in phytic acid were also variable. In consequence, the energy density of these flours appeared very high but it was lower than the one of the existing complement flours of Cote d`Ivoire markets.

Brou Kouakou; Gbogouri Albarin; Ocho Anin Louise; Djeni N`Dede Theodore; Kone Youssouf; Gnakri Dago

2008-01-01

309

Initial and residual effects of fertilizer phosphorus on soil phosphorus and maize yields on phosphorus fixing soils  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this article is to provide experimental data and new insights about the best P fertilization strategy for phosphorus (P) fixing soils in the tropics. Two controversial strategies to manage soils with high phosphorus (P) fixation capacity were compared with regard to effects on maize (Zea mays L.) yields and the fate of fertilizer P in soil. One strategy was broadcasting and incorporation of fertilizer P to quench P-fixation of the whole topsoil; the other strategy was subseed placement of fertilizer P to each crop to quench P-fixation in small volumes just below the plant. Field trials with maize as test crop were carried out on granite, rhyolite, basalt, felsite-andesite, and volcanic ash soils in south-west Kenya during three growing seasons. Incorporation rates ranged from 66 to 2096 kg ha-1 P, and placement rates from 11 to 131 kg ha-1. Fertilized soils were analyzed regularly over a period of about 600 days. Grain yields responded strongly to P, except on the P-rich volcanic ash soil. Among the other soils, felsite-andesite had the least response to incorporated P as well as to placed P. In fertilized soil layers, ?total P was higher for placed than for incorporated P. The ratio of ?P-Olsen/?total P did not change over time. It was lower in P-fixing felsite-andesite than in non-fixing volcanic ash, and higher for placed P than for incorporated P. The crop's response was related to calculated volumes of P-enriched soil. Placement gave higher yields than incorporation at P rates <50 kg ha-1, especially on soils with low yields. The residual effect was high because P-Olsen in the fertilized soil remained far above the values required for optimum growth. It was somewhat lower for placed than for incorporated P. Placement of P at low rates repeated in each season was better than a single placement at higher rates in the first season only, because placed fertilizer was in subsequent seasons not as close to the roots as in the first season. In conclusion, high P retention of soils did not adversely affect the response to fertilizer P. Low-input is preferred above high-input because of higher P use efficiency, less weed growth, and easier adoption by farmers.

Eijk Dvander; Janssen BH; Oenema O

2006-08-01

310

A Study of Relationship between Grain Yield and Yield Component in Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

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Full Text Available   This research was conducted in order to determine the relationship between grain yield and yield components, using 30 common bean varieties in a randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural filed faculty of Agriculture,Tehran university In this study 18 traits were assessed on 10 random plants from each plot. The result showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of trait under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. Also results showed that the grain yield had a positive and significant genotypic correlation with number of seed/pod, pod weight, number of pod/plant, biological yield, days to flowering and maturity. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the maximum variation in grain yield could be attributed to the number pod/plant, number seed/plant, 100 seed weight and pod length. The results of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to number seed/plant and the lowest direct effect, which was related to number pod/plant. Factor analysis resulted in three factors that accounted for 78/7% of total variation. The first factor accounted for 38.39% of total variation and was designated as yield and yield component factor. This factor is comprised of pod weight, biological yield, grain yield and number of pod/plant traits.

M. Sabokdast; F. Khyalparast

2008-01-01

311

Agronomic studies on irrigated soybeans in central Sudan: I. Effect of plant spacing on grain yield and yield components  

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Full Text Available A field trial was conducted for two consecutive seasons (2008/09 and 2009/10), at the Gezira Research Station, central Sudan, to study the effect of plant spacing on grain yield and yield components of soybean varieties. The experimental design was a split-plot randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were four plant spacing (4, 8, 16, and 20 cm). Subplots were four soybean varieties. Data were collected on days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), height to first pod (cm), grain yield (kg/ha) and fodder yield (kg/ha). The effects of plant spacing and variety were highly significant (P ? 0.001) for grain yield (kg/ha) and fodder yield (kg/ha) in both seasons. The highest grain yield and fodder yield were obtained at 4 cm plant spacing in both seasons. In the first season, average grain yield at 4 cm plant spacing, ranged from 2694 kg/ha for TGx 1905-2E variety to 2011 kg/ha for TGx 1903-1F variety. In the second season, the range of grain yield at 4 cm plant spacing was between 2465 kg/ha for TGx 1905-2E and 1939 kg/ha for TGx 1903-1F variety. Days to 50% flowering, plant height and height to first pod showed significant difference among plant spacing and varieties in both seasons. Decreasing plant spacing has generally resulted in an increase in plant height and height to first pod.

Ibrahim S. E.

2012-01-01

312

INFLUENCE OF FORMULATION OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND ITS EFFICIENCY UNDER MAIZE GRAIN CROPPING  

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Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate the efficiency of nitrogen from ammonium saltpeter as related to the formulation of phosphorus fertilizer under maize grain cropping. Maize was grown in monoculture throughout the consecutive years 2003- -2007. A two factorial field experiment was established at a farm located in Nowa Wie? Królewska (52o26’ N; 17o57’ E) on a slightly acidic soil, moderately rich in phosphorus. Experimental factors were as follows: (i) chemical formulation of the fertilizer, (partially acidulated phosphate rock – PAPR, simple superphosphate – SSP and triple superphosphate – TSP), (ii) nitrogen rate: 80 and 140 kg N·ha-1; a phosphorus unfertilized treatment was also considered. The type of phosphorus fertilizer did not differentiate nitrogen uptake, but the lack of phosphorus at the applied rate has induced a decrease in nitrogen accumulation in the aboveground biomass, on average by 8%. Phosphorus fertilization at the rate 26.4 kg P·ha-1 was the main determinant of nitrogen uptake by the kernels. Nitrogen recovery (R) from the fertilizers as well as its agronomical (AE) and physiological (PE) efficiency were significantly lower in treatments where phosphorus was not applied. Furthermore, it was found a positive effect of sulphur from simple superphosphate on the AE after the application of 80 kg N·ha-1. The R values did not depend on the chemical formulation of phosphorus in the fertilizer and amounted on average to 74 and 59% for the rates 80 and 140 kg N·ha-1, respectively, whereas for the treatment without P, these values varied within the range 46-54%.

Potarzycki J.

2009-01-01

313

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

2007-02-21

314

Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture.

Dickau R; Ranere AJ; Cooke RG

2007-02-01

315

Interrelationship between grain yield and physiological parameters of winter wheat nitrogen nutrition efficiency  

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Full Text Available This paper deals with interrelationship between grain yield and some physiological parameters of wheat plant nitrogen nutrition efficiency as well as interrelationships between these parameters and some yield related traits (biological yield, grain harvest index). The aim of such investigation is to affirm possibilities of using physiological parameters of wheat plant nitrogen nutrition efficiency as criterions in breeding on its grain yield. The investigation, conducted as three years field trials, included 30 wheat cultivars and perspective lines. There were studied: nitrogen content in the above - ground part of plant at anthesis, in grain, in straw and total nitrogen content at maturity, nitrogen harvest index, nitrogen reutilization, post - anthesis nitrogen accumulation and physiological efficiency of nitrogen. The positive and statistically high significant relationships between nitrogen content in the above - ground part of plant at anthesis, in grain and in straw, total nitrogen content at maturity, nitrogen reutilization and post - anthesis accumulation as physiological parameters and grain yield were registered in investigated material. Most of listed parameters, important by grain yield aspect, can be studied easily and measured before wheat vegetative period ends. The investigated parameters can be recommended as criterions for selecting of parental pairs and evaluating progeny in breeding of wheat on grain yield, considering to their determined interrelationships and their measurability.

Nikoli? Olivera; Živanovi? Tomislav; Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija; Milovanovi? Milivoje

2011-01-01

316

Grain Yield and Morphological Characters of Spring Safflower Genotypes: Evaluation Relationship Using Correlation and Path Analysis  

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Full Text Available Correlation among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of safflower were investigated. In this survey, 30 spring safflower genotypes were tested via the randomized complete block experiment design for two years of 2005 and 2006. The phenotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficient were estimated in both years. Grain yield was significantly correlated with some characters, like the plant height (r = 0.563** and r = 0.536**), hectoliter weight (r = 0.574** and r = 0.577**) and biological yield (r = 0.980** and r = 0.977**) in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on grain yield in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Therefore, improvement of the grain yield will immensely be efficient via plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight based selection.

Ali Reza Ahmadzadeh; Eslam Majedi; Behroz Darbani; Ahmad Rzban Hagegat; Mohamad Reza Dadashe

2008-01-01

317

Investigation of correlation between traits and path analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield under coastal salinity  

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Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis was carried out to study the association between quantitative traits on yield of rice. Grain yield perplant exhibited positive and significant association with number of productive tillers, panicle length, number of grains perpanicle, grain breadth and hundred grain weight suggesting that selection pressure applied for these traits will eventually increasethe grain yield per plant under salinity. The secondary trait panicle length showed significant positive association with number ofgrains per panicle, hundred grain weight and grain yield, suggesting that selection based on this trait will be fruitful for enhancinggrain yield.

Rajamadhan.R, R.Eswaran and A.Anandan*

2011-01-01

318

EFFECT OF FORECROPS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN  

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Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 an experiment aimed at evaluating yielding and quality characters of Korweta cultivar winter wheat. The cultivar yielded highest after pea, lower – by 10.1-10.7% – after potato and single sowing after itself, whereas the lowest – (by 19.3-24.9%) after 2- and 3-time sowing after itself. Similarly winter forecrops differentiated the quality characters of the grain. The highest amount of total protein and wet gluten and the Zeleny sedimentation value were found after potato, wheat sown 3 times after itself and after pea. The falling number, test weight of the grain and grain uniformity were differentiated only by weather conditions over the research years analyzed. The grain yield was negatively correlated with the content of protein and gluten in the grain and positively – with the test weight and grain uniformity. The total protein content was positively correlated with the content of gluten and the Zeleny sedimentation value.

Andrzej Wo?niak

2006-01-01

319

Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras  

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Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline) on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM) and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

DÍAZ-AMBRONA, Carlos G. H.; GIGENA, Rubén; MENDOZA, Carlos O.

2013-01-01

320

Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Levels of Soybean Seed Rates  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with an objective to study the land use efficiency and economic return in maize-soybean intercropping system under various seed rates of soybean. Intercropping significantly reduced the thousand grains weight and grain yield of soybean at all seed rates. Maize thousand grain weight and grains yield remained unaffected in intercropping. The relative yield total of maize and soybean was greater in intercropping than monoculture. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.52, net income of Rs. 29978 ha-1 and BCR value (return per rupee invested) of Rs. 2.41 were obtained from intercrop maize soybean at soybean seed rate of 80 kg ha-1. Intercropped maize and soybean resulted in greater LER and higher economic returns as compared to monoculture at all seed rates of soybean. It could be concluded that soybean can successfully be intercropped with maize for an efficient use of land and higher economic return.

Ghulam Hayder; S. Suhail Mumtaz; Aslam Khan; Sherin Khan

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Growth, Grain Yield and Components of Three Durum Wheat Genotypes with Different Plant Densities in Isfahan  

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Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, not much information exists on growth and productivity of durum wheat in Iran and Isfahan. In order to evaluate growth, grain yield, and attributes in three durum wheat genotypes, Osta/Gata, Dipper-6, and PI40100, with five planting densities of 200, 275, 350, 425 and 500 seeds/m2, a four-replicate RCBD field study with a spilt-plot layout was carried out in winter 2000 to spring 2001 at Lavark Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Genotypes were the main-plots and planting densities, the sub-plots. Each plot contained six rows, spaced 25cm apart, each 6m in length. While Osta/Gata produced a greater spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight and grain yield, PI40100 indicated a greater height, leaf area index (LAI) and biological yield, and Dipper-6 produced a larger number of grains per spike and harvest index, compared to the other two genotypes. Increasing plant density led to an increase in LAI, spikes/m2, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index but a decrease in grains/spike and 1000-grain weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with spikes/m2, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, despite negative correlations with LAI and plant height. It may be concluded that with environmental conditions such as those encountered in Isfahan in 2000-2001, Osta/Gata can be planted at approximately 425 seeds/m2, if an acceptable grain yield is to be achieved.

I. Zarrinabadi; P. Ehsanzadeh

2004-01-01

322