WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Efficiency of Intercropping Maize, Soybean and Sunflower on Grain Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with an objective to study the land use efficiency and economic return under maize, (Zea mays L. soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. sown alone and in four possible intercropping systems. The results indicated that intercropping substantially affected grain yield. In monoculture the grain yields of soybean was higher by 23 to 42 percent than grain yields of soybean in different intercropping combinations. Intercropping of sunflower significantly affected grain yields of maize and soybean. The relative yield total of different species in intercropping was greater than their yields in monocultures. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER of 1.48 and a gross income of Rs. 23197 ha -1 were obtained from maize + soybean intercropping system. This suggests 48 percent increase in production during one season of intercropping. Intercropped maize and soybean resulted in greater LER and higher economic returns than those of monocultures. More research is suggested to devise a viable and profitable intercropping system in different agro-ecological zones of NWFP.

Aslam Khan

1999-01-01

2

Contribution of different yield components for grain yield improvement in Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy two maize (Zea mays L. hybrids along with their parental lines were assessed for genetic correlation among 14quantitative traits. All the traits studied exhibited a positive and significant correlation with grain yield except days to tasselling,silking and days to maturity. Grains per row exhibited the highest positive and significant correlation with grain yield followedby cob diameter, cob length, plant height, leaf breadth, leaf length, cob height, and 100 grain weight, grain rows per cob andleaves per plant. A strong positive inter correlation was observed among the traits viz., plant height, leaves per plant, leaf length,leaf breadth, cob length, cob diameter, grains per row and grain yield indicating that selection for these characters can help toimprove the grain yield in maize indirectly.

S.Kanagarasu*, G.Nallathambi, K.N.Ganesan and S.Kannan

2012-03-01

3

Effects of Maize Density and Sowing Pattern on Weed Suppression and Maize Grain Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant competition in its basic sense can be defined as competition for resources such as light, water and nutrients. The intensity of crop competition, especially competition of row crops such as maize, mostly depends on population density and plant arrangement. A better use of maize plant density and row spacing may be one way of developing crops that would be more competitive against weeds. An IWM programme should attempt to exploit effectively the competitive ability of crops in suppressing weed growth. Weed suppression is one potential benefit of altered population density and sowing pattern of maize. Another one is an increase in grain yield.

Milena Simi?

2007-01-01

4

NUMBER AND TIME OF WEEDING EFFECTS ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several problems are to blame for the low yields of maize in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Among these problems, the lack of weed control in the proper season is one of the biggest. The experiment was conducted in Mossoró-RN, in a sprinkler-irrigated area. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of one weeding (at 15, 30, 45 or 60 days after planting, DAP, two weedings (15 and 30, 15 and 45, 15 and 60, 30 and 45, 30 and 60 or 45 and 60 DAP, three weedings (15, 30 and 45; 15, 30 and 60 or 30, 45 and 60 DAP or four weedings (15, 30, 45 and 60 DAP on cultivar Centralmex grain yield. A “no weeding” treatment was also included. A random block design with four replicates was utilized. The lack of weeding reduced plant and ear heights, as well as grain yield and its components. The highest grain yields were obtained with treatments 30 DAP, 15-30 DAP, 30-45 DAP, 30-45-60 DAP, and 15-30-45-60 DAP. Greater net revenue with grain commercialization can be obtained with treatment 15-30 DAP.

PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

2004-08-01

5

Effect of irrigation frequencies on grain yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find out the water requirement and its application frequencies in spring Maize a trial was designed. The trial was comprised of five maize varieties (Ev-5098, EV-6098, EV-1098, Composite-20 and Pack Afgoyee) and five irrigation frequencies (7,8,9,10 and 11). The trial was sown in split plot design with three replication, keeping varieties in main plots and irrigation frequencies in sub plots. The plot size was 5m x 4.5 with 75cm apart rows and plant to plant distance was 15 com to maintain the 88888 plants per hectare. The trial was conducted during spring 2000 and 2001. Data were collected for days to 50% silking. Plant height (cm), cob height (cm) and grain yield per hectare. The data were analyzed and results obtained which revealed highly significant differences among varieties and also among irrigation frequencies in all the characters studied during both the years and in pooled analysis over years. The interaction between varieties and irrigation frequencies was highly significant for grain yield kg ha/sup -1/ and significant for other characters studied in year wise as well as in pooled analysis. Years effect was also high significant which is clear from the table of weather data which shows that temperature remained high during the crop season of 2001 as compared to 2000 along with high temperature more rains were also received in March. April and May in 2001 while in 2000 rain was received only in February. Three was gradual decrease in days to 50% silkingas gradual decrease in days to 50% silking with the increase in number of irrigations in all the varieties while plant height, cob height and grain yield increased with every addition of irrigation. Trend of increase or decrease remained the same during both the year. All the varieties separately or in combine showed better results during spring 2001, maximum grain yield was obtained by EV-5098 (full duration variety) with 11 irrigations during both the years 2000 and 2001 i.e. 3511 and 6140 kg ha/sup -1/ while EV-1098 (short duration variety out yielded with 10-irrigation i.e. 2082 and 5265 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

6

Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was used as a female parent.

Živanovi? Tomislav

2010-01-01

7

Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

8

RESPONSIVENESS OF OBAATANPA MAIZE GRAIN YIELD AND BIOMASS TO SOIL, WEATHER AND CROP GENETIC VARIATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development as well as data on soil and weather was collected from field on-station experiment conducted during the 2010 growing season at Kpalesawgu, Tamale-Ghana. Twenty on-farm experiments were also conducted in the Tolon-Kunbungu and Tamale Metropolitan districts in Northern Ghana to determine the responsiveness of maize grain yield and biomass to soil, weather and crop genetic variations. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. Data on phenology, grain yield and biomass from the field experiment were used for model validation and simulations. Validation results showed good agreement between predicted and measured yields with a Normalized Random Square mean Error (NRSME value of 0.181. Results of these sensitivity analysis results showed that the DSSAT model is highly sensitive to changes in weather variables such as daily maximum and minimum temperatures as well as solar radiation, however, the model was found to be least sensitive to rainfall.  The model also found to be sensitive to crop genetic and soil variations. Model predictions of the responsiveness of the yield and biomass to changes in soil, weather and crop genetic coefficients were found to be good with an r2 values between 0.95 to 0.99 except when predicting maize grain yield using changes in minimum temperature with an r2 value of 0.8577.

Atakora K. Williams

2014-04-01

9

Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L. grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002 maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400. Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May and delayed (about two weeks later sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

Darko Grbeša

2006-10-01

10

Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants. PMID:23926950

Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

2013-12-01

11

EFFECT OF GRAY LEAF SPOT ON SECOND-SEASON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD IN SÃO PAULO STATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gray leaf spot is an important maize disease in São Paulo State. Due to its relevance, the effect of this disease on maize grain yield was studied during the 2004 to 2008 autumn-winter seasons. Experiments were carried out to evaluate corn cultivars, comprising 44 to 60 simple and triple hybrids, being 19 trials in 2004, 15 in 2005, 16 in 2006, 16 in 2007 and 15 in 2008. The evaluations of disease severity were done at the kernel dough stage, ascribing notes 1 to 9 (for 0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and more than 75% affected leaf area, respectively. Significant negative correlation between gray leaf spot severity and grain yield was detected in 16 of the 35 trials where the disease occurred. In order to quantify the effect of gray leaf spot on yield of these 16 trials, attempting to minimize the dispersion caused by differences of yield potential, cultivars tolerance to the disease and other factors, cultivars were grouped into categories of disease intensity based on the Scott-Knott test at 5%, and means for severity and yield were calculated for each category. The adjustment of linear equations to these data allowed to estimate the yield reduction as a function of disease severity, for the intervals studied in each trial, that was on average 238 kg ha-1 (4% with note 2, 634 kg ha-1 (11% with note 3, 1006 kg ha-1 (17% with note 4 and 1574 kg ha-1 with note 5, in relation to the groups with greatest gray leaf spot resistance which showed mean note 1.4 and mean grain yield 5655 kg ha-1. These results indicate that even with low disease severity a significant maize yield loss can be observed, demonstrating the importance of the use of genetic resistance in the control of gray leaf spot and to reduce losses in maize grain yield.

GISÈLE MARIA FANTIN

2008-12-01

12

Recurrent Selection for Maydis Leaf Blight Resistance and Grain Yield Improvement in Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L., caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. and Miyake, is one of the major factors limiting maize production in the plain areas of Pakistan, particularly in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP. The objectives of this study were to estimate selection differential, expected and observed response to selection and heritability for maydis leaf blight resistance and grain yield and to determine progress from selection in a maize population. Two cycles of S1 recurrent selection were conducted in broad based maize population, Sarhad White (SW. One hundred S1 lines were compared with their respective original population (C0 as a check. The experimental material was evaluated under artificial epiphytotics during 2003 and 2004, at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Selection differentials, expected responses and heritability estimates were determined from the replicated S1 lines performance of the first cycle. The observed progress was estimated from the replicated S1 lines of the second cycle that were generated after recombination of selected S1 lines of the first cycle. Highly significant variations between the cycles were observed for MLB and grain yield. Moderate and high heritability estimates, desirable selection differentials and close correspondence of expected and observed response were manifested for MLB and grain yield. The positive percent deviation of inoculated from uninoculated trials in both cycles (C1 = 71% and C2 = 41% for leaf blight indicated successful development of blight disease after artificial inoculation, while the negative percent deviation of inoculated form uninoculated trials (C1 = -21 and C2 = -6% for grain yield indicated the impact of blight disease on grain yield. Blight disease was significantly reduced from 2.9 to 2.3, whereas, grain yield was significantly increased from 2041 kg ha-1 cycle-1 to 2527 kg ha-1 cycle-1 or 19% cycle-1. This yield improvement in SW was probably the result of concomitant reduction in the blight disease severity by -26%. These findings suggested that S1 recurrent selection was quite effective in improving disease resistance and grain yield. Nevertheless, some additional cycles of selection may be required to further improving grain yield and resistance level to maydis leaf blight in SW maize population.

S. Salim Shah

2007-01-01

13

The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that t...

Božinovi? Sofija; Van?etovi? Jelena; Babi? Milosav; Filipovi? Milomir; Deli? Nenad

2010-01-01

14

Correlation study for Protein Content, Grain yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Quality Protein Maize (QPM (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy Quality Protein Maize (QPM (Zea mays L. hybrids were grown in duplicate randomized complete block design forcharacter association study to assess the relationship among total grain protein content, grain yield and its components. Totalgrain protein showed significant correlation with plant height and ear height. Character association analysis revealed strongpositive association of Grain yield per plant with plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per cob, kernelsper row, test weight and shelling per cent. Total grain protein showed strong negative association with days to 50 % flowering,days to anthesis and days to 50% silking. Hence, simultaneous selection of plant height and ear height would contribute for theimprovement of the grain yield per plant and total protein content in the grains at the same time.

Ravi V. Mural*, Chikkalingaiah And Shailaja Hittalmani

2012-03-01

15

EVALUATION OF SEVERITY OF GRAY LEAF SPOT AND GRAIN YIELD IN COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the severity of Gray Leaf Spot and grain yield in commercial maize hybrids and determining the best time to evaluate the disease, two experiments were carried out in two sowing seasons (two planted on 11/11/2005, and other two planted on 12/23/2005 at Lavras Federal University - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Eight evaluations of disease severity based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-days intervals from the 60th day after maize emergence (DAE, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and grain yield per plot was also obtained and so the correlation between severity of the disease in each evaluation season and the estimates of the AUDPC were supported by the data. Considering the data of the AUDPC, it was observed that the most resistant hybrids to Cercospora zeae-maydis were P 30K75, P 30F87, AG 7000, and DKB 350, while the most susceptible were AG 9020, DKB 214, and P 30F44. The most susceptible hybrids to Gray Leaf Spot are not necessarily those with lowest grain yield. The disease severity evaluation between 88 and 109 DAE is efficient to discriminate the level of resistance of the hybrids and the results are similar to those obtained by the AUDPC.

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO DE BRITO

2008-04-01

16

Phenotypic Stability for Grain Yield in Maize Genotypes under Varied Rainfed Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six maize genotypes viz. EV-1089, EV-1098, EV-5089, EV-5098, EV-6089 and EV-6098 were tested for their yield performance under four different locations of Barani tract. A number of statistics such as genotype mean performance, genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variation, ecovalence and regression coefficients were estimated to evaluate the environments effect on the grain yield. Keeping in view the mean yield performance of the genotypes over locations and estimates of different statistics, genotype EV-5098 and EV-5089 may be considered relatively less sensitive to change in environments and can successfully be grown over varied soil and climatic conditions.

Muhammad Tariq

2003-01-01

17

The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

Božinovi? Sofija

2010-01-01

18

Genetic Diversity and Correlation for Grain Yield and Quality Traits in Local Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity and correlation analysis among yield and quality traits in 20 local maize populations. The study of variation included the quantity of grain yield, and quality traits such as protein, oil and starch content in grain. Results showed that there were significant differences among the populations. The mean grain yield of all populations was 79.33 g plant-1 and the highest in ?GBK-7? (105.13 g plant-1. Protein and oil contents ranged between 11.02 to 13.02% and 2.56 to 5.57%, respectively and starch content varied from 68.58 to 70.92%. First two canonical discriminant functions were significant and the relevance of the first two discriminant functions justifying 95.80% variability among populations. There were also big differences regarding phenotypic correlations. Study suggests that the quality traits are phenotypically and genotypically highly variable and therefore very useful for breeding program.

Ludvik ROZMAN

2012-08-01

19

Growth Indices and Grain Yield Attributes in Six Maize Cultivars Representing Two Era of Maize Breeding in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth parameters such as seedling germination attributes, crop growth rate (CGR, relative growth rate (RGR,net assimilation rate (NAR and leaf area ratio (LAR as well as yield parameters were investigated in six maizecultivars representing two era of maize breeding in Nigeria during the 2005 late and 2006 early cropping seasons.Differences between maize breeding era were significant for seedling emergence (E % and emergence index (EIwhile genotypes within a particular breeding era (G/E differed significantly for E% and emergence rate index(ERI. Seasonal (S variation in seedling parameters was also significant for E % and ERI with a 15% higherseedling emergence in 2006 early season. CGR in the genotypes in breeding era 1 was higher by seven percent(7% during vegetative growth phase but lower by 14% at flowering phase compared to genotypes in breedingera 2. NAR on the other hand was consistently higher in varieties developed in 1970’s by 15.2 and 13.8%compared to varieties developed in 1990’s. Regardless of the breeding era, varieties with higher values for LARat flowering (except var. TZPB-SR were higher yielding than those with lower LAR. Overall, varietiesdeveloped in era 2 were superior to those developed in era 1 for E% and also had six percent (6% higher valuesfor LAR at vegetative growth phase than those developed in era 1 but decreased by two percent (2% atflowering phase. E% in the genotypes ranged from 48.56 in ACR 9943 DMRSR to 79.33 in ACR99TZLCOMP4 DMRSR, while EI and ERI ranged from 0.86 and 0.010 in TZB-SR to 0.96 and 0.014 in ACR 97 TZLCOMP1-W. Grain yield was significantly higher in 2006 early cropping season by 0.3t/ha-1 translating to14.78% than in late season and it ranged from 1.64t/ha-1 in TZPB-SR (era 1 to 2.94t/ha-1 inACR99TZLCOMP4DMRSR (era 2. Var. ACR99TZL COMP4DMRSR with the lowest values for CGR, RGRand NAR at vegetative phase had the highest grain yield (2.94t/ha-1 indicating that genotypic superiority forgrain yield is not particularly related to differences in any of these traits but rather dependent on the inherentgenetic potential of the varieties themselves.

Folusho Anuoluwapo Adebo

2010-08-01

20

Effect of sowing date on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production for maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High moisture ear and grain production of maize (Zea mays L. hasadvantages in comparison with dry grain production because longer maturity hybrids might be grown and there are no grain drying costs. A two year study was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture experimental field Maksimir to evaluate the effect of delayed sowing dates on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production when compared to optimum sowing date. Maize hybrids belonging to the maturity groups FAO 200 (PR39K38 and 300 (PR38P05 were sown at optimum (early May and two delayed sowing dates (middle May and early June and grown under intensive cropping system.When compared to optimum sowing date, grain and ear yield significantly decreased with delayed sowing dates despite the fact that grown hybrids reached physiological maturity before the first autumn frosts. These yield reductions at delayed sowing dates were mainly associated with fewer grains per ear, and partly due to lighter 1000-grain weights. Both hybrids resulted in similar ear yield; however, a longer maturity hybrid (PR38P05 had larger grain yields than a shorter-maturity hybrid (PR39K38 because the latter hadsignificantly smaller shelling index (82,1 % than the former one (87,0 %. Sowing date and growing conditions showed no significant effect on grain protein and oil contents. Hybrids also had similar grain protein content, whereas PR38P05 had absolutely small, but significantly higher grain oil content than PR39K38. Thus, delayed sowing of the maize hybrids of FAO 200 - 300 maturity groups might occur into early June with no effect on grain quality, but with significant yield losses when compared to optimum sowing date.

Zlatko Sve?njak

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

The genetics of environmental variation of dry matter grain yield in maize  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dry matter grain yield per plot from three genetically homogeneous single-cross maize hybrids were analysed to investigate whether environmental variance depends on genotype. Three genotypes were tested at 20 locations in 3 years. The data were analysed using a non-parametric approach and fully parametric Bayesian models. Both analyses reveal effects of genotype on environmental variation. The Bayesian analyses indicate that genotype by location-year interactions are the most important effects acting at the level of the mean. The best-fitting Bayesian model is one postulating genotype by location-year interactions acting on the mean and main effects of genotype and of location-year on the variance. Despite the detection of genotypic effects acting on the variance, location-year effects constitute the biggest relative source of variance heterogeneity

Yang, Ye; Schön, Chris-Carolin

2012-01-01

22

Effects of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Time of Tasselling, Time of Silking and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from August to December in 2005 and repeated between March and July, 2006 to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays to liquid organic fertilizer. The study was conducted using a split plot fitted into randomized complete block design. Liquid organic fertilizer was diluted at the rate of 60 ml of the product to 15 litres of water and applied to maize foliage, topsoil, foliage and topsoil at the rates of 5l/ha, 10l/ha, 151/ha, l8l/ha, 201/ha and 251/ha. The result obtained indicated a positive influence of liquid organic fertilizer on time of tasselling, time of silking and grain yield of maize. Liquid organic fertilizer significantly reduced the times of tasselling and silking, and increased grain yield of maize. Based on this study, it is recommended that 151/ha of liquid organic fertilizer which produced 5.6tha’ in 2005 and 6.1tha’ of dry grain yield 2006 be applied on the topsoil of maize plant with a view to maximally exploit the great economic potentials of the crop.

Enujeke, E. C. and Ojeifo, I. M.

2013-04-01

23

[Effects of nitrogen fertilization and root separation on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with root separation was conducted to study the effects of root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms under different nitrogen fertilization levels (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1)). Root interaction and nitrogen fertilization had positive effects on the plant height, leaf length and width, and leaf chlorophyll content of maize. Less difference was observed in the root dry mass of maize at maturing stage between the treatments root separation and no root separation. However, as compared with root separation, no root separation under the nitrogen fertilization levels 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1) increased the biomass per maize plant by 8.8%, 6.3%, 3.6%, and 0.7%, and the economic yield per maize plant by 17.7%, 10.0%, 8.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. No root separation increased the quantity of rhizosphere fungi and azotobacteria significantly, as compared with root separation. With increasing nitrogen fertilization level, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes presented an increasing trend, while that of rhizosphere azotobacteria decreased after an initial increase. The root-shoot ratio of maize at maturing stage was significantly negatively correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, but less correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere azotobacteria. It was suggested that the root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system could improve the plant growth of maize and increase the maize yield and rhizosphere microbial quantity, but the effect would be decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level. PMID:23479879

Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Huang, Guo-Qin; Bian, Xin-Min; Zhao, Qi-Guo

2012-12-01

24

[Effects of stubble-standing mode on the grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat and maize in wheat/maize intercropping system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat/maize intercropping is the main intercropping pattern in the irrigation region of Hexi Oasis, Northwest China, but the traditional intercropping needs much water, making the regional water resource lacked increasingly. In 2010, a field experiment was conducted in the irrigation region of Shiyang River basin oasis, Gansu Province of Northwest China, aimed to study the effects of traditional stubble-burning, stubble-returning, and stubble-standing on the grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economical benefits of wheat and maize in wheat/maize inter-cropping system. Compared with stubble-burning and stubble-returning, stubble-standing increased the grain yield of mono- and intercropped wheat by 7.2% and 5.1% , and 6.2%, 5.1%, and that of mono- and intercropped maize by 4.7% and 2.5%, and 7.2% and 3.3%, and increased the WUE of mono- and intercropped wheat by 20.4% and 16.2%, and 17.9% and 14.6%, and that of mono- and intercropping maize by 16.7% and 10.9%, and 11. 8% and 17.0%, respectively. As for the mono- and intercropped wheat and maize, their average net economical benefits under stubble-burning, stubble- returning, and stubble-standing were 10946, 11471, and 13454 RMB.hm-2, respectively. In considering the grain yield, WUE, and economic benefits, stubble- standing would be the optimal mode of wheat/maize intercropping in the oasis of Hexi irrigation region, Northwest China. PMID:23705389

Liu, Chao-Wei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qing-Lin; Guan, Xiao-Kang; Yang, Yong; Zhang, En-he

2013-02-01

25

[Effects of row spacing on canopy structure and grain-filling characteristics of high-yield summer maize].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using two summer maize (Zea mays L.) varieties Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335, a field experiment was conducted to study the regulatory effects of row-spacing (equidistant row and narrow-wide row) and plant-spot spacing arrangement (1 plant per spot, 2 plants per spot, 3 plants per spot) on grain yield components, canopy structure and photosynthetic characteristics after anthesis under plant population density 7.5 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2). Moreover, the characters of grain-filling were simulated by Richards' model. The results suggested that yield, dry matter accumulated, crop growth rate, grain-filling rate, canopy photosynthesis capacity were higher under wide-narrow row than under equidistant row, and were higher for 2 plants per spot than for 1 or 3 plants per spot. The highest maize yields (13.12 and 13.72 t x hm(-2) for Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335, respectively) were observed under wide-narrow row with 2 plants per spot. Under this pattern, internal illumination condition of the canopy, net photosynthetic rate and leaf area index were improved, and the contradiction between the plant individual and group was alleviated. Meanwhile, grain-filling capacity was promoted and accumulated amount of dry matter was elevated ultimately. It was concluded that wide-narrow pattern with 2 plants per spot is an effective cultivation pattern to increase maize yield in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. PMID:24830244

Wei, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Dong, Shu-Ting

2014-02-01

26

The Effect of Sowing Date and Some Growth Physiological Index on Grain Yield in Three Maize Hybrids in Southeastern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important objectives in farming systems is to minimize the risk probability as well as maximizing the production level. This study, using a spilt plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications, aims to study the effect of sowing date on yield and growth physiological index of maize cultivars. It was conducted in 2005/06 at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture in University of Zabol, Sistan-Baluchistan province, Southeastern Iran. Experiment factors were: Three maize hybrid cultivars (Namely, S.C 108, S.C 604 and S.C704 that were subplot and sowing dates (5 July, 20 July, 5 August and 20 August that were main plots. Results indicated that sowing dates have significant effects on yield and physiological index in maize cultivars. They Maize hybrids have different response to these parameters. The highest grain yield and harvest index was obtained from 5 August. The first sowing date (5 July was associated with a decrease in Leaf Area Index (LAI. Leaf Area Index Duration (LAID and Crop Growth Rate (CGR. As a result, S.C 704 cultivar has the highest of CGR, LAI, LAID and grain yield (11.5 t ha-1, On the contrary, S.C 108 cultivar has the lowest of the CGR, LAI, LAID and grain yield (6.4 t ha-1. Consequently, it can suggest that S.C 704 cultivar should be applied and the sowing date should be adjusted to 5 August in conditions of Sistan. This could be contributed to optimum temperature and decrease wind speed during the flowering, grain formation and filling stage.

M. Dahmardeh

2010-01-01

27

Plant Density Effects on Grain Yield per Plant in Maize: Breeding Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breeding in maize (Zea mays L. succeeded in improving tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, but failed to improve the potential yield per plant. Modern hybrids are highly productive, but their yield per unit area is dependent on high plant densities. Results of present study verified that modern hybrids require a narrow range of densities to give their maximum yield per unit area, since plant density affected significantly all kind of genetic materials. Results also showed that high densities are associated with high plant-to-plant variability and barrenness, affecting negatively the stability of hybrid performance. F2 and F1+F2 (mixture genetic materials showed increasing yields, as plant density was increasing. This was due to high competition and the presence of heterotic plants. These findings pointed out the necessity for the development of maize hybrids with more stable performance across growing seasons. Density-independent hybrids can be effectively attained through selection in the absence of competition, aiming to improve the potential yield per plant. Very low densities, so that any plant-to-plant interference for growth resources use is eliminated, maximize mean yield per plant differentiation and optimise the phenotypic-genotypic correspondence, facilitating the identification of the superior entries. Evaluation under high plant densities may distinguish between different genetic materials, based on F2 yielding performance, to be used as starting materials in breeding programs. Even though the main goal is breeding for density-independent maize hybrids, since modern maize hybrids depend their yielding performance on higher plant densities, breeding for density tolerance may easily contribute to higher field yields.

C.G. Ipsilandis

2005-01-01

28

Genotype-Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L. in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifteen maize genotypes were tested at nine different locations in 2005 under rainfed condition to determine stable maize genotypes for grain yield and determine genotypes with high yield and form homogenous grouping of environments and genotypes. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. Stability was estimated using the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI. Based on the stability analysis, genotypes 30H83, BH-540, Ambo Synth-1, AMH-800 and BHQP-543 were found to be stable for grain yield. The first two Interaction Principal Component axis (IPCA1 and IPCA2 were significant (p<0.01 and cumulatively contributed 70.27% of the total genotype by environment interaction. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes 30H83 was as high as 0.92, confirming its high predictability to stability. Among the genotypes, the highest grain yield was obtained from genotype 30H83 and BH-541 (8.98 and 8.05 t ha-1 across environments. Clustering of AMMI-estimate values grouped genotypes in to four clusters and the environment in to three clusters. Environment Goffa was unique as it is grouped differently from all other environments.

Solomon Admassu

2008-01-01

29

Evaluation of Interrelationship of Growth Indices and Grain Yield of Five Maize Hybrids under Two Irrigation Regimes in Isfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defining interrelationship of growth analysis factors and yield of crop plants is important in the field crop production practices. This research was aimed at studying growth factors and grain yield of five maize hybrids, consisting of S.C.704, S.C.700, S.C.647, S.C.604, and S.C.301, using two 4-replicate RCBD experiments in Isfahan, in Summer 2004. While one experiment was irrigated normally, the other one was conducted under delayed irrigation conditions. Maize plants were seeded at 95000 plants/ha in 8-row plots, with rows spaced 0.70m apart and 0.15m distance between plants on each row. Delayed irrigation led to a significant decrease in LAImax, LAD, LADLinear and LADs-m, but a significant increase in days to silking. While CGRLinear significantly correlated with LAImax, LAD, LADLinear and LADs-m, a significant correlation was observed between total biomass and grain yield. CGRLinear, LAImax, and LADs-m significantly correlated with total biomass, and grain yield significantly correlated with yield components, harvest index, CGRLinear and LAImax. In conclusion, an increase in LAImax resulted in a higher CGRLinear and in turn a greater total biomass. But, considering no significant correlation between total biomass and harvest index, it appears that with the genotypes and under conditions of the present study, allocation of dry matter to grain production did not correlate with the leaf area attributes of corn.

P. Ehsanzadeh

2007-10-01

30

Effect of Microelements and Selenium on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme, Malondialdehyde Activity and Grain Yield Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using and microelements (with and without using as sub plots. The result indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde content under water deficit stress increased, but grain yield was reduced. The highest grain yield was obtained from optimum irrigation, while in the case of with water deficit stress at V8 stage it was non significant. Selenium spray increased activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme, malondialdehyde content of leaves in V8, R2 and R4 stages and also grain yield. Application of microelements increased the leaves superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content. Selenium and microelements spray under water deficit stress conditions during vegetative growth and dough stage increased grain yield in comparison to not spraying elements under water stress conditions. The present results also showed that by using selenium and microelements under water stress can obtain acceptable yield compared to not using these elements.

Masoud MASHHADIAKBAR BUJAR

2011-11-01

31

Combining ability analysis in quality protein maize (Zea mays L. for grain yield and its component traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken to estimate combining ability effects in maize for different characters in a line × tester programme comprising 70 hybrids produced by crossing 14 lines and 5 testers. The interaction of line × tester was highly significant for twelve traits studied except for protein content. Significant general and specific combining ability variance were observed for all characters except protein content. The variance due to SCA was higher than GCA indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of GCA:SCA variance was lower than unity for all characters indicating predominance of non -additive gene action over additive gene action. Among the lines, genotype QPM 3 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for most yield contributing traits followed by QPM 1 and QPM 187. Among the testers, T 323-8 was found to be the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yield contributing traits followed by T 209 and T 295 genotypes. Among the crosses, QPM 35 × T 295 was superior with positive significant SCA effects and better mean performance for grain yield and plant height. Similar superior positive significant SCA effects with better mean performance were also observed in QPM 6 × T 295 (ear length, test weight and grain yield per plant and QPM 43 × T 193-2 (ear length and grain yield per plant.

Ravi V. Mural and Chikkalingaiah

2012-06-01

32

Effect of presowing gamma irradiation of seeds on the growth, development and yield of maize grain and green mass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment was carried out during the 1982-1983 period with maize hybrids Px-20, Kn-611 and H-708 irradiated with 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 R. Gamma irradiation of the seeds had no unidirectional effect on the germinative power, laboratory and field germinating ability, volume of the root system (up to day 20 after germination), height of plants and cobbing, structural elements of the cobs and plants. Presowing seed germination with the three hybrids did not increase the grain yield neither that of the green mass and the dry matter. Under 500 R irradiation of the H-708 hybrid a reliable difference in the green mass yield was obtained only in 1982. 2 tabs., 8 refs

33

A desuniformidade de emergência reduz o rendimento de grãos de milho Uneven emergence reduces maize grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Altos rendimentos de milho estão relacionados à emergência rápida, completa e regular das plantas. Este trabalho foi conduzido em Lages (SC, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da desuniformidade de emergência e da população de plantas sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas sub-divididas, alocando-se nas parcelas principais quatro populações de plantas (40.000, 60.000, 80.000 e 100.000 plantas.ha-1 e nas subparcelas os tratamentos de desuniformidade de emergência realizados através da variação da data de semeadura em covas adjacentes na linha de plantio, resultando nas seguintes situações de emergência entre plantas vizinhas: 1 - uniforme (0-0-0-0-0; 2 - desuniformidade de 12 dias (0-12-0-12-0; 3 - 19 dias (0-19-0-19-0; e, 4 - 12 e 19 dias (0-12-19-0-12-19. Na situação de emergência uniforme, o aumento da população de plantas até 76.500 plantas.ha-1 incrementou o rendimento de grãos para 12.900kg.ha-1. Nesta população de plantas, a diferença do rendimento de grãos entre as plantas de emergência uniforme e aquelas em desuniformidade foi aproximadamente 2.900kg.ha-1, indicando que sob níveis de rendimento semelhantes, a realização da ressemeadura pode ser uma prática economicamente vantajosa. A desuniformidade de emergência diminuiu o rendimento de grãos de milho e limitou a resposta ao incremento da população de plantas.High maize grain yields are related to a fast, complete and regular plant emergence. This experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of an uneven plant emergence on maize grain yield at different plant populations. A split plot design was used, with the main plots disposed in randomized complete blocks. Four plant populations, equivalent to 40,000, 60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 pl.ha-1 were tested in the main plots. Different levels of unevenness in plant emergence were analyzed in the split plots by varying the sowing dates of adjacent hills inside each as it follows: 1 - even emergence (0-0-0-0; 2 - unevenness of 12 days (0-12-0-12; 3 - unevenness of 19 days (0-19-0-19; 4 - unevenness of 12 and 19 days (0-12-19-0-12-19. The increase in plant population up to 76,500 pl.ha-1 enhanced grain yield to 12,900kg.ha-1. At this plant population, the difference in yield grain per hectare among treatments with even and uneven emergence was nearly 2,900kg. This indicates that under similar productivity levels replanting maize may be on economically viable option. Besides reducing grain yield, uneven emergence also limited maize response to the increment in plant population.

Aldo Merotto Junior

1999-12-01

34

Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

2011-08-01

35

Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressin [...] g, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

Maria Anita Gonçalves da, Silva; Antonio Saraiva, Muniz; Anny Rosi, Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé, Porto; Marlene Estevão, Marchetti; Antonio, Nolla; Ivan, Grannemann.

36

Stability of yield and yield components in maize hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two-year grain yield and 1000-grains mass data of 24 maize hybrids of FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600, 700 were analyzed. Investigations were performed at the two environments in two years. Nonparametric methods of the Kubinger and the van der Laan-de Kroon showed genotype x environment interaction for both investigated features, and method of Hildebrand showed interaction for 1000-grains mass. Maize hybrids stability was estimated with stability parameters: Si(1)- the mean of the absolute ...

?varkovi? Radomir; Brankovi? Gordana; ?ali? Irena; Deli? Nenad; Živanovi? Tomislav; Šurlan-Momirovi? Gordana

2009-01-01

37

[Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF. PMID:20136000

Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

2009-11-01

38

Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX). Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) and without subsoiling (ST) were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season-1), the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season-1), the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha-1) and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m-3) followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season-1, T=178 mm-season-1, Y=1840 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.60 kg-m-3) and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season-1,T=158 mm-season-1, Y=1720 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.58 kg-m-3). However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

2007-07-01

39

The Effects of Intra-row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L. Hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize hybrids react differently to various plant density and intra-row spacing. A two-year study was conducted at Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Research Farm to determine the optimum intra-row spacing for maize hybrids commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were maize hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer 3335, Dekalb 711 and Dekalb 626. Split-plots were intra-row spacing of 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0 cm. Split-plot size was 2.8 by 5.0 m with four rows per plot. The effects of intra-row spacings on the grain yield and some agronomic characteristics were statistically significant. Hybrid x intra-row spacing interaction effects were significant only at ear length and grain yield. The highest grain yields were obtained from Pioneer 3223 and Dracma at 15.0 cm intra-row spacing (11718 and 11180 kg ha-1, respectively.

Okan Sener

2004-01-01

40

Effects of Bean-Maize Intercropping,Phosphorus and Manure Additions on N2 fixation and Grain Yield of Phaseolus Vulgaris in the Central Kenya Highlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sole bean and intercropped bean crops were studied for four seasons from 1996-1998. Addition of organic P at the recommended rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased bean standing biomass and grain yields during the first season. Cattle manure applied at the rate of 12 t ha-1 (25% moisture content), had a negative effect on bean yield during the first season, possibly due to short-term nutrient immobilisation induced by the high C:N ratio of manure. In subsequent seasons, manure additions resulted in higher grain yields compared to inorganic P. Intercropping bean with maize lowered grain yields by 10-100%. N2 fixed on beans on average from 55 to 69%. Intercropping thus provides a strategy for a better N resource use where the maize competes efficiently for available soil mineral N and the legume replenishes part of the extracted N via atmospheric N2 fixation. However, the amounts of N2 fixed appear not to be enough to replenish whole systems N in grain crops and so additional N2 are needed. Thus more attention needs to be given to manure management and its long-term impact on soil fertility

 
 
 
 
41

Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX. Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS and without subsoiling (ST were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV. Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season?1, the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season?1, the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha?1 and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m?3 followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season?1, T=178 mm-season?1, Y=1840 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.60 kg-m?3 and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season?1,T=158 mm-season?1, Y=1720 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.58 kg-m?3. However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

M. Temesgen

2007-07-01

42

Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test-cross populations of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU1 population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS test crosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. In second studied population the highest value of coefficient of correlations also was found between grain yield and kernel row number, but that relation was negative. Path coefficient analysis provides more information among variables than do correlation coefficients. Because of that goal of this study also was founding the direct and indirect effects of morphological traits on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for ear height, in both studied populations. Plant height, in both test cross populations, kernel row number and oil content, at B73 test crosses, has high significant undesirable effect on grain yield. (author)

43

Effect of Microelements and Selenium on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme, Malondialdehyde Activity and Grain Yield Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using and microelements (with and without using as sub plots. The result indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde content under water deficit stress increased, but grain yield was reduced. The highest grain yield was obtained from optimum irrigation, while in the case of with water deficit stress at V8 stage it was non significant. Selenium spray increased activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme, malondialdehyde content of leaves in V8, R2 and R4 stages and also grain yield. Application of microelements increased the leaves superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content. Selenium and microelements spray under water deficit stress conditions during vegetative growth and dough stage increased grain yield in comparison to not spraying elements under water stress conditions. The present results also showed that by using selenium and microelements under water stress can obtain acceptable yield compared to not using these elements.

Ahmad NADERI

2011-11-01

44

Economic effectiveness of irradiation with gamma rays on maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma irradiation of maize grains before sowing increses the yield and improves the quality of agricultural produce. The positive results consist in the net income from silage maize from 45 to 85 per ha and from the grain maize from 85 to 109,9 per ha; the level of raw protein from the silage maize with 11,30% and from the grain maize with 6 to 12%; the level of feed units from the silage maize with 5 to 13% and from grain maize with 6 to 12%. Such direct effect in the same time is a stimulating one and raises the effectiveness of the animal production due to the better feeding of animals

45

Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, sobrevivência e contribuição dos perfilhos ao rendimento de grãos do milho / Nitrogen availability, tiller survival and contribution to maize grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O N influencia os processos de morfogênese e perfilhamento nas espécies da família Poaceae. Contudo, seu efeito sobre o perfilhamento do milho é pouco conhecido. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar se a dose de N e a época de aplicação da cobertura nitrogenada interferem na emissão [...] , sobrevivência e contribuição dos perfilhos ao rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho. O experimento foi instalado no município de Lages (SC), nos anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos casualizados dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. No primeiro ano, as parcelas foram constituídas de dois híbridos de milho (AS 1560 e P30F53); as subparcelas, por três doses de N (0, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de N); e as sub-subparcelas, por três épocas de aplicação do N (V4, V4+V8 e V8). No segundo ano, avaliaram-se quatro doses de N nas parcelas (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 de N) e as mesmas épocas de aplicação usadas no primeiro ano, nas subparcelas. Determinaram-se a percentagem de plantas perfilhadas, o número de perfilhos por planta, o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento. O híbrido P30F53 teve maior capacidade de perfilhamento e maior rendimento de grãos do que o AS 1560. A aplicação de N em cobertura reduziu a mortalidade dos perfilhos na colheita no primeiro ano, e até a floração, na segunda safra. A realização da cobertura nitrogenada em V4 estimulou o perfilhamento e permitiu maior sobrevivência dos perfilhos na colheita em 2008/09. A aplicação de N em cobertura aumentou o rendimento de grãos nos dois anos de ensaio e incrementou a contribuição direta dos perfilhos à produtividade em 2006/07. A época de aplicação do N em cobertura não interferiu no rendimento de grãos. A capacidade de perfilhamento no milho difere entre híbridos. Os perfilhos contribuem diretamente para o rendimento de grãos do milho em condições de boa disponibilidade de N. Abstract in english Nitrogen influences the processes of morphogenesis and tillering in Poaceae. However, its effect on maize tillering is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether N rates and application time affect tiller emission, survival and contribution to maize grain yield. The experiment was set [...] up in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2006/07 and 2008/09. The experimental design was arranged in randomized blocks with split plots. In the first year, the main plots consisted of two maize hybrids (AS 1560 and P30F53), the split plots of three N rates (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 N), and the split-split plots of three rates of N sidedressing (V4, V4 + V8 and V8). In the second year, four N rates were evaluated in the main plots (0, 50, 100, and 200 kg ha-1 N) and the same sidedress rates in the split plots. The percentage of plants with tillers, number of tillers per plant, grain yield and yield components were assessed. The tillering capacity and grain yield of hybrid P30F53 were greater than of AS 1560. Nitrogen sidedressing reduced tiller mortality at harvest in the first year, and until flowering in the second season. Nitrogen sidedressing at V4 stimulated tiller emission and survival at harvest 2008/09. Nitrogen sidedressing increased grain yield in both study years, and enhanced the direct contribution of tillers to grain yield in 2006/07. The time of nitrogen sidedressing did not affect grain yield, regardless of the growing season. Maize tillering capacity differed among hybrids. In environments with adequate N availability, tillers contribute to increase maize grain yield.

Luis, Sangoi; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Amauri, Schimitt; Anderson José, Pletsch; Jeferson, Vieira; Alexandre, Saldanha; Eduardo, Siega; Giovani, Carniel; Rodolfo Thiago, Mengarda; Gilmar José, Picoli Junior.

46

Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm and minimum (133.6 cm plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum number of (10.73 leaves plant-1, cob length (19.2 cm and grains cob-1 (205.2 were recorded with 30,000 maize population ha-1. While maximum barrenness of 18.90 was observed in plots containing maximum maize population of 60,000 plants ha-1. Maximum grain weight (240 g, grain yield (2400 kg ha-1 and harvest index (15.45 were recorded with lowest maize population of 30,000 plants ha-1, while maximum (7.2 and minimum (4.5 kg biological yield unit area-1 were recorded in 30,000 and 60,000 plant population of maize ha-1 respectively, maximum number of shoots stump-1 were 8.91, 11.33 and 12.08 with 30,000 plant population of maize ha-1, while minimum 0.57 were observed in 30,000 maize population ha-1, respectively. Maximum of 68.88 and minimum of 59.02 cm sugarcane heights at maize harvest were recorded with 30,000 and 60,000 maize population ha-1, respectively.

Imran Haider Shamsi

2003-01-01

47

Combining ability of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress / Capacidade de combinação da produtividade de milho em ambientes com diferentes intensidades de estresses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o germoplasma de milho e comparar a capacidade de combinação da produtividade do milho em ambientes com diferentes graus de estresse. Um dialelo foi realizado entre cultivares de milho tropical com ampla adaptabilidade, cujas combinações híbridas foram aval [...] iadas em duas épocas de plantio, em dois anos. A significância do efeito ambiental mostrou que os ambientes foram contrastantes. Com base na produtividade, os ambientes foram classificados como: favorável (8.331 kg ha-1); com baixo estresse (6.637 kg ha-1); com alto estresse (5.495 kg ha-1); e com intenso estresse (2.443 kg ha-1). Nenhum dos efeitos genéticos foi significativo nos ambientes classificados como favorável e com intenso estresse, o que indica haver baixa variabilidade para as combinações genéticas nesses ambientes. Em baixo e alto estresse, os efeitos da capacidade de combinação específica foram significativos, o que mostra que os efeitos genéticos não aditivos foram os mais importantes, e que é possível selecionar pares de genitores com potencial para melhoramento. A capacidade geral de combinação e a produtividade de grãos apresentaram correlações significativas somente entre os ambientes mais próximos como favorável/baixo estresse e alto/intenso estresse. O controle genético da produtividade de grãos difere em ambientes contrastantes quanto ao estresse para os quais as cultivares de milho com ampla adaptabilidade não são adequadas. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to caracterize the tropical maize germplasm and to compare the combining abilities of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress. A diallel was performed among tropical maize cultivars with wide adaptability, whose hybrid combinations were evalu [...] ated in two sowing dates, in two years. The significance of the environmental effect emphasized the environmental contrasts. Based on grain yield, the environments were classified as favorable (8,331 kg ha-1), low stress (6,637 kg ha-1), high stress (5,495 kg ha-1), and intense stress (2,443 kg ha-1). None of the genetic effects were significant in favorable and intense stress environments, indicating that there was low germplasm variability under these conditions. In low and high stresses, the specific combining ability effects (SCA) were significant, showing that the nonadditive genetic effects were the most important, and that it is possible to select parent pairs with breeding potential. SCA and grain yield showed significant correlations only between the closer environment pairs like favorable/low stress and high/intense stress. The genetic control of grain yield differed under contrasting stress environments for which maize cultivars with wide adaptability are not adequate.

Leandro Vagno de, Souza; Glauco Vieira, Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso, Galvão; Lauro José Moreira, Guimarães; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos.

48

Rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos de maíz y su generación avanzada F2 / Grain and forage yield in maize hybrids and their advanced F2 generation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante el alto costo de la semilla de híbridos de maíz, los productores a pequeña escala usan semilla en generaciones F2 y F3. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de utilizar semilla autofecundada de híbridos sobre el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco de híbridos de maíz. El estudio [...] se estableció bajo condiciones de riego en Tepezalá y Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes y Calera de Víctor Rosales, Zacatecas, México en el ciclo 2001. Se sembraron 22 híbridos comerciales y su respectiva generación avanzada F2. Se determinó rendimiento de grano y forraje, altura de planta, días a floración masculina y femenina y altura de mazorca. Se utilizó un arreglo en parcelas subdivididas con diseño en bloques completamente al azar y tres repeticiones. Se efectuó el análisis conjunto de la relación beneficio/costo. En general, usar semilla F2 redujo 22% el rendimiento de grano y 8% de forraje seco. La mayoría de los híbridos y sus generaciones avanzadas mostraron estabilidad en el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco en las tres localidades. En promedio, el avance generacional redujo 9% la relación beneficio/costo en la producción de grano; sin embargo, la incrementó 11% en la producción de forraje seco. Los híbridos SB-302 y AS-948 mostraron alto rendimiento de grano y forraje, menor reducción con el avance de generación y alta relación beneficio/costo. Abstract in english To cope with the high seed cost of maize hybrids, small-scale farmers use F2 and F3 seed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of using seed from self-pollinated hybrids on grain and forage yields of maize hybrids. The study was conducted under irrigated conditions at Tepezalá and [...] Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes, and Calera de Victor Rosales, Zacatecas, Mexico during 2001. Twenty-two commercial hybrids and their respective advanced F2 generation were sown under a split split plot arrangement in a complete random block design with three replications. Grain and forage yield, plant height, days to masculine and feminine flowering and husk height were determined. A profit/cost analysis was performed. On average, the use of F2 seed diminished 22% grain and 8% forage yields. Most of the hybrids and their advanced generations did show grain and dry forage yield stability across locations. Due to generational advance, the profit/cost ratio diminished 9% for grain production and increased 11% for dry forage production. Hybrids SB-302 and AS-948 showed high grain and dry forage yields, less reduction with the advance of generation and high profit/cost ratios.

Rodolfo, Gaytán-Bautista; Ma. Isabel, Martínez-Gómez; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

49

Genomic regions involved in response to grain yield selection at high and low nitrogen fertilization in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to validate the role of genomic regions involved in nitrogen use efficiency and detected in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), we have applied from the same population a recurrent selection for adaptation to low N-input (N0) and to high N-input (N1). Variation of allele frequency at neutral marker during the two cycles of recurrent selection may provide information about markers linked to QTLs. Significant temporal variation of allele frequency was investigated using the test of Waples, which tests the hypothesis of genetic drift versus selection. Most genomic regions (12/19) responding to selection were detected for selection at high N-input and only two were common to selection at high and low N-inputs. This was consistent with the greater grain yield response to selection observed for the population selected under high N-input compared with the population selected under low N-input, when they were evaluated at high N-fertilization. In contrast, when they were evaluated at low N-input both types of selection gave similar yield. As was expected, in the first cycle we observed selection of markers linked to grain yield QTLs. In the course of the second cycle three situations were observed: the confirmation of most regions already selected in C1 including all C1 regions overlapping with grain yield QTLs; the non-confirmation of some C1 regions (2/9); and the identification of new genomic zones (10/17). The detected marker-QTL associations revealed the consistency of the involvement of some traits, such as root architecture and glutamine synthetase activity, which would be of major importance for grain yield setting whatever the nitrogen fertilization. PMID:16552555

Coque, Marie; Gallais, André

2006-05-01

50

Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

51

Rendimiento de variedades precoces de maíz grano amarillo para valles altos de México / Grain yield of maize varieties with yellow endosperm and earliness for Mexican highlands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estableció como objetivo determinar la capacidad productiva de variedades de grano amarillo desarrolladas en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM) y en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas [...] y Pecuaria (INIFAP). Fueron establecidos, dos experimentos uniformes, uno en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX), en Santa Lucía de Prías y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM), en comparación con un testigo comercial de grano blanco y dos testigos de grano amarillo; ambos se sembraron en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010. Se evaluaron trece variedades, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. El mayor rendimiento medio se obtuvo en CEVAMEX (5887 kg/ha), el cual fue superior al obtenido en FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). En el grupo de mayor rendimiento de grano se ubicaron las variedades ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) y V-54 A (5405 kg/ha). Abstract in english The objective in this work was to evaluate the grain yield capacity of yellow grain maize varieties developed in The Cuautitlan Faculty of Superior Studies, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (FESC-UNAM), and the National Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Research (INI [...] FAP). Two experiments were planted in two locations; one in the CEVAMEX, in Saint Lucia of Prias and another at the FESC-UNAM, compared to white grain and yellow commercial control groups; both were planted mid June, 2010. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated in each experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of CEVAMEX had the best grain yielding, 5887 kg/ha, and was superior (p ? 0.05) to the experiment of FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). The best grain yielding varieties were ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) and A V-54 (5405 kg/ha).

Alejandro, Espinosa-Calderón; Margarita, Tadeo-Robledo; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Mauro, Sierra-Macías; Noel, Gómez-Montiel; Benjamín, Zamudio-González.

2013-06-01

52

Rendimiento de variedades precoces de maíz grano amarillo para valles altos de México / Grain yield of maize varieties with yellow endosperm and earliness for Mexican highlands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estableció como objetivo determinar la capacidad productiva de variedades de grano amarillo desarrolladas en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM) y en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas [...] y Pecuaria (INIFAP). Fueron establecidos, dos experimentos uniformes, uno en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX), en Santa Lucía de Prías y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM), en comparación con un testigo comercial de grano blanco y dos testigos de grano amarillo; ambos se sembraron en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010. Se evaluaron trece variedades, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. El mayor rendimiento medio se obtuvo en CEVAMEX (5887 kg/ha), el cual fue superior al obtenido en FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). En el grupo de mayor rendimiento de grano se ubicaron las variedades ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) y V-54 A (5405 kg/ha). Abstract in english The objective in this work was to evaluate the grain yield capacity of yellow grain maize varieties developed in The Cuautitlan Faculty of Superior Studies, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (FESC-UNAM), and the National Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Research (INI [...] FAP). Two experiments were planted in two locations; one in the CEVAMEX, in Saint Lucia of Prias and another at the FESC-UNAM, compared to white grain and yellow commercial control groups; both were planted mid June, 2010. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated in each experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of CEVAMEX had the best grain yielding, 5887 kg/ha, and was superior (p ? 0.05) to the experiment of FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). The best grain yielding varieties were ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) and A V-54 (5405 kg/ha).

Alejandro, Espinosa-Calderón; Margarita, Tadeo-Robledo; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Mauro, Sierra-Macías; Noel, Gómez-Montiel; Benjamín, Zamudio-González.

53

Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha-1) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day-1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day-1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t50) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha-1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha-1) compared with 2167 kg ha-1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

54

Influencia de la precipitación sobre el rendimiento del maíz: caso híbridos blancos / Influence of the precipitation on maize yield: case white grain hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se utilizaron los valores de rendimiento de grano de maíz Zea mays L., (kg ha-1) obtenido en ensayos regionales uniformes de híbridos blanco (ERUsHMB), con datos de 7 años de evaluación, en el Campo Experimental de la Estación Local Yaritagua del INIA Yaracuy, en El Rodeo municipio Peña del estado Y [...] aracuy, ubicado a 10º 04’ N, 69º 70’ W, y 308 m.s.n.m.; y los registros de Precipitación (P) y Evapotranspiración (ETP) de la estación antes señalada, con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de la distribución de la precipitación sobre los rendimientos de los cultivares de maíz inscritos en los ERUsHMB, durante los ciclos de siembra 2000 al 2006. Se calculó la lámina de agua en el suelo a 20 cm de profundidad y la ETP se obtuvo por la fórmula de Hargreaves y Samani. El año con el rendimiento promedio más bajo (5 900 kg ha-1) fue 2005, quien recibió 174,2 mm de lluvia en el período crítico y 521,6 en todo el ciclo del cultivo, mientras que el 2004 resultó el año que mostró los mejores rendimientos (8 300 kg ha-1), con 315,2 mm de lluvia en el período crítico y 866,9 mm en todo el ciclo. Los años con mayores productividades correspondieron a aquellos donde hubo mayor precipitación durante las etapas de prefloración, floración y llenado de grano (período crítico) y viceversa. El año que mostró el mayor nivel de productividad también presentó una mejor distribución de lluvia durante todo el ciclo del cultivo. Los resultados sugieren que la cantidad de lluvia caída durante la etapa de prefloración ha llenado de grano, determinan los rendimientos de maíz en la zona de estudio. Abstract in english Regional uniform tests with white maize, Zea mays L., hybrids (URTsWMH) were evaluated during seven years in the field of the Local Experimental Station of Yaritagua, INIA Yaracuy, located in El Rodeo municipio Peña, of Yaracuy state, at 10º 04’ N, 69º 70’W, and 325 mosl. Maize grain yield (kg ha-1) [...] of these test, Precipitation (P) and Evapotranspiración (ETP) registered in the location formally described, were used to determine the influence of the rain distribution on the yields of the maize cultivars evaluated in the URTsWMH during the period 2000-2006. Soil water level at 20 cm depth was calculated and the ETP was obtained with the Hargreaves y Samani (1985) formula. The year with the lowest mean yield (5.900 kg ha-1) was 2005, with a rainfall of 174,2 mm in the critical period and 521,6 mm during the total period of the crop, meanwhile the year 2004 showed the highest yields (8.300 kg ha-1), with 315,2 mm of rain in its critical period and 866,9 mm during the total period of the crop. The years with highest productivity, corresponded to those who received higher P during preblooming, blooming and grain full (critical period) and viceversa. The year that showed the highest level of productivity also presented a better rainfall distribution during the total crop cycle. These results suggest that the maize yield obtained in this study depended on the amount of rain that occurs during preblooming to grain full period.

Pedro, Monasterio; Pedro, García; Gleenys, Alejos; Alberto, Pérez; Jacinto, Tablante; Waner, Maturet; Luís, Rodríguez.

55

Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

56

Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

1310-13-01

57

Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbridos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376.The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels, 180 and 240 kg ha-1, were tested; in medium plot plant stands, 60 000, 80 000 and 100 000 plants ha-1 and the hybrids H-376 and Lobo in the small plots. The recorded variables were: grain yield per ha and total dry matter production, neutral and acid detergent fiber content, dry matter digestibility in vitro and milk production per ton of dry matter as well as per hectare. The 240-90-00-fertilization level increased grain yield and total dry matter in 1.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 respectively. The increase in plant stand from 80 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased grain yield in 1 t ha-1 and the change of 60 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased total dry matter in 3.2 t ha-1. The H-376 had the greatest yield of total dry matter with 21.7 t ha-1 and the largest contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and the lowest digestibility in vitro; nonetheless Lobo produced 216 kg of milk t-1 and 3.5 t of milk ha-1 more than H-376.

Alfonso Peña Ramos

58

Crop residue, manure and fertilizer in dryland maize under reduced tillage in northern China: I grain yields and nutrient use efficiencies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rapidly increasing population and associated quest for food and feed in China has led to increased soil cultivation and nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and as a consequence to increased wind erosion and unbalanced crop nutrition. In the study presented here, we explored the long-term effects of various combinations of maize stover, cattle manure and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer applications on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and nutrient and water use efficiencies under reduced tilla...

Wang, X. B.; Cai, D. X.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Perdok, U. D.; Oenema, O.

2007-01-01

59

Rendimiento del máiz de temporal y su relación con la pudrición de mazorca / Grain yield of maize genotypes under rainfed conditions and their relation to ear rot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el Valle Toluca-Atlacomulco, Estado de México, México, se cultivan 250 000 ha con maíz, principalmente con criollos de las razas adaptadas a esta región. En el presente estudio se evaluó la susceptibilidad de 25 genotipos de maíz a la pudrición de mazorca causada por Fusarium spp. y su relación c [...] on días a floración femenina, acame y rendimiento de grano. Los genotipos fueron evaluados en campo durante 2004 en tres localidades bajo condiciones de temporal e infección natural de la enfermedad, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar y cuatro repeticiones por localidad. El análisis de datos se efectuó como una serie de experimentos. Las diferencias entre variedades e híbridos y entre Palomero Toluqueño y Cacahuacintle con Cónico y Chalqueño explicaron el mayor porcentaje de variación entre genotipos para las cuatro características mencionadas. La variedad Ixtlahuaca (testigo) fue más tardía que Palomero Toluqueño y más precoz que los otros genotipos; presentó porcentajes de acame y pudrición de mazorca inferiores a Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle y Chalqueño; sin embargo, el acame fue superior al de los híbridos de otras razas. Ixtlahuaca obtuvo mayor rendimiento que Palomero y Cacahuacintle, pero fue superada por Chalqueño, por híbridos Cónico-Chalqueño y los de otras razas como AS-722, Cóndor y H-40. El análisis genotipo x característica indicó que Palomero Toluqueño fue más precoz y de menor rendimiento. Cacahuacintle, la más susceptible al acame y pudrición de mazorca causada por Fusarium. Cónico y Chalqueño tuvieron mayor re sistencia al acame y pudrición de mazorca y mayor rendimiento que Palomero Toluqueño y Cacahuacintle. Los híbridos comerciales Cóndor, H-33, H-40, H-44 y H-90E mostraron mayor rendimiento y baja pudrición de mazorca; ésta se correlacionó positivamente con el acame y ambas características se correlacionaron negativamente con rendimiento. Abstract in english At the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley, in the State of Mexico, Mexico, 250 000 ha of maize are annually sown mainly with landrace s belonging to races adapted to this highland region. The obj ectives of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of 25 maize genotypes to Fusarium spp. and to determine [...] its relationship with days to female flowering, stalk and root lodging, ear-rot and grain yield. The genotypes were grown during 2004 at three locations under natural disease incidence in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The analysis of the data gathered across environments was performed as a series of experiments. The differences between hybrids and landraces and between Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle with Cónico and Chalqueño races explained most of the variability found among genotypes for the evaluated traits. The Ixtlahuaca landrace (control) showed a delayed flowering than Palomero Toluqueño and was earlier than other genotypes. Ixtlahuaca had lower stalk and root lodging and ear-rot percent than Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle, and Chalqueño; however, its stalk and root lodging percent was higher than that of hybrids of other races. Ixtlahuaca outyielded Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle, but was outyielded by Chalqueño, Cónico-Chalqueño hybrids, and hybrids of other races such as AS-722, Cóndor, and H-40. The genotype by-trait analysis indicated that Palomero Toluqueño was the earliest and lowest grain yielder race. Cacahuacintle was the most susceptible to stalk and root lodging and to ear-rot caused by Fusarium spp. Cónico and Chalqueño races were more resistant to stalk and root lodging and ear-rot, and outyielded Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle. As a group, the hybrids Cóndor, H-33, H-40, H-44, and H-90E showed high grain yield and low ear-rot percent. Ear-rot was positively correlated with stalk and root lodging and both traits were negatively correlated with grain yield.

Andrés, González Huerta; Luis Miguel, Vázquez García; Jaime, Sahagún Castellanos; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez Pérez; Delfina de Jesús, Pérez López.

60

Influence of Seed Size on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Three Maize Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size on maize (Zea mays L. performance. Among three genotypes under study the seed size categories and their interaction showed non significant effect on yield, yield components, photo biomass production and quality of maize under Faisalabad agro-meteorological conditions. All the parameters including germination, number of plants per plot, plant height, number of cobs per plant, number of rows per cob, number of grains per cob, 1000 grain weight, seed yield, stalk yield biological yield, harvest index and protein contents were increased with Golden variety, bold seed sizes but the difference were non significant.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Stability of yield and yield components in maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two-year grain yield and 1000-grains mass data of 24 maize hybrids of FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600, 700 were analyzed. Investigations were performed at the two environments in two years. Nonparametric methods of the Kubinger and the van der Laan-de Kroon showed genotype x environment interaction for both investigated features, and method of Hildebrand showed interaction for 1000-grains mass. Maize hybrids stability was estimated with stability parameters: Si(1- the mean of the absolute rank differences over environments, Si(2- the common variance of the ranks, Si(3.and Si(6: the sum of the absolute deviations and sum of squares of rank for each genotype relative to the mean of ranks, respectively. On the basis of the stability parametar values, the most stable and the most unstable hybrids were estimated for each FAO maturity group, for both investigated features. Correlation coefficients between both investigated features and stability parameters and for all pairs of stability parameters were computed. In spite of the positive correlations estimated between all four stability parameters, we can make two groups: the first group formed: Si(1- the mean of the absolute rank differences over environments and Si(2- the common variance of the ranks and the second group formed: Si(3 and Si(6- the sum of the absolute deviations and sum of squares of rank for each genotype relative to the mean of ranks respectively.

?varkovi? Radomir

2009-01-01

62

Effect of mucuna intercropped with maize on soil fertility and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

cation of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass increased plant height, biomass weight, and grain yield of maize by 18, 23 and 31 percent, respectively, compared with incorporation of mucuna alone. The former was equally effective as the complementary use of 100 kg N/ha. The results suggest that undersowing of mucuna in relay with maize could be a good practice for sustaining soil fertility in a cereal based cropping system. (au)

63

Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

Amir José Klein, Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves, Ferreira; Ronald José Barth, Pinto; Claudete Aparecida, Mangolin; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo, Gonçalves.

64

Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

Amir José Klein, Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves, Ferreira; Ronald José Barth, Pinto; Claudete Aparecida, Mangolin; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo, Gonçalves.

2014-03-01

65

Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

66

Effects of hybrid on maize grain and plant carbohydrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials. The basic chemical composition (content of starch, protein, oil, crude fibre and ash and the content of lignocellulose fibres (content of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelullose and cellulose were determined for grain and the whole maize plant of the seven ZP maize hybrids. The negative very significant correlation between protein and starch content (r=-0.78 and significant correlation between oil and starch content (r=-0.65 was obtained in grain. The hybrid ZP 666 had the highest starch, crude fibre, ADF and cellulose content, high NDF content, the lowest ADL and low protein content in grain. The lowest starch, crude fibre, ADF, cellulose content and the highest protein and oil content in grain was determined in hybrid ZP 158. The hybrid ZP 730 had the highest and hybrid ZP158 the lowest dry matter yield of whole plant, whole plant without ear, ear and yield of digestible dry matter of whole plant. The differences in the contents of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelluloses, cellulose and digestibility of the whole maize plant among observed ZP hybrids were 6.21%, 4.01%, 0.79%, 5.65%, 3.88% and 6.79%, respectively. Obtained values for the content of lignocellulose fibres differed significantly among hybrids and were closely related to digestibility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Radosavljevi? Milica

2012-01-01

67

Yield of Maize Hybrid-3335 as Affected by NP Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to see the effect of different NP levels on maize hybrid "3335". The fertilizer levels were 90-90-90, 90-120-90, 90-150-90, 150-90-90, 150-120-90, 150-150-90, 210-90-90, 210-120-90, and 210-150-90 Kg ha -1 NPK including control having no fertilizer. The results revealed that maximum plant height (175.8 cm, number of cobs/plant (2.067, number of grains/cob (374.3, 1000-grain weight (226.5 g, Biological yield (15.42 t ha -1, and grain yield (48.08 t ha -1 was obtained by the application of NPK @ 210-120-90 kg ha -1. This level proved to be the optimum for maize crop under local conditions of Dera Ismail Khan.

M. Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

68

Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos de genótipos de milho em diferentes sistemas de manejo Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize genotypes in different management systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A monocultura do milho é uma prática comum em algumas regiões do Brasil, sendo responsável pelo incremento dos danos causados pelas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de produção de milho contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos. Foram testados quatro sistemas: S1 (baixo nível de manejo, S2 (médio, S3 (alto e S4 (proposto para maximizar o produtividade. Os níveis de manejo diferiram quanto à densidade de semeadura, espaçamento entre linhas, quantidade de fertilizantes e uso da irrigação. Em cada sistema, foram utilizadas três genótipos de milho: BRS Planalto (variedade de polinização aberta, Traktor (híbrido duplo e P32R21 (híbrido simples. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nas safras 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de plantio direto e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta de aveia preta+ervilhaca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Nas duas safras agrícolas, a variedade Planalto apresentou maior incidência de podridões do colmo do que os híbridos em todos os sistemas de manejo. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o principal patógeno associado às podridões do colmo. A produtividade de grãos oscilou entre 3.986 a 13.489kg ha-1 em 2003 e entre 1.787 a 13.849kg ha-1 em 2004, variando conforme o genótipo e o sistema de produção. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas em S4 com a utilização do híbrido simples P32R21. A incidência de grãos ardidos nas duas safras foi baixa, não atingindo em nenhum tratamento o valor de 6% considerado no desconto. O fungo Fusarium verticillioides foi o principal patógeno associado aos grãos ardidos. Por outro lado, C. graminicola não foi detectado nos grãos ardidos, demonstrando que sua alta incidência nos colmos não significa sua presença nos grãos. Não foi possível identificar um sistema de manejo que reduzisse a incidência de podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos na cultura do milho.Maize monoculture is an usual practice in some regions of Brazil, being responsible for the growing damage caused by diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different maize production systems, contrasting in management investments, on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield. Four production systems were tested: S1 (low management level, S2 (medium, S3 (high e S4 (designed to maximize the grain yield. The production systems differed in relation to plant density, row spacing, amount of fertilizer and irrigation use. Three genotypes were used for each production system: BRS Planalto (open-pollinated variety, Traktor (double-cross hybrid and P32R21 (single-cross hybrid. The experiments were carried out during 2002/03 and 2003/04 grown seasons, in no-till system and a monoculture area, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experiments was a split-plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with four replications. In both grown seasons, regardless management system, open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto showed higher stalk rot than the hybrids. Colletotrichum graminicola was the main pathogen associated with stalk rot. Grain yield ranged from 3,986 to 13.489kg ha-1 in 2003 and from 1,787 to 13.849kg ha-1 in 2004, depending on genotype and crop management system. The highest values of grain yield were obtained in S4 with the single-cross hybrid. The incidence of rot grain was low (below 6% during the whole experimental period. Fusarium verticillioides was the main pathogen associated with rot grain. There was no association between incidence and causal agent of stalk rot and rot grain. It was not possible to identify a crop management system that was more efficient to reduce incidence of stalk rot and rot grain.

Noel Alves Ribeiro

2005-10-01

69

Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the changes in micronutrient concentrations in grain of intercropped maize. PMID:23900569

Xia, Haiyong; Zhao, Jianhua; Sun, Jianhao; Xue, Yanfang; Eagling, Tristan; Bao, Xingguo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Long

2013-09-01

70

Rendimiento en granos y eficiencia de una asociación maíz (zea mays) y quinchoncho (cajanus cajan) con o sin fertilización / Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system with and without fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de determinar el rendimiento en granos y la eficiencia de una asociación maíz (CENIAP PB8) y quinchoncho (var. ICPL 87119) se estableció un experimento aditivo con 62.500 plantas/ha del cereal y 50.000 p/ha de la leguminosa, con siembra escalonada y dos niveles de fertilización. El [...] maíz no fue afectado por la competencia con la leguminosa a pesar del retardo de 20 días en su siembra y produjo 6938 y 7665 kg/ha en parcelas de monocultivo no fertilizadas y fertilizadas, respectivamente, mientras que en las asociadas los valores correspondientes fueron 7030 y 7507 kg/ha. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en el rendimiento de la leguminosa asociada, aunque el ciclo en este último caso se prolongó por 18 días. El quinchoncho rindió 3437 y 3464 kg/ha en monocultivo no fertilizado y fertilizado, respectivamente, en tanto que en las parcelas asociadas los valores fueron 3064 y 3277 kg/ha. No se detectó efecto significativo por la aplicación del fertilizante. La eficiencia de uso de los recursos por la asociación se estimó mediante los índices de relación de equivalencia de la tierra (RET), relación de equivalencia de área y tiempo (REAT) y la relación de equivalencia de área y cosecha (REAC), que evidenciaron ventajas significativas de las parcelas asociadas respecto a los monocultivos de referencia. Abstract in english Grain yield and efficiency of a maize-pigeon pea intercropping system were compared in an additive experiment with 62.500 plants/ha sole cropped maize (CENIAP PB8), 50.000 plants/ha sole cropped pigeonpea (ICPL 87119) and 112.500 plants/ha in intercropping plots. Two fertilization levels were applie [...] d. Maize was planted 20 days after pigeonpea. Grain yields of maize were 6938 and 7665 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized monoculture plots, and 7030 and 7507 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pigeonpea, with grain yields of 3437 and 3464 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized sole cropped plots, and 3064 and 3277 kg/ha in not fertilized and fertilized intercropped plots. Efficiency indexes land equivalent ratio (LER), area-time equivalency ratio (ATER) and area-harvest equivalency ratio (AHER) showed advantages of intercropping in relation to monocultures.

Ana Isabel, Quiroz; Douglas, Marín.

71

Contribution of Some Maize Production Factors Towards Grain Yield and Economic Return under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contribution of different factors responsible for the increase of Maize production viz: weeds control, insect/pest control and fertilizer were determined in Kharif, 1996 and 1 997 under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The investigations measured the average maximum yield gap between the improved practices and that of farmer`s practices as 2443 kg/ha, showing an increase of 193.88 % over that of farmer`s practices. The highest share contributed by improved fertilizer dose, was 38.48 %; followed by insect/pest control, that was 26 %. The lowest share was contributed by weeds control, 22 %. The highest net return and Value Cost Ratio (VCR of Rs. 3974.65 and (1:2.2 respectively, were found for fertilizer. The minimum net return of Rs. 1 576.20 with VCR (1:1.47 was obtained for insect/pest control.

Muhammad Bashir Ahmed

2001-01-01

72

Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis requires the study of combining abilities of potential parents. In view of this, the objective of this paper was to study combining abilities and determine the mode of inheritance and gene effects for the main agronomic character, grain yield, and its components, kernel row number and kernel number per row. Six inbred lines were used in the study, three of which originated in the U.S., while the other three were developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Kernel row number was inherited by superdominance, partial dominance, complete dominance and intermediacy. The mode of inheritance of kernel number per row and grain yield was superdominance. Additive gene action had the greatest influence on the expression of kernel row number, while the other two traits were influenced the most by nonadditive gene.

Bo?anski Jan

2010-01-01

73

A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura / Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em [...] duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro. Abstract in english Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experime [...] nt was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

Luís, Sangoi; Amauri, Schmitt; Jefferson, Vieira; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Daniélle, Girardi; Sérgio Roberto, Zoldan.

1354-13-01

74

A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura / Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em [...] duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro. Abstract in english Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experime [...] nt was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

Luís, Sangoi; Amauri, Schmitt; Jefferson, Vieira; Vitor Paulo, Vargas; Daniélle, Girardi; Sérgio Roberto, Zoldan.

75

Grain Yield and LER of Maize-climbing Bean Intercropping as Affected by Inorganic, Organic Fertilisers and Population Density in Western Oromiya, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) and climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgars L.) intercropping system is affected by fertility status of the soil and population density of component crops. A trial was conducted in 2002 and 2003 cropping season to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic fertilisers and population density on productivity of maize-climbing bean intercropping system. The experiment was laid out as 2x2x2x2 factorial arrangement with two sole cropping in Randomiz...

Tolera Abera; Tamado Tanaand; Pant, L. M.

2005-01-01

76

Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU) herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that recei...

Iraj Nosratti; Hassan Muhammad Alizade; Taymour Makmasoumi

2007-01-01

77

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

78

Effects of Single and Twin Row Planting on Yield and Yield Components in Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize hybrids response differently to various plant density and row configurations. A two-year field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty research farm at Mustafa Kemal University in 2000 and 2001 growing seasons, to compare single and twin-row planting pattern and to determine optimum plant density for maize hybrid Dracma, commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were plant densities of 60000, 75000, 90000, 105000, 120000 and 135000 plants ha-1. Split-plots were planting patterns (single row and twin row. The effects of plant density and planting patterns on grain yield were statistically significant. Grain yield gradually increased with increasing plant densities up to 90000 plants ha-1 (10973 kg ha-1 mean, then decreased in higher plant densities. There were no significant differences between 90000 plants ha-1 and 105000 plants ha-1 densities. Twin row planting pattern out-yielded single row and 10398 kg ha-1 and 9986 kg ha-1 grain yield obtained, respectively. This increase is important since without any additional input or cost.

Huseyin Gozubenli

2004-01-01

79

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N · ha(-1)) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m(3) ha(-1)). Although energy inputs (30 GJ · ha(-1)) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg · ha(-1) and 159 GJ · ha(-1), respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO(2)e · Mg(-1) of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N(2)O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G

2012-01-24

80

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg?ha?1 and 159 GJ?ha?1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e?Mg?1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo / Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adequação das características do genótipo com as do sistema de manejo é importante para incrementar a eficiência técnica e econômica da produção de milho no sul do Brasil. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta obtida com a utilização de cultiv [...] ares de milho com diferentes variabilidades genéticas em sistemas de produção contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo. O trabalho foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, testaram-se quatro sistemas de produção equivalentes a baixo (S1), médio (S2), alto (S3) e muito alto (S4) nível de manejo. Nas subparcelas, avaliaram-se três cultivares: o híbrido simples Pioneer 32R21 (HS), o híbrido duplo Traktor (HD) e a variedade de polinização aberta BRS Planalto (VPA). Os sistemas de manejo diferiram entre si quanto à quantidade e à época de aplicação dos fertilizantes, quanto à densidade de semeadura, do espaçamento entre linhas e à suplementação hídrica. Os ensaios foram implantados em 20/11/2002 e 22/10/2003, no sistema de semeadura direta. Independentemente de cultivar, o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta aumentaram com o maior investimento em práticas de manejo, variando, respectivamente, de 1.787 (S1) a 13.848kg ha-1(S4) e de 206,00 (S1) a 2.937,00R$ ha-1 (S4), dependendo da cultivar e do ano agrícola. A maior variabilidade genética da cultivar BRS Planalto não lhe assegurou rendimento de grãos superior ao dos híbridos nos sistemas com baixo investimento em insumos (S1). As cultivares híbridas foram mais produtivas e mais rentáveis do que a BRS Planalto em S2. A utilização do híbrido simples propiciou rendimento de grãos e margem bruta maiores do que as demais cultivares em S3 e S4, demonstrando que é possível associar máxima eficiência técnica e econômica com alto teto rendimento, desde que se tenha condições para investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar. Abstract in english The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at di [...] fferent management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1), medium (S2), high (S3) and very high (S4) management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1) to 13,848 (S4)kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1) to 2,937,00 (S4)R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

Luís, Sangoi; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Delson, Horn; Amauri, Schmitt; Cleber, Schweitzer; Franchielli, Motter.

2006-06-01

82

ZxGrowth and Yield Component Responses of Maize as Affected by Population Density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment with five different plant densities ranging from 35,000 to 95,000 plants ha -1 was carried out to find out the optimum plant population that adapted well with the limited available resource. Barnli was used as the experimental cultivar. Observations were made on growth attributes, yield and yield components of maize. Leaf area index (LAI, total dry matter (TDM, biological yield and grain yield increased with plant density while plant height, leaf number per plant, stem diameter, time of flowering and maturity, cob per plant, 1000-grain weight, number of grains cob -1 responded negatively.

M. M. Bahadur

1999-01-01

83

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O minimilho (MM) é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produ [...] ção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga) e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG 1051 foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repetições (52 plantas por parcela): colheita de MM; colheita das espigas verdes (grãos com teor de umidade de 60 a 70%); colheita das espigas maduras; colheita de MM e colheita das outras espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes comercializáveis e de grãos, produzidos sem a remoção da primeira inflorescência, foram superiores aos rendimentos respectivos produzidos após a remoção da primeira inflorescência, colhida como minimilho. Colhendo-se somente a primeira espiga como minimilho e as demais espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras obtiveram-se menores rendimentos de minimilho que o obtido colhendo-se todas as espigas como minimilho. Economicamente, as melhores receitas líquidas seriam obtidas explorando-se a cultura para a produção de espigas verdes, espigas verdes + minimilho, minimilho, minimilho + grãos e grãos, nesta ordem. Abstract in english Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to pr [...] oduce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot): BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%); mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.

Paulo Sérgio L e, Silva; Paulo Igor B e, Silva; Ana Karenina F de, Sousa; Kamila M, Gurgel; Israel A, Pereira Filho.

84

Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

85

Effect of zinc and plant-population on the yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2001 to study the effect of two levels of zinc (0 and 5 kg Zn ha-J) and three plant-densities (60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 plants ha-J) on the performance of two varieties of maize Azam and Pahari and two hybrids N7989 and Babar, at Malakandher Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Zinc at the rate of 5 kg ha-J increased the cob yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight, while increase in plant-density significantly increased the number of grains cob-J, number of cob-plant-J, cob-yield, grain-yield and 1000-grain weight. Results revealed that the highest plant-density of 100,000 plant ha-J decreased the number of cobs plant-J, number of grains cob-J and 1000-grain weight. Maximum number of cobs plant-J (0.87), number of grains cob-J (313), cob yield (4602 kg ha-J), grain yield (4222 kg ha-J) and 1000-grain weight (249 g) were obtained with plant- density of 80,000 plant ha-J. The maximum grain-yield of 4333 kg ha-J was recorded in plots of hybrid variety N7989. (author)

86

Magnitude of Variability for Yield and Yield Associated Traits in Maize Hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the maize hybrids for yield and yield associated traits. Results indicated that hybrids were significantly different from one another for all the characters. Among the twelve hybrids, the maximum days to 50 % silking (62.50, days to 50 % pollen shedding (62.50 were recorded in hybrid 3043, while the lowest mid-silking days of 54 and mid-pollen shedding days of 55 were recorded in Pop 9815. The highest values of plant and ear height were recorded in hybrid 3012. On the other hand lowest plant height was recorded in Pop - 9815, lowest ear height was observed in Baber hybrid. Maximum ear length of 20.46 cm was observed in hybrid 3130, while minimum ear length of 16.75 cm was recorded for hybrid Super Early. Maximum kernel rows per ear i.e. 15 rows was obtained for Pop-9815, while minimum (12.30 kernel rows was recorded for hybrid 3062. Maximum 1000-kernels weight of 395.16 g was observed in hybrid Ghauri, while minimum 1000-kernels wt of 261.18 g was recorded for hybrid 3057. Maximum grain yield (9915.66 kg ha -1 was obtained from hybrid C-919, while minimum (6845.74 kg ha -1 grain yield was recorded for the hybrid 3043. Results suggest that these hybrids, could be used as source of improved germplasm for developing maize genotypes with superior attributes.

Muhammad Younas

2002-01-01

87

The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

Ivica Kisi?

2004-09-01

88

Differences in maize physiological characteristics, nitrogen accumulation, and yield under different cropping patterns and nitrogen levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Intercropping and N fertilization play an important role in increasing crop yield. In order to further understand the advantage mechanism of intercropping and the effect of increasing N application on the advantage effect of intercropped crop, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effe [...] cts of different cropping patterns (i.e. M, maize monoculture; I1, maize-cotton intercrop; I2, maize-soybean intercrop) and N fertilization levels (N1, 100 kg ha-1; N2, 200 kg ha-1; N3, 300 kg ha-1; N4, 400 kg ha-1) on maize (Zea mays L.) Results showed that intercropping and increasing N application could enhance green leaf area per maize plant and chlorophyll content, and differences in green leaf area per plant and chlorophyll content between intercropping and monoculture under N1 were significant. Intercropping and increasing N application could improve maize photosynthetic characters, but their effects would be decreased with increasing N fertilization level. Root bleeding sap rate and root DM of maize were also obviously affected by intercropping and N fertilization, and the differences in root bleeding sap rate and root DM between I2 and M under N1 and N2 were significant. Compared to M, under N1, N2, N3, and N4, I2 increased grain N content by 12.8%, 6.3%, 2.7%, 1.5%, respectively. Intercropping and increasing N application could increase maize yield, and the difference in yield between I2 and M under N1 was significant. All the findings suggest that intercropping and increasing N application can improve maize physiological characters and increase maize root DM, N accumulation and yield, but their effects will be decreased with increasing N fertilization level.

Xiangqian, Zhang; Guoqin, Huang; Qiguo, Zhao.

89

Differences in maize physiological characteristics, nitrogen accumulation, and yield under different cropping patterns and nitrogen levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Intercropping and N fertilization play an important role in increasing crop yield. In order to further understand the advantage mechanism of intercropping and the effect of increasing N application on the advantage effect of intercropped crop, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effe [...] cts of different cropping patterns (i.e. M, maize monoculture; I1, maize-cotton intercrop; I2, maize-soybean intercrop) and N fertilization levels (N1, 100 kg ha-1; N2, 200 kg ha-1; N3, 300 kg ha-1; N4, 400 kg ha-1) on maize (Zea mays L.) Results showed that intercropping and increasing N application could enhance green leaf area per maize plant and chlorophyll content, and differences in green leaf area per plant and chlorophyll content between intercropping and monoculture under N1 were significant. Intercropping and increasing N application could improve maize photosynthetic characters, but their effects would be decreased with increasing N fertilization level. Root bleeding sap rate and root DM of maize were also obviously affected by intercropping and N fertilization, and the differences in root bleeding sap rate and root DM between I2 and M under N1 and N2 were significant. Compared to M, under N1, N2, N3, and N4, I2 increased grain N content by 12.8%, 6.3%, 2.7%, 1.5%, respectively. Intercropping and increasing N application could increase maize yield, and the difference in yield between I2 and M under N1 was significant. All the findings suggest that intercropping and increasing N application can improve maize physiological characters and increase maize root DM, N accumulation and yield, but their effects will be decreased with increasing N fertilization level.

Xiangqian, Zhang; Guoqin, Huang; Qiguo, Zhao.

2014-09-01

90

Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect of previous crop but not by results of tillage, because an unknown factor reduced growth in the no-tillage system. The hypothesis was supported at maturity by increased biomass allocation to grain relative to total shoot weight in treatments with greater shoot-P concentration at early stages.

Gavito, M.E.

1998-01-01

91

Effect of fertigated phosphorus on P use efficiency and yield of wheat and maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field studies were made on wheat and maize crops grown on loam soil to determine the effect of fertigated phosphorus (P on crop yield and P use efficiency. In case of wheat, rate of P application was 33 and 44 kg P ha-1 (not P2O5 from single supperphosphate (SSP and diammonium phosphate (DAP, while to maize it was 22 and 33 kg P ha-1 from SSP only. The results showed that fertigated SSP enhanced the grain yield of wheat significantly over broadcast, while fertigated DAP did not affect it significantly. Application of lower dose (33 kg P ha-1 from DAP by fertigation resulted in almost equivalent wheat yield with higher dose (44 kg P ha-1 applied by broadcast method. Phosphorus uptake, P use and agronomic efficiency were higher in fertigation for both the P fertilizers than broadcast method. In case of the maize experiment, application of SSP by fertigation produced significantly higher grain yield as compared to the yield obtained from same dose applied by broadcast method. The lower dose (22 kg P ha-1 applied through fertigation resulted in significantly higher grain yield than the full dose (44 kg P ha-1 applied by broadcast. The P use efficiency and agronomic efficiency were higher in fertigation than broadcast method. In both studies, fertigated P enhanced the grain yield of the tested crops and improved the P use and agronomic efficiency, indicating the superiority of fertigation technique.

M. Mohsin Iqbal

2003-11-01

92

Maize ARGOS1 (ZAR1) transgenic alleles increase hybrid maize yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop improvement for yield and drought tolerance is challenging due to the complex genetic nature of these traits and environmental dependencies. This study reports that transgenic over-expression of Zea mays AR GOS1 (ZAR1) enhanced maize organ growth, grain yield, and drought-stress tolerance. The ZAR1 transgene exhibited environmental interactions, with yield increase under Temperate Dry and yield reduction under Temperate Humid or High Latitude environments. Native ZAR1 allele variation associated with drought-stress tolerance. Two founder alleles identified in the mid-maturity germplasm of North America now predominate in Pioneer's modern breeding programme, and have distinct proteins, promoters and expression patterns. These two major alleles show heterotic group partitioning, with one predominant in Pioneer's female and the other in the male heterotic groups, respectively. These two alleles also associate with favourable crop performance when heterozygous. Allele-specific transgene testing showed that, of the two alleles discussed here, each allele differed in their impact on yield and environmental interactions. Moreover, when transgenically stacked together the allelic pair showed yield and environmental performance advantages over either single allele, resembling heterosis effects. This work demonstrates differences in transgenic efficacy of native alleles and the differences reflect their association with hybrid breeding performance. PMID:24218327

Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Wei, Jun; Winkler, Chris; Goncalves-Butruille, Marymar; Weers, Ben P; Cerwick, Sharon F; Dieter, Jo Ann; Duncan, Keith E; Howard, Richard J; Hou, Zhenglin; Löffler, Carlos M; Cooper, Mark; Simmons, Carl R

2014-01-01

93

Effect of gamma irradiation on the grain yield of Nigerian Zea mays and Arachis hypogaea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a follow-up to our earlier investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on the germination and growth of certain Nigerian agricultural crops, the present study sought to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the grain yield of Zea mays (maize) and Arachis hypogaea (groundnut). The seeds were planted after irradiation without the application of fertiliser. The results show that for maize, grain yield for irradiated samples is increased to levels above the unirradiated yield at doses up to about 250 Gy with the optimum yield occurring at 150 Gy. The corresponding increase for groundnut is observed at doses up to about 930 Gy with optimum yield at a dose of 300 Gy. Inhibition in yield was observed to set in at a dose greater than 250 Gy for maize and 930 Gy for groundnut. The actual relationship between mean yield of these crops and gamma radiation dose was obtained using sixth-degree polynomial equations. (note)

94

Effect of gamma irradiation on the grain yield of Nigerian Zea mays and Arachis hypogaea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a follow-up to our earlier investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on the germination and growth of certain Nigerian agricultural crops, the present study sought to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the grain yield of Zea mays (maize) and Arachis hypogaea (groundnut). The seeds were planted after irradiation without the application of fertiliser. The results show that for maize, grain yield for irradiated samples is increased to levels above the unirradiated yield at doses up to about 250 Gy with the optimum yield occurring at 150 Gy. The corresponding increase for groundnut is observed at doses up to about 930 Gy with optimum yield at a dose of 300 Gy. Inhibition in yield was observed to set in at a dose greater than 250 Gy for maize and 930 Gy for groundnut. The actual relationship between mean yield of these crops and gamma radiation dose was obtained using sixth-degree polynomial equations. (note)

Mokobia, C E; Okpakorese, E M; Analogbei, C; Agbonwanegbe, J [Department of Physics, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State (Nigeria)

2006-12-15

95

Effect of gamma irradiation on the grain yield of Nigerian Zea mays and Arachis hypogaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a follow-up to our earlier investigation on the effect of gamma radiation on the germination and growth of certain Nigerian agricultural crops, the present study sought to determine the effect of gamma radiation on the grain yield of Zea mays (maize) and Arachis hypogaea (groundnut). The seeds were planted after irradiation without the application of fertiliser. The results show that for maize, grain yield for irradiated samples is increased to levels above the unirradiated yield at doses up to about 250 Gy with the optimum yield occurring at 150 Gy. The corresponding increase for groundnut is observed at doses up to about 930 Gy with optimum yield at a dose of 300 Gy. Inhibition in yield was observed to set in at a dose greater than 250 Gy for maize and 930 Gy for groundnut. The actual relationship between mean yield of these crops and gamma radiation dose was obtained using sixth-degree polynomial equations. PMID:17146127

Mokobia, C E; Okpakorese, E M; Analogbei, C; Agbonwanegbe, J

2006-12-01

96

Effects of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was conducted during the fall of 1991 and 1992 at Al-Latyfia Experimental Station to determine the effect of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties. Five doses were used in addition to control. A factorial experiment with randomized complete block design in three replications was used in the study. Results revealed that there was significant difference between varieties in plant and ear height in 1992. However, differences between varieties were also significantly affected by most yield component characters. Low doses significantly affected plant height, weight of 500 kernels in 1991, and kernel row number in 1992. Grain yield was affected significantly in 1991 and 1992 by low doses. Results showed that 2.0 krad was the most useful low dose to increase grain yield, whereas there was no significant effect between varieties in grain yield. 7 refs., 6 tabs

97

Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho / The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1) sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012). O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN), de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema [...] de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex. Abstract in english The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1) on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012). The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprink [...] ler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

Jaeveson da, Silva; Paulo S., Lima e Silva; Maurício de, Oliveira; Kathia M., Barbosa e Silva.

2004-06-01

98

Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

Jaeveson da Silva

2004-06-01

99

Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

100

Residues of 14 C-malathion in stored maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residues of the insecticide malathion applied to stored maize grains were determined in the laboratory by mean of radiotracer techniques, which permitted the discrimination between surface residues, solvent extracted residues and bound residues. Results indicated that with time, the amount of bound and extractable residues is enhanced inside the grains from 8.9% to 14.7% while the surface residues progressively diminishes in the period, reaching to about 50% of the applied concentration. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Ethylene dibromide residue studies in stored maize grain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maize grains were fumigated with 14C-ethylene dibromide according to fumigation practices in Ghana. 14C-residues declined to 12 mg/kg after 40 weeks, of which 5 mg/kg was methanol-extractable, the remaining being bound. The importance of proper airing after fumigation has been clearly demonstrated. (author)

102

Effect of Tillage Intensity and Herbicide Application On Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different tillage intensities in combination with herbicide application or interculture on growth and yield of maize was investigated at Student Farm, Department. of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 1997. Maximum grain yield (4.92 t h -1 along with highest net benefit (Rs. 38660/= per hectare was obtained for the crop raised with tilling the soil twice followed by herbicide application against the lowest grain yield (2.72 t ha -1 and net benefit (Rs. 20890/= per hectare for the crop grown at zero tillage followed by interculture.

Shakeel Ahmad

1999-01-01

103

Impact of Water and Potassium Management on Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crop irrigated at 25 and 50 per cent ASMD gave 21.53 and 17.10 per cent greater grain yield ha-1 than that irrigated at 75 per cent ASMD. Application of P2O5 @ 200, 150 and 100 kg ha-1 increased grain yield by 24.50, 20.31 and 13.64 per cent, respectively over control. In general, maize irrigated at 25 per cent ASMD gave significantly higher grain starch and oil content, than that irrigated of 75 per cent ASMD, but it significantly decreased grain protein content. Similarly application of K2O significantly increased grain starch and oil content. However, K2O application had non-significant effect on grain protein content in 1992 but caused significant increase in 1993.

Tariq Mahmood

2000-01-01

104

IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

Barbara MURAWSKA

2013-12-01

105

Response of Grain Weight of Maize to Variety, Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Asaba Area of Delta State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the response of grain weight of maize to variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factional layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15cm and evaluated for the grain weight. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety which produced yield of 2.1 tha-1 in 2008 and 2.3 tha-1 in 2009 was superior. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for farmers who prefer local varieties in maize production. (ii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizers for increased grain weight of maize should apply 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10. (iii Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

Enujeke E. C.

2013-05-01

106

Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

107

Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

108

Impact of nitrogen and sulfur application on growth and yield of maize (zea mays L.) crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications with net plot of 4.2 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur on growth, yield and quality of double cross hybrid (DCH) maize (Cargil-707). Application of fertilizers at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg of nitrogen and sulfur per hectare respectively greatly increased by dry weight per plant (DWP), plant grains number per ear (GNE) and grain weight per ear (GWE) over other treatments. Similarly, the highest grain yield of 8.59 tons per hectare was recorded from the plot fertilized at the rate of 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare, while maximum grain oil content (GOC) and grain protein contents (GPC) were recorded from plot fertilized at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare respectively. (author)

109

Genetic variability and association analysis for yield and its components in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out to estimate the various genetic parameters and nature of association among the traits influencing maize grain yield. A total of 72 F1 hybrids were synthesised in a Line x Tester mating fashion using 24 inbred lines and three testers. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of substantial variability for all traits studied. Grain yield/plant, grains/row, plant height, ear height, cob length, 100 grain weight and leaf breadth had high GCV estimates with high heritability. Genetic advance was higher for grain yield/plant, ear height, grains/row, plant height, cob length and 100 grain weight. High GCV, heritability as well as genetic advance indirectly indicate that selection may be effective for these traits. Genotypic correlation coefficients and path analysis revealed that grains/row, grain rows/cob, 100 grain weight and plant height had positively significant correlation and highest direct effect on grain yield. While formulating the breeding programme, the above traits may be considered as important traits aiming to maximize the grain yield of maize.

Kanagarasu, S*., Nallathambi, G., Kannan, S and Ganesan, K.N

2013-12-01

110

Effect of tillage system on soil properties and yield of Oba 98 maize variety in Zaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria loses significant amount of soil, organic matter and plant nutrients to the continuous tilling of soil for various crop production. This leads to declining and stagnation of crop yields. Three year field trials were conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons at the experimental farm of Institute for Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Lat. 11° 11' N: Long 7° 38' E: 686 m above sea level to investigate the effect of tillage system on soil chemical properties, physical properties and grain yield of Oba 98 maize variety. The treatments consisted of six tillage systems laid out in Complete Randomize Block Design and replicated five times. The parameters measured included soil chemical properties such as ions concentrations and Cation Exchange Capacity, soil textural class, soil bulk density and grain yield of the maize under test. The results obtained indicated that GPx (Glyphosate followed by Primextra Gold and PPx (Paraquat followed by Primextra Gold tillage systems enhanced soil nutrients with higher Cation Exchange Capacity, highest cations and anions concentrations due to organic matter accumulation in the soil, improved soil structure that resulted to better grain yield of maize. The two types of tillage systems will therefore help in reducing the effect of soil degradation through frequent tilling and also improved soil aggregate and fertility as a result of organic matter accumulation on the soil surface.

A. Namakka

2014-07-01

111

Effect of Different Intertillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field study pertaining to different intertillage practices on maize was conducted in spring 1998. Different intertillage practices comprised of no intertillage + no earthing-up, no intertillage + earthing-up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + no earthing up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + earthing-up, manual weeding + no earthing up, intertillage twice with spade + earthing-up. The significant maximum grain yield (4.3 t ha-1 of maize and net income (Rs. 27713 was obtained by intertillage twice with spade and earthing-up as against the minimum grain yield (3.02 t ha-1 with net income of Rs. 20385/- ha-1 in case of no intertillage + no earthing up treatment.

Riaz Ahmad

2000-01-01

112

14C-pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residues of 14C-pirimiphos-methyl in maize grains were determined during 6 months under storage conditions simulating actual practice in Brazil. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. A total of 78% of the applied dose was recovered at 0-24 h and this amount decreased to 16% after 180 d of storage. Cooking had no effect on the levels of the residue recovered. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

113

Effect of Intercropping and Crop Arrangement on Yield and Productivity of Late Season Maize/soybean Mixtures in the Humid Environment of South Southern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out between September and December in 2007 and 2008 at Akamkpa (150 15'' N; 80 22'' E, Nigeria. The objective was to investigate yield and productivity of maize and soybean as sole crops and as additive mixtures (100:100 in response to five levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha and five crop arrangements (sole maize at 53,333 plants/ha, sole soybean at 266,666 plants/ha and maize: soybean intercrop arrangements of 1:1, 2:2 and 1:2. The trial was a split-plot design in a randomized complete block with nitrogen in main plot and crop arrangement in sub-plot, with three replications. Intercropping had no significant effect on grain yield of maize in 2007. In 2008, maize grain yield grain yield reduction in mixture was 6 percent compared to sole cropping. Soybean seed yield reduction in mixture was 32 and 43 percents in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Crop arrangement significantly influenced yield components and yield in both maize and soybean. Planting maize and soybean in 1:1, 2:2 or 1:2 arrangement had no significant effect on maize in 2007 but depressed grain yield of maize by 38, 35 and 14 percents in 2008. Spatial arrangement of maize and soybean in 1:1, 2:2, and 1:2 depressed soybean yield by 51, 44 and 45 percents in 2007 and by 86, 64 and 73 percents in 2008. Intercropping reduced the relative maize grain yield by only 1 percent in 2007 and from 4 to 9 percents in 2008. Soybean relative yields were from 31 to 34 percent lower than sole crop yield in 2007 and 39 to 46 percent lower in 2008. The relative yield totals for both 2007 and 2008 were well above unity, an indication that the system was highly productive. This implies that intercrops were 64, 66 and 63 percents in 2007 and 43, 57 and 65 percents in 2008, more productive than the sole crops at 2:2, 1:2 and 1:1 arrangements, respectively. Late season maize and soybean may be planted in 2:2 or 1:2 arrangements to take advantage of optimum soybean seed yield and 65-100 percents of the maize grain yield in the humid South Southern Nigeria.

U. L. Undie

2012-02-01

114

Effect of Sowing Dates on Yield of Maize Under Agroclimatic Condition of Kaghan Valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Himalayan Agricultural Research Station (PARC,Kaghan during kharif season 2001 to study the effect of various sowing dates on maize. The crop was sown on 2nd, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 30th May, 6th and 13th June. Days to 50% silking, days to maturity, number of grains row-1,100 grain weight (gm and grain yield (kg ha-1 was significantly affected by various sowing dates while the effect on number of rows ear-1 was non significant. Delay in sowing substantially reduced days to 50% silking, days to maturity, number of grains row-1, 100 grain weight (gm and grain yield (kg ha-1.Maximum grain yield (2988.89 kg ha-1 was record in crops sown on 2nd May while minimum grain yield (780.44 kg ha-1 was observed in crops sown on 13th June. Early sowing produced highest yield as compared to delay sowing.

Nadar Khan

2002-01-01

115

Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha-1 from improved soybean variety (TGx 1448-2E and 17 kg N ha-1 from farmer soybean variety (Samsoy-2 as N balance, this did not significantly (p = 0.05 affect the maize yields. The soybean shed 90-100% of its leaves at physiological maturity which resulted in about 110 kg N ha-1 N uptake. This source of N might be one of the factors responsible for the increase in maize yield that followed soybean (20 to 24% compared with continuous maize yield plot. Maize yield in previous Lablab plot was significantly (p = 0.05 higher than in all other treatments. Maize yield in farmer-managed plot ranged between 0.13 and 4.53 t ha-1, maize yield in researcher-managed plot was over 200% higher than maize yield in farmer-managed plot because of poor crop management on the part of the farmer.

J.A. Okogun

2007-01-01

116

The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy and inorganic phosphorus (Pi and soluble proteins among 28 maize populations, consisted into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-phytic populations, with the aim to determine the potential of enhancing the P profile of maize plants and high grain yield through selection. The highest genetic variability of Pi and Pphy content in leaves was expressed in group with intermediate Pphy content in grain. Meanwhile, leaves of low-phytic populations were characterized with low Pphy, too (averagely 18% and high content of soluble proteins (averagely 15% in relation to high- and intermediate-phytic populations. Additionally, the lowest genetic variability of protein content was also noticeable in leaves of low-phytic populations. Positive correlation between Pi and protein content was observed in leaves of low- and high-phytic populations. The negative correlation between Pphy and Pi was detected in maize grain, but correlation was significant only in intermediate-phytic group. The highest, but not significant, average yield was observed in group of low-phytic populations, as well as its relative high genetic variability. That indicates that development of high yielding genotypes with lower phytate in grain is reasonable, and could be potentially useful in enhancing the sustainability and decreasing of environmental impact in agricultural production.

Dragi?evi? Vesna

2010-01-01

117

Improving Maize Yield in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Ghana with Leguminous Cover Crops and PK Fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, Calopogonium mucunoides Des (calopo, Crotalaria juncea L (sunn hemp, C. retusa L. (devil bean and Mucuna pruriens (L DC (mucuna supplied with 17 kg haG1 of P and 33 kg haG1 of K were assessed in 1996–1997 at three locations in Northern Ghana for their dry matter production and nutrient accumulation, mineralization, as well as their effect on the yield of a succeeding maize crop. The dry matter yield of cover crops across locations ranged from 5 to 15 t haG1 with a corresponding total N accumulation of 115 to 306 kg haG1. Cover crop residue amendments increased maize grain yield 2 to 4–fold above the 1–year weed fallow control. Calopo was the best cover crop in increasing maize yield. On the other hand, devil bean, which out–performed all the other cover crops in dry matter and N accumulation, did not increase maize yield commensurate with its dry matter and N yields due to high N immobilization. Small–scale farmers in Northern Ghana can improve their maize yields by growing cover crops in rotation with their maize.

M. Fosu

2004-01-01

118

Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707. Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare was recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare. While maximum grain oil and crude protein contents were recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively.

Iqrar Hussain

1999-01-01

119

CONSERVATION AND DETERMINATION OF THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE POLLEN GRAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In maize breeding programs, factors related to receptivity length of stigma, longevity of pollen grain in the plant, differences in the period of blossoming among plants and conservations of the genetics resources are some aspects that reinforce the importance of pollen grains storage. In this research the influence of water tenor, period and storage environment were evaluated in regard to the viability and germination of maize pollen grains. The assays took place in laboratories of Analyses of Seed Molecular Biology of the seeds sector and in the experimental area of Agricultural Department of UFLA. In the pre-tests, different culture methods were verified to evaluate the in vitro germination as well the best time to collect the pollen grains. The germination pollen grains in different water tenors was also evaluated: 51,7%; 29,4%, 21,7%; 17,7%; 17%. In a second experiment the pollen grains with water tenors of 51,7%; 29,4%; 21,7% were stored in deep freezer (-86oC, fridge (4oC, and liquid nitrogen (-193oC for 14 and 30 days. After the storage, the germination and viability of pollen grains were evaluated in vitro in culture medium and through the tetrazoilium test, respectively. The viability of stored pollen grain for 14 days in different water tenors and storage places/environment was also tested in vivo through auto fecundation in plants of Le-57 inbred lines and GNZ 2004 hybrid, when both showed receptive style-stigmas. For the evaluation of germination and viability of pollen grains, a completely randomized design was used, in factorial scheme 2 (period of storage x 3 (water tenors of pollen grains x 3 (places storage, with four repetitions. In the pre-tests higher values of germination of pollen grains were observed in culture medium containing 10% sucrose; 0,03% boric acid; 0,15% calcium chloride (M2, and when the collection took place at 9 a.m. the viability of pollen grains was reduced substantially below 21,7% of water tenor indicating they don’t tolerate the desiccation. For a better conservation during the storage, the pollen grains should be dried until 21,7% of water tenor and storage in liquid nitrogen.

CLARISSA ALVES FERREIRA

2007-08-01

120

Residues of pirimiphos-methyl in stored maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-pirimiphos-methyl (specific activity 16.36 mCi/mmol (1 Ci = 37 GBq)) was applied to maize grains at a concentration of 5 mg/kg using the procedures described in the FAO/IAEA Model Protocol, Annex I, these Proceedings. After treatment, the maize was stored at ambient temperature (20-35 deg. C) in jute sacks lined with polythene. The surface (water soluble) and methanol extractable residues were investigated over a period of 8 months. There was a gradual increase in the methanol extractable residues and a corresponding decrease in the surface residues over the storage period. At the end of this time, the total extractable residue was 56% of the applied dose. For technical reasons no data were available for the residues bound within the grain tissues. Four types of local diet were prepared from the treated maize, these being: akple, roasted akple, kenkey and banku; some reduction in the extractable residues was observed as a result of the cooking process. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Yield and Quality of Two Maize Hybrids as Affected by Different Planting Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement and three replications to evaluate the effect of different planting patterns viz. 60-cm spaced single rows, 70-cm spaced single rows, 30/90 cm spaced double row and 35/105-cm spaced double rows on yield and quality of tow maize hybrids viz. `Highcorn 11` and `Cargil 777`. Max-1000 grain weight (438.47 g, grain yield (9.6 t/ha, and stover yield (15.85 t/ha was recorded when Highcorn 1 1 was sown at 60 cm spaced single rows. While maximum no of grains/cob (372.45 was recorded from `Cargil 777` sown at 30/90 cm apart double row.

Khalid Iqbal

2001-01-01

122

Evaluation of the effect of soil acidity amelioration on maize yield and nutrient interrelationships using stepwise regression and nutrient vector analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interrelationships between elemental content of selected soil and leaf nutrients and maize grain yield were evaluated in a liming experiment conducted on a Hutton and Oakleaf soil in a resource-poor farming area in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Improved uptake of Mo by maize with increased soil P status was found on the Hutton soil, while N and P uptake improved, due to lime and fertiliser application, on both soils. Boron uptake by maize was depressed with lime application ...

Jansen Rensburg, H. G.; Claassens, A. S.; Beukes, D. J.

2010-01-01

123

YIELD POTENTIAL OF SINGLE, THREE-WAY AND DOUBLE CROSS COMMERCIAL HYBRIDS MAIZE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul state, 45% of the commercial maize cultivars are single cross, 27% are three-way cross and 28% are double cross hybrids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate comparative performance and yield potential of different types of maize hybrids. The study used commercial maize hybrids, evaluated at RS state in the regional maize testing network, and conducted in 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05 cropping seasons. Hybrids were clustered according to the maturity period in two groups of trials, i.e. early and extra-early. Inside each group, the hybrids were classified as the type of cross, in single cross (HS, three-way cross (HT and double cross (HD. The F test was used to evaluate the contrasts among types of hybrids (HS versus HT, HS versus HD and HT versus HD, to each cropping season, inside both maturing groups. Averaged across environments, statistically significant differences were shown among types of hybrids in both maturing groups. The average superiority of the single crosses over the double crosses, in grain yield, was 12% to the early maturing group and 16% to the extra-early maturing group. In considering the individual performance of the highest-yielding and the lowest-yielding hybrid inside each group, the superiority relation between the different categories of hybrids changed. Some double hybrids out-yielded some single and threeway cross hybrids, indicating that it is unsuitable to generalize inferences about yield potential of different maize hybrids based on the type of cross.

BEATRIZ MARTI EMYGDIO

2007-04-01

124

Interacción gonotipo-ambiente del rendimiento y calidad de grano y tortilla de híbridos de maíz en Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México / Genotype-environment interaction of yield and grain and tortilla quality of maize hybrids at the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente la baja productividad del maíz (Zea mays L.) en los Valles Altos del Centro de México se debe a condiciones ambientales adversas de sequía, temperatura más alta que la usual y heladas tempranas. Para aumentar la productividad es necesario desarrollar variedades estables con rendimiento a [...] lto y que cumplan con las características físicas de grano, nixtamal y tortilla que demandan las industrias procesadoras. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la interacción genotipo x ambiente sobre el rendimiento, las características físicas del grano y la calidad de nixtamal y tortillade 20 híbridos pre-comerciales y comerciales de maíz cultivados durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2009 en seis localidades de los Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano, peso hectolítrico, peso de 100 granos (PCG), índice de flotación (IF), color de grano y harina, y la calidad de nixtamal y tortilla. Los resultados para rendimiento y características físicas del grano fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI), y los de calidad de nixtamal y tortilla bajo un diseño completamente al azar. El modelo AMMI proporcionó buena descripción de la interacción genotipo x ambiente, y de la estabilidad de los 20 híbridos. Las condiciones de siembra y las ambientales modificaron las características físicas de los híbridos, especialmente el tamaño del grano y la dureza. Huamantla y Tlatempa fueron las mejores localidades en rendimiento (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), tamaño (PCG > 33 g), dureza (IF 60 %). De los híbridos evaluados 15 cumplieron con las especificaciones de la industria de la masa y tortilla, pero ninguno cumplió las especificaciones de la industria de harina nixtamalizada. Abstract in english Currently, the low productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the central highlands of México is due to adverse environmental conditions such as drought, higher than usual temperatures and early frosts. To increase productivity, it is necessary to develop stable maize varieties with high yield which can [...] meet the quality characteristics of grain, nixtamal and tortilla demanded by the processing industry. In this study, we determined the effect of the genotype x environment interaction on grain yield and on the physical traits of grain, nixtamal and tortilla of 20 pre-commercial and commercial maize hybrids, grown during the 2009 harvest season in six locations in the highlands of Tlaxcala, México. Grain yield, test weight, 100-grains weight (HGW), flotation index (FI), color of grain and flour, and nixtamal and tortilla quality were evaluated. The results for grain yield and grain physical traits were statistically analyzed using the model of additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), while data of nixtamal and tortilla quality were analyzed under a completely randomized design. The AMMI model provided a good description of the genotype x environment interaction and stability of the 20 hybrids. Both planting conditions and environment induced changes on the physical characteristics of hybrids, especially the grain size and hardness. Tlatempa and Huamantla were the best localities for yield (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), grain size (HGW > 33 g), hardness (FI 60 %). Fifteen hybrids met the specifications for masa and tortilla industry but none met the specifications for nixtamalized flour industry.

María Gricelda, Vázquez Carrillo; David, Santiago Ramos; Yolanda, Salinas Moreno; Israel, Rojas Martínez; José L., Arellano Vázquez; Gustavo A., Velázquez Cardelas; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón.

125

Interacción gonotipo-ambiente del rendimiento y calidad de grano y tortilla de híbridos de maíz en Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México / Genotype-environment interaction of yield and grain and tortilla quality of maize hybrids at the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente la baja productividad del maíz (Zea mays L.) en los Valles Altos del Centro de México se debe a condiciones ambientales adversas de sequía, temperatura más alta que la usual y heladas tempranas. Para aumentar la productividad es necesario desarrollar variedades estables con rendimiento a [...] lto y que cumplan con las características físicas de grano, nixtamal y tortilla que demandan las industrias procesadoras. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la interacción genotipo x ambiente sobre el rendimiento, las características físicas del grano y la calidad de nixtamal y tortillade 20 híbridos pre-comerciales y comerciales de maíz cultivados durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2009 en seis localidades de los Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano, peso hectolítrico, peso de 100 granos (PCG), índice de flotación (IF), color de grano y harina, y la calidad de nixtamal y tortilla. Los resultados para rendimiento y características físicas del grano fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI), y los de calidad de nixtamal y tortilla bajo un diseño completamente al azar. El modelo AMMI proporcionó buena descripción de la interacción genotipo x ambiente, y de la estabilidad de los 20 híbridos. Las condiciones de siembra y las ambientales modificaron las características físicas de los híbridos, especialmente el tamaño del grano y la dureza. Huamantla y Tlatempa fueron las mejores localidades en rendimiento (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), tamaño (PCG > 33 g), dureza (IF 60 %). De los híbridos evaluados 15 cumplieron con las especificaciones de la industria de la masa y tortilla, pero ninguno cumplió las especificaciones de la industria de harina nixtamalizada. Abstract in english Currently, the low productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the central highlands of México is due to adverse environmental conditions such as drought, higher than usual temperatures and early frosts. To increase productivity, it is necessary to develop stable maize varieties with high yield which can [...] meet the quality characteristics of grain, nixtamal and tortilla demanded by the processing industry. In this study, we determined the effect of the genotype x environment interaction on grain yield and on the physical traits of grain, nixtamal and tortilla of 20 pre-commercial and commercial maize hybrids, grown during the 2009 harvest season in six locations in the highlands of Tlaxcala, México. Grain yield, test weight, 100-grains weight (HGW), flotation index (FI), color of grain and flour, and nixtamal and tortilla quality were evaluated. The results for grain yield and grain physical traits were statistically analyzed using the model of additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), while data of nixtamal and tortilla quality were analyzed under a completely randomized design. The AMMI model provided a good description of the genotype x environment interaction and stability of the 20 hybrids. Both planting conditions and environment induced changes on the physical characteristics of hybrids, especially the grain size and hardness. Tlatempa and Huamantla were the best localities for yield (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), grain size (HGW > 33 g), hardness (FI 60 %). Fifteen hybrids met the specifications for masa and tortilla industry but none met the specifications for nixtamalized flour industry.

María Gricelda, Vázquez Carrillo; David, Santiago Ramos; Yolanda, Salinas Moreno; Israel, Rojas Martínez; José L., Arellano Vázquez; Gustavo A., Velázquez Cardelas; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón.

2012-09-01

126

Determination of Optimum Level of Potash and its Effects on Yield and Quality of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of potassium on maize (Zea mays L. growth, yield and quality. The potash level comprised 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Kg K2O ha?1 while the maize hybrid was 922 single supper cross. Amongst the eight potash treatments 150 kg ha?1 gave the highest yield of 7.74 t ha?1, but the overall effects of all treatments were non-significant. The yield components like cob length, 1000-grain weight and number of grains per cob remained unaffected but cob yield was significant by potash application. Similarly the parameters like plant height at maturity, number of grain rows per cob, days taken to tasseling and silking remained unaffected, however, stalk yield and protein contents were significantly affected. The optimum level lies between the range of 150-200 Kg K2O ha?1, beyond this level the application of potash is not profitable.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2000-01-01

127

Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain using the biomass dryer delayed insect infestation by three months and significantly (p?0.05 reduced mould and aflatoxin contamination during storage for 6 months. Maize dried using the biomass dryer was only infested with Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella while that dried on bare ground was infested by both the moth and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais implying that the biomass dryer controlled the most important storage insect pest of maize in Uganda. Drying maize using the biomass dryer had no effect on the germination potential of the grain. Thus, drying maize grain with the biomass dryer reduces drying time and greatly improves the quality of the grain during storage. However, the subsequent storage quality of the grain highly depends on the storage form (shelled or unshelled, time and environment.

W. Kyamuhangire

2010-01-01

128

Maize growth and yield in Peshawar under changing climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

remained stable but declined (P<0.05) by delay in sowing. Biological yield, dry matter and grains yield (g m/sup -2/) revealed almost a similar decreasing trend when sowing was delayed. Dry matter to grain yield relationship was linear (r/sup 2/ = 0.95) and revealed a mean loss of 1.65 g m/sup 2/ when sowing delayed from June 08 to July 24 in the season. Radiation use efficiency (RUE), the growth function, was also declined by the delay in sowing. We inferred that losses in leaf area indices, ear length and grain weights were basis of the grain yield reduction by changing climate of the growing season which brought a significant disturbance in the vegetative and reproductive phases of the crop life cycle that resulted losses (P<0.05) in grain yield by the late sown crop in the season. (author)

129

Impact of nitrogen rates on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of maize under varying environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growth, yield and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of hybrid maize, in response to different nitrogen rates (150, 200, 250, 300, 350 kg ha/sub -1/ were analyzed for three different locations (Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal) in Punjab, Pakistan during 2004 and 2005. The results depicted a large yearly variations mainly attributed to more rainfall and incidence of solar radiation in 2005. Maize hybrids respond differently for all variable under study, at all sites except IPAR and radiation use efficiency 919 at different locations. Similar types of differences were noted in GGR and Final TOM. Increasing nitrogen rates had significant effects on CGR, final TOM and grain yield and RUE. The intercepted PAR, RUE/sub TDM/ and RUE/sub Gy/ were significantly affected by hybrid potential and nitrogen application rates. On an average RUE/sub TDM/ varied from 2.45 to 2.73 g MJ/sup -1/ at different locations, while RUE/sub Gy/ was recorded 1.12, 1.14 and 1.03 for Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal, respectively. Total dry matter and grain yield of different treatments was linearly related to IPAR at all location and the common regression (R/sup 2/) accounted for 94, 68, and 80 % for TDM and 64, 34, and 95% for grain yield at the Faisalabad, Sargodha and sahiwal, respectively. It was concluded that planting of hybrid Bemasal-202 with 300 kg N ha/sup -1/ is the best recommendation for semi-arid areas of Pakistan. (author)

130

Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

131

Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Yield and Seed Quality of Maize (cv. Barnali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from November 2000 to May 2001 to find the effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the yield and seed quality of maize (cv. Barnali. The study included three levels of Sulphur, viz., 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 and four levels of Nitrogen, viz., 0, 60, 100 and 120 kg ha-1. Gypsum and urea were used as the sources of Sulphur and Nitrogen, respectively. The highest grain yield and 1000-grain weight were obtained with 20 kg S ha-1. The maximum no of grains/cob, the highest shelling percentage, the highest 1000-gain weight, Maximum grain yield and maximum stover yield were produced by the application of 120 N ha-1. Grain yield increased with the increasing rates of both Sulphur and Nitrogen but their interaction effects were not significant for all the quantitative characters under study. Seed quality attributes like germination percentage, vigour index, seedling shoot and root length and shoot and root dry weights were not influenced by Sulphur application. Nitrogen application had significant effect on vigour index, seedling shoot and root dry weights. The interaction between Sulphur and Nitrogen levels showed significant effect on seedling shoot and root dry weights. Maximum vigour index and root dry weights/ seedling of maize were found with 120 kg but the highest shoot dry weight/seedling was obtained with 100 kg N ha-1. Maximum shoot and root dry weights/seedling was obtained by applying 120 kg N ha-1 in combination with 20 kg S ha-1.

Muhammad Morshed Alam

2003-01-01

132

White Lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga Increases Solubility of Minjingu Phosphate Rock, Phosphorus Balances and Maize Yields in Njoro Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exudation of high amounts of citrate in white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga has the advantage of being effective in mobilization of a wide range of sparingly soluble P sources. To improve cultivation system of maize, a field experiment was conducted to assess effectiveness of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga in increasing solubility of minjingu phosphate rock (MPR, phosphorus balances and maize yields in Njoro sub-County, Kenya. The randomized complete block design experiment was conducted for four seasons; short (October – February and long rain seasons (March-September of 2010 and 2011. The treatments were; (i fallow (F – maize (M rotation with triple superphosphate (TSP applied (MTSP- F, (ii fallow - maize rotation with MPR applied (MMPR –F, (iii lupin (L – maize rotation with MPR applied (MMPR- L and (iv maize/lupin intercrop with MPR applied (M/LMPR – F. Soil and plant P and maize grain yield were higher in M/LMPR – F (with additional lupin grain yield and MTSP– F treatments. All treatments resulted in positive P balances at the end of two years with highest values in MTSP– F treatment and lowest in M/LMPR – F. Intercropping lupin with maize amid application of MPR is recommended for enhanced maize performance in the farming systems of resource poor farmers. Measurement of available soil nitrogen and comparison of lupin with other legumes in solubilizing MPR is recommended. 

Joyce J. Lelei

2014-05-01

133

Yield and quality of maize following the foliar application of a fertilizer based on the byproduct “shale water”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water extracted from the shale rock (shale water through the pyrolysis process to obtain fuel oil and other products shows a composition based on organic compounds and a wide range of minerals and trace elements with an important role in plant nutrition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer. Thus, the influence of foliar application of shale water (SW, with or without the micronutrients zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, boro (B and molybdenum (Mo, was evaluated regarding yield and quality of maize grains. The yield, the total antioxidant activity, and the content of starch, phenolic compounds and carotenoids were improved in maize grains following the application of three doses of 7 L/ha of SW, which indicates that SW may influence the primary and secondary metabolisms. The application of SW with micronutrients resulted in the increase of grain yield; however, did not result in the improvement of grain quality. The foliar fertilizer formulations also had an influence in the content of minerals and aminoacids of the grain. The results indicate that SW has potential to be used in agriculture to improve yield and quality of maize.

Rafael da Silva Messias

2013-12-01

134

Criterios para elegir el mejor probador de la aptitud combinatoria general para rendimiento de grano de líneas autofecundadas de maíz / Criteria to choose the best tester of the general combining ability for grain yield of maize inbred lines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En un programa de mejoramiento genético por hibridación de maíz (Zea mays L.) es importante disponer de un probador confiable y eficiente de la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de líneas autofecundadas de maíz. Con el propósito de aportar más evidencia experimental relativa a la identificación del [...] mejor probador de la ACG de líneas autofecundadas de maíz, en el presente trabajo se usaron 50 líneas S1 derivadas de la variedad Compuesto Universal original (variedad original), más cuatro líneas de alta y cuatro de baja ACG derivadas de las poblaciones de maíz Xolache y Mex. Gpo. 10. Las líneas S1 fueron cruzadas con tres probadores: una línea de baja ACG (P1), una línea de alta ACG (P2) y la variedad original (P3). La hipótesis fue que la línea de baja ACG es el mejor probador. Para evaluar los probadores los criterios fueron: 1) la variación fenotípica y genotípica de los mestizos (línea×probador); 2) la clasificación de las ocho líneas de ACG conocida, con cada uno de los tres probadores; 3) el coeficiente de divergencia (CD); 4) el efecto del probador, el efecto y la varianza de interacción línea×probador. La variable estudiada fue el rendimiento promedio de mazorca por planta. Con base en los criterios señalados, el mejor probador fue la línea de baja ACG en comparación con la línea de alta ACG y la variedad original; además, la variedad original fue también un buen probador, pero con menor valor discriminatorio que la línea de baja ACG. Abstract in english In a maize (Zea mays L.) breeding program by hybridization it is important to have a reliable and efficient tester for the general combining ability (GCA) of maize inbred lines. With the aim to contribute more experimental evidence relative to the identification of the best tester of GCA of maize in [...] bred lines, in this study 50 S1 lines derived from the Compuesto Universal original (original variety), plus four lines of high and four of low GCA derived from populations of Xolache and Mex. Gpo. 10 were used. The S1 lines were crossed with three testers: a line of low GCA (P1), a line of high GCA (P2), and the original variety (P3). The hypothesis was that the line of low GCA is the best tester. The criteria to evaluate the testers were: 1) the phenotypic and genotypic variation of top crosses (line × tester); 2) the classification of the eight lines of known GCA, with each of the three testers, 3) the coefficient of divergence (CD), 4) the effect of the tester, effect and variance of interaction line × tester. The variable studied was the average yield of ear by plant. Based on the mentioned criteria, the best tester was the line of low GCA compared to the line of high GCA and the original variety; besides, the original variety was also a good tester, but with less discriminatory value than the low GCA line.

Ricardo, Lobato-Ortiz; José D., Molina-Galán; José de J., López-Reynoso; José A., Mejía-Contreras; Delfino, Reyes-López.

2010-02-15

135

Manejo do nitrogênio no milho em semeadura direta em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno e em dois locais: II - efeito sobre o rendimento de grãos Nitrogen management in maize in no-till system in succession to winter cover crops at two locations: II - effect on grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A liberação de nitrogênio (N de restos culturais depende dos processos de imobilização e mineralização microbiana, que são influenciados pelo ambiente. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar, em dois locais, os efeitos de dose e época de aplicação de N em milho (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 e 60-100kg/ha, respectivamente, na semeadura e em cobertura, em sistema de semeadura direta, implantado em duas épocas, após a dessecação (1 e aos 20 dias de duas coberturas de solo no inverno (aveia preta e ervilhaca comum e pousio invernal, sobre o rendimento de grãos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com suplementação hídrica, sendo um em Eldorado do Sul e outro em Passo Fundo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano agrícola 1996/97. A resposta à aplicação de N dependeu do local, da cobertura de solo no inverno e da época de semeadura após a dessecação. Em Eldorado do Sul, a aplicação de N na semeadura aumentou o rendimento de grãos em relação ao tratamento com todo o N em cobertura, independentemente do tipo de planta de cobertura de solo no inverno. Em Passo Fundo, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos com N. O aumento na dose de N na semeadura de 30 para 60kg/ha não afetou o rendimento de grãos, independente do fator testado. O atraso em 20 dias na época de semeadura do milho em sucessão à aveia preta somente foi benéfico em Eldorado do Sul, aumentanto em 34% o rendimento de grãos.The release of nitrogen (N of crop residues depends on the processes of microbial immobilization and mineralization, which are influenced by environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate, at two locations, the effects of rate and timing of N application in maize (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 and 60-100kg/ha, respectively, at sowing and sidedressed, in no-till system, established in two sowing dates after desiccation (1 and 20 days of two winter cover crops (black oat and common vetch and bare area, on grain yield. The experiment was conducted at two locations of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the 1996/97 growing season. Maize response to N application depended on the location, on the specie of winter cover crop used and on sowing date after desiccation. In Eldorado do Sul, N application at sowing increased grain yield in relation to the treatment with total N sidedressed. At Passo Fundo there were no differences among the treatments with N application. The increase of the N rate from 30 to 60kg/ha at sowing date did not affect grain yield of maize, regardless of the other treatments used. The delay in 20 days of maize sowing date in succession to black oat was benefitial only in Eldorado do Sul, with 34% of increase of the grain yield.

Gilber Argenta

1999-12-01

136

Alley Cropping Gliricidia sepium with Maize: 1. The Effect of Hedgerow Spacing, Pruning Height and Phosphorus Application Rate on Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 1996 farming season sprouted Gliricidia sepium seedlings were planted at three hedgerow spacing (alley width to investigate the appropriate spacing, pruning height and phosphorus application rate that could improve and sustain soil fertility and increase crop production. The 3-hedgerow spacing (4, 6 and 8 m was established as the main plot. Hedgerow spacing significantly influenced the quantity of Gliricidia biomass applied. In the farming seasons of 1997 and 1998 three pruning height (50, 100 and 150 cm were imposed on the hedgerow spacing and three rates of phosphorus (0, 20 and 40 kg P ha ha-1 were applied. Maize (Zea mays was planted as a test crop in the first week of June each year. Pruned Gliricidia biomass yield was in a decreasing order of 150>100>50 cm pruning height. In a good rainfall year as in 1997 the 4 m hedgerow spacing significantly out yielded the 8 m hedgerow spacing, while in a relatively low rainfall year as in 1998 the 6 m hedgerow spacing gave the highest grain yield. In both years maize stover and grain yield followed closely the amount of pruned biomass applied per treatment. Application of 20 kg P ha ha-1 resulted in significant increase in maize dry matter yield.

A. Abunyewa

2004-01-01

137

The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM) applied every second year on maize grown for grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (M [...] BM) is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L.) grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year), and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years). Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

Anna, Nogalska; Matgorzata, Skwierawska; Zenon, Nogalski; Monika, Kaszuba.

2013-12-01

138

In vitro digestibility of phenolics in grain of maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the quantity of phenolic compounds in the grain of maize hybrids and their in vitro release in pig small intestine. Six maize hybrids belonging to the FAO maturity groups 200-600 were produced under the same agroclimate conditions. Phenolics were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method as gallic acid equivalents. The enzymatic digestion of phenolics was carried out using in vitro procedure for pigs mimicking digestion in stomach and small intestine. The concentration (mg/100g of free (100.02-157.29, bound (973.41-1160.86 and total phenolics (1105.82- 1293.38 varied (P<0.001 among hybrids. In addition, the digestibility of phenolics significantly differed among tested hybrids (P<0.001 and ranged from 37.09 to 45.46%. Content of phenolics in soluble fraction after digestion was higher (486.23 vs. 128.38 mg/100g than the content of free phenolics suggesting that some amount of bound phenolics was released in small intestine.

Darko Grbeša

2010-01-01

139

The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

Van?etovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

140

Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in diallel cross of maize (zea maysl.) in f/sub 2/ generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic analysis was carried out for six maize cultivars and their 30 F/sub 2/ crosses under agro-climatic conditions at Agricultural Research Institute of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among parents and their F/sub 2/ progeny for all the parameters. The genetic analysis revealed that the characters Viz ; kernels/ear, kernels rows/ear, kernels/row, ear length, 1000 grain weight and grain yield have shown additive type gene action. According to regression analysis, the non-significant deviation of the regression line from unit slope indicated the absence of non-allelic interaction, which was presented in all the characters. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

[Effects of reduced N application rate on yield and nutrient uptake and utilization in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with three N application rates (0, 180, 240 N kg x hm(-2), representing zero, reduced and conventional N application, respectively) and three planting patterns (maize monoculture, soybean monoculture and maize-soybean relay strip intercropping) was conducted to reveal the effects of cropping patterns and N application rates on yield, nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of maize and soybean. The results showed that the grain yield, N, P and K uptake and harvest index of the intercropped maize reduced slightly compared with the monoculture maize, however these indices of the intercropped soybean increased significantly compared with the monoculture. With the increase in nitrogen fertilizer application, the excellence of relay strip intercropping was weakened in the maize-soybean intercropping system. The grain yield, economic coefficient, N, P and K uptake, harvest index, N agronomy efficiency and N uptake efficiency of maize and soybean increased significantly at the reduced nitrogen rate (180 N kg x hm(-2)), but the rate of soil N contribution declined, compared with the conventional rate of N application by local farmers (240 N kg x hm(-2)). In the reduced nitrogen rate treatment, total soil N and P contents of the maize strip reduced, whereas the total soil N, P and K contents of soybean strip and the total K content of maize strip increased compared with the zero N application treatment. With the reduced N application, the annual total grain yield, N, P and K uptake of above-ground biomass in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system were higher than in the monoculture, and the land equivalent ratio (LER) was 2.28. N uptake efficiency of maize in the relay strip intercropping system was 20.2% higher than in the maize monoculture, and the index of soybean was 30.5% lower than in the monoculture. The rate of soil N contribution in the relay strip intercropping system was 20.0% and 8.8% lower than in the maize and soybean monoculture, respectively. The reduced N application in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system was helpful to promote annual grain yield and improve N utilization efficiency. PMID:24830248

Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wen-Yu, Liu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

2014-02-01

142

Use of Compost Manure Enriched with High Quality Organic Residues to Improve Growth and Yield of Maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field trial was conducted to test whether composed manure with tithonia or lantana would improve growth and yield of maize. A field trial consisting of five compost types and inorganic N fertilizer was carried out in a site low N using maize (Zea mays Var. Hybrid 513) as a test crop. The compost and fertilizer were applied at an equivalent rate of 100 kg N ha-1. Above-ground maize biomass was taken at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after crop emergence, dried and N content determined. Amongst the compost, the highest dry matter accumulation N uptake and grain yield were observed in FYM composted with tithonia at 1:1 ratio. At all stages of crop growth, inorganic fertilizer treatment gave the highest dry matter and N uptake. Based on the growth and N uptake in the fertilizer treatment it was concluded that the N release in all the compost was lower than the crop demand

143

Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids / Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3) foram realizados em Mossoró-RN com o objetivo de se avaliar, respectivamente, os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho (AG 1051 e BRS 2020), em resposta ao despendoamento (com e sem pendão). O delineamento experimental foi de [...] blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas (cultivares nas parcelas) e dez repetições. Os três experimentos foram plantados no mesmo dia e em áreas vizinhas. Os híbridos não diferiram, nos três experimentos, quanto à massa da matéria seca e quanto ao número de ramificações do pendão. Em E1 (produção de minimilho na densidade de 180 mil plantas ha-1), em ambos os híbridos, os seguintes efeitos foram observados devido ao despendoamento: um aumento no número e peso totais de espigas e no número e peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis; b) nenhuma mudança foi observada no número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao híbrido BRS 2020 quanto ao peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, mas os dois híbridos não diferiram quanto às outras características utilizadas para avaliar o rendimento de minimilho. Em E2 (produção de espigas verdes na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não alterou as seguintes características em ambos os híbridos: números e pesos totais de espigas e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O despendoamento reduziu o número de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis no híbrido AG 1051, mas não em BRS 2020. Os híbridos não diferiram quanto aos números total e de espigas verdes empalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao BRS 2020 quanto aos pesos total e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e quanto ao número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. Em E3 (produção de grãos na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não afetou o rendimento de grãos e o híbrido AG 1051 foi superior quanto ao RG. Abstract in english Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3) were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020), in response to detasseling (with or without tassel). A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids def [...] ined as plots) and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ from each other on the dry matter mass and number of tassel branches. In E1 (baby corn production at 180 thousand plants ha-1), for both hybrids, the following effects were observed due to detasseling: a) an increase in ear total number, in ear total weight, in marketable unhusked ears number and in marketable unhusked ears weight; b) no change was observed in the number and weight of marketable husked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for weight of marketable husked ears, but the two hybrids did not differ in other traits utilized to evaluate baby corn yield. In E2 (green ear yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not change the following traits in both hybrids: total number and weight of ears; number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and marketable husked ear weight. Detasseling reduced the number of marketable husked ears in cultivar AG 1051, but not in BRS 2020. The two hybrids did not differ in total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 in regard to the total ears weight, marketable unhusked ears weight and number and weight of marketable husked ears. In E3 (grain yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not affect grain yield (RG) and hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for grain yield.

Joserlan N, Moreira; Paulo Sérgio L, Silva; Kathia MB, Silva; Jeferson LD, Dombroski; Renato S, Castro.

144

Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

Nikoli? Ana

2011-01-01

145

Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterize the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (ca. 40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ca. 20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought stress were reduced by ca. 15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought-stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for studies examining genetic and physiological crop responses to environmental stresses. PMID:24038882

Harrison, Matthew T; Tardieu, François; Dong, Zhanshan; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L

2014-03-01

146

Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balali?-Kraljevi? Marija

2006-01-01

147

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

148

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

149

Grain filling parameters in high-yielding ns wheat cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat is dependent on grain weight, which is the result of grain filling duration and rate. The study was undertaken to examine the relation between grain weight and rate and duration of grain filling in five high-yielding NS wheat cultivars. Stepwise multivariate analysis of nonlinear regression estimated grain filling parameters was used to examine cultivar differences in grain filling. On the basis of three-year average, the highest grain dry weight had cultivar Renesansa, and the lightest grains were measured for cultivar Evropa 90. Stepwise multivariate analysis indicated that all three nonlinear regression estimated parameters (grain weight, rate and duration of grain filling were equally important in characterizing the grain filling curves of the cultivars studied, although sequence of their significance varied in different years, which is probably caused by different environmental conditions in three years of experiment.

Brdar Milka D.

2008-01-01

150

Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

2014-01-01

151

Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10?mg/L, NaCl at 50?mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50?mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

2014-01-01

152

Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear [...] insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha). There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

Karoline Guedes, Araújo; Severino Delmar Junqueira, Villela; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Patrícia Monteiro, Costa; Leonardo de Oliveira, Fernandes; Wagner Pessanha, Tamy; Vinícius Raimundi, Andrade.

1539-15-01

153

Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha. There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

Karoline Guedes Araújo

2012-06-01

154

Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

155

Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

2013-10-01

156

Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

157

Response of Soil CO2 Emission and Summer Maize Yield to Plant Density and Straw Mulching in the North China Plain  

Science.gov (United States)

Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6?kg?m?2 to fields with plant densities of 100?000, 75?000, and 55?000 plants ha?1. The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75?000 plants ha?1, which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75?000 plants ha?1 is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain. PMID:25147835

Liu, Quanru; Liu, Xinhui; Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Lang, Kun; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

2014-01-01

158

Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new crops are grown. In recent years, leaf diseases have caused production problems over several seasons. Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play a role but have not yet been clearly verified as major diseases in Scandinavia.

JØrgensen, Lise Nistrup

2012-01-01

159

Effects of Variety and Fertilizers on Number of Grains/Cob of Maize in Asaba Area of Delta State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June, 2010 to evaluate the effects of variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on number of grain/cob of maize. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three different maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15 cm and evaluated for number of grains/cob. The result obtained indicated that hybrid variety, 9022-13, which had 5090, was superior. Also, plants that received inorganic fertilizer were outstanding in number of grains/cob with values of 441.5 in 2008 and 506.0 in 2009 followed by the plants received poultry manure (444.0 in 2008 and 468.0 in 2009. Based on the rates of application of manure/inorganic fertilizer, plants that received 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were outstanding in numbers of grains/cob of maize with values of 532.8 in 2008 and 570.8 in 2009. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid variety 9022-13 should be grown in Asaba area. (ii NPK 20: 10:10 mineral fertilizers should be applied at the rate of 450kgha-1 to enhance maize yield.

Enujeke E. C.

2013-04-01

160

Pattern in interaction in the maize yield trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In making decisions on the development of varieties and the identification of certain growing regions, the effects of genotype (G and genotype by environment (GxE are very important. Although the main genotype effect and the interaction effect should be partitioned, there is still a need for their integration in the yield, as both simultaneously affect a ranking of the particular genotype within a certain environment. The AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction analysis, as a hybrid model, provides appropriate partitioning. The AMMI2 model, capturing 98.4% of the treatment sum of squares, was used, and 12 observed environments were classified into three target environments. Hence, out of 15 commercial maize hybrids, used in the trial, the hybrids ZP-677, ZP-570 and ZP-732 were selected as carriers of maximum yields in three target environments. In this way, it was shown that even in a relatively small region a narrow adaptation of genotypes can be exploited.

Babi? Vojka B.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Combining Ability, Gene Action and Yielding Performance in Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recombinant lines developed from combining Half-sib/S1 evaluation on widely-spaced plants in the direction of high yielding per se, were used in combining ability tests in order to determine gene action under three-way crossing and possible commercial exploitation of such crosses. Combining ability tests consisted of crosses between: a recombinant lines of common pedigree, b recombinant lines and freely available inbred lines and c recombinant lines and commercial F1 maize hybrids (three-way crosses. Heterosis was found to be acceptable, since the best three-way crosses reached the performance of corresponding single-cross hybrids and yielding performance of these three-way crosses was stable across years and experimental fields. Rapid line development from combining Half-sib/S1 evaluation may ensure high and stable crossing performance, based on additive gene action. Stability and uniformity of performance of three-way crosses was due to proper breeding incorporated in single-cross hybrid and to high and stable inbred line performance.

B.N. Vafias

2005-01-01

162

Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contai [...] ned below 50 µg selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals and humans. The geographical distribution of Se values of maize grain is consistent with that of previous studies on the Se status of herbivores in South Africa, suggesting that plants growing in most of the maize-producing areas of the country contain low concentrations of Se. However, these findings contradict those of the soil Se status in the country as reported by the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, which states that the eastern part of the maize-producing areas of the country tends to have adequate to high soil Se levels and the western areas to have low levels. These contradictory results can be explained to a large extent by the varying soil pH throughout the country. Soil pH plays a primary role in the availability of selenium to plants. Although the eastern parts of the country tend to have high Se concentration in the soil, it is not available to the maize plant owing to a low soil pH, while in the western parts of the country, where soil pH may be suitable for Se uptake by plants, there seems to be an inadequate concentration of available Se in the soil.

C., Courtman; J.B.J., van Ryssen; A., Oelofse.

163

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

Henry De-Graft Acquah

2012-10-01

164

Estimation of Heterosis and Genetic Parameters for Yield and Yield Components in Maize Using the Diallel Cross Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diallel cross among inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L. with medium maturity and an evaluation to estimate heterosis and genetic parameters for ear length (cm, ear diameter (cm, No. of rows ear-1, No. of kernels row-1, weight of 100-kernels and grain yield (ardab feddan-1 were carried out. Hybrids mean squares were highly significant for the six traits under both planting dates and combined analysis, except ear diameter. Indicating that the hybrids performance are differed from planting date to another. Results indicating that the parental inbred P5 gave high grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from crosses (P4xP1 and (P5xP4 in combined, these crosses were significantly out yielded the two checks SC 155. SC 162 at 5%. Moreover, crosses (P1xP4, (P1xP5,(P6xP1, (P4xP2, (P2xP3 and (P3x P6 were insignificantly better than the checks. For ear length, P1xP4 (56.67 and 67.65% showed maximum positive heterosis over better-parent and mid-parent, respectively. For ear diameter P2xP1 gave maximum positive heterosis over better-parent and over mid-parent, for No. of Kernels row-1 26 crosses had highly significant and positive heterosis over mid-parents, for No. of Kernels row-1 six crosses (P1x P2,(P2x P1, (P4 x P1, (P1 x P5, (P5xP1 and (P2xP6 had highly positively significant heterosis over better-parent. The highest positive significant heterosis over mid-parents for 100-kernel weight were recorded by 14 crosses. Cross P1xP2 showed maximum positive and significant heterosis over better-parent and mid-parents and only one cross P1xP4 gave positive and significant over check varieties for 100-kernel weight. For grain yield, cross P2xP4 (289.55% and (295.73% showed maximum positive and significant heterosis followed by P4xP2 (267.22 and 273.04%. Heritability in the narrow sense was the highest in No. of rows ear-1, while heritability in the broad sense was the highest in ear diameter. Heritability estimates in broad sense were medium (33-66% of all studied traits except for ear diameter was high estimate (71%. Hence it could be concluded that these crosses may be useful for improving maize grain yield program.

M.A. Abdel-Moneam

2014-01-01

165

Transportation and distribution of 14C-assimilate from functional leaves in the development of grains of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on distribution of 14C-assimilates from functional leaves in grains of maize at filling stage was carried out. The results showed that distribution of 14C-photosynthetic products in grains of each row of ear were similar while in grains of different position within the same row were different. The amount of 14C-photosynthetic products in the ear was in order of middle grains>bottom grains>top grains. It was also found that 14C-photosynthetic products between the grains next to each other were significant different. The distribution pattern of 14C-photosynthetic products in grains of maize is also discussed

166

Genetics and statistical association between lethal alleles and quantitative yield factors in maize (Zea mays l.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los procesos genéticos relacionados con el vigor híbrido (heterosis) y la identificación de QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) en el maíz. Para obtener los resultados, se construyó un modelo biométrico usando los formalismos relacionados a las cadenas absorbentes [...] discretas de Markov en forma canónica, con el fin de analizar la evolución de segmentos cromosómicos, con genes recesivos letales ligados con factores de rendimiento en grano a través de las sucesivas generaciones. El rendimiento en grano obtenido de una línea de maíz regulada por un sistema de letales balanceados y otras líneas sin este sistema como testigo, se evaluó durante 5 generaciones de endocría. El uso de la teoría de las cadenas de Markov con el fin de estudiar la evolución durante estas generaciones fue una aproximación diferente a los métodos matemáticos clásicos. Abstract in english The objective of this work is to study the genetic process related to the hybrid vigour (heterosis) and the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in maize. A biometric model was built using the mathematical formalism relating to the discrete absorbent Markov chain in canonical form, in ord [...] er to analyse the evolution of chromosome segments, with recessive lethal genes linked with grain yield factors through generations. The grain yield obtained from an inbred maize line regulated by a balanced lethal system, and other lines without this system as control, were evaluated during five inbreeding generations. The use of the Markov chain theory for the study of evolution during these generations was a different approach of the classical mathematical ones.

Juan Carlos, Salerno; Mariana, Kandus; R., Boggio Ronceros; O., Sorarrain; Cecilia, González; David, Almorza.

2007-06-01

167

Simultaneous Selection for Fodder and Grain Yield in Sorghum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 31 selection indices were constructed on five characters in 33 diversed genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.. High heretability couple with high genetic advance expected in the next generation and association of characters were the basis for choosing of the characters for discriminant function analysis. Green fodder yield and grain yield have to be simultaneously improved through selection. Amongst the single character selection indices, grains/panicle offered maximum genetic worth (11.51. In general, inclusion of every character in the function, exerted a progressive relative efficiency over straight selection. The highest relative efficiency over straight selection on grain yield alone was realized while grain yield/plant (x1, fodder cutting maturity (x2, green fodder yield/plant (x3, digestible dry matter/plant (x4 and grains/panicle (x5 were concurrently integrated in the function.

B. K. Biswas

2001-01-01

168

Effects of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and efficiency of maize-bean intercropping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrogen supply and plant population are basic parameters for cereal-legume intercropping. In order to study plant population and nitrogen fertilizer effects on yield and yield efficiency of maize-bean intercropping, a field experiment was established. Three bean plant populations and three nitrogen levels were used. Maize dry matter accumulation decreased with increases in bean plant population. Competitive effect of intercrop beans on maize yields was high at higher plant populations, being decreased by nitrogen fertilizer; application of 50 kg ha-1 N was very efficient in increasing maize cob yield. Intercropping significantly decreased harvest index of beans in all plant population and nitrogen fertilizer situations. The efficiency of intercropping, compared to sole cropping, was evidenced by the values obtained for Land Equivalent Ratio (LER for biomass, cob and pod yields that increased with increases in bean plant populations and nitrogen fertilizer levels.

Morgado Luiz Balbino

2003-01-01

169

Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

2014-12-01

170

Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

2012-05-01

171

Improving sustainable intensification of cereal-grain legume cropping systems in the savannahs of West Africa: Quantifying residual effects of legumes on maize, enhancing P mobilization by legumes and studying long-term Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved cereal-grain-legume systems, allowing farmers to use their land productively on a continuous basis, are being rapidly developed and adopted by small-scale farmers in the West African Moist Savannah. This paper summarizes work on several issues related to the improvement of productivity and sustainability of these intensified systems. A first study looked at the sustainability of several legume-maize cropping systems in a 5-year field trial at Sekou, Benin. Fairly low maize yields were found in continuous maize cropping systems (maize/maize), poor response to N fertilizer beyond 45 kg N ha-1, and no evidence that P and K were limiting crop yield. Over the last 5 years of the trial, maize/Mucuna relay cropping gave consistently a 2000 kg ha-1 yield increase relative to maize/maize cropping, and most of this yield gain was preserved even when Mucuna residues were removed from the plots when planting the next year's maize crop. Some yield gain, although far less than with maize/Mucuna, was observed in the maize/pigeon pea system. The maize/cowpea system offered no maize yield gain over maize/maize cropping. In a second study, enhanced isotopic methods to determine the plant available P allowed us to test the hypothesis that certain legume accessions can mobilize sparingly-available P. In one out of the 3 West-African Moist Savannah soils studied, we found that cowpea could access sparingly soluble soil P that is unavailable to maize. This moil P that is unavailable to maize. This mobilization of P was only observed when P deficiency occurred. These results confirm the P efficiency of some legume genotypes, which may lead to benefits of improved P availability by the incorporation of legumes in rotation systems. A third study, involving a 16-year continuous-cropping field experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria, provided information on long-term changes in soil organic matter carbon (SOC) contents in savannah soils with sandy top soil. In the control treatments with continuous maize and cowpea cropping without trees, SOC levels dropped from the initial 15.4 Mg C ha-1 to 7.3-8.0 Mg C ha-1 in 16 years (SOC content in 1700 Mg ha-1 equivalent soil mass). In the two continuously cropped alley cropping systems (Leucaena and Senna), the SOC levels dropped to levels between 10.7 and 13.2 Mg C ha-1. The 13C natural abundance technique yielded useful information to test the ROTHC- 26.3 SOC model in sub-humid tropical conditions under a complex pattern of cropping systems. (author)

172

Gene Action for Yield and Morpho-Physiological Traits in Maize (Zea mays L. Inbred Lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of 28 hybrids generated by crossing 8 diverse and new maize inbred lines in a half diallel fashion. The estimated value of average degree of dominance (H1/D0.5 revealed that non-additive genetic effects was more pronounced in the inheritance of days to 50 per cent maturity, anthesis-silking interval and grain yield per plant. On contrary, additive genetic effects was evident for days to 50 per cent tasseling and days to 50 per cent silking. The distribution of positive and negative genes were not too distant  for the traits viz., days to 50 per cent tasseling, days to 50 per cent  silking and grain yield per plant. Dominance to recessive genes ratio [4DH1]0.5 + F / [4DH1]0.5- F ranged from one to two, indicating that excess of dominant genes against one recessive genes were not much higher. The results indicated that most traits were under the genetic control of non-additive (over dominance type of gene action, therefore the material can easily be exploited for heterotic effect.

T. Sandeep Kumar

2012-03-01

173

Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of maize in loess plateau of northwest china  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China. (author)

174

Impact of ozone on grain sorghum yield. [Sorghum vulgare Pers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grain sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) is an important animal feed crop, and it is sometimes planted as a substitute for field corn. Although sorghum is grown in areas of the central and southern US where potentially damaging concentrations of O3 exist, no data are available regarding the sensitivity of grain sorghum to O3. Plants of grain sorghum (DeKalb A28 +) were field-grown in open-top chambers and exposed to O3 (7-hr day seasonal mean concentrations of 0.016, 0.040, 0.059, 0.078, 0.102, and 0.129 ppm) for 85 days to determine the impact of O3 on grain yield. A randomized complete block design incorporated three replicates of all treatments. Foliar injury was noted at the two highest O3 treatments. Analysis of variance of the data indicated highly significant O3 effects on overall grain yield. There was a general decrease in yield as O3 increased, and the overall grain yield reductions were caused primarily by reductions in individual seed weight. Quadratic, Weibull, and plateau-linear models all adequately described the response of grain sorghum to O3. Yields were not markedly affected at O3 concentrations below the 0.10 ppm treatment, and the predicted yield loss of 15% of a seasonal 7-hr mean O3 concentration of 0.13 indicates that grain sorghum exhibits considerable tolerance to O3.

Kress, L.W.; Miller, J.E.

1985-08-01

175

IMPACT OF OZONE ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Grain sorghum(sorghum vulgare Pers.) is an important animal feed crop, and it is sometimes planted as a substitute for field corn. Although sorghum is grown in areas of the central and southern U.S. where potentially damaging concentrations of 03 exist, no data are available rega...

176

Grain Yield Potential of Garden Peas (Pisum sativum L. Germplasm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain yield potential in relation to other important agronomic characters of 1 1 vegetable pea (P. sativum L. germplasm was tested during rabi 1999-2000. Germplasm PS-02 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 3167 kg ha-1, while germplasm PS-10 with 3056 kg ha-1 ranked second. Minimum yield of 91 1 kg ha-1 was obtained by PS-07, followed by PS-11 with 1389 kg ha-1 Average grain yield of group I was 45% higher than the average yield of group II. The average values of grain yield decreased in descending order from 2756 to 1513 kg ha-1 in group I and group II, respectively. Similarly the average values of plant height, branches per plant, dry matter yield and pods per plant decreased in descending order i.e. 1 37 to 89 cm, 2.5 to 2.2, 8490 to 3759 kg ha-1 and 1 1 to 7 in group I and group II, respectively and showed positive relationship with grain yield. The average values of pod length and harvest index increased in descending order i.e. 4.2 to 4.9 cm and 31.7 to 43.9 % in group I and group II, respectively. The relationship of days to maturity, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight with grain yield was not very well established. The association of harvest index with dry matter yield was significantly negative.

Mir Hatam

2001-01-01

177

Diallel Analysis for the Estimation of the Genetic Parameters of Grain Yield and Grain Yield Components in Bread Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diallel analysis was used to estimate the combining ability, gene action, gene number, heritabilties and other genetic parameters of a set of wheat genotypes. For this purpose, nine parents and their 36 crosses were evaluated for 9 traits in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 1996. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for all traits. Estimates of general and specific combining ability mean squares based on Griffing’s Method 2 indicated the importance of additive and non additive effects in the expression of all traits. Alvand and Roshan cultivars for grain yield per plant, Alvand for grain number per main spike and main spike weight, and Alvand and Alamoot for 1000 grain weight were the best combiners, thus use of them is beneficial for these traits. Based on the estimates of average degree of dominance and results of graphical analysis, the gene action for grain number and spikeletes per main spike were partial dominance, while for grain yield per plant, biological yield, plant height, harvest index and 1000 grain weight, overdominance gene actions were observed. Moreover, genotypic correlation coefficients of grain yield per plant with grain number per main spike, 1000 grain weight, grain weight per main spike and main spike weight were positive and significant.

A. Rezaie

2006-07-01

178

Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

Piens Kathleen

2009-08-01

179

High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collecti [...] on, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p

Dragana, Ignjatovic-Micic; Marija, Kostadinovic; Sofija, Bozinovic; Violeta, Andjelkovic; Jelena, Vancetovic.

2014-10-01

180

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE GRAIN CULTIVARS FOR BROILER CHICKENS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine nutrients digestibility and energy utilization of nine maize cultivars (Opoka, Boruta, Nysa, Smok, Pioneer PR39H64, Monada, Rustika Eurostar, Pionier G12, Arobase in broiler chickens. Cultivars differed in a content of CP and EE. In vivo digestibility was measured by a standard method on ninety 42 days old broilers. CP digestibility was calculated using the ?-amino nitrogen method. Furthermore, digestible energy (DE and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN as well as nitrogen balance and retention were determined. Maize grain nutritive value and energy utilization in broiler chickens depended on the cultivars. The cultivars characterized by higher content of CP and EE had higher digestibility coeffi cient of these nutrients. The cultivar did not infl uence nitrogen balance and retention. It is recommended to take into a consideration the maize grain cultivars and their chemical composition when a broiler diet is being composed.

JAN Barteczko

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collecti [...] on, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p

Dragana, Ignjatovic-Micic; Marija, Kostadinovic; Sofija, Bozinovic; Violeta, Andjelkovic; Jelena, Vancetovic.

182

Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effe [...] ctive weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1) and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1) with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) and ammonium nitrate (AMN) adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1) and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively).

Robert, Idziak; Zenon, Woznica.

2014-04-01

183

Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effe [...] ctive weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1) and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1) with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) and ammonium nitrate (AMN) adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1) and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively).

Robert, Idziak; Zenon, Woznica.

184

The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-...

Van?etovi? Jelena; Jankuloski Ljupcho; Božinovi? Sofija; Dodig Dejan

2009-01-01

185

Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

2013-12-01

186

Influence of Integrated Nutrients on Growth, Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrated nutrients effect on growth, yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L. during spring, 2009, at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The ex-periment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD having three replications with following treat-ments: T1 (control, T2(recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1, T3 [single spray of multinutrient (a solution mixture of micronutrients i.e; Zn = 2%, Fe = 1%, B = 1%, Mn = 1%, Cu = 0.2% and macronutrients N = 1%, K2O = 2%, S = 2% @ 1.25Lha-1], T4 (recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1 + single spray of multinutrient @ 1.25L ha-1, T5 (recom-mended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1 + two spray of multinutrient @1.25Lha-1 and T6 (recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1+ three spray of multinutrient @ 1.25Lha-1.The recommended dose of NPK in addition with single spray of Multi-nutrients substationally improved all growth parameters, ear characteristics and also enhanced macronutrients use efficiency up to 11.5% which induced significant increase in grain yield as compared to control and also in the treatment where recommended dose of NPK was applied alone. The quality parameter of maize (oil contents significantly improved by foliar application of multinutrients solution but recommended dose of fertilizer in addition to single spray of Multi-nutrients was economical.

Belkis Aylu

2011-03-01

187

YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L. AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1 to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil from 2006 experiment more fertile than for the first year, hence produced 21% more grain yield. All the applied NPK rates in 2005 and except 40:20:20 ha1 in 2006 had resulted in early maize crop as compared to control. Husked and de-husked cob and 100-grain weights and grain yield/ha were higher at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1. Maize grown in plot supplied with 15 t FYM ha1 the previous year matured earlier. Cobs and 100-grain weights and grain yield were highest in plot supplied with 10 t FYM ha1. The 10t FYM ha-1 had 69% and 68% more grain yield than the control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Highest maize yield was obtained at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 or 10t FYM ha-1. All the parameters measured significantly and positively related to each other when the two years data were combined.

Bashir Ahmad Babaji

2014-02-01

188

Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

Paji? Zorica

2008-01-01

189

Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roles of two cytosolic maize glutamine synthetase isoenzymes (GS1), products of the Gln1-3 and Gln1-4 genes, were investigated by examining the impact of knockout mutations on kernel yield. In the gln1-3 and gln1-4 single mutants and the gln1-3 gln1-4 double mutant, GS mRNA expression was impaired, resulting in reduced GS1 protein and activity. The gln1-4 phenotype displayed reduced kernel size and gln1-3 reduced kernel number, with both phenotypes displayed in gln1-3 gln1-4. However, at maturity, shoot biomass production was not modified in either the single mutants or double mutants, suggesting a specific impact on grain production in both mutants. Asn increased in the leaves of the mutants during grain filling, indicating that it probably accumulates to circumvent ammonium buildup resulting from lower GS1 activity. Phloem sap analysis revealed that unlike Gln, Asn is not efficiently transported to developing kernels, apparently causing reduced kernel production. When Gln1-3 was overexpressed constitutively in leaves, kernel number increased by 30%, providing further evidence that GS1-3 plays a major role in kernel yield. Cytoimmunochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that GS1-3 is present in mesophyll cells, whereas GS1-4 is specifically localized in the bundle sheath cells. The two GS1 isoenzymes play nonredundant roles with respect to their tissue-specific localization. PMID:17138698

Martin, Antoine; Lee, Judy; Kichey, Thomas; Gerentes, Denise; Zivy, Michel; Tatout, Christophe; Dubois, Frédéric; Balliau, Thierry; Valot, Benoît; Davanture, Marlène; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Quilleré, Isabelle; Coque, Marie; Gallais, André; Gonzalez-Moro, María-Begoña; Bethencourt, Linda; Habash, Dimah Z; Lea, Peter J; Charcosset, Alain; Perez, Pascual; Murigneux, Alain; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Edwards, Keith J; Hirel, Bertrand

2006-11-01

190

Rendimiento y calidad de elote en poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tehuacán, Puebla / Yield and quality of tender maize from native maize populations of Tehuacán, Puebla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el estado de Puebla, la región más importante en producción de maíz (Zea mays L.) para elote es Tehuacán. Las variedades usadas son principalmente poblaciones nativas, de las cuales se desconoce su potencial para la producción de elote y la calidad del mismo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue [...] evaluar agronómicamente un conjunto de poblaciones nativas de maíz colectadas en Tehuacán, para determinar su variación en rendimiento y calidad de elote. En 2009 se evaluaron 100 variedades en tres localidades bajo condiciones de riego, de las cuales 95 fueron colectadas en el área de Tehuacán. Las cinco restantes fueron dos variedades mejoradas y tres testigos raciales de Bolita, Celaya y Pepitilla. Se midieron 20 variables de planta y elote. Los resultados del análisis de varianza combinado mostraron en todas las variables evaluadas, excepto en una, diferencias altamente significativas (P ? 0.01) entre variedades, lo que indica la presencia de diversidad para tales características entre los maíces nativos estudiados. En rendimiento de elote, un grupo de 16 poblaciones nativas resultó sobresaliente (P ? 0.05). La variedad local TEH77 obtuvo el mayor número de características deseables para rendimiento y calidad de elote: rendimiento promedio de 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11.3 °Brix, 13.7 cm de longitud de mazorca, 5.5 cm de ancho de mazorca y 30.7 granos por hilera. Esta variedad superó al mejor híbrido comercial 'AS900' en 52, 23, 30, 33 y 47 % en rendimiento (kg·ha-1), contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), longitud y diámetro de mazorca (cm), número de hileras y granos por hilera, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the state of Puebla, Tehuacán is the most important region in the production of tender maize (Zea mays L.) sold on the cob. The varieties used are mainly native populations, whose potential for production and quality are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate agronomically a set of native [...] maize populations collected in Tehuacán to determine their variation in tender maize yield and quality. In 2009, 100 irrigated varieties were evaluated in three locations; of these 95 were collected in the Tehuacán area. The remaining five were two improved varieties and three control races: Bolita, Celaya and Pepitilla. Twenty variables were measured on plant and ear. The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ? 0.01) among varieties, except one, indicating presence of diversity for the characteristics measured among the native maize under study. In tender maize yield, the group of 16 native populations was outstanding (P ? 0.05). The local variety TEH77 had the highest number of desirable traits for yield and quality of tender maize ears: average yield 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11,3 °Brix, 13.7 cm ear length, 5.5 cm ear width and 39.7 grains per row. This variety surpassed the best commercial hybrid 'AS900' by 52, 23, 30, 33 and 47 % in yield kg·ha-1, total soluble solids content (°Brix), ear length and diameter (cm), number of rows and grains per row, respectively.

Enrique, Ortiz-Torres; Pedro Antonio, López; Abel, Gil-Muñoz; Juan de Dios, Guerrero-Rodríguez; Higinio, López-Sánchez; Oswaldo R., Taboada-Gaytán; J. Arahón, Hernández-Guzmán; Mario, Valadez-Ramírez.

2013-08-01

191

Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min, and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM], calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM, iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM, zinc (>29.05 mg kg-1 DM and copper (>8.67 mg kg-1 DM concentrations, and their dietary use is therefore recommended. Cal-96 line presents higher Z index for grain yield and for the most of the minerals, and its use is recommended for crosses for the development of superior lines.

Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

2014-03-01

192

RELATIONS AMONG SIX MICRONUTRIENTS IN GRAIN DETERMINED IN A MAIZE POPULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Limited results are published about the relations among micronutrients in cereal grains, although micronutrients play important physiological roles in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine relations among boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn concentrations in grain of 297 genotypes of a maize population measured by inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in two years. Correlation coefficients showed generally weak, though positive associations between individual micronutrient concentrations in both years. Principal component analysis revealed not the same relations among the micronutrients across two years, indicating the importance of environment. Still, close relations between Cu and Fe, and to lesser extent between B and Mo were observed in both years. Mn was consistently one of the least related micronutrients to others. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve density of various micronutrients in maize grain simultaneously, although the progress would be very slow.

Domagoj Šimi?

2009-12-01

193

Measurements of Photoelectric Yields of Individual Lunar Dust Grains  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known since the Apollo missions that just above the lunar regolith is a layer of levitated dust that is electrostatically charged by the incident solar UV radiation and by interaction with the solar wind. Photoelectric emissions induced by the UV radiation at photon energies higher than the work function of the grain materials, however, are recognized to be the dominant process for charging of the lunar dust in the sunlight. This requires measurement of the photoelectric yield of individual dust grains to determine their charge and equilibrium potentials.In this paper, we present the first laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual micron/sub-micron size dust grains selected from soil samples from the Soviet Luna-24 Mission. The experimental results on photoelectric emissions indicate that the yields are dust size dependent. The yields increase with the grain size by an order of magnitude from the sub-micron size to grains of several microns radii, at which they reach asymptotic values. The yields for large-size grains were determined to be more than an order of magnitude higher than the bulk measurements reported in the literature.

Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Hoover, R. B.; Taylor, L. A.; Spann, J. F.; Leclair, A.; West, E. A.

2007-01-01

194

Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

195

Análise econômica da produtividade de grãos de milho consorciado com forrageiras dos gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum em sistema plantio direto / Economic analysis of grain yield of maize intercropped with forage plants of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in no-tillage system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) é uma alternativa de recuperação e renovação de pastagens degradadas, contudo, é importante mostrar sua viabilidade econômica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho [...] com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na ILP, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2009/2010, em Selvíria-MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com as forrageiras Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e cv. Mombaça. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de cultivo não reduziram a produtividade de grãos em relação ao milho cultivado sem consórcio, e o consórcio mais recomendado é o milho cultivado com B. ruziziensis, principalmente em semeadura simultânea, pois além de ter sido um dos mais produtivos, o preço dessa semente é o mais acessível, vindo alcançar maior Índice de Lucratividade que os demais tratamentos. Em geral, os cultivos simultâneos foram os mais produtivos, vindo a apresentar maior Receita Bruta, Custo Operacional Total (devido à aplicação do herbicida Sanson), menor Lucro Operacional (com exceção do MBS) e maior Índice de Lucratividade. Abstract in english The integrated crop-livestock (ILP) is an alternative recovery and renewal of degraded pastures; however, it is important to show its economic viability. The objective of this research was to analyse the yields and economic outcomes of modalities of growing corn with fodder of the genera Brachiaria [...] and Panicum in the ILP under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2009/2010 in Selvíria - MS, Brazil, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four repetitions and the treatments consisted of eight methods of cultivation of maize intercropped with Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania, Panicum maximum jacq cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst.) Stapf cv. MG-5, or Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, sown simultaneously or at side dressing nitrogen fertilization, besides single grown corn. The operating cost analysis was based on prices of inputs and operations, and gross revenue in the average selling price of corn in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The cropping systems didn't reduce the grain yield for maize comparatively to single grown, and the consotium more recommended is corn with B. ruziziensis, especially in simultaneously sowing, because besides being one of the most productive, the price of this seed is the most affordable, obtaining larger Profitability Index than the other treatments. In general, the simultaneous crops were the most productive, having a higher Gross Income, Total Operating Cost (due to herbicide application Sanson), lower Operating Profit (excluding MBS) and higher Profitability Index.

Cássia Maria de Paula, Garcia; Marcelo, Andreotti; Maria Aparecida Anselmo, Tarsitano; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto, Teixeira Filho; Ana Elisa da Silva, Lima; Salatiér, Buzetti.

2012-04-01

196

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Po...

Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

2000-01-01

197

Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, pwater stress condition (+15%, pwater supply (+2%, p<0.05). The elongated cycle has a positive effect on yield under any combination of options. Moreover, higher yields projected for the ideotype implicate more crop residues to be incorporated into the soil, which are positively correlated with the SOC sequestration and negatively with N leaching. The crop N uptake is expected to be adequate in view of higher rate of soil mineralization; the N fertilization rate of 400 kg N ha(-1) will involve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. PMID:24913890

Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

2014-11-15

198

Closing the yield gap could reduce projected greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of maize production in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the goal of doubling food demand while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental damage has become widely accepted, the dominant agricultural paradigm still considers high yields and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity to be in conflict with one another. Here, we achieved an increase in maize yield of 70% in on-farm experiments by closing the yield gap and evaluated the trade-off between grain yield, nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and GHG emissions. Based on two groups of N application experiments in six locations for 16 on-farm site-years, an integrated soil-crop system (HY) approach achieved 93% of the yield potential and averaged 14.8 Mg ha(-1) maize grain yield at 15.5% moisture. This is 70% higher than current crop (CC) management. More importantly, the optimal N rate for the HY system was 250 kg N ha(-1) , which is only 38% more N fertilizer input than that applied in the CC system. Both the N2 O emission intensity and GHG intensity increased exponentially as the N application rate increased, and the response curve for the CC system was always higher than that for the HY system. Although the N application rate increased by 38%, N2 O emission intensity and the GHG intensity of the HY system were reduced by 12% and 19%, respectively. These on-farm observations indicate that closing the yield gap alongside efficient N management should therefore be prominent among a portfolio of strategies to meet food demand while reducing GHG intensity at the same time. PMID:23553871

Cui, Zhenling; Yue, Shanchao; Wang, Guiliang; Meng, Qingfeng; Wu, Liang; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Shiqing; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

2013-08-01

199

Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and Some Yield Components in Pea (Pisum sativum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the general and specific ability, the heterosis, heterobeltiosis for grain yield and some yield components in pea as a good source of plant protein. Grain yield and its inheritance were studied in four pea cultivar and three winter pea genotypes by crossing them in line x tester fashion. The General Combining Ability (GCA and Specific Combining Ability (SCA effects were highly significant, indicating the presence of both additive and non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of additive variance to dominance variance indicated the predominant role of non-additive gene action for all traits. Heterosis was determined as the superiority over the mid-parent (HMP and also over the better parent (HBP. Hybrids generally showed a better yielding than their parental genotypes. Grain yield showed highly significant heterosis: 83.2% heterosis over mid-parent and 66.8% heterosis over better-parent, respectively. An estimate of heritability (narrow sense was low due to the major role of environmental factors in expression of grain yield and yield components in pea. Thus, delay selection was suggested for breeding of stable yielding lines. Correlation studies showed that the grain yield was significant positive correlated with plant height, pod number, seeds of pod and pod yield. The highest direct effect was exhibited by pod yield, indirect effects, especially through the pod number in the parents and hybrids.

Ercan Ceyhanand Mehmet Ali Avci

2005-01-01

200

Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-04-15

 
 
 
 
201

Preliminary evaluation of grain yield components in hexaploid tritordeum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chromosome duplication of Hordeum chilense and Triticum turgidum conv. durum hybrids created a new cereal with favorable characteristics for planting: the hexaploid tritordeum (X Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner). A field experiment with three replications was carried out in Cordoba, Spain, to obtain more information on the potential yield of tritordeum for grain yield and its components. The performance of two advanced tritordeums was compared with the yield of two commercial whe...

Barth Pinto, Ronald Jose?; A?lvarez, Juan Bautista; Marti?n, Luis Miguel

2002-01-01

202

Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Levels of Soybean Seed Rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted with an objective to study the land use efficiency and economic return in maize-soybean intercropping system under various seed rates of soybean. Intercropping significantly reduced the thousand grains weight and grain yield of soybean at all seed rates. Maize thousand grain weight and grains yield remained unaffected in intercropping. The relative yield total of maize and soybean was greater in intercropping than monoculture. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER...

Ghulam Hayder; Suhail Mumtaz, S.; Aslam Khan; Sherin Khan

2003-01-01

203

Produtividade de milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde / Yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de espécies antecessoras ao milho, capazes de fornecer nitrogênio pela fixação simbiótica ou reciclagem de nutrientes, é importante para a manutenção da produtividade. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produtividade do milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde. O delineamento experim [...] ental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: milho cultivado sobre a palhada de aveia preta, aveia preta + nabo forrageiro, aveia preta + tremoço branco, tremoço branco, crambe, vegetação espontânea e vegetação espontânea + adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, para a produtividade de grãos. O milho cultivado com a utilização de palhada de aveia preta + tremoço branco foi o mais produtivo (10.817 kg ha-1), apresentando rendimento superior e diferindo do milho cultivado sobre palhada de aveia preta, crambe e vegetação espontânea. O uso de tremoço branco, aveia preta + tremoço branco e aveia preta + nabo forrageiro é uma alternativa viável para se obter maior rendimento de grãos de milho, dispensando a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Abstract in english The use of previous crops which have the capacity of supplying nitrogen to maize by symbiotic fixation or nutrient recycling is important to yield maintenance. This study aimed at evaluating the yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization. A completely randomized blocks design was used [...] with four replications and the following treatments: maize grown on black oat, black oat + oilseed radish, black oat + white lupin, white lupin, crambe, spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) and spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) + topdressing nitrogen fertilization. Concerning grain yield, significant differences were observed among treatments. The maize grown on black oat + white lupin straw reached the highest yield (10,817 kg ha-1), resulting in a higher income and differing from the one grown on black oat and crambe straw and spontaneous vegetation. The use of white lupin, black oat + white lupin and black oat + oilseed radish showed to be a viable alternative for a higher grain yield, making the topdressing nitrogen fertilization unnecessary.

Rafael de Lima, Lázaro; Antonio Carlos Torres da, Costa; Keoma de Freitas da, Silva; Marcos Vinicius Mansano, Sarto; José Barbosa, Duarte Júnior.

204

Produtividade de milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde / Yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de espécies antecessoras ao milho, capazes de fornecer nitrogênio pela fixação simbiótica ou reciclagem de nutrientes, é importante para a manutenção da produtividade. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produtividade do milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde. O delineamento experim [...] ental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: milho cultivado sobre a palhada de aveia preta, aveia preta + nabo forrageiro, aveia preta + tremoço branco, tremoço branco, crambe, vegetação espontânea e vegetação espontânea + adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, para a produtividade de grãos. O milho cultivado com a utilização de palhada de aveia preta + tremoço branco foi o mais produtivo (10.817 kg ha-1), apresentando rendimento superior e diferindo do milho cultivado sobre palhada de aveia preta, crambe e vegetação espontânea. O uso de tremoço branco, aveia preta + tremoço branco e aveia preta + nabo forrageiro é uma alternativa viável para se obter maior rendimento de grãos de milho, dispensando a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Abstract in english The use of previous crops which have the capacity of supplying nitrogen to maize by symbiotic fixation or nutrient recycling is important to yield maintenance. This study aimed at evaluating the yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization. A completely randomized blocks design was used [...] with four replications and the following treatments: maize grown on black oat, black oat + oilseed radish, black oat + white lupin, white lupin, crambe, spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) and spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) + topdressing nitrogen fertilization. Concerning grain yield, significant differences were observed among treatments. The maize grown on black oat + white lupin straw reached the highest yield (10,817 kg ha-1), resulting in a higher income and differing from the one grown on black oat and crambe straw and spontaneous vegetation. The use of white lupin, black oat + white lupin and black oat + oilseed radish showed to be a viable alternative for a higher grain yield, making the topdressing nitrogen fertilization unnecessary.

Rafael de Lima, Lázaro; Antonio Carlos Torres da, Costa; Keoma de Freitas da, Silva; Marcos Vinicius Mansano, Sarto; José Barbosa, Duarte Júnior.

2013-03-01

205

Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum Cultivars Grown as Second Crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 second crop season in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Block with three Replications. In the research, were used 24 grain sorghum cultivars to determine high yielding cultivars. The grain yields of the grain sorghum cultivars varied between 3383.8-8248.0 kg ha-1 in the research. In all the observed characters, statistically significant differences were determined among cultivars. As a result, DK 64 was determined as high yielding cultivars under Southeastern Anatolia Region irrigated conditions as second crops season.

Ismail Gul

2005-01-01

206

Effect of Replacing Maize with Brewers Dried Grain in Broiler Finisher Diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was carried out using two hundred 4 weeks old broiler finisher birds to evaluate their response to diet with different levels of Brewers Dried Grain (BGD. The diet was made to replace maize with brewers dried grain at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% to form treatment diets, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The formulated rations were made in such a way that other ingredients apart from maize and brewers dried grain remained the same. The two hundred 4 weeks old broiler birds of Anak strains were allotted in a completely randomized Design into five treatment groups. Each treatment had 40 birds, which was replicated two times with 20 birds each. The experiment lasted for eight weeks with feed and water provided ad-libitum. Results showed significant differences in the birds growth performance, birds in T3 had the most superior (p2, T4 and T5. The least value was obtained from birds in T1. The daily feed intake showed a reverse trend, as birds consumption significantly (p1 (100% maize, the least value from birds in T5 (100% brewers dried grains, the least cost per kg of feed was obtained from diet (T5, it decreased as the brewers dried grain increased in the diet. Cost per kg weight gain showed a similar trend and tended to favour birds fed higher levels of brewers dried grain. The use of brewers dried grain in broiler finisher diet should be encouraged as it gave promising results in terms of growth performance, better feed conversion and body weight gains.

A.M. Bamgbose

2011-01-01

207

Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and Mollic gleysols. Farmers also identified the soil fertility management niches in terms of topography, physical discontinuities, management and classified them as productive or unproductive. The productive niches occupied between 0.25 to 0.30 ha and were used for maize, bananas and vegetables production. Non-productive niches were between 1.5 to 6.0 ha and were either left fallow or used for maize and sweet potato production. Productive niches had a pH of 5.3% C of 2.3 and silt fraction of 232 g kg-1 and maize yield of 4.3 t ha-1. Non productive niches had a pH of 3.99, % C of 1.9 and a silt fraction of 193 g kg-1 and maize yield of 2.8 t ha-1. Management should target processes that enhance these variables in addition to incorporating the farmers` local knowledge.

I.M. Tabu

2005-01-01

208

Isolation of high-quality RNA from grains of different maize varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of gene expression in maize varieties represents a powerful tool aiming to increase vitamin A precursors. However, the isolation of RNA from different maize varieties is challenging because these varieties show different levels of polysaccharides, and most methods available for RNA isolation are inappropriate for grain samples. The polysaccharides co-purify and co-precipitate with RNA during isolation, resulting in low-quality RNA, compromising the use of RNA in subsequent applications. Thus, a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based method was adapted in this study and compared with six methods for RNA isolation, including commercial reagents and RNA and DNA isolation kits, in order to identify the most appropriate for maize grains from different varieties. Most of the methods evaluated were considered inadequate due to limitations in terms of purity and/or quantity of the isolated RNA, which affected the efficiency of subsequent RT-qPCR analysis, resulting in nonamplification of ?-carotene hydroxylase gene (HYD3) or high deviation among replicates. However, the CTAB modified method allowed the study to obtain intact RNA, with high quality and quantity, from 25 maize varieties. Furthermore, this RNA was successfully used to evaluate the expression of HYD3 gene by real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and thus represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost strategy. PMID:24400636

Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Buss, Julieti Huch; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Nora, Leonardo; e Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos Anjos; Margis, Rogério; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2014-10-01

209

Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Khorramabad, Lorestan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is necessary to use organic fertilizers and decrease chemical fertilizers consumption to reach sustainable agriculture. Thus, to study the effects of manure incorporation methods, and integrated effects of poultry manure with chemical fertilizers on the grain yield and yield components of maize, an experiment was conducted in 2004 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Lorestan Weather Department, 30 kms northeast of Khorramabad. The treatments were arranged in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of incorporation of fertilizer with soil by furrower or disk. The subplots included T0: control (no consumption of fertilizer and poultry manure; T1: 200, 100, and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively; T2: 80% of T1+ 4 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T3: 60% of T1+ 8 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T4: 40% of T1+ 12 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T5: 20% of T1+ 16 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; and T6: 20 ton ha-1 of poultry manure. The results showed that incorporation of fertilizer by furrower, compared with disk, led to significant increase in plant height, 1000 seed weight and grain and biological yields. However, there were not significant differences in the number of seed per ear and harvest index between the two fertilizer incorporation methods. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increase of the treats mentioned except for the harvest index. The interaction effects were not significant for any traits. T5 treatment produced the highest grain yield, and was significantly different from T0, T1, T3 and T6 treatments. The differences between T1 (chemical nutrition system and T6 (organic nutrition system were not significant either. Effectiveness of integrated poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on maize yield components was higher than either poultry manure or chemical fertilizer. The results of this experiment indicated that incorporation of 16 ton poultry manure + 40, 20 and 20 kg ha-1 N, P and K with furrower might be appropriate for maize prodution under conditions similar to this experiment.

A. Ghalavand

2007-07-01

210

Grain and tortilla quality in landraces and improved maize grown in the highlands of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maize produced in the highlands of Mexico (>2,400 masl) is generally not accepted by the flour and masa and tortilla industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain quality and tortilla properties of maize landraces commonly grown in the highlands of Mexico and compare them with improved germplasm (hybrids). Germplasm analysis included 11 landraces, 32 white hybrids, and six yellow hybrids. Grain quality was analyzed for a range of physical and chemical factors, as well as for alkaline cooking quality. Landrace grains tended to be heterogeneous in terms of size, hardness and color. All landraces had soft-intermediate grains with an average flotation index (FI) of 61%. In contrast, hybrid grains were homogenous in size and color, and harder than landrace grains, with a FI of 38%. Protein, free sugars, oil and phenolic content in landraces were higher than in the hybrids. Significant correlations were found between phenolic content and tortilla color (r=?-0.60; ptortilla industry, while all the hybrids evaluated fulfilled the requirements of this industry. PMID:21611770

Vázquez-Carrillo, Gricelda; García-Lara, Silverio; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Bergvinson, David J; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia

2011-06-01

211

EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE AND COLOR OF WHOLE-GRAIN FLOURS OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE (QPM) AND NORMAL MAIZE CULTIVARS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whole-grain flours of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) and normal maize were extruded under controlled conditions in order to evaluate the effect of extrusion on the essential amino acids profile and color of the raw material used in the production of maize based extrudates. Flours were conditioned to 150g/kg moisture and processed in a single screw extruder at a screw compression ratio of 3:1, screw speed of 80 rpm, and die head temperature of 1300C, using two different die nozzle diameters (3 an...

MARIA CRISTINA DIAS PAES; JOSEPH MAGA

2004-01-01

212

Crescimento e produtividade de milho em função da cultura antecessora / Maize growth and yield according to the previous crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de plantas de cobertura, no sistema plantio direto, pode proporcionar melhores condições para o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, com reflexos positivos na produtividade de grãos. Mediante a técnica de análise de crescimento, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar o desempenho agronômic [...] o de milho cultivado sobre palhada de feijão comum, Brachiaria brizantha e milheto. O Experimento foi conduzido em solo de Cerrado, em Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com três tratamentos (palhadas de cobertura) e cinco repetições. A velocidade de decomposição da palhada de feijão comum foi maior que a de B. brizantha e milheto. Os maiores valores de acúmulo de matéria seca das folhas, colmos, espigas e total, bem como do índice de área foliar e produtividade de grãos de milho, foram obtidos quando o cultivo ocorreu sobre palhada de feijão comum. Abstract in english The use of cover crops in the no-tillage system can provide better conditions for the development of maize plants, with positive effects on grain yield. By using the growth analysis technique, this study aimed at characterizing the agronomic performance of maize on common bean, Brachiaria brizantha [...] and millet straw. The experiment was carried out in a Brazilian Savannah soil, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three treatments (cover crops) and five replications. The common bean straw decomposition rate was higher than the B. Brizantha and millet ones. The highest values for the dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, cobs and total, as well as leaf area index and maize grain yield, were observed when cultivated on common bean straw.

Priscila de, Oliveira; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; João, Kluthcouski; Tomás de Aquino, Portes.

2013-09-01

213

EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a “balanced” fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

Eche N. Mary

2013-08-01

214

Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

215

Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient for maize grains ( Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

2014-10-01

216

Effect of Soil Fertility Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Maize Yield in Smallholder Farmers Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soil fertility management and N fertilizer rates on maize yield in farmers` fields. Participatory (transect walks and soil mapping and laboratory analysis methods were used to identify and quantify the soil fertility management niches. A Completely Randomized Block Design experiment was then conducted whereby hybrid maize (H625 was planted in plot sizes (4 x 5 m2 and N treatments 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1 applied. A significant interaction between soil type and soil fertility management niche showed that farmers` practice could improve crop yield irrespective of indigenous fertility. Optimal N fertilizer rate in the productive niches ranged from 20 to 40 kg N ha-1. The non-productive soil fertility niches required more than 60 kg N ha-1 leading to the conclusion that site-specific nitrogen management is important for maize production in farmers` fields.

I.M. Tabu

2006-01-01

217

Impacts of Conservation Tillage Systems on Maize and Soybean Yields of Eroded Illinois Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the United States, millions of hectares of highly erodible cropland have been in the Conservation Reserve Programme (CRP for the past 10 to 20 years. Any conversion of CRP land back to maize (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. production would require the use of conservation tillage systems such as conservation tillage to meet federal and state soil erosion control standards. Evaluations of crop yield response of these conservation tillage systems such as no-till (NT and chisel-plow (CP over time are needed to assess the return of this land to crop production. A 14-year study was conducted in southern Illinois on land similar to that being removed from CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on maize and soybean yields and for the maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. In 1989, NT, CP and moldboard plow (MP treatments were replicated six times in a Latin Square Design on sloping, moderately well drained, moderately eroded soil. The 7-year average maize yields were similar (9.53, 9.26 and 9.46 Mg ha-1 for NT, CP and MP systems, respectively, as a result of a significantly higher yield with the MP system in the first year which offset the higher yields with the NT and the CP systems during the last six years of maize. The 7-year average soybean yield with NT (2.57 Mg ha-1 was 7% higher than with MP (2.38 Mg ha-1 and CP (2.38 Mg ha-1 systems. Crop yields for 14 years (7 years maize and 7 years soybean appear to show improved long-term productivity of NT compared with that of MP and CP systems

K.R. Olson

2004-01-01

218

Irrigation and nitrogen effects on wheat grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two agronomic experiments with wheat crop were conducted during the period of May through October of 1999 and 2000 at the experimental site of the University of Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on grain yield of two wheat cultivars. The work also intended to present the feasibility of this agriculture activity during the winter crop season in the Paraíba Valley region of São Paulo State. The experimental design allowed simulating different wheat crop growth conditions in the field in terms of the interactions among irrigation, cultivar and nitrogen factors. Results showed no significant interaction among the three factors for the analyzed agronomic characteristics. Interaction of irrigation and nitrogen, for grain yield and biomass, was observed only in 1999. Soil fertility was improved in 2000 with a positive effect on grain yield. Irrigation had a significant impact on grain yield indicating that wheat crop needs water supply for a profitable production in the Paraíba Valley region. Water balance is recommended for efficient irrigation.

Marcelo do Santos Targa

2007-06-01

219

Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the U.S. Midwest.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key question for climate change adaptation is whether existing cropping systems can become less sensitive to climate variations. We use a field-level data set on maize and soybean yields in the central United States for 1995 through 2012 to examine changes in drought sensitivity. Although yields have increased in absolute value under all levels of stress for both crops, the sensitivity of maize yields to drought stress associated with high vapor pressure deficits has increased. The greater sensitivity has occurred despite cultivar improvements and increased carbon dioxide and reflects the agronomic trend toward higher sowing densities. The results suggest that agronomic changes tend to translate improved drought tolerance of plants to higher average yields but not to decreasing drought sensitivity of yields at the field scale. PMID:24786079

Lobell, David B; Roberts, Michael J; Schlenker, Wolfram; Braun, Noah; Little, Bertis B; Rejesus, Roderick M; Hammer, Graeme L

2014-05-01

220

Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos / Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N) disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF), a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após [...] a emergência (DAE) em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M), aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C) e ervilhaca/milho (E/M) e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1) aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M) e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C). Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1). Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE), o maior IAF (4,41) e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%), enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE) e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE). O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1. Abstract in english This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N) to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI), shoot dry matter (SDM) production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with [...] three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata) and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1) applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1). The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1). With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41) and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

Solange, França; João, Mielniczuk; Luís M. G., Rosa; Homero, Bergamaschi; João I., Bergonci.

 
 
 
 
221

EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE AND COLOR OF WHOLE-GRAIN FLOURS OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE (QPM AND NORMAL MAIZE CULTIVARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whole-grain flours of Quality Protein Maize (QPM and normal maize were extruded under controlled conditions in order to evaluate the effect of extrusion on the essential amino acids profile and color of the raw material used in the production of maize based extrudates. Flours were conditioned to 150g/kg moisture and processed in a single screw extruder at a screw compression ratio of 3:1, screw speed of 80 rpm, and die head temperature of 1300C, using two different die nozzle diameters (3 and 5 mm. Extrusion caused a diminishment in the contents of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine and valine when compared to their original flours (P0.05. QPM samples, either raw or extruded, were significantly higher in lysine, methionine and tryptophan compared to samples of normal maize (P<0.05. Extrudates produced with yellow QPM flours were lighter than their correspondent raw material (P<0.05, different from that of yellow normal maize. This trend was also observed for redness (a values in extrudates. On the other hand, white and yellow extrudates presented higher b values (yellowness than their correspond raw flour. Despite the adverse effect of extrusion in the amino acid retention, the use of QPM flours in replacement of normal maize flours can provide maize extrudates with superior protein quality.

MARIA CRISTINA DIAS PAES

2004-04-01

222

SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Ia?i contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

Gh. Lixandru

2005-10-01

223

Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

Salami Olusola Abiodun

2006-01-01

224

Relationship Between Rapid Canopy Closure and Grain Yield in Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to determine the relationship between rapid canopy closure and grain yield in wheat and to identify the traits that affect rapid canopy closure, a research was conducted using 5 wheat cultivars (Atrak, Tajan, Zagros, Golestan and Viniak. A field experiment with randomized complete blocks was carried out at the Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, in 2003-2004. Rapid canopy closure had significant effect on grain yield, cultivars with faster canopy closure produced comparatively more grain yield per unit area. Leaf area index and seedling dry weight at the beginning of the exponential growth phase; relative leaf area development rate and relative growth rate during the exponential phase and the average of individual leaf area and leaf area ratio were detected as the effective traits in rapid canopy closure. It was concluded that the RCC is an appropriate way especially in the environment where growing season is limited and there is little scope for lengthening the growing season in order to increase dry matter production and yield.

T. Mir-Mahmoodi

2009-01-01

225

Correlations of yield and grain yield components of winter wheat varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mean positive correlation (r = 0,47** between grain yield and number of plants per m² and strong correlation between grain yield and number of spikes per m² were established (r = 0,55**. Weak correlation was established between grain yield and productive tillering (r = 0,24**. Strong positive correlation (r = 0,51** is between the number of spikes per m² and productive tillering, as well as between the number of plants per m² and number of spikes per m² (r = 0,68**. Very weak negative correlation (r = -0,12* is between productive tillering and the number of plants per m². Regression equations of grain yield and other investigated traits, on the level of significance 5% and 1%, have linear form. By increasing one plant per m², the number of spikes for one per m², productive tillering for one, grain yield will be increased for 0,006 t/ha, 0,005 t/ha and 1,174 t/ha on the average. The other regression equations between the number of spikes per m², number of plants per m² and productive tillering have linear form. By increasing one plant per m² and productive tillering for one, the increase of number of spikes per m² is 1,087 and 312,21 on the average. By increasing the number of plants per m², productive tillering is reduced for 47,59 on the average.

Proti? Rade

2009-01-01

226

Yield and Quality of Barley Grain as Influenced by Nitrogen Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels (0, 50, and 100 kg ha-1 on grain yield, yield components and quality of barley grain. Grain yield was increased progressively with nitrogen application up to 100 kg ha-1. Higher grain yield with nitrogen application was related to higher number of fertile tillers, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 gave significantly lower grain crude protein percentage both in grain and straw than O kg N ha-1. Modified acid detergent fibre percentage of straw and grain was not affected by the application of nitrogen.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

227

Soil chemical properties and maize yield after application of organic and inorganic amendments to an acidic soil in southwestern Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A factorial experiment with a randomised complete block design (three replicates) was performed to determine the effects of poultry manure (PM), lime (L) and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer on soil chemical properties, and to determine the effects of their combinations on soil productivity and maize yield. The factors were PM (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1), L as CaCO{sub 3} (0 and 250 kg ha-1) and NPK 15-15-15 (0 and 100 kg ha-1). The soil had a loamy sand texture. The application of L and PM increased the surface soil pH in a similar fashion. In both years of the experiment, the effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of the soil after the combined application of 10 Mg ha-1 PM, L and NPK was significantly higher than after the individual application of L or NPK or their combination (5.75-7.65 cmol kg-1 compared to 3.36-4.57 cmol kg-1). The application of 10 Mg ha-1 PM with L and/or NPK reduced the possibility of Mn toxicity, with soil levels ranging from 108 to 136 mg kg-1. The combined use of the three amendments gave the highest leaf nutrient concentrations. The highest maize grain yield (4.62 Mg ha-1) was obtained with L + 10 Mg ha-1 PM; with no amendment the grain yield was 1.9 Mg ha-1. The application of PM enhanced the effects of L and Nk in improving soil productivity. However, separate applications of 5 and 10 Mg ha-1 PM similarly affected soil productivity; the sandy nature of the soil at depths of 0-20 cm seems to have prevented differences between the two rates from becoming manifested. (Author) 33 refs.

Busari, M. A.; Salako, F. K.; Adetunji, M. T.

2008-07-01

228

Comparative Analysis of Two Crop Yield Potential Models Based on Yield Potential per Plant of Maize and Bread Wheat Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crop yield potential assessment under a single density, assumed as optimum for maximum yield per unit area, might lead to biased judgment due to genotype by density interactions. Two models emphasizing yield per plant in the absence of competition (i.e., yield potential per plant, were applied in maize (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to assess crop yield potential. The first model distinguishes crop yield potential into two components, yield potential per plant and tolerance to density, predicted through linear regression of yield per plant over a range of densities. The second model proposes three components, which are yield potential per plant, tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, determined in the absence of competition. Genotypes suggested by the models as the most promising were different than those depicted on the basis of the experimental data. Both models favoured genotypes characterized by improved yield potential per plant and being less density-dependent. Nevertheless, the two components of the first model were negatively associated. The first model determines the key parameter (i.e., yield potential per plant indirectly, accuracy of which depends on the lowest density used. The second model assesses yield potential per plant in a direct way and seems to consider crop yield potential in a more integrated manner, whereas appears to represent an integral part of whole breeding approach.

Ioannis S. Tokatlidis

2008-01-01

229

Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 ?g·g?1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase expression levels were positively correlated with ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts.

Rafael da Silva Messias

2014-01-01

230

FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quali [...] ty.

Antônio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa, Crestani; Rafael, Nornberg; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

2012-06-01

231

Methyl jasmonate triggers loss of grain yield under drought stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drought is one of the major constraints to rice production worldwide. The development of rice panicle and spikelet meristem is repressed under the drought conditions, resulting in a reduction in the numbers of panicles and spikelets. In our recent report, we demonstrated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in drought-induced loss of grain yield. Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AtJMT) in rice resulted in a large reduc...

Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Su-hyun; Kim, Ju-kon

2009-01-01

232

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

Alfred Obia

2013-04-01

233

Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (aw) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16 degrees C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly ...

Cuero, R. G.; Smith, J. E.; Lacey, J.

1987-01-01

234

Effects of storage temperature on the fungal and chemical spoilage of maize grains and flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical and fungal spoilage of maize grains and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow varieties in relation to time temperature (10 C, 15 C, 20 C and room (30-56 C) storage period at 8-12 months was studied. The results showed that total fungal counts and percent infestation markedly increased with advanced storage and increased temperature. Percentage germination generally decreased during extended storage. Peroxide values of both the grain and flour increased with increasing temperature and storage time. At the end of one year storage the total fungal counts in the grain and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 13.6x10/sup 12/ - 20.0x10/sup 13/ and Yellow ranged 17.1x10/sup 13/ - 22.1x10/sup 14/ respectively. germination and infestation percentage of the grains of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 76-78% and 96-99%. The peroxide value ranged 6.6-7.0 and 6.4-6.8 meg/Kg in the grain and flour of Sarhad White respectively after one year storage. There was more fungal infestation, fungal counts and peroxidation in the grain and flour Sarhad Yellow than that of Sarhad White. (author)

235

An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD at Zemun Polje (Serbia, during the summer of 2009. Average content of proteins, oil and starch of analyzed maize hybrids was 10.5%, 4.7% and 80.8%, respectively. Hybrids from FAO maturity group 600 had highest grain mass (in average 419.5 g. Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 2.64 to 3.75, averaged 3.44 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi concentrations were between 0.120 µ g g-1 (ZP 805 to 0.415 µ g g-1 (ZP 588ex, averaged 0.24 µ g g-1. Content of soluble proteins varied from 54.33 to 78.74 mg g-1. The high positive correlation was observed between total proteins and oil content in hybrids, as well as between starch and phenolics content. Phytate content was positively correlated with proteins, but this correlation was not significant, while the correlation between phytate and mass of 1,000 grains was positive and significant. A negative correlation occurred between phytate and starch. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Stevanovi? Milan

2012-01-01

236

Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

Mihailovi? Vojislav M.

2004-01-01

237

Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS, municipal compost (MC and cow manure (CM on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.. The treatments were control (without any organic waste and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 and 45 t ha-1. This research was done in the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology (Lavark-Najafabad. The experimental design was a randomized, complete block with three replications. Treatments were incorporated into the soil before the maize planting (on 23 June 2008 and soil sampling was performed after 132 days (Simultaneously with maize harvesting. Application of the organic wastes resulted in significant increase soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and significantly decreased bulk density. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was decreased by application of PSS. Application of 15 and 45 t ha-1 of PSS reduced Ks more than 14% and 42%, respectively, compared with control; however, the reduction was significant only in the plots which received 45 t ha-1 of PSS compared with control. The results of plant yield and growth showed that leaf area index (LAI, plant length, biological yield, 1000 seed weight and seed yield increase due to the application of organic wastes.

J. Zamani Babgohari

2011-01-01

238

Effect of Canopy Temperature Depression on Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread and Durum Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relationships of CTD (Canopy Temperature Depression with grain yield and its components were evaluated under Cukurova conditions, Turkey, in 2003 growth season. With this aim, six bread and five durum wheat genotypes were used as a material. CTD was measured three times during beginning of heading to full anthesis stages and only at the last measurements, both bread wheat and durum wheat genotypes showed significant differences. At the last measurements, CTD of bread wheat ranged between -0.22 and 0.57degree. On the other hand, CTD average values of durum wheat genotypes changed 0.63 to 1.23degree. This study showed that durum wheat was cooler than bread wheat in high temperature conditions. In addition, CTD was positively correlated with grain yield, spike yield, and grain numbers per spike. Overall, CTD has played an important role to search physiological basis of grain yield of wheat, and CTD can successfully use as a selection criterion in breeding programs.

Celaleddin BARUTCULAR

2008-08-01

239

EFFECT OF MAIZE HARVEST DELAY ON THE INCIDENCE OF SPOILED GRAINS AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of harvest delay on the incidence of spoiled grains and pathogenic fungi on maize grains of the hybrids XL 212 and XL 344, sowed through direct planting system in two areas of 60 x 100 m, with 55.000 plants per hectare and cultivated above soil vegetal coverage, black oat and foraging turnip. The spoiled grains (SG incidence was determined through the average of four repetitions of 250g per sample and the fungus incidence was determined on 400 grains incubated in potato-dextrose-agar, in growth chamber at 25ºC and photoperiod of 12 hours for seven days. The SG incidence increased in all treatments until the fourth evaluation, considering that the hybrid XL 344, cultivated above turnip coverage, reached 6.2% of SG and, above the oat coverage, reached 3.5%. In the XL 212 hybrid, the maximum incidence was 2.3% and 2.0% above oat and turnip coverage, respectively.The delay did not influence the increase of the spoiled grains incidence, but it influenced the decrease of the F. moniliforme and the raise of the incidence of the F. graminearium and the Aspergillus, Cephalosporium and Penicillium genus species.

JOÃO ANARACY SANTIN

2004-08-01

240

14C-lindane residues in stored maize grain in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution and fate of the insecticide 14C-lindane in stored maize grains were studied for 36 weeks in the laboratory under conditions simulating local agricultural practices. Surface extracts declined from 10.9% of the applied activity at zero time (0-24 hours) to 1.5% after 36 weeks. Lindane penetrated the seed coat and internal (methanol-extractable) residues accounted for 38% of the applied activity, after 4 weeks. Bound pesticide residues reached a maximum of 23.4% after the second week and declined very slowly to 10.7% after 36 weeks. A total concentration of lindane residues in the grain (methanol-extractable and bound) was calculated to be 7.6 mg/kg at the end of the storage period. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS), municipal compost (MC) and cow manure (CM) on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.). The treatments were control (without any organic waste) and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 a...

Zamani Babgohari, J.; Afyuni, M.; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H.; Eshghizadeh, H. R.

2011-01-01

242

GENETIC ADVANCE IN GRAIN YIELD QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND GRAIN QUALITY OF SOYBEAN OS-LINES I. MATURITY GROUP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to assess the genetic advance in soybean grain yield and grain quality of 29 promising lines in comparison to four standard cultivars within I. maturity group during the three-year period (1998-2000) at Osijek. Phenotypic variability, wide-sense heritability, genetic gain and relative genetic gain from selection were calculated for grain yield, protein and oil content in grain. The obtained results of biometrical analysis indicated on achieved advance in soy...

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Tomislav Duvnjak; Rezica Sudar

2001-01-01

243

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF LEAF DISEASES AND KERNEL ROT IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leafspot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and kernel rot, and also to establish the relationshipbetween grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cross hybrids were evaluated in a randomizedblock design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity were performed using a visual symptomsscale, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. Fungicide application was effective in the control ofmaize leaf diseases, and the reduced incidence of kernel rot provided on average 12% increased grain yield comparedto the control treatment. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduced maize grain yield, and this reduction wasgreater when diseases occurred earlier. Maize gray leaf spot caused higher decrease in grain yield than white spot.

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO BRITO

2012-04-01

244

Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity. PMID:24878747

Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

245

Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area. The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

S. Nezarat

2009-01-01

246

Leguminous cover crops differentially affect maize yields in three contrasting soil types of Kakamega, Western Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize production in smallholder farming systems in Kenya is largely limited by low soil fertility. As mineral fertilizer is expensive, green manuring using leguminous cover crops could be an alternative strategy for farmers to enhance farm productivity. However due to variability in soil type and crop management, the effects of green manure are likely to differ with farms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate Mucuna pruriens and Arachis pintoi on (i biomass and nitrogen fixation (15N natural abundance, (ii soil carbon and nitrogen stocks and (iii their effects on maize yields over two cropping seasons in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Mucuna at 6 weeks accumulated 1–1.3 Mg ha^{-1} of dry matter and 33–56 kg ha^{-1} nitrogen of which 70% was nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa. Arachis after 12 months accumulated 2–2.7 Mg ha^{-1} of dry matter and 51–74 kg N ha^{-1} of which 52-63 % was from Ndfa. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at 0–15 cm depth were enhanced by 2-4 Mg C ha^{-1} and 0.3–1.0 Mg N ha^{-1} under Mucuna and Arachis fallow, irrespective of soil type. Maize yield increased by 0.5-2 Mg ha^{-1} in Mucuna and 0.5–3 Mg ha^{-1} in Arachis and the response was stronger on Nitisol than on Acrisol or Ferralsol. We concluded that leguminous cover crops seem promising in enhancing soil fertility and maize yields in Kenya, provided soil conditions and rainfall are suitable.

Kelvin Mark Mtei

2011-06-01

247

Satellite-based studies of maize yield spatial variations and their causes in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize production in China has been expanding significantly in the past two decades, but yield has become relatively stagnant in the past few years, and needs to be improved to meet increasing demand. Multiple studies found that the gap between potential and actual yield of maize is as large as 40% to 60% of yield potential. Although a few major causes of yield gap have been qualitatively identified with surveys, there has not been spatial analysis aimed at quantifying relative importance of specific biophysical and socio-economic causes, information which would be useful for targeting interventions. This study analyzes the causes of yield variation at field and village level in Quzhou county of North China Plain (NCP). We combine remote sensing and crop modeling to estimate yields in 2009-2012, and identify fields that are consistently high or low yielding. To establish the relationship between yield and potential factors, we gather data on those factors through a household survey. We select targeted survey fields such that not only both extremes of yield distribution but also all soil texture categories in the county is covered. Our survey assesses management and biophysical factors as well as social factors such as farmers' access to agronomic knowledge, which is approximated by distance to the closest demonstration plot or 'Science and technology backyard'. Our survey covers 10 townships, 53 villages and 180 fields. Three to ten farmers are surveyed depending on the amount of variation present among sub pixels of each field. According to survey results, we extract the amount of variation within as well as between villages and or soil type. The higher within village or within field variation, the higher importance of management factors. Factors such as soil type and access to knowledge are more represented by between village variation. Through regression and analysis of variance, we gain more quantitative and thorough understanding of causes to yield variation at village scale, which further explains the gap between average and highest achieved yield.

Zhao, Y.

2013-12-01

248

An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

2008-02-15

249

An Evaluation of Water-Yield Relations in Maize Zea mays L. in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L. to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha-1 for full irrigated treatment (I100 and 3750-2136 kg ha-1 for non-irrigated treatment (I0 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m-3, while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m-3 in both years. The yield response factor (ky relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM and leaf area index (LAI were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity.

Gulay Pamuk Mengu

2008-01-01

250

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Nutritional Quality of Maize Cultivars (Zea mays and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of maize and sorghum grains, packs were exposed to doses of 0 and 2 kGy in a 60 Co package irradiator. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperatures. Proximate composition, minerals content, minerals bio-availability, tannins content, phytic acid content, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility were evaluated. The results indicated that gamma irradiation caused no effect on proximate composition, minerals content and minerals bioavailability. For protein fractions, in both maize cultivars no significant differences were observed in all fractions, except in prolamins and glutelins of Maize 75. While for sorghum significant increase in globulins, prolamins and glutelins was observed. While, gamma irradiation reduced the phytic acid and tannins contents significantly. The in vitro protein digestibility of maize cultivars was increased significantly, while the digestibility of sorghum was reduced.

B. Hassan Amro

2009-01-01

251

Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

2011-02-01

252

Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

253

Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L. stover  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Results Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Conclusion Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

de Leon Natalia

2009-03-01

254

Managing Decomposition and Mineralization of Senna singueana (Del. Lock. Manure to Improve N Use Efficiency and Maize Yield in Morogoro, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon: nitrogen (C:N and lignin: nitrogen (L:N ratios of organic substances primarily determine the N mineralization and its availability to crop plants. Two field experiments were conducted at Kitete Village, Morogoro, Tanzania in 1998-99 to assess the effects of different C:N and L:N ratios of mixtures of Senna singueana foliage and local straw materials on decomposition and N mineralization for optimum N use efficiency of maize. Litterbags and the incubation methods were used for the studies. Residual mass, available mineral N, maize shoot height, N nutrient uptake and yield were measured. Senna leaves alone decomposed considerably fast with over 94% mass loss completed within the first 4 weeks of incubation. When these foliages were mixed with different proportions of local straw materials, however, the decomposition rate slowed down, with the mass loss percentage decreasing with increasing proportions of straw in the mixtures. The pattern of N released from Senna and straw manures closely resembled to the mass loss. The medium quality Senna-straw mixtures (C: N ratio of 30:1 and L: N ratio range of 2.7:1 to 4.5:1, optimally promoted the maize height growth from 160 to 248 cm and grain yield from 1.4 to 4.5 t ha-1. The critical period of high N demand by the maize crop and grand period of vegetative growth were between 4-8 and 4-7 weeks, respectively. It is concluded that the foliage of indigenous shrub S. singueana has high potential use for N management in annual crop production. For Senna-straw mixtures, the critical C: N ratio should not exceed 30:1 and L: N ratio in the range of 2.7:1 to 4.5:1 for maximizing maize grain yield. In practical terms these ratios imply mixing of 1.6 t ha-1 of Senna dry leaves with either 3.1, 2.9 or 2.5 t ha-1 of maize, sorghum or panicum straws respectively.

J.B. Nduwayezu

2005-01-01

255

Determinantes de la oferta de maíz grano en México / Supply determinants of grain maize in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y analizar los factores que afectan la oferta de maíz grano en México. Se usó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto por dos de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad; durante el periodo de 1980 a 2010. La oferta de m [...] aíz grano en México, con base en los resultados, responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y temporal, con elasticidades precio-propias de 0,3025 y 0,2282; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta total de maíz son los registrados en el precio del plaguicida con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,4108; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactaron fueron los registrados en el sorgo, con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,2898, si es producido bajo riego y de -0,1531 en temporal. El precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal en México es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0,64 y 0,62% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el de mayoreo a niveles de 0,31 y 0,24% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en estos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine and analyze the factors that affect maize grain supply in Mexico. An econometric model of simultaneous equations composed of two supply equations, three transmission prices and one identity; during the period from 1980 to 2010. Based on the results of the [...] model, the supply of maize grain in Mexico responds inelastically to changes in the price of maize produced under irrigation and temporary, with elasticities own-price of 0,3025 and 0,2282, changes in input prices that more affect the total offer are pesticide prices, with a cross-price elasticity of -0,4108; changes in the competitive product that more impacted maize supply was sorghum, with a crossprice elasticity of -0,2898, if produced under irrigation and -0,1531 if produced in temporary. The price to the producer of maize grown under irrigation and temporary in Mexico is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0,64 and 0,62% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence the wholesale price at levels of 0,31 and 0,24% for every unit percentage change in them.

Eugenio, Guzmán-Soria; María Teresa, de la Garza-Carranza; José Alberto, García-Salazar; Juvencio, Hernández-Martínez; Samuel, Rebollar-Rebollar.

256

Determinantes de la oferta de maíz grano en México / Supply determinants of grain maize in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y analizar los factores que afectan la oferta de maíz grano en México. Se usó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto por dos de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad; durante el periodo de 1980 a 2010. La oferta de m [...] aíz grano en México, con base en los resultados, responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y temporal, con elasticidades precio-propias de 0,3025 y 0,2282; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta total de maíz son los registrados en el precio del plaguicida con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,4108; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactaron fueron los registrados en el sorgo, con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,2898, si es producido bajo riego y de -0,1531 en temporal. El precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal en México es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0,64 y 0,62% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el de mayoreo a niveles de 0,31 y 0,24% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en estos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine and analyze the factors that affect maize grain supply in Mexico. An econometric model of simultaneous equations composed of two supply equations, three transmission prices and one identity; during the period from 1980 to 2010. Based on the results of the [...] model, the supply of maize grain in Mexico responds inelastically to changes in the price of maize produced under irrigation and temporary, with elasticities own-price of 0,3025 and 0,2282, changes in input prices that more affect the total offer are pesticide prices, with a cross-price elasticity of -0,4108; changes in the competitive product that more impacted maize supply was sorghum, with a crossprice elasticity of -0,2898, if produced under irrigation and -0,1531 if produced in temporary. The price to the producer of maize grown under irrigation and temporary in Mexico is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0,64 and 0,62% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence the wholesale price at levels of 0,31 and 0,24% for every unit percentage change in them.

Eugenio, Guzmán-Soria; María Teresa, de la Garza-Carranza; José Alberto, García-Salazar; Juvencio, Hernández-Martínez; Samuel, Rebollar-Rebollar.

2012-12-01

257

Effect of Different Sowing Rates and Nitrogen Levels on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Some Quality Traits of Triticale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effects of nitrogen level (0, 60 120, 180 kg ha- 1, sowing rate (200, 350, 500, 650 seed m- 2 on grain yield, yield components and some quality traits of two triticale cultivars under rainfed conditions in Samsun, Turkey, in the 2001-02 and 2002-03. Increasing nitrogen applications increased grain yield, plant height, number of ear m- 2, number of kernel ear- 1, thousand-grain weight, test weight and grain protein content. Plots treated with 500 number seed m- 2 recorded maximum grain yield. This study indicated that sowing rate should be 500 number seed per square meter and nitrogen dose should be between 120 and 180 kg ha- 1 to obtain high grain yield from triticale in Samsun located in the middle Blacksea region and similar ecological conditions.

Zeki Mut

2005-01-01

258

Physical-chemical characterization and wet milling yield of four maize hybrids / Caracterização físico-química e rendimento da moagem úmida de quatro híbridos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para verificar a influência da aparência e as características físico-químicas do grão de milho e da concentração de ácido lático durante a maceração nos rendimentos de subprodutos da moagem úmida convencional, quatro híbridos de milho foram caracterizados e macerados em duas concentrações de ácido l [...] ático (0,55% e 1,00%). Para a caracterização físico-química dos grãos, foram determinadas suas dimensões (comprimento, espessura e largura), massa de cem grãos, porcentagem de grãos boiantes, massa volumétrica e análise da composição centesimal. Diferenciaram-se estatisticamente entre os grãos a porcentagem de grãos boiantes (2,33% a 24,67%), massa volumétrica (0,810 kg L-1 a 0,850 kg L-1), massa de cem grãos (0,033 kg a 0,037 kg), teor de água (11,86% a 12,20%), proteínas (8,21% a 9,06%), lipídeos (3,00% a 4,77%) e cinzas (1,07% a 1,26%). Verificou-se que não há relação entre a aparência ou a composição química dos grãos com seus rendimentos de subprodutos na moagem úmida. A adição de 1,00% de ácido lático não proporcionou, estatisticamente, melhores rendimentos de subprodutos, entretanto facilitou a separação dos componentes do grão. Abstract in english The influence of physical-chemical characteristics of maize grains and lactic acid concentrations on byproduct yields, generated by conventional wet milling, was studied during steeping, for four maize hybrids and two lactic acid concentrations (0.55 and 1.00%). For physical-chemical characterizatio [...] n, grain dimensions (length, thickness, and width) were determined, as well as mass of 100 grains, percentage of floating grains, volumetric mass, and centesimal composition. Statistical differences were found for percentage of floating grains (2.33 to 24.67%), volumetric mass (0.814 to 0.850 kg.L-1), mass of 100 grains (0.033 to 0.037 kg), water content (11.86 to 12.20%), proteins (8.21 to 9.06%), lipids (3.00 to 4.77%), and ashes (1.07 to 1.26%). There were no relationships of wet milling yields with maize appearance and physical-chemical characteristics. The addition of 1.00% lactic acid did not statistically improve byproduct yields; however, it favored separation of the grain components.

Renata C., Mussolini; José F., Lopes Filho; Aildson P., Duarte.

2014-06-01

259

Effect of Bio-phosphate and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizer Accompanied with Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Yield, Quality and Phosphorus and Zinc Concentration of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran during 2008-2009 to evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizer, phosphorus and foliar application of micronutrients on dry matter accumulation, yield, and phosphorus and zinc concentration of maize (Zea mays L.. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four replications was followed in the study. The micronutrients foliar application in two levels (foliar application and non foliar application were the main plots, and four levels of phosphate (T1: 0 (no fertilizer, T2: 100 kg ha-1 P2O5, T3: 100g bio-phosphate, T4: 100g bio-phosphate with 50 kg ha-1 P2O5 as the sub plots. Results showed that micronutrients foliar application and biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers had a significant influence on dry matter accumulation. The maximum dry matter accumulation was obtained by applying 50 kg/ha P2O5 plus bio-fertilizer. Grain yield, 1000-seed weight and protein content of grain were significantly affected by micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers treatments. Micronutrients foliar application and phosphorus fertilizers interaction had no significantly effect on grain yield, 1000-seed weight and grain protein content. Grain phosphorus and zinc concentration where significantly increased by application of micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers.

Mohammad Galavi

2011-11-01

260

Effect of Various Doses of Nitrogen on the Growth, Yield and Protein Content of two Maize (Zea mays L. Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a study conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 1996, standard variety Golden out yielded EV-6089 due to more number of grains and 1000-grain weight. Highest grain yield of 6.28 t ha -1 and maximum grain protein content of 10.07% were obtained by applying 230 kg N ha -1.

Asghar Ali

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Phosphorus Fertilizer Use Efficiency, Mycorrhizal Dependence and Maize Yield under Water Deficit Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency, mycorrhizal dependence and grain yield and dry matter yield of maize under water deficit conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments in this experiment were included as follows: irrigation (normal irrigation and water deficit stress based on evaporation from class A pan evaporation; combined different seed inoculations with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment of chemical phosphate fertilizer (non- consumption of phosphate fertilizer, consumption of 50 percent of triple superphosphate fertilizer needed, and consumption of rock phosphate, based on the quantity of consumed phosphorus of triple superphosphate source. The results showed that effects of irrigation, seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens biological phosphate fertilizer and chemical phosphate fertilizer were significant on yield and yield components, dry matter yield, relative agronomic efficiency and root colonization. Mild stress significantly reduced grain yield, relative agronomic efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency compared to optimum irrigation. Results showed that grain and dry matter yield are highly correlated with root colonization under mild stress condition. Maximum mycorrhizal dependence was obtained in mild stress condition. Maximum relative agronomic efficiency, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, yield and yield components was related to seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of triple superphosphate fertilizer were increased grain yield in comparison with rock phosphate along with inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. However, maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal dependence was achieved in non- consumption treatment of phosphate fertilizer.

M. Ghorchiani

2013-06-01

262

Effect of combination treatments on fungal spoilage of stored maize grains flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total fungal counts of maize grains and flour were determined in relation to irradiation doses (0.5-5.0 kGy) and storage temperatures (5 deg. C - 30 deg. C) during a period of 12 months. Initial total fungal counts of the grains and flour ranged 6.0x10/4-9.0x10/4 colonies/g. In the unirradiated grains the total fungal counts increased to a level of 8.3x10/7 while in the flour to 9.8 kGy. Storage temperatures also greatly affected the fungal growth and the lease development of fungal growth was at 5 deg. C during successive storage intervals. Among all the treatments tested, although minimum fungal growth was noted in the sample treated with 4 kGy and kept at 5 deg. C (6.2x10 4/9) for 12 months, in view of economic consideration 2 kGy treatment and temperature of 20 deg. C is recommended for safe storage. (author)

263

Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits was performed with twenty four lines, three testers and theresulting 72 hybrids using Line x Tester analysis. The interaction of Line x Tester was highly significant for all thecharacters studied except number of leaves per plant. Variance due to sca was greater than gca variance for the traits viz.,grain yield per plant, cob diameter, cob length, plant height, ear height, leaf length, 100 grain weight, grain rows per cob,days to 50 per cent tasseling and days to 50 per cent silking. The variance due to SCA was higher than due to GCAindicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action in the governance of above mentioned traits. Among thelines, the line UMI 1093 was found as the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yieldcontributing traits followed by UMI 1044-7, UMI 1053-6, UMI 1029-5 and UMI 2244-1. Considering the testers, UMI 61was found as the best general combiner with better mean performance for most of the yield contributing traits followed byUMI 1119. Among the crosses, UMI 1044-7 x UMI 61 was found to be the superior with positive significant SCA effectsand better mean performance for grain yield, cob length and grains per row. Similar superior positive significant SCA effectswith better mean performance were also observed in UMI 1093 x UMI 61 (grain yield per plant and UMI 2244-1 x UMI1119 (grain yield per plant and grain rows per cob.

S. Kanagarasu, G. Nallathambi and K.N. Ganesan

2010-07-01

264

Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

2011-11-01

265

Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure irrespective of topsoil removal, compared to NPK + urea which was only effective without topsoil removal. Therefore, poultry manure was a better soil ameliorant than NPK + urea after topsoil removal. (author)

266

Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dia [...] s a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2. Abstract in english The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concen [...] trations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.

Marcelo De, Carli; Bruna, Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata, Noreña; Irineu, Lorini; Adriano, Brandelli.

267

Genetic Variability and Heritability for Grain Yield and Other Characters in Lentil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for grain yield and six other characters in lentil. Experimental material included five lentil cultivars and 26 lentil lines grown during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Maximum variability was recorded for biological yield; grain yield and seed yield plant ha-1 . Maximum heritability was found for seed weight and days to 50% flowering.

B. Tuba Bicer

2004-01-01

268

Relationships between Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat under Different Water Availability (Dryland and Supplemental Irrigation Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Path and correlation analysis were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes during two years (2009-2011 under supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions. Field experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield showed positive correlation with plant height and test weight under supplemental irrigation condition. The similar results were also revealed between grain yield and plant height, spike length, days to maturity, agronomic score and test weight in dryland environment. The grain yield of bread wheat in dryland condition depended on the effect of plant height, days to maturity, agronomic score and 1000 kernel weight, whereas in supplemental irrigation was mainly related to plant height, spike length, 1000 kernel weight and test weight. The influence of 1000 kernel weight on grain yield in both environments seems to cause from the fact that grain yield in wheat is frequently the sink limited, and for this reason, the 1000 kernel weight has been reported as a promising trait for increasing grain yield in wheat under different conditions. The nearly equal value of correlation and path coefficients of plant height and grain yield showed plant height had positive and direct effect on grain yield, in both conditions and suggesting a criteria trait for improving of grain yield. The results showed that genotype 12 (CS/TH.SC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/MILAN/5/ TILHI is a high yielding potential genotype in moisture limited conditions.

Mohammad Kazem SHEFAZADEH

2012-05-01

269

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation ding is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

270

Compositional Equivalence of Grain from Multi-trait Drought-Tolerant Maize Hybrids to a Conventional Comparator: Univariate and Multivariate Assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

MON 87460 (D1) maize contains a gene that expresses the cold shock protein B (CSPB) from Bacillus subtilis to confer a yield advantage when yield is limited by water availability. This study evaluated the composition of grain from the D1-containing combined-trait maize hybrids D1 × NK603, D1 × MON 89034 × NK603, and D1 × MON 89034 × MON 88017. These stacks offer a combination of insect protection and herbicide tolerance traits. These hybrids were grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions at three replicated field sites across Chile during the 2006-2007 growing season. Compositional analyses included measurement of proximates, fibers, total amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, raffinose, phytic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The statistical analyses included an evaluation of the applicability of multiblock principal component analysis (MB-PCA) and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) to studies when more than one experimental factor will contribute to compositional variability. Results from these multivariate procedures highlighted that water treatment was the greatest contributor to compositional variability and, as expected, confirmed that the grain of combined-trait drought-tolerant hybrids was compositionally equivalent to that of conventional comparators as established by traditional statistical significance testing. PMID:25175069

Xu, Yun; Goodacre, Royston; Harrigan, George G

2014-10-01

271

Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 aultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

272

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

Kamaluddin

2007-03-01

273

Low dose gamma radiation on maize seed and its effect on plant growth and yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed or plant treatment with ionizing radiations, at certain doses can promote an increase and/or germination acceleration, greater plant development, an agricultural production increase, etc. Radiation doses used to obtain these stimuli do not provoke alteration on the genetic patrimony, because generally the dose level is very low. Low doses of gamma radiation have been reported to induce useful effects in rice, wheat, corn, tomato, radish, etc. which resulted in improved germination and higher yields. The present work is aimed to examine the effects of 60Co gamma radiation on maize seeds, on its development and crop production

274

Effects of autoclaving and pullulanase debranching on the resistant starch yield of normal maize starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, resistant starch (RS, type 3, was prepared by the autoclaving and debranching of normal maize starch isolated from a selected ZP genotype. The objectives of this study were to optimize both starch autoclaving and debranching with pullulanase (PromozymeBrewQ for the production of RS. Autoclaving at 120 °C (30 min increased the RS content of all samples, whereas freezing at –20 °C did not have an obvious effect on the RS contents. The highest RS yield in the autoclaved starch samples was 7.0 % after three autoclaving–cooling cycles. After pullulanase debranching at 50 °C and retrogradation at 4 °C, the RS yields ranged from 10.2 to 25.5 % in all samples (depending on the hydrolysis time. Debranched starch samples with a maximum RS yield of 25.5 % were obtained after a debranching time of 24 h. This study showed that starch from the selected ZP maize genotype is suitable for pullulanase treatment and RS preparation but that additional studies with a greater number of different treatments (incubation time/temperature are necessary to manipulate and promote crystallization and enhance RS formation.

MARIJA S. MILAŠINOVI?

2010-04-01

275

Biochemical constraints that determine protein quality and grain yield in cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most cereal grain proteins are nutritionally poor because of the high proportion of prolamin, which is deficient in lysine. Improved protein quality mutants in maize, barley and sorghum have a lower proportion of prolamin and a higher albumin content. Protein accumulation in high-lysine mutants of maize and sorghum is more rapid during the early stages of grain development than in normal grains. Higher protein concentration during early grain development in high-lysine mutants was associated with increased levels of soluble amino nitrogen, glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate-oxaloacetate amino transferase activity. Regulatory control of mRNA synthesis for prolamin is important in determining protein quality. Post-translational modification of proteins may account for the loss of protein lysine during later stages of maturity. Starch synthesis studies indicate a decreased rate of starch accumulation during the later stages of grain development in high-lysine maize. Regulatory controls on starch synthesis in high-lysine mutants are discussed. (author)

276

Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf.) in Thrace Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lüleburgaz and Edirne) during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003). Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length a...

Kahraman, T.; Ozturk, I.; Daglioglu, O.; Baser, I.; Korkut, K. Z.; Bilgin, O.

2008-01-01

277

Bacillus subtilis e adubação nitrogenada na produtividade do milho Effect of Bacillus subtilis inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on maize yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inoculação com Bacillus subtilis e adubação nitrogenada sobre o desenvolvimento e a produtividade do milho. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área experimental, no Centro de Treinamento do EMATER, em Teresina, PI. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso sob arranjo fatorial de 5 x 2, sendo cinco doses de N (0, 40, 80, 120 e 160 kg N ha-1 e dois tratamentos microbiológicos (com e sem inoculação. No tratamento com inoculação foi utilizado um produto formulado contendo Bacillus subtilis, estirpe PRBS-1. O plantio foi realizado em parcela experimental de 3,2 m x 5,0 m e as coletas dos dados foram realizadas aos 50 e 76 dias após a emergência para a avaliação do desenvolvimento e produtividade de grãos, respectivamente. Houve efeito significativo para inoculação e doses de N sobre todas as variáveis avaliadas, exceto para a altura das plantas. Houve aumento significativo para o acúmulo de N na parte aérea e a leitura de clorofila com a inoculação de Bacillus subtilis. As maiores produtividades de grãos foram encontradas com a utilização de doses iguais ou superiores a 120 kg ha-1 de N com o uso da inoculação. A inoculação das sementes com Bacillus subtilis, associada à adubação nitrogenada, melhorou o desenvolvimento e aumentou a produtividade de grãos do milho. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtilis inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on maize growth and yield. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area at the Training Center of EMATER, in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The treatments were disposed in a completely randomized block design in factorial scheme of 5 x 2, with five N doses (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha-1 and two microbiological treatments (with and without inoculation. In the inoculated treatment, a product formulated with Bacillus subtilis, strain PRBS-1, was used. The sowing was carried out in an experimental plot of 3.2 m x 5.0 m and the data collection was made 50 and 76 days after plants emergence for the growth and yield evaluation, respectively. Significant effects were observed for inoculation and N doses in all variables, except for plant height. A significant increase for N accumulation in the shoot and chlorophyll reading was observed with the Bacillus subtilis inoculation. The highest grain yields were found with use of N doses in rates equal or over 120 kg ha-1 and with the use of inoculation. Seed inoculation with Bacillus subtilis, associated with N fertilization, improved growth and increased maize yield.

Ademir S. F. de Araújo

2011-12-01

278

Factor Analysis for Quantitative Traits and Path Analysis for Grain Yield in Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   In this study, factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors which contributed to the variation of quantitative traits and path analysis was performed to find the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in bread wheat. A doubled haploid population of 157 lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was evaluated for agronomic and morphological traits, using a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2003 and 2004. The results of factor analysis based on maximum likelihood indicated five factors explaining 80.4% and 73.9% of total variation in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The first factor in 2003 had 30.5% contribution to the total variation, strongly influenced by the traits of pollination date, heading date, flag leaf length and days to maturity. This factor also indicated the negative relationship among the yield components and the importance of relationship between grain yield and some morphological traits. The first factor in 2004 was more affected by grain weight/spike, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, thus it was named as grain yield factor. The second and third factors in 2003 were considered as plant height and grain yield and in 2004 as maturity and plant height, respectively. The results of path analysis showed that grains/spike had the most direct and positive effects on grain yield in 2003 (1.33 and 2004 (0.87. Because of the negative and high indirect effects of grains/spike via fertile spikes/m2 and 1000-grains weight on grain yield, the correlation coefficient between grain yield and grains/spike was very low. There was not much difference between the phenotypic and genetic direct effects of spike/m2 on grain yield, indicating that their relationship was less affected by environmental conditions. In general, the results showed that grains/spike and spikes/m2 can be more efficient compared to 1000- grains weight for increasing grain yield and can be used as selection indices in breeding programs. Also, according to the results of factor analysis, selection based on the fourth factor including biological yield, spike/m2 and grain yield as selection index can be effective to improve grain yield in breeding programs.

G.H. Saeidi

2008-01-01

279

Factors affecting summer maize yield under climate change in Shandong Province in the Huanghuaihai region of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clarification of influencing factors (cultivar planted, cultivation management, climatic conditions) affecting yields of summer maize (Zea mays L.) would provide valuable information for increasing yields further under variable climatic conditions. Here, we report actual maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region over the past 50 years (1957-2007), simulated yields of major varieties in different years (Baimaya in the 1950s, Zhengdan-2 in the 1970s, Yedan-13 in the 1990s, and Zhengdan-958 in the 2000s), and factors that influence yield. The results show that, although each variety change has played a critical role in increasing maize yields, the contribution of variety to yield increase has decreased steadily over the past 50 years (42.6%-44.3% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 34.4%-47.2% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 21.0%-37.6% from the 1990s to the 2000s). The impact of climatic conditions on maize yield has exhibited an increasing trend (0.67%-22.5% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 2.6%-27.0% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 9.1%-51.1% from the 1990s to the 2000s); however, interannual differences can be large, especially if there were large changes in temperature and rainfall. Among climatic factors, rainfall had a greater positive influence than light and temperature on yield increase. Cultivation measures could change the contribution rates of variety and climatic conditions. Overall, unless there is a major breakthrough in variety, improving cultivation measures will remain important for increasing future summer maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region. PMID:21688211

Chen, Guoqing; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting

2012-07-01

280

A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize. Contrary to our hypothesis, total growing-season root CO2 flux was not proportional to end-of-season root biomass of cropping systems; unfertilized prairie contained nearly twice the root biomass of N-fertilized prairie, but the two systems' total root CO2 fluxes were not significantly different in either year. We found that the total growing-season flux of both root- and organic matter-derived CO 2 was higher in the prairie systems compared to the maize system. However, on a percentage basis, the prairies' soil-surface CO2 flux from May-September averaged 29% root-derived while from mid-June through September the maize averaged 22% root-derived. The percentage of the total CO2 flux that was root-derived in a given system varied from year to year, indicating there is no set relationship for a given cropping system.

Nichols, Virginia A.

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ecotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India) to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels) and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain len...

Parray, Ghulam A.; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Sanghera, Gulzar Singh

2013-01-01

282

Effects of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat or maize on four stored-grain insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., or maize, Zea mays L., was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insect species: lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and the psocid Lepinotus reticulatus (Enderlein) (Psocoptera: Trogiidae). Adult mortality of these species was recorded after 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 40 h on commodities treated with 1 ppm of spinosad (immediate mortality). Then, the surviving individuals were removed and placed on untreated wheat or maize, and mortality was recorded again 7 d later (delayed mortality). Progeny production then was determined 65 and 35 d later for the beetles and psocids, respectively. Among the four species tested, R. dominica was the most susceptible, and immediate mortality after 40 h reached 78 and 72% on wheat and maize, respectively. Moreover, 7 d later, all adults that had been exposed for >2 h were dead on both commodities. Progeny production was significantly reduced in comparison with the controls, and no progeny were found when parental adults had been exposed for >8 or >4 h on wheat and maize, respectively. For S. oryzae, 40-h exposures significantly increased delayed mortality on both wheat and maize, but progeny production still was high. Generally, no effect of short exposures was noted for T. castaneum. For L. reticulatus, despite the fact that the increase of exposure interval increased mortality on maize, progeny production was not avoided. With the exception of T. castaneum, more progeny were found on wheat than on maize. The results of the current study indicate that R. dominica is very susceptible after short exposures to spinosad-treated substrate, but the other species are able to survive and reproduce at the exposure range examined. PMID:20214387

Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

2010-02-01

283

Evaluation of S1 Maize (Zea mays L. Families for Green Fodder Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the best one hundred S1 families for green fodder yield and other plant traits to select superior families for further inter-crossing. The S1 families were found different for green fodder yield per plant and number of leaves per plant. The values of coefficients of variation were found to be high for green fodder weight per plant (18.34%. These results indicate that there was more variability among S1 lines for green fodder weight per plant. Green fodder weight was positively and highly significantly correlated with number of leaves per plant and plant height. However, it is concluded from the results that green fodder weight can be used as selection criteria while selecting superior S1 maize families.

Syed Sadaqat Mehdi

1999-01-01

284

Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

2014-06-01

285

Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeability and toughness, the studied cereal grains could be ranked as follow: rice > corn > thousand. Mushes flours also showed very low moisture content, high starch and carbohydrates contents, poor levels in lipids and proteins. They contain some essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in variable concentrations. Contents in phytic acid were also variable. In consequence, the energy density of these flours appeared very high but it was lower than the one of the existing complement flours of Cote d`Ivoire markets.

Brou Kouakou

2008-01-01

286

Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

Seerp Tamminga

2010-01-01

287

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential (955 kg ha -1 of mungbean grains.

Asrar Mahboob

2002-01-01

288

Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatmen [...] ts arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf and tasseling stage). Internal lesion length, adjusted yield, and yield components (length, diameter and ear weight) were evaluated 120 days after emergence. Significant differences in yield and ear weight were detected in the susceptible hybrid inoculated at the earliest stage: yield was reduced by 16.1 and 20.2% in the first and second experiment, respectively. Although lesion length in the susceptible hybrid was approximately three times greater than in the resistant, there were no significant differences in lesion length among treatments for each hybrid. However, there were differences in the number of dead plants and ear weight. It is suggested that damage caused by early infection with C. graminicola results mainly from plant death and reduction in ear weigh rather than from the extent of colonization of the stalk.

Rodrigo R., Matiello; Maria Teresa G., Lopes; Kátia R., Brunelli; Luis Eduardo A., Camargo.

2013-04-01

289

Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatmen [...] ts arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf and tasseling stage). Internal lesion length, adjusted yield, and yield components (length, diameter and ear weight) were evaluated 120 days after emergence. Significant differences in yield and ear weight were detected in the susceptible hybrid inoculated at the earliest stage: yield was reduced by 16.1 and 20.2% in the first and second experiment, respectively. Although lesion length in the susceptible hybrid was approximately three times greater than in the resistant, there were no significant differences in lesion length among treatments for each hybrid. However, there were differences in the number of dead plants and ear weight. It is suggested that damage caused by early infection with C. graminicola results mainly from plant death and reduction in ear weigh rather than from the extent of colonization of the stalk.

Rodrigo R., Matiello; Maria Teresa G., Lopes; Kátia R., Brunelli; Luis Eduardo A., Camargo.

290

Global and grain-specific accumulation of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases in transgenic maize (Zea mays).  

Science.gov (United States)

In planta expression of cell wall degrading enzymes is a promising approach for developing optimized biomass feedstocks that enable low-cost cellulosic biofuels production. Transgenic plants could serve as either an enzyme source for the hydrolysis of pretreated biomass or as the primary biomass feedstock in an autohydrolysis process. In this study, two xylanase genes, Bacillus sp. NG-27 bsx and Clostridium stercorarium xynB, were expressed in maize (Zea mays) under the control of two different promoters. Severe phenotypic effects were associated with xylanase accumulation in maize, including stunted plants and sterile grains. Global expression of these xylanases from the rice ubiquitin 3 promoter (rubi3) resulted in enzyme accumulation of approximately 0.01 mg enzyme per gram dry weight, or approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein (TSP). Grain-specific expression of these enzymes from the rice glutelin 4 promoter (GluB-4) resulted in higher-level accumulation of active enzyme, with BSX and XynB accumulating up to 4.0% TSP and 16.4% TSP, respectively, in shriveled grains from selected T0 plants. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the GluB-4 promoter for biotechnological applications. The phenotypic effects of xylanase expression in maize presented here demonstrate the difficulties of hemicellulase expression in an important crop for cellulosic biofuels production. Potential alternate approaches to achieve xylanase accumulation in planta without the accompanying negative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:21689368

Gray, Benjamin N; Bougri, Oleg; Carlson, Alvar R; Meissner, Judy; Pan, Shihao; Parker, Matthew H; Zhang, Dongcheng; Samoylov, Vladimir; Ekborg, Nathan A; Michael Raab, R

2011-12-01

291

Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Levels of Soybean Seed Rates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with an objective to study the land use efficiency and economic return in maize-soybean intercropping system under various seed rates of soybean. Intercropping significantly reduced the thousand grains weight and grain yield of soybean at all seed rates. Maize thousand grain weight and grains yield remained unaffected in intercropping. The relative yield total of maize and soybean was greater in intercropping than monoculture. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER of 1.52, net income of Rs. 29978 ha-1 and BCR value (return per rupee invested of Rs. 2.41 were obtained from intercrop maize soybean at soybean seed rate of 80 kg ha-1. Intercropped maize and soybean resulted in greater LER and higher economic returns as compared to monoculture at all seed rates of soybean. It could be concluded that soybean can successfully be intercropped with maize for an efficient use of land and higher economic return.

Ghulam Hayder

2003-01-01

292

Comparative evaluation of modified neem leaf, neem leaf and woodash extracts on soil fertility improvement, growth and yields of maize (Zea mays L. and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Sole and Intercrop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Akure (7oN, 5o101E in the rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2006 and 2007 to determine the effectiveness of neem leaf, woodash and modified neem leaf extracts as fertilizer sources in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus sole and intercrop. There were six treatments namely, poultry manure, neem leaf extract (sole, woodash extract, modified neem leaf (neem leaf + woodash, NPK 15-15-15 and a control (no fertilizer nor extract, replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB. The extracts (neem leaf, wood ash and modified neem leaf were applied at 1200 litres per hectare each, NPK 15-15-15 at 300 kg/ha and poultry was applied at 6t/ha. The results showed that there were significant increases (P < 0.05 in the maize growth and yield parameters (leaf area, plant height stem girth grain yield, cob weight and % shelling percentage as well as in watermelon (vine length, stem girth, number of branches, fruits weight, population and fruit diameter under sole and intercrop compared to the control treatment. Generally, the growth and yield parameters values were slightly higher under the sole crop than the intercrop. The modified neem leaf extract increased the plant height and stem girth of maize (sole by 11.78% and 27.43% respectively compared to that of neem leaf extract and the same trend of increase was experienced in maize (intercrop where modified neem leaf extract increased plant height and stem girth by 11.5% and 24.48% compared to neem leaf. Poultry manure also increased the maize leaf area (sole and intercrop compared to the extracts and NPK 15-15-15. For instance, under maize (sole, the poultry manure increased the leaf area by 8.74% compared to NPK 15-15-15. For yield parameters of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop, modified neem leaf increased most all values of yield parameters compared to neem leaf and woodash extract. For example, modified neem leaf increased the values of sole maize grain yield, cob weight by 65.63% and 57.58% respectively compared to neem leaf extract. The LER value for maize and watermelon (intercrop and sole was 2.61 while relative yield is 1.575 or 157.5%. For soil fertility improvement after harvesting, modified neem leaf extract and poultry manure had the highest values of soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N compared to NPK 15-15-15 and neem leaf extract. For instance, modified neem leaf extract increased soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N by 12.4%, 32.8%, 25%, 23.7%, 19.32%, 17.24% and 20% respectively compared to neem leaf extract under intercrop plot. The high soil K/Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios in the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer treatment led to an imbalance in the supply of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients to maize and watermelon crops. The least values for growth, yield and soil parameters were recorded under the control treatment. In these experiments, modified neem leaf extract (woodash + neem leaf extracts applied at 1200 litres/ha was the most effective in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop and could substitute for 6 tons per hectare of poultry manure and 300kg/ha of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer.

Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu

2012-01-01

293

Peroxidase activity in scutella of maize in association with anatomical changes during germination and grain storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The embryo of the maize grain (Zea mays L.) is separated from the starchy endosperm by a fibrous structure, which is called the fibrous layer (FL). Using histochemical staining, it was determined that the FL is composed of collapsed cellular layers that contain phenols, neutral lipids, and 1,3-?-glucan. Due to its composition, the FL prevents free diffusion and separates the embryo from the endosperm during germination. Twenty-four hours after imbibition, the scutellum epidermis initiated a series of asynchronous spatial modifications, including cell growth, the perforation of cell walls, increased peroxidase activity in the apoplastic space, and elevated levels of superoxide, phenols, and other components that interact with the fibrous layer, enabling its transformation in addition to the free flow between compartments. During storage at high relative humidity levels, which leads to fast or slow deterioration depending on the temperature, the activity of phenol peroxidase in the scutellum was associated with a loss of vigor and reduced germination capacity when compared with low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Such deterioration is associated with alterations in autofluorescent emissions from endogenous compounds in the scutellum, indicating changes in the microenvironment or in the differential proportions of epidermal and FL components. PMID:25120948

Corona-Carrillo, José Isaac; Flores-Ponce, Mitzi; Chávez-Nájera, Gerardo; Díaz-Pontones, David Manuel

2014-01-01

294

Relationship Between Grain Filling Rate, Grain Filling Duration, Yield Components and Other Physiological Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relationship between grain filling rate , grain filling duration, yield components and other physiological traits of rice was investigated in 93 genotypes of rice at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht, Iran) during the growing season of 2001-2002. The experiment was performed without any statistical design. Panicles of main stem were tagged and taken at 3- day intervals during the grain filling period. A cubic polynomial model was used to fit the grain dry weight data (mean of R2= 0.98 fo...

Alahgholipour, M.; Honarnejad, R.; Esfahany, M.; Mojtabaie Zamani, M.

2007-01-01

295

Micromechanisms of grain-boundary recovery upon annealing after deformation. II. Recovery of yield strength in fine-grained materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model is developed which allows describing various of yield strength in fine-grained polycrystalline metals under low temperature post-deformation annealing. The model is based on earlier elaborated concepts of the theory of nonequilibrium grain boundaries. It is shown that on annealing before the onset of recrystallization the recovery of a fine-grained material yield strength is associated with a decrease of internal stress field induced by defects which are introduced by preliminary deformation. The expressions are obtained which permit the description of the dependence of yield strength on annealing time and temperature as well as on diffusion and thermodynamic parameters of materials. A comparison is made with experimental data on recovery of mechanical properties in fine-grained aluminium and stainless steel 316L

296

Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of Aflatoxin (AF poisoning in maize continue to exacerbate the food security crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the distribution and contamination levels of Aspergillus spp. and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in soil, maize and maize-based products. Maize grain samples (n=256, semi-processed grain (n=56, flour (n=52, hammer mill dust (n=11, and soil (n=117 were collected during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. Aspergillus spp. was isolated and AFB1 was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Aspergillus flavus was frequently isolated in maize samples from the semi-arid regions. The frequency of A. flavus was higher in semi-processed grain than in whole grain and packed flour samples. AFB1 was not detected in samples from the humid regions. AFB1 was detected at levels exceeding the Kenyan legal limit of 10 ?g/kg in 20% of the samples, at maximum of 136 ?g/kg for semi-processed maize,77 µg/kg for whole grain and 41 µg/kg for flour sold in open bags. The high temperature and periodic drought prevalent in the semi-arid regions could explain the higher levels of A. flavus and AFB1 contamination in that climate. In addition, unfavourable drying and storage practices may aggravate the problem. Therefore, it is recommended that the careful monitoring of AF be continued.

Muthomi J. W. et al.

2012-01-01

297

Cross-Continental Comparisons of Grain Yields Under Climate Change: Potential for Agricultural Adaptation to Offset Losses  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the timing and magnitude of warming and changes in precipitation patterns will have differential effects on the yields of staple grains under climate change. Modeling these changes accurately at the regional scale is important to prioritize adaptation measures to continue to provide food for a growing global population. We used climate projections from five IPCC AR4 CMIP3 climate models (BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, IPSL-CM4v1, CCSR-MIROC3.2-medres, and NCAR-CCSM3) and three emissions scenarios (B1, A1b, and A2) to obtain a robust estimate of future climate possibilities. Key modeled hydroclimatic variables impacting yield were compared with 20th century observational data to assess the model's representation of the mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual to decadal variability for four sites located in Iowa, USA; Punjab, India; Free State, South Africa; and the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. We used the process-based model Agro-IBIS to project climate change impacts to annual yield and growing season net primary productivity of maize (USA and India) and winter wheat (South Africa and Australia) in these regions. Changes in productivity at each of the four sites are related to current climate variability and projected changes, taking into account model performance and limiting factors for growth in the different regions. Relative changes in maize/wheat yields in the four regions between three periods (the late 20th and mid- and late-21st century) can be attributed to progressively changing local climate conditions and linked to large-scale circulation changes. For example, India is projected to experience the greatest warming along with a decrease in mean precipitation, which might substantially decrease yields, while under some scenarios of warming and increased mean precipitation, Iowa is predicted to experience yield increases. In addition to mean changes, frequency and magnitude of high- and low-yield years are assessed for the three periods and related to changes in the variability of local climate conditions in the four regions. We also modeled various adaptation strategies, such as changing planting date, irrigation practices, and cultivar, and found different optimal strategies in each region. Such information can be used to direct agricultural research and extension efforts to continue high levels of grain production under climate change.

Nicholas, K. A.; Twine, T. E.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Girvetz, E. H.; Chhetri, N.; McCarthy, H. R.; Xu, H.

2011-12-01

298

Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

299

Effects of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of grain corn (cv. Maxima  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tests were done to evaluate the effect of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Maxima corn. The experiment was set up as factorial in a randomized complete block design and conducted at an Agricultural Research farm in Shiraz, during 2010. The first factor was concentrations of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer (0%, 50% and 100% of the recommended amount (1 liter of biological fertilizer for 30 Kg of grain. The second factor was the following chemical fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (control, 200 Kg.ha-1 along with 150 Kg.ha-1 and 400 Kg.ha-1 Urea along with 300 Kg.ha-1 ammonium phosphate. Results indicated that applications of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer had a significant effect on traits of root dry weight, number of grains per row, number of seeds per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain and biological yield, and harvest index. The highest values for these traits were obtained from the application of 100% Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and the maximum amount of chemical fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer significantly affected traits of root dry weight, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index. Bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer interaction had a significant effect on root dry weight at all sampling stages, biological yield and 1000-grain weight. The highest evaluation for biological yield was obtained from the application of 100% bio-fertilizer and the combination of 400 Kg.ha-1 urea with 300 kg.ha-1 ammonium phosphate. It seems the application of bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer had a strong effect on productivity and it serves to reduce environmental pollution.

Tarang E. et al.

2013-05-01

300

Planting date and row spacing affects grain yield and height of pearl millet Tifgrain 102 in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum is a drought tolerant cereal grain typically grown as a forage crop in the United States. New high-yielding dwarf grain pearl millet hybrids have generated interest in millet as a substitute for maize and sorghum because of its ability to reliably produce grain on sandy, acidic, low fertility soils of the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to determine optimum planting date, row spacing, and nitrogen rate for grain production. Rust resistant hybrid Tifgrain 102 was drilled in a split-split plot, randomized complete block design with four replications nested in date. Planting date was the main effect, andthere were 7, 8 and 9 planting dates in 2001, 2002 and 2006, respectively. Planting date was split into four row spacings (0.2 m, 0.4 m, 0.5 m and 0.9 m, and further split for two nitrogen levels (90 kg ha-1 and 140 kg ha-1. There was a significant (P ?0.001 interaction of year by planting date for both yield and height. Planting date within years was significant (P ?0.001 for yield andheight. Yield at 0.4 m row spacing was greater than at 0.9 m spacing and nearly significant for yield at 0.5 m spacing and 0.2 m. Height significantly (P ?0.005 increased with wider row spacing. Yield and height were not affected by nitrogen rate.

AL Maas

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

302

Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ? Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ? More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ? Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ? New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

303

Path Analysis for Rice Grain Yield and Related Traits in Tow Planting Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Rasht Rice Research Institute, in 2001 to study trait relationships and to determine the direct and indirect effects of different characteristics on grain yield of rice (Orgza sativa L.. A 9x2 factorial experiment in complete randomized block design with 3 replications was used. The two factors were 9 cultivars, namely: Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Binam, Sepeedroud, Nemat, Khazar, Taichung, Chanto, and Usen, and 2 planting patterns (15x15 cm and 30x30 cm. Significant differences were detected among cultivars, between planting patterns, and their interaction effects. The direct effect of the number of panicles/m2 on grain yield was positive and significant in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Heading date had a positive and significant direct effect on the number of panicles/m2 in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Only in 30x30 cm planting pattern, a positive correlation was found between biomass at heading date and the number of panicles/m2. Grain weight per plant had a direct and positive effect on panicle weight in the 3 cases studied. Also, in all the cases studied, flag leaf area had positive direct effects on grain weight per plant. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period increased in 30x30 cm planting pattern. Native cultivars demonstrated longer latent period. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period showed positive direct effects on grain yield in both plantings. According to the results obtained, an increase in the number of panicles/m2, rate of grain filling, and effective grain filling period would enhance grain yield. Selection for heading date, grain yield per plant, and flag leaf area would also indirectly increase grain yield.

M. Esfahani

2005-04-01

304

Effects of acid extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and thereby increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n = 11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8 ± 0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (approximately 3 percentage units [% units]); P = 0.063) and starch (approximately 1% unit; P = 0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2% units, P = 0.030, for CP and 0.3% units, P < 0.01, for starch) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD; 3% units, P < 0.01, for CP and 0.2% units, P = 0.024, for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets, indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6% units; P = 0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6% units; P < 0.01), whereas hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for growing pigs. Although acid extrusion seemed to facilitate more rapid degradation of NSP and shifted fermentation to more proximal gastrointestinal segments, total extent of NSP degradation was not affected. More than 35% of the NSP from DDGS remained undegraded, independent of technological processing. Enzyme technologies that specifically target ester-linked acetyl, feroloyl, or coumaroyl groups were identified to be of interest for future research. PMID:25367528

de Vries, S; Pustjens, A M; van Rooijen, C; Kabel, M A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

2014-12-01

305

Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16/sup 0/C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 25/sup 0/C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 25/sup 0/C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 16/sup 0/C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions.

Cuero, R.G.; Smith, J.E.; Lacey, J.

1987-05-01

306

Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 160C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 250C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 250C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 160C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions

307

Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. PMID:22445923

Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

2012-06-01

308

Interrelationship between grain yield and physiological parameters of winter wheat nitrogen nutrition efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with interrelationship between grain yield and some physiological parameters of wheat plant nitrogen nutrition efficiency as well as interrelationships between these parameters and some yield related traits (biological yield, grain harvest index. The aim of such investigation is to affirm possibilities of using physiological parameters of wheat plant nitrogen nutrition efficiency as criterions in breeding on its grain yield. The investigation, conducted as three years field trials, included 30 wheat cultivars and perspective lines. There were studied: nitrogen content in the above - ground part of plant at anthesis, in grain, in straw and total nitrogen content at maturity, nitrogen harvest index, nitrogen reutilization, post - anthesis nitrogen accumulation and physiological efficiency of nitrogen. The positive and statistically high significant relationships between nitrogen content in the above - ground part of plant at anthesis, in grain and in straw, total nitrogen content at maturity, nitrogen reutilization and post - anthesis accumulation as physiological parameters and grain yield were registered in investigated material. Most of listed parameters, important by grain yield aspect, can be studied easily and measured before wheat vegetative period ends. The investigated parameters can be recommended as criterions for selecting of parental pairs and evaluating progeny in breeding of wheat on grain yield, considering to their determined interrelationships and their measurability.

Nikoli? Olivera

2011-01-01

309

ADAPTIBILITY AND STABILITY OF MANIFESTATIONS OF YIELD PROPERTIES OF MAIZE HYBRIDS AT BACKGROUND ANTHROPOGENOUS FACTORS ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article reviews the results of studies of adaptive properties of the hybrid corn of different groups of maturity at the background of anthropogenic factors. It discusses the practical application of research results in order to maximize grain yields from 1 ha, environmentally friendly products (including at cultivation of corn on the protected areas, economically viable crop with maximum return on investment, as well as the possibility of extensive corn cultivation technology with limited material resources-money producers

Kravchenko R. V.

2012-03-01

310

The Role of Indigenous Mycorrhiza in Combination with Cattle Manure in Improving Maize Yield (Zea Mays L on Sandy Loam of Northern Lombok, Eastern of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A glass house study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF in improving maize yield grown on sandy loam of Northern Lombok. The package of organic fertilizers treatments were tested including: without inoculation of mycorrhiza, inoculation mycorrhiza and no added inorganic fertilizers, inoculation of mycorrhiza with cattle manure added, inoculation of mycorrhiza with rock phosphate added and inoculation mycorrhiza with inorganic fertilizers. The treatments were arranged using a Completely Randomized Design with four replications. The results of the study show that the inoculation of AMF significantly increased soil concentration of N, available-P, K and organic-C by 37.39%, 60.79%, 66.66% and 110.15% respectively observed at 60 days after sowing (DAS. The similar trend was also found at 100 DAS, where those nutrients increased by 21.48%, 69%, 43.93% and 37.07%, respectively compared to control. The improving of soil fertility status was also reflected by nutrients uptake (i.e. N, P, K, Ca as well as growth and yield of maize. N, P, K and Ca uptake increased by 1,608%, 1,121%, 533% and 534%, respectively. Roots and top dry biomass at 60 DAS increased by 718.40% and 337.67%, respectively. The trend increased of the biomass was followed by observation at 100 DAS. Yield components including cobs, grain and weight of 100 grains increased by 313.60%, 411.84% and 137.54%, respectively. In addition, the inoculation of AM with F2 contributed significantly to the spore numbers and root infection.

Wahyu Astiko

2013-03-01

311

Potencial de rendimiento de poblaciones criollas de maíz de Coahuila, México / Yield potential of maize landraces from Coahuila, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las poblaciones y tipos de maíces (Zea mays L.) adaptados a condiciones de temporal o secano poseen atributos que pueden ser útiles en el mejoramiento genético. En el Estado de Coahuila, México, se ha identificado la presencia de siete grupos raciales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar ag [...] ronómicamente y determinar el potencial de rendimiento de grano de 90 poblaciones de maíces criollos recolectadas en el Estado de Coahuila. La evaluación agronómica se hizo en 2008 y 2009, en dos localidades: El Mezquite, Galeana, Nuevo León (1890 m) y General Cepeda, Coahuila (1350 m). La combinación de años y localidades fue considerada como cuatro ambientes (MEZ08, MEZ09, GC08 y GC09). Las poblaciones fueron agrupadas de acuerdo con la altitud de procedencia en: bajas (0 a 1000 m), intermedias (1001 a 1800 m), transición (1801 a 2000 m) y de altura (más de 2000 m). Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P ? 0.01) entre grupos y en la interacción grupos × ambientes, para floración masculina y rendimiento de grano; también se encontraron diferencias (P ? 0.01) entre poblaciones dentro de grupos y en poblaciones dentro de grupo × ambientes. El análisis de la interacción poblaciones × ambientes permitió identificar tres grupos según su adaptación a las localidades: el primero, con adaptación a El Mezquite (33.3 %), el segundo a General Cepeda (42.2 %), y el tercer grupo (24.4 %) con estabilidad a través de ambientes. Las poblaciones 19, 22, 34 y 61 tuvieron adaptación a El Mezquite; las poblaciones 74,76 y 88 a General Cepeda; y las poblaciones 35, 37, 38, 64, 66 y 81 mostraron estabilidad a través de ambientes. Los grupos raciales con mayor potencial de rendimiento fueron Tuxpeño, Tuxpeño Norteño y Ratón. Abstract in english Types and populations of maize (Zea mays L.) adapted to rain fed conditions might have attributes useful for plant breeding. Seven racial groups have been identified in the State of Coahuila, México. The objective of this research was to evaluate agronomic traits and grain yield potential of 90 maiz [...] e populations collected in the State of Coahuila. The evaluation was performed at two locations: El Mezquite, Galeana, Nuevo León (1890 m) and General Cepeda, Coahuila (1350 m). The locations × years combination was considered as four environments (MEZ08, MEZ09, GC08, GC09). Populations were grouped according to provenance altitude: low (0 to 1000 m), intermediate (1001 to 1800 m), transition (1801 a 2000 m) and high (higher than 2000 m). Results showed differences (P ? 0.01) among groups and among groups × Environments interaction, for male flowering and grain yield; differences (P ? 0.01) between populations were also found within groups and populations within group × environments. The populations × environments interaction analysis allowed the identification of three groups according to adaptation to localities: the first one was adapted to El Mezquite (33.3 %), the second one to General Cepeda (42.2 %), and the third group (24.4 %) had stability across environments. Populations 19, 22, 34 and 61 were adapted to El Mezquite; populations 74, 76 and 88 to General Cepeda; and populations 35, 37, 38, 64, 66 and 81 had stability across environments. The racial groups with highest yield potential were Tuxpeño, Tuxpeño Norteño and Raton.

Luis A., Nájera Calvo; Froylán, Rincón Sánchez; Norma A., Ruiz Torres; Fernando, Castillo González.

312

Influence of Precursor Crops on Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers Response of Maize at Bako, Western Oromiya, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research was conducted with the objective to determine the right precursor crop with integrated nutrient management is an approach to soil fertility management and play a significant influence on sustainable production of maize (Zea mays. Precursor crops showed significant effect on yield and yield components of maize. Higher grain yield of maize was observed from Niger seed precursor crop. All inorganic and organic nutrients gave better yield of maize on Niger seed precursor crop compared to Mucuna pruriens green manured fields. Maize following Niger seed gave grain yield advantage of 20.19% compared to maize following Mucuna pruriens. The use of Niger seed as precursor crop with 23-46 kg N-P ha-1 and 8 t FYM ha-1 produced better grain yield of maize. Higher grain yield with integrated nutrient management were realized from Niger seed precursor crop. Niger seed precursor crop with integrated nutrients application is the most successful management option for sustainable production of maize. Use of precursor crop and fertilizer enabled maize yield to be maintained at a fairly high level compared to continuous cropping. Thus, it is recommended that Niger seed precursor crop with integrated nutrients are agronomically profitable for sustainable maize production in Alfisols of Bako.

Tolera Abera

2005-01-01

313

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON FUEL CONSUMPTION, LABOUR REQUIREMENT AND YIELD IN MAIZE AND WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment with five different tillage systems and their influence on fuel consumption, labour requirement and yield of tested crops was carried out on Albic Luvisol in northwest Slavonia in the period of 1996.-2000. The compared tillage systems were: 1. conventional tillage system (CT, 2. reduced tillage system (RT, 3. conservation tillage system I (CP, 4. conservation tillage system II (CM, 5. no-tillage system (NT. The crop rotation was maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. – maize – winter wheat. Comparing the fuel consumption to CT system, RT system consumed 6.8% less, CP system 12.1% less, CM system 27.4% less, while NT system consumed even 82.7% less fuel. The labour requirement showed that RT system saved 7.6%, while CP system required 21.8% less, CM system 38.6% less labour, respectively. NT system saved 81.7% of labour in comparison to CT system. The highest yield of maize in the first experimental year was achieved under CT system and the lowest under RT system. In all others experimental years the highest yield of winter wheat and maize was achieved under CM system, while the lowest under RT system.

Dubravko Filipovi?

2004-12-01

314

An Approach for Identifying of Fusarium Infected Maize Grains by Spectral Analysis in the Visible and Near Infrared Region, SIMCA Models, Parametric and Neural Classifiers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An approach for identifying of Fusarium infected single maize grains based on diffuse reflectance in visible and near infrared region is proposed in the paper. Spectral characteristics were collected in the range 400-2500 nm in steps of 2 nm. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA is used for data processing. Maize grains classification is based on SIMCA classifier and Probabilistic neural network (PNN. Recognition accuracy which is achieved for both classes of grains is respectively 99.89% for healthy, and 93.7% for infected.

Tsvetelina Draganova

2010-08-01

315

Fertilização nitrogenada, densidade de plantas e rendimento de milho cultivado no sistema plantio direto / Nitrogen fertilization, plant density and maize yield cropped under no-tillage system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na cultura do milho (Zea mays L.), o suprimento inadequado de nitrogênio e a densidade de plantio são considerados fatores limitantes ao rendimento de grãos. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio e diferentes densidades de plantas nos componentes de produção e no [...] rendimento da cultura de milho. O experimento foi instalado na Região de cerrado do sul do Maranhão, MA, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura argilosa, cultivado há seis anos em sistema de plantio direto (SPD). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, e os tratamentos segundo o arranjo em um esquema fatorial 5 x 4. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de cinco doses de nitrogênio, na forma de uréia (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1), e quatro densidades de plantas (25.000; 50.000; 75.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1).O número e massa de grãos por espiga e massa de grãos por planta aumentaram com o acréscimo da dose de N e com o decréscimo da densidade de plantas. Maiores rendimentos de grãos foram obtidos com acréscimos, concomitantemente, nas doses de N e nas densidades de plantas. A máxima produtividade de grãos de milho (11,9 Mg ha-1) foi obtida com 120 kg ha-1 de N e 83.000 plantas ha-1. Abstract in english In maize (Zea mays L.), the inadequate nitrogen supply and planting density are considered limiting factors to the grain yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different nitrogen levels and plant densities to the maize yield components and productivity. The experiment wa [...] s carried out in the Cerrado region, located in the southern of the Maranhão State, Brazil, in a clay Oxisol (Ustox), cropped under the no-tillage system for six years. The randomized completed blocks experimental design with four replications was used, with treatments arrangement in a 5 x 4 factorial. The treatments were a combination of five doses of nitrogen as urea (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and four plant densities (25,000; 50,000; 75,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1). The grain number and mass per spike and grain mass per plant were improved by increased N and decreased plant density. Higher incomes of grains were obtained with adding concomitantly in N doses and in plants density. The maximum grain yield (11,9 Mg ha-1) was obtained with 120 kg ha-1 of N and 83,000 plants ha-1.

Francisco de Brito, Melo; José Eduardo, Corá; Milton José, Cardoso.

316

Quantitative and Qulitative Characteristics of Grain Yield Sorghum as Affected by Nitrogen and Plant Density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of N levels and planting densities on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain yield in grain sorghum (cv. Kimia was studied in summer 1998 at Kushkak Agricultural Research Station, Shiraz University. The experiment was a spilt plot with 4 replications in which 4 levels of planting densities (7.7, 10, 15.4, 20 seeds m-2 were applied as main plots and 4 levels of N (0, 40, 80, 120 Kg N ha-1 as subplots. N application rates up to 120 kg N ha-1 increased grain yield (7240 kg ha-1, but due to increased planting density (5336 kg ha-1 the highest yield obtained from 15 seeds m-2. Interaction of N and planting density was also significant. Application of 80 kg N ha-1 and highest planting density produced 8702 kg ha-1 of grain. Different grain yields in different levels of N and planting densities were due to increased number of grains per basic branches of panicle and increased number of panicle per m-2. The trend of variation of crop growth rates (CGR was similar to the trend of grain yield. Nitrogen application increased grain protein contents but planting density had no significant effect on grain protein. Phenolic compounds (tannins decreased with increasing N application and with decreasing planting density. A negative correlation was observed between increased N content and increased phenolic compounds.

A.H. Jalali

2001-10-01

317

Fodder Yield and Quality of Four Cultivars of Maize (Zea mays L. Under Different Methods of Sowing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response of maize (Zea mays L. cultivars viz., Sadaf, Sultan, Sarhad White and Golden to two sowing methods, i.e., broadcast and line sowing was studied under field conditions. Significant differences were observed amongst the cultivars for plant height, leaf area per plant, stem diameter, fresh fodder yield and ether extractable fat percentage. Cultivar ?Sultan? proved superior to all other cultivars with respect to higher fodder yield of better quality. Plant population was significantly higher under line sowing where as fodder yield and all other yield parameters studied were not significantly affected by sowing methods.

M. Ayub

1998-01-01

318

Growth, Grain Yield and Components of Three Durum Wheat Genotypes with Different Plant Densities in Isfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, not much information exists on growth and productivity of durum wheat in Iran and Isfahan. In order to evaluate growth, grain yield, and attributes in three durum wheat genotypes, Osta/Gata, Dipper-6, and PI40100, with five planting densities of 200, 275, 350, 425 and 500 seeds/m2, a four-replicate RCBD field study with a spilt-plot layout was carried out in winter 2000 to spring 2001 at Lavark Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Genotypes were the main-plots and planting densities, the sub-plots. Each plot contained six rows, spaced 25cm apart, each 6m in length. While Osta/Gata produced a greater spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight and grain yield, PI40100 indicated a greater height, leaf area index (LAI and biological yield, and Dipper-6 produced a larger number of grains per spike and harvest index, compared to the other two genotypes. Increasing plant density led to an increase in LAI, spikes/m2, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index but a decrease in grains/spike and 1000-grain weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with spikes/m2, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, despite negative correlations with LAI and plant height. It may be concluded that with environmental conditions such as those encountered in Isfahan in 2000-2001, Osta/Gata can be planted at approximately 425 seeds/m2, if an acceptable grain yield is to be achieved.

P. Ehsanzadeh

2004-01-01

319

Rice grain resistance to brown spot and yield are increased by silicon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases of rice and can cause a reduction in yield and grain quality. The effect of silicon (Si) on the resistance of rice grains to brown spot was investigated. Plants from cv. Oochikara and its mutant, defective in the Lsi1 tran [...] sporter (lsi1 mutant), were grown in hydroponic culture either with Si (+Si; 2 mM) or without Si (-Si). Panicle inoculation with B. oryzae was carried out at the beginning of the milk-grain stage. Panicles were harvested at physiological grain maturity. The supply of Si significantly increased Si concentration in husks compared to -Si plants. Si concentration in husks from cv. Oochikara was up to three times greater than the lsi1 mutant. In the presence of Si, brown spot severity was reduced by 88% in grains from cv. Oochikara and by 53% in grains from lsi1 mutant. Brown spot severity was 77% lower for grains of cv. Oochikara than for the lsi1 mutant, both plant types were grown in the presence of Si. Panicle inoculation reduced significantly the following yield components: number of grains per panicle, the weight of 1000 grains and the percentage of filled grains. Si significantly increased these yield components, especially for inoculated panicles. Considering kernel quality, the panicle inoculation with B. oryzae significantly reduced the yield of husked kernel, yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, especially for grains from -Si plants. For panicles from +Si plants, the kernel quality was improved under inoculation, compared to -Si plants. Results from this study show that Si improved rice yield and kernel quality in panicles inoculated with B. oryzae. Furthermore the functional Lsi1 gene contributed significantly for increasing the yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, possibly due to the increasing Si concentration in husks.

Leandro J., Dallagnol; Fabricio A., Rodrigues; Mateus V. B., Mielli; Jian F., Ma.

2014-02-01

320

Rice grain resistance to brown spot and yield are increased by silicon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases of rice and can cause a reduction in yield and grain quality. The effect of silicon (Si) on the resistance of rice grains to brown spot was investigated. Plants from cv. Oochikara and its mutant, defective in the Lsi1 tran [...] sporter (lsi1 mutant), were grown in hydroponic culture either with Si (+Si; 2 mM) or without Si (-Si). Panicle inoculation with B. oryzae was carried out at the beginning of the milk-grain stage. Panicles were harvested at physiological grain maturity. The supply of Si significantly increased Si concentration in husks compared to -Si plants. Si concentration in husks from cv. Oochikara was up to three times greater than the lsi1 mutant. In the presence of Si, brown spot severity was reduced by 88% in grains from cv. Oochikara and by 53% in grains from lsi1 mutant. Brown spot severity was 77% lower for grains of cv. Oochikara than for the lsi1 mutant, both plant types were grown in the presence of Si. Panicle inoculation reduced significantly the following yield components: number of grains per panicle, the weight of 1000 grains and the percentage of filled grains. Si significantly increased these yield components, especially for inoculated panicles. Considering kernel quality, the panicle inoculation with B. oryzae significantly reduced the yield of husked kernel, yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, especially for grains from -Si plants. For panicles from +Si plants, the kernel quality was improved under inoculation, compared to -Si plants. Results from this study show that Si improved rice yield and kernel quality in panicles inoculated with B. oryzae. Furthermore the functional Lsi1 gene contributed significantly for increasing the yield of whole kernel and kernel diameter, possibly due to the increasing Si concentration in husks.

Leandro J., Dallagnol; Fabricio A., Rodrigues; Mateus V. B., Mielli; Jian F., Ma.

 
 
 
 
321

Diallelic analysis for lysine and oil contents in maize grains / Análise dialélica para conteúdos de lisina e óleo em grãos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Seis linhagens S5 de milho, com diferenças para conteúdos de óleo e de lisina nos grãos, foram usadas para realizar uma série completa de cruzamentos dialélicos. Os 15 híbridos resultantes foram cultivados em campo com dois níveis de nitrogênio (10 e 130 kg N ha-1). A capacidade geral de combinação [...] (CGC) e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC) foram obtidas com o método 4, modelo I de Griffing para produtividade de grãos e concentração de lisina e óleo nos grãos. Interação significativa (p Abstract in english Six S5 lines of maize, with differences for lysine and oil contents in grains, were used to carry out a complete series of diallelic crosses. The resulting 15 hybrids were grown in a field at two nitrogen levels (10 and 130 kg N ha-1). The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining abili [...] ty (SCA) were obtained by using the method 4, model I of Griffing for grain yield, and grain lysine and oil contents. Significant (p

Leonardo Oliveira, Medici; Salete Aparecida, Gaziola; Vanderlei Aparecido, Varisi; José Antonio Carmezini de, Paula; Renato Rodrigues, Ferreira; Ricardo Antunes, Azevedo.

322

EFFECT OF DROUGHT CONDITION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF UPLAND RICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought condition on growth, yield and grain quality of two varieties in upland rice: Nangdam and Lebnok. The experiment was performed at the King Mongkut?s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, Thailand during July to November, 2010. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. This results showed that Nangdam and Labnok varieties were got 12.40-97.10 mm of average monthly rainfall in the vegetative, reproductive and grain formation to ripening stages. Nangdam and Lebnok had days to booting of 72 and 68 Days After Germination (DAG, respectively, days to 50% flowering of 93 and 90 DAG, respectively, which were higher than the normal average of 2 to 6 days. The two tested varieties had low grain yields of 29.12 and 26.20 kg/ha, respectively, when they were grown at the low level rainfall. All varieties had higher number of empty grain of 48 and 33 grain per panicle, respectively, number of low perfect grains of 53 and 57 grain per panicle, respectively, number of imperfect grains of 35 and 30 grain per panicle, respectively, chalky grains of 17.50 and 15.20%, respectively and breaking grains of 0.75 and 2.50%, respectively. However, there were no significant different among those traits between the two varieties. The two varieties of upland rice had smaller grain which was lower than the standard.

Raumjit Nokkoul

2014-01-01

323

Pedigree Selection for Grain Yield in Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under Drought Stress Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the response to direct selection for grain yield/plant under normal and water stress conditions and study the correlated response of other studied traits. Two cycles of pedigree selection for grain