WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that ...

Živanovi? Tomislav; Se?anski M.; Šurlan-Momirovi? Gordana; Prodanovi? S.

2005-01-01

2

Combining abilities of silage maize grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters of maize grain yield: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids superior-parent heterosis and general and special combining abilities. According to obtained results of the two-year study, it can be concluded that variability of this trait is significantly affected by a genotype, year and their interaction. As expected, hybrids had higher average grain yields than inbreds due to the depression of this trait that occurs in inbreds during inbreeding. The highest average value of heterosis for gain yield was detected in the hybrid ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 (123.0% and 178.1% in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The estimation of combining abilities was done on the basis of diallel hybrids after the method established by Griffing, 1956 (method II, mathematical model I. The analysis of variance of combining ability for grain yield indicated highly significant values of GCA and SCA for the observed trait in both study years. Grain yield inheritance was more affected by non-additive genes (dominance and epistasis as indicated by the GCA to SCA ratio that was smaller than unity. The inbreds ZPLB401 and ZPLB406 had high GCA effects, while the hybrid combinations ZPLB40Î x ZPLB402, ZPLB401 x ZPLB403, ZPLB401 x ZPLB405, ZPLB402 x ZPLB406, ZPLB403 x ZPLB406, ZPLB404 x ZPLB406, ZPLB405 x ZPLB406 had high SCA effects in both study years. These hybrid combinations include one parent with high GCA effects and other with low GCA effects. Furthermore, there are combinations ZPLB402 x ZPLB405, ZPLB403 x ZPLB405 and ZPLB404 x ZPLB405 with significant SCA effects that include parents with low GCA effects. This is probably the result of the additive type (additive x additive of interaction between parents.

Živanovi? Tomislav

2005-01-01

3

Effect of different proportions of exotic germplasm on grain yield and grain moisture in maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two main questions in programs introgressing exotic maize germplasm into temperate materials are the choice of available exotic sources to work with, and the proportion of exotic germplasm that should be incorporated into adapted germplasm. The objective of this study was to compare effects of different proportions of tropical maize inbred line NC298 in hybrids male parent on grain yield and grain moisture content, using method of orthogonal polynomials. Me...

Nastasi? Aleksandra; Ivanovi? Mile; Stojakovi? Milisav; Stanisavljevi? Dušan; Treski? Sanja; Mitrovi? Bojan; Draži? Slobodan

2011-01-01

4

Effect of irrigation frequencies on grain yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find out the water requirement and its application frequencies in spring Maize a trial was designed. The trial was comprised of five maize varieties (Ev-5098, EV-6098, EV-1098, Composite-20 and Pack Afgoyee) and five irrigation frequencies (7,8,9,10 and 11). The trial was sown in split plot design with three replication, keeping varieties in main plots and irrigation frequencies in sub plots. The plot size was 5m x 4.5 with 75cm apart rows and plant to plant distance was 15 com to maintain the 88888 plants per hectare. The trial was conducted during spring 2000 and 2001. Data were collected for days to 50% silking. Plant height (cm), cob height (cm) and grain yield per hectare. The data were analyzed and results obtained which revealed highly significant differences among varieties and also among irrigation frequencies in all the characters studied during both the years and in pooled analysis over years. The interaction between varieties and irrigation frequencies was highly significant for grain yield kg ha/sup -1/ and significant for other characters studied in year wise as well as in pooled analysis. Years effect was also high significant which is clear from the table of weather data which shows that temperature remained high during the crop season of 2001 as compared to 2000 along with high temperature more rains were also received in March. April and May in 2001 while in 2000 rain was received only in February. Three was gradual decrease in days to 50% silkingas gradual decrease in days to 50% silking with the increase in number of irrigations in all the varieties while plant height, cob height and grain yield increased with every addition of irrigation. Trend of increase or decrease remained the same during both the year. All the varieties separately or in combine showed better results during spring 2001, maximum grain yield was obtained by EV-5098 (full duration variety) with 11 irrigations during both the years 2000 and 2001 i.e. 3511 and 6140 kg ha/sup -1/ while EV-1098 (short duration variety out yielded with 10-irrigation i.e. 2082 and 5265 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

5

Effect of different proportions of exotic germplasm on grain yield and grain moisture in maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two main questions in programs introgressing exotic maize germplasm into temperate materials are the choice of available exotic sources to work with, and the proportion of exotic germplasm that should be incorporated into adapted germplasm. The objective of this study was to compare effects of different proportions of tropical maize inbred line NC298 in hybrids male parent on grain yield and grain moisture content, using method of orthogonal polynomials. Methods of direct crosses and backcrosses were used to form four hybrid groups (six hybrids each containing 0, 25, 50 and 75 percent of tropical exotic germplasm, respectively, by their male parent (or one half of mentioned proportions in the corresponding hybrids. The linear components of the germplasm proportions sum of squares, were significant (p<0.01 for both grain yield and moisture content and the cubic effect (p<0.05 for grain yield only. Results in this study clearly suggested backcross foundation populations with an adapted line to be appropriate selection sources for both grain yield and grain moisture content.

Nastasi? Aleksandra

2011-01-01

6

Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

7

Genomic approaches for improving grain yield in maize using formerly plant variety protected germplasm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rapid increase in size of the global human population and growing consumer preference for diets higher in protein have led to an increased demand for maize (Zea mays L.) grain. This has created concerns about our ability to provide enough maize grain in coming decades. Public sector plant breeders attempt to develop improved germplasm and also better understand molecular mechanisms that will enhance the performance of high yielding commercial hybrids. The public availability of commerci...

Morales, A. Jason

2013-01-01

8

Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

9

EVALUATION OF SEVERITY OF GRAY LEAF SPOT AND GRAIN YIELD IN COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the objective of evaluating the severity of Gray Leaf Spot and grain yield in commercial maize hybrids and determining the best time to evaluate the disease, two experiments were carried out in two sowing seasons (two planted on 11/11/2005, and other two planted on 12/23/2005) at Lavras Federal University - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Eight evaluations of disease severity based on ...

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO BRITO; RENZO GARCIA VON PINHO; ALANO XAVIER DE SOUZA FILHO; TOMÁS FALQUETO ALTOÉ

2008-01-01

10

Estimating maize grain yield from crop biophysical parameters using remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall objective of this investigation was to develop a robust technique to predict maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield that could be applied at a regional level using remote sensing with or without a simple crop growth simulation model. This study evaluated capabilities and limitations of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Vegetation Index 250-m and MODIS surface reflectance 500-m products to track and retrieve information over maize fields. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using MODIS data to estimate maize green leaf area index (LAIg). Estimates of maize LAIg obtained from Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index using data retrieved from MODIS 250-m products (e.g. MOD13Q1) can be incorporated in crop simulation models to improve LAIg simulations by the Muchow-Sinclair-Bennet (MSB) model reducing the RMSE of LAIg simulations for all years of study under irrigation. However, more accurate estimates of LAIg did not necessarily imply better final yield (FY) predictions in the MSB maize model. The approach of incorporating better LAIg estimates into crop simulation models may not offer a panacea for problem solving; this approach is limited in its ability to simulate other factors influencing crop yields. On the other hand, the approach of relating key crop biophysical parameters at the optimum stage with maize grain final yields is a robust technique to early FY estimation over large areas. Results suggest that estimates of LAI g obtained during the mid-grain filling period can used to detect variability of maize grain yield and this technique offers a rapid and accurate (RMSE MODIS 250-m products.

Guindin-Garcia, Noemi

11

Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 (Optimum GAT), near-isogenic control maize grain, or commercial reference maize grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait (event DP-Ø9814Ø-6; 98140) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes. The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, respectively. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens. Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides (98140 + Spray). For comparison, additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control (control) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56, 33P66, and 33R77. Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter, grower, and finisher containing 58.5, 64, and 71.5% maize grain, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables, or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control, 98140, and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that 98140 maize grain (unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background. PMID:19038812

McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Rood, T; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

2008-12-01

12

Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants. PMID:23926950

Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

2013-12-01

13

EFFECT OF GRAY LEAF SPOT ON SECOND-SEASON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD IN SÃO PAULO STATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gray leaf spot is an important maize disease in São Paulo State. Due to its relevance, the effect of this disease on maize grain yield was studied during the 2004 to 2008 autumn-winter seasons. Experiments were carried out to evaluate corn cultivars, comprising 44 to 60 simple and triple hybrids, being 19 trials in 2004, 15 in 2005, 16 in 2006, 16 in 2007 and 15 in 2008. The evaluations of disease severity were done at the kernel dough stage, ascribing notes 1 to 9 (for 0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and more than 75% affected leaf area, respectively. Significant negative correlation between gray leaf spot severity and grain yield was detected in 16 of the 35 trials where the disease occurred. In order to quantify the effect of gray leaf spot on yield of these 16 trials, attempting to minimize the dispersion caused by differences of yield potential, cultivars tolerance to the disease and other factors, cultivars were grouped into categories of disease intensity based on the Scott-Knott test at 5%, and means for severity and yield were calculated for each category. The adjustment of linear equations to these data allowed to estimate the yield reduction as a function of disease severity, for the intervals studied in each trial, that was on average 238 kg ha-1 (4% with note 2, 634 kg ha-1 (11% with note 3, 1006 kg ha-1 (17% with note 4 and 1574 kg ha-1 with note 5, in relation to the groups with greatest gray leaf spot resistance which showed mean note 1.4 and mean grain yield 5655 kg ha-1. These results indicate that even with low disease severity a significant maize yield loss can be observed, demonstrating the importance of the use of genetic resistance in the control of gray leaf spot and to reduce losses in maize grain yield.

GISÈLE MARIA FANTIN

2008-12-01

14

Correlation And Path Analysis Of Grain Yield Components In Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L. Hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was aimed to investigate the genotypic and phenotypic association among grain yield components and their direct and indirect effects on yield. Correlation studies revealed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic relationship of grain yield with cob position, rows per cob and grains per row. Cob height, number of grains per row, stem diameter and cob girth had high positive direct effects on grain yield. Cob position had high negative direct effect on yield. These result depicted that cob position, no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per cob may be used as reliable criteria for improving grain yield. Heritability and genetic advance estimates described the genetic attributes of the traits under study. All the traits except no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row had non additive type of gene action with high heritability and low genetic advance. The exploitation of these traits would be effective in hybrid maize breeding. No. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row showed both additive and non additive type of gene action with environmental influence due to high environmental variance. These traits can be utilized effectively through selection in varietal development.

Muneeb Munawar

2013-09-01

15

TILLERING AND PROLIFICACyAS STABILIZING TRAITS TO MAIZE GRAIN yIELD AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that increase the number of ears produced per plant can minimize losses in maize grain yield caused by low plant populations. This study was carried out aiming to evaluate if tillering and prolificacy are effective traits to stabilize maize grain yield at different plant populations. The trial was set in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, during the growing season of 2007/08. Four plant densities (2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 pl m-2 and three maize hybrids (P30F53 - tillering; AG9020 - prolific; AS1570, scarce tillering and low prolificacy were tested. The leaf area index of hybrids at flowering increased linearly from 2.6 to 6.9 with the increase in plant population. Grain yield ranged from 10,750 to 13,740 kg ha-1 and increased quadratically with the increment in plant population. P30F53 was more productive than AG9020 at the density of 5.0 pl m-2. There was no difference on hybrids grain yield at the other plant populations. The higher tillering ability of P30F53 and prolificacy of AG9020 did not provide them yield advantages, in comparison to AS1570, when maize was grown at the lowest plant population. The regular distribution of pluvial precipitation and the favorable soil and management conditions attenuated yield losses caused by low plant populations, reducingthe importance of tillering and prolificacy as productivity stabilizing traits at sub-optimal stands.

LUÍS SANGOI

2010-12-01

16

Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were i...

Amir José Klein Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves Ferreira; Ronald José Barth Pinto; Claudete Aparecida Mangolin; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves

2014-01-01

17

EVALUATION OF SEVERITY OF GRAY LEAF SPOT AND GRAIN YIELD IN COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the severity of Gray Leaf Spot and grain yield in commercial maize hybrids and determining the best time to evaluate the disease, two experiments were carried out in two sowing seasons (two planted on 11/11/2005, and other two planted on 12/23/2005 at Lavras Federal University - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Eight evaluations of disease severity based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-days intervals from the 60th day after maize emergence (DAE, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and grain yield per plot was also obtained and so the correlation between severity of the disease in each evaluation season and the estimates of the AUDPC were supported by the data. Considering the data of the AUDPC, it was observed that the most resistant hybrids to Cercospora zeae-maydis were P 30K75, P 30F87, AG 7000, and DKB 350, while the most susceptible were AG 9020, DKB 214, and P 30F44. The most susceptible hybrids to Gray Leaf Spot are not necessarily those with lowest grain yield. The disease severity evaluation between 88 and 109 DAE is efficient to discriminate the level of resistance of the hybrids and the results are similar to those obtained by the AUDPC.

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO DE BRITO

2008-04-01

18

Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

19

The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

Božinovi? Sofija

2010-01-01

20

Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-dominance type of gene action for protein content, osmotic potential, stomata size and grain yield per plant under normal condition also remained unchanged under water stress whereas additive type of gene action for stomatal frequency under normal changed to over-dominance type of gene action under water stress.

Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Transgenic alteration of ethylene biosynthesis increases grain yield in maize under field drought-stress conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A transgenic gene-silencing approach was used to modulate the levels of ethylene biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) and determine its effect on grain yield under drought stress in a comprehensive set of field trials. Commercially relevant transgenic events were created with down-regulated ACC synthases (ACSs), enzymes that catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. These events had ethylene emission levels reduced approximately 50% compared with nontransgenic nulls. Multiple, independent transgenic hybrids and controls were tested in field trials at managed drought-stress and rain-fed locations throughout the US. Analysis of yield data indicated that transgenic events had significantly increased grain yield over the null comparators, with the best event having a 0.58 Mg/ha (9.3 bushel/acre) increase after a flowering period drought stress. A (genotype × transgene) × environment interaction existed among the events, highlighting the need to better understand the context in which the down-regulation of ACSs functions in maize. Analysis of secondary traits showed that there was a consistent decrease in the anthesis-silking interval and a concomitant increase in kernel number/ear in transgene-positive events versus nulls. Selected events were also field tested under a low-nitrogen treatment, and the best event was found to have a significant 0.44 Mg/ha (7.1 bushel/acre) yield increase. This set of extensive field evaluations demonstrated that down-regulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway can improve the grain yield of maize under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:24618117

Habben, Jeffrey E; Bao, Xiaoming; Bate, Nicholas J; DeBruin, Jason L; Dolan, Dennis; Hasegawa, Darren; Helentjaris, Timothy G; Lafitte, Renee H; Lovan, Nina; Mo, Hua; Reimann, Kellie; Schussler, Jeffrey R

2014-08-01

22

Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling...

Melchinger Albrecht E; Schrag Tobias A; Thiemann Alexander; Fu Junjie; Scholten Stefan; Frisch Matthias

2010-01-01

23

The Genetic Architecture of Grain Yield and Related Traits in Zea maize L. Revealed by Comparing Intermated and Conventional Populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F3 population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F3 population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. The confidence interval aro...

Huang, Yung-fen; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Vale?rie; Ky, Chin Long; Coubriche, Denis; Jamin, Philippe; Jouanne, Sophie; Dumas, Fabrice; Bouty, Ellen; Bertin, Pascal; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

2010-01-01

24

The Effects of Weeding Regimes and Maize Planting Density on Quantity of Management and Grain Yields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of four weeding regimes: weed free, herbicide use, two times hand cultivation at week three and eight after emergency and any two planting densities: Low planting density of 10 plants per m2, high planting density of 21 plants per m2 were evaluated on maize H511. A 4x2 factorial blocked design was used. Thinning done at 112 DAP interaction effect was not significant; weeding regime was significant while planting density was highly significant. Herbicide use regime had highest mean dry matter yield of thinnings of 13.82 t/ha. High planting density showed the highest mean dry matter yield of thinning of 15.2 t/ha while low planting density showed the lowest of 8.7 t/ha. The treatment interaction on stover dry matter was not significant, while planting density and weeding regimes were significant. Two times hand cultivation gave the highest stover dry matter forage yield of 19.4 t/ha while weedy regime gave the least yield of 10.2t/ha. Low planting density which gave 11.1 t/ha. Hand cultivation-2 times had the highest grain dry matter yield of 5.03t/ha, while weedy regime had the least of 1.93t/ha. Low planting density had the highest grain dry matter yield of 4.9t/ha, while high planting density had the least yield of 2.4t/ha

25

Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources on The Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different NP sources viz., urea + single super phosphate (SSP, Ammonium nitrate (AN + SSP, ammonium sulphate (AS + SSP, Urea + Triple super phosphate (TSP, AN + TSP and AS + TSP on the growth and grain yield of maize was studied in the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. A quadruplicated experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design measuring a net plot size of 3m x 8m. The combination of ammonium sulphate and single super phosphate produced significantly higher plant height, leaf area plant-1 and grain yield (5.41 t ha-1 than all other combinations. The increased yield was mainly associated with higher 1000-grain weight. Number of cobs plant-1 and number of grain rows cob-1 were statistically sigmilar in all combinations of NP sources. The combination of AS + SSP sems to be the most suitable one for obtaining higher grain yield of maize in Faisalabad conditions.

M. Ayub

2000-01-01

26

Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

27

Correlation And Path Analysis Of Grain Yield Components In Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present study was aimed to investigate the genotypic and phenotypic association among grain yield components and their direct and indirect effects on yield. Correlation studies revealed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic relationship of grain yield with cob position, rows per cob and grains per row. Cob height, number of grains per row, stem diameter and cob girth had high positive direct effects on grain yield. Cob position had high negative direct effect on yield. These result de...

Muneeb Munawar; Muhammad Shahbaz; Ghazanfar Hammada; Muhammad Yasir

2013-01-01

28

Growth Indices and Grain Yield Attributes in Six Maize Cultivars Representing Two Era of Maize Breeding in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth parameters such as seedling germination attributes, crop growth rate (CGR, relative growth rate (RGR,net assimilation rate (NAR and leaf area ratio (LAR as well as yield parameters were investigated in six maizecultivars representing two era of maize breeding in Nigeria during the 2005 late and 2006 early cropping seasons.Differences between maize breeding era were significant for seedling emergence (E % and emergence index (EIwhile genotypes within a particular breeding era (G/E differed significantly for E% and emergence rate index(ERI. Seasonal (S variation in seedling parameters was also significant for E % and ERI with a 15% higherseedling emergence in 2006 early season. CGR in the genotypes in breeding era 1 was higher by seven percent(7% during vegetative growth phase but lower by 14% at flowering phase compared to genotypes in breedingera 2. NAR on the other hand was consistently higher in varieties developed in 1970’s by 15.2 and 13.8%compared to varieties developed in 1990’s. Regardless of the breeding era, varieties with higher values for LARat flowering (except var. TZPB-SR were higher yielding than those with lower LAR. Overall, varietiesdeveloped in era 2 were superior to those developed in era 1 for E% and also had six percent (6% higher valuesfor LAR at vegetative growth phase than those developed in era 1 but decreased by two percent (2% atflowering phase. E% in the genotypes ranged from 48.56 in ACR 9943 DMRSR to 79.33 in ACR99TZLCOMP4 DMRSR, while EI and ERI ranged from 0.86 and 0.010 in TZB-SR to 0.96 and 0.014 in ACR 97 TZLCOMP1-W. Grain yield was significantly higher in 2006 early cropping season by 0.3t/ha-1 translating to14.78% than in late season and it ranged from 1.64t/ha-1 in TZPB-SR (era 1 to 2.94t/ha-1 inACR99TZLCOMP4DMRSR (era 2. Var. ACR99TZL COMP4DMRSR with the lowest values for CGR, RGRand NAR at vegetative phase had the highest grain yield (2.94t/ha-1 indicating that genotypic superiority forgrain yield is not particularly related to differences in any of these traits but rather dependent on the inherentgenetic potential of the varieties themselves.

Folusho Anuoluwapo Adebo

2010-08-01

29

Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

Amir José Klein Werle

2014-03-01

30

Effects of Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Time of Tasselling, Time of Silking and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from August to December in 2005 and repeated between March and July, 2006 to evaluate the response of maize (Zea mays to liquid organic fertilizer. The study was conducted using a split plot fitted into randomized complete block design. Liquid organic fertilizer was diluted at the rate of 60 ml of the product to 15 litres of water and applied to maize foliage, topsoil, foliage and topsoil at the rates of 5l/ha, 10l/ha, 151/ha, l8l/ha, 201/ha and 251/ha. The result obtained indicated a positive influence of liquid organic fertilizer on time of tasselling, time of silking and grain yield of maize. Liquid organic fertilizer significantly reduced the times of tasselling and silking, and increased grain yield of maize. Based on this study, it is recommended that 151/ha of liquid organic fertilizer which produced 5.6tha’ in 2005 and 6.1tha’ of dry grain yield 2006 be applied on the topsoil of maize plant with a view to maximally exploit the great economic potentials of the crop.

Enujeke, E. C. and Ojeifo, I. M.

2013-04-01

31

[Effects of nitrogen fertilization and root separation on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with root separation was conducted to study the effects of root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms under different nitrogen fertilization levels (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1)). Root interaction and nitrogen fertilization had positive effects on the plant height, leaf length and width, and leaf chlorophyll content of maize. Less difference was observed in the root dry mass of maize at maturing stage between the treatments root separation and no root separation. However, as compared with root separation, no root separation under the nitrogen fertilization levels 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1) increased the biomass per maize plant by 8.8%, 6.3%, 3.6%, and 0.7%, and the economic yield per maize plant by 17.7%, 10.0%, 8.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. No root separation increased the quantity of rhizosphere fungi and azotobacteria significantly, as compared with root separation. With increasing nitrogen fertilization level, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes presented an increasing trend, while that of rhizosphere azotobacteria decreased after an initial increase. The root-shoot ratio of maize at maturing stage was significantly negatively correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, but less correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere azotobacteria. It was suggested that the root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system could improve the plant growth of maize and increase the maize yield and rhizosphere microbial quantity, but the effect would be decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level. PMID:23479879

Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Huang, Guo-Qin; Bian, Xin-Min; Zhao, Qi-Guo

2012-12-01

32

[Effects of stubble-standing mode on the grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat and maize in wheat/maize intercropping system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat/maize intercropping is the main intercropping pattern in the irrigation region of Hexi Oasis, Northwest China, but the traditional intercropping needs much water, making the regional water resource lacked increasingly. In 2010, a field experiment was conducted in the irrigation region of Shiyang River basin oasis, Gansu Province of Northwest China, aimed to study the effects of traditional stubble-burning, stubble-returning, and stubble-standing on the grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economical benefits of wheat and maize in wheat/maize inter-cropping system. Compared with stubble-burning and stubble-returning, stubble-standing increased the grain yield of mono- and intercropped wheat by 7.2% and 5.1% , and 6.2%, 5.1%, and that of mono- and intercropped maize by 4.7% and 2.5%, and 7.2% and 3.3%, and increased the WUE of mono- and intercropped wheat by 20.4% and 16.2%, and 17.9% and 14.6%, and that of mono- and intercropping maize by 16.7% and 10.9%, and 11. 8% and 17.0%, respectively. As for the mono- and intercropped wheat and maize, their average net economical benefits under stubble-burning, stubble- returning, and stubble-standing were 10946, 11471, and 13454 RMB.hm-2, respectively. In considering the grain yield, WUE, and economic benefits, stubble- standing would be the optimal mode of wheat/maize intercropping in the oasis of Hexi irrigation region, Northwest China. PMID:23705389

Liu, Chao-Wei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qing-Lin; Guan, Xiao-Kang; Yang, Yong; Zhang, En-he

2013-02-01

33

Effects of shading on spike differentiation and grain yield formation of summer maize in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on tassel and ear development and yield formation of three summer maize hybrids Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking stage (R1) to physiological maturity stage (R6) (treatment S1), from the sixth extended leaf stage (V6) to R1 (treatment S2) and from seeding to R6 (treatment S3). Shading had no significant effect on the time from seeding to shoot emergence (VE); however, subsequent growth and development were delayed with shading beyond this point. The differentiation time of both tassel and ear delayed, and female spike (tassel) floret differentiation, sexual organ formation time, and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) were lengthened. After shading, the total number of floret, silk, and fertilization floret reduced significantly; the number of abortive seeds increased, and the total setting percentage among different treatments showed that CK>S2>S1>S3; and the total setting percentages in S1, S2, and S3 of ZD958 were 44, 72, and 15 % respectively. The total floret number of tassel primordium differentiation, fertility rate, and seed setting rate of florets in S3 treatment was the minimum; kernels per ear decreased seriously and single ear setting percentage was only 16 %; although floret degeneration number of S2 during ear differentiation stages increased and floret fertility rate reduced than that of CK, fertilization flower seed production increased and abortive seed decreased after canceling shading. Aborted kernel of S1 increased and kernel dry weight reduced, resulting in a significant decrease of kernel number per ear and kernel weight, and the grain abortive rate of 40-62 %. In conclusion, shading changed the growth and development process and caused infertility of tassel and ear; tassel branches decreased, reducing pollen vitality and silks differentiation cut down; and grain dry matter accumulation and setting percentage decreased, causing yield reduction. Grain yield and biomass reduced 66, 36, and 93 % compared to the control by shading treatments of S1, S2, and S3, respectively. PMID:25380975

Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J; Jin, Libin; Zhang, Jiwang

2014-11-01

34

Plant Density Effects on Grain Yield per Plant in Maize: Breeding Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Breeding in maize (Zea mays L.) succeeded in improving tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, but failed to improve the potential yield per plant. Modern hybrids are highly productive, but their yield per unit area is dependent on high plant densities. Results of present study verified that modern hybrids require a narrow range of densities to give their maximum yield per unit area, since plant density affected significantly all kind of genetic materials. Results also show...

Ipsilandis, C. G.; Vafias, B. N.

2005-01-01

35

Plant Growth Regulator (Ethephon Alters Maize (Zea mays L.Growth,Water Use and Grain Yield under Water Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L. single cross 704 under different levels of irrigation, plant density and ethephon levels. There were two field experiments during 2003-4 and 2004-5 growing seasons at the experimental farm of the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, located at Badjgah. The experimental design was a randomized complete-blocks with four replicates and the treatments in a split-split plot arrangement. Irrigation levels (low and high were the main plots, the plant densities (53,333 and 80,000 plants ha-1 in the subplots and ethephon levels (0, 0.56, 0.84 kg ha-1 a.i., applied at the 6-leaf stage in the sub-subplots. The results showed that the rates of ethephon foliar application could play an important role in the maize growth indices and attributed grain yield components. Application of ethephon was associated with a decrease in LAI, LAID and CGR. Furthermore, ethephon reduced plant and ear height. Increasing application rates of ethephon showed a significant reduction in early season plant height and LAI, LAID. The control plants had lower grain yield than those treated with different ethephon levels. Indeed, this research showed that under conditions of water stress, a maize plant is able to make better use of available water if vegetative growth is restricted early in the season. The results also indicated that yield response of maize to ethephon application would vary with the plant density and available water conditions. Ethephon treatment was found to be more beneficial to the grain yield at higher plant densities and water stress conditions and it is worthy of further investigations.

Avat Shekoofa

2008-01-01

36

Evaluation of Interrelationship of Growth Indices and Grain Yield of Five Maize Hybrids under Two Irrigation Regimes in Isfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defining interrelationship of growth analysis factors and yield of crop plants is important in the field crop production practices. This research was aimed at studying growth factors and grain yield of five maize hybrids, consisting of S.C.704, S.C.700, S.C.647, S.C.604, and S.C.301, using two 4-replicate RCBD experiments in Isfahan, in Summer 2004. While one experiment was irrigated normally, the other one was conducted under delayed irrigation conditions. Maize plants were seeded at 95000 plants/ha in 8-row plots, with rows spaced 0.70m apart and 0.15m distance between plants on each row. Delayed irrigation led to a significant decrease in LAImax, LAD, LADLinear and LADs-m, but a significant increase in days to silking. While CGRLinear significantly correlated with LAImax, LAD, LADLinear and LADs-m, a significant correlation was observed between total biomass and grain yield. CGRLinear, LAImax, and LADs-m significantly correlated with total biomass, and grain yield significantly correlated with yield components, harvest index, CGRLinear and LAImax. In conclusion, an increase in LAImax resulted in a higher CGRLinear and in turn a greater total biomass. But, considering no significant correlation between total biomass and harvest index, it appears that with the genotypes and under conditions of the present study, allocation of dry matter to grain production did not correlate with the leaf area attributes of corn.

P. Ehsanzadeh

2007-10-01

37

Genotype-Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L. in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifteen maize genotypes were tested at nine different locations in 2005 under rainfed condition to determine stable maize genotypes for grain yield and determine genotypes with high yield and form homogenous grouping of environments and genotypes. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. Stability was estimated using the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI. Based on the stability analysis, genotypes 30H83, BH-540, Ambo Synth-1, AMH-800 and BHQP-543 were found to be stable for grain yield. The first two Interaction Principal Component axis (IPCA1 and IPCA2 were significant (p<0.01 and cumulatively contributed 70.27% of the total genotype by environment interaction. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes 30H83 was as high as 0.92, confirming its high predictability to stability. Among the genotypes, the highest grain yield was obtained from genotype 30H83 and BH-541 (8.98 and 8.05 t ha-1 across environments. Clustering of AMMI-estimate values grouped genotypes in to four clusters and the environment in to three clusters. Environment Goffa was unique as it is grouped differently from all other environments.

Solomon Admassu

2008-01-01

38

Plant Density Effects on Grain Yield per Plant in Maize: Breeding Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breeding in maize (Zea mays L. succeeded in improving tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, but failed to improve the potential yield per plant. Modern hybrids are highly productive, but their yield per unit area is dependent on high plant densities. Results of present study verified that modern hybrids require a narrow range of densities to give their maximum yield per unit area, since plant density affected significantly all kind of genetic materials. Results also showed that high densities are associated with high plant-to-plant variability and barrenness, affecting negatively the stability of hybrid performance. F2 and F1+F2 (mixture genetic materials showed increasing yields, as plant density was increasing. This was due to high competition and the presence of heterotic plants. These findings pointed out the necessity for the development of maize hybrids with more stable performance across growing seasons. Density-independent hybrids can be effectively attained through selection in the absence of competition, aiming to improve the potential yield per plant. Very low densities, so that any plant-to-plant interference for growth resources use is eliminated, maximize mean yield per plant differentiation and optimise the phenotypic-genotypic correspondence, facilitating the identification of the superior entries. Evaluation under high plant densities may distinguish between different genetic materials, based on F2 yielding performance, to be used as starting materials in breeding programs. Even though the main goal is breeding for density-independent maize hybrids, since modern maize hybrids depend their yielding performance on higher plant densities, breeding for density tolerance may easily contribute to higher field yields.

C.G. Ipsilandis

2005-01-01

39

Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that received nicosulfuron had significantly higher maize grain yield than other two SU herbicides. At Double Row (DR planting pattern, all the treatments controlled weeds more effectively than at Single Row (SR planting pattern and increased maize grain yield by mean of 1.0 t haG1. At both planting patterns herbicidal mixture of atrazine and alachlor was the best treatment in controlling weeds. The hoe weeded control and all herbicidal treatments had lower weed dry matter than the untreated control at crop harvest period. In addition the lowest weed dry matter was obtained from the hoe weeded control. Results of this study revealed that nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron were the best and the weakest SU herbicide at both planting patterns, respectively.

Iraj Nosratti

2007-01-01

40

Influence of Farmers` Crop Management Practices on Striga hermonthica Infestation and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L. in the Savanna Zones of Northeast Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of farmers` crop management practices on Striga infestation and maize grain yield. Sixty farmers` fields were randomly selected in nine communities across three savanna zones. About 35% of the farmers had cultivated their fields for over 10 years, 48% grew the Striga resistant variety 97 TZL Comp-1-W, 68% planted maize in mid-June and 60% practiced legume-maize rotation. About 33% intercropped maize + cowpea, 42% applied 100 kg N ha-1 and 87% conducted 2 to 3 hoe weedings. The Striga resistant maize variety reduced Striga count and host damage score and increased grain yield ha-1 in northern and southern Guinea savannas. However, the varieties grown in Sudan savanna increased Striga count ha-1 (R = 0.56** and Striga damage (R = 0.59** because they were not resistant to Striga. Planting maize in mid-July reduced Striga infestation in northern Guinea, but grain yield ha-1 was highest when maize was planted in mid-June in all three zones. Soybean-maize or groundnut-maize rotation reduced Striga count in all the agro-ecosystems. Relay intercropping of cowpea into maize reduced Striga count in northern Guinea. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rate reduced Striga count and score and significantly increased grain yield in the three zones. Two or three hoe weedings reduced Striga count in the three zones and Striga score in Sudan savanna. Thus, the farmers` practices sampled significantly influenced Striga infestation of maize fields in the three agro-ecosystems. The Striga resistant maize variety, Soybean-maize rotation, 100 kg N ha-1 and three hoe weedings could serve as component technologies in an integrated package for combating Striga menace in the region.

I.Y. Dugje

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Physiological responses related to increased grain yield under drought in the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays?L.) is highly susceptible to drought stress. This work focused on whole-plant physiological mechanisms by which a biotechnology-derived maize event expressing bacterial cold shock protein B (CspB), MON 87460, increased grain yield under drought. Plants of MON 87460 and a conventional control (hereafter 'control') were tested in the field under well-watered (WW) and water-limited (WL) treatments imposed during mid-vegetative to mid-reproductive stages during 2009-2011. Across years, average grain yield increased by 6% in MON 87460 compared with control under WL conditions. This was associated with higher soil water content at 0.5?m depth during the treatment phase, increased ear growth, decreased leaf area, leaf dry weight and sap flow rate during silking, increased kernel number and harvest index in MON 87460 than the control. No consistent differences were observed under WW conditions. This indicates that MON 87460 acclimated better under WL conditions than the control by lowering leaf growth which decreased water use during silking, thereby eliciting lower stress under WL conditions. These physiological responses in MON 87460 under WL conditions resulted in increased ear growth during silking, which subsequently increased the kernel number, harvest index and grain yield compared to the control. PMID:25210866

Nemali, Krishna S; Bonin, Christopher; Dohleman, Frank G; Stephens, Mike; Reeves, William R; Nelson, Donald E; Castiglioni, Paolo; Whitsel, Joy E; Sammons, Bernard; Silady, Rebecca A; Anstrom, Donald; Sharp, Robert E; Patharkar, Osric R; Clay, David; Coffin, Marie; Nemeth, Margaret A; Leibman, Mark E; Luethy, Michael; Lawson, Mark

2014-09-11

42

Influence of undersowing perennial forages in maize on grain, fodder yield and soil properties in the sub-humid region of western Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the densely populated mixed farming areas of western Ethiopia, the integration of forages with food crops may be crucial to the achievement of sustainable crop and livestock production. This study investigated the effects of pure grass (Chloris gayana), legumes (Stylosanthes hamata, Desmodium intortum and Macrotyloma axillare) and grass/legume mixtures of the same species undersown in maize, on maize grain yields, fodder yields and soil parameters. The forages were undersown six weeks afte...

Hassen, Abubeker; Gizachew, L.; Rethman, N. F. G.; Niekerk, Willem A.

2007-01-01

43

Grain Yield and LER of Maize-climbing Bean Intercropping as Affected by Inorganic, Organic Fertilisers and Population Density in Western Oromiya, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Productivity of maize (Zea mays L. and climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgars L. intercropping system is affected by fertility status of the soil and population density of component crops. A trial was conducted in 2002 and 2003 cropping season to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic fertilisers and population density on productivity of maize-climbing bean intercropping system. The experiment was laid out as 2x2x2x2 factorial arrangement with two sole cropping in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Nitrogen and population density significantly increased grain yield of climbing bean. FYM significantly affected LER of intercropping system. Grain yield of component crops from intercropping were significantly higher than the monocultures. Yield of intercropping were up to 27 and 403% higher for maize and climbing bean than the yield achieved by growing the crops separately. Partial land equivalent ratio of maize and climbing bean ranged between 0.94 to 1.19 and 0.30 to 0.90, respectively. Higher partial LER of maize indicated the superiority of maize on climbing bean in intercropping. Higher land equivalent ratio was recorded from intercropping than sole planting. Intercropping produced 32 to 98% more yield per unit land area than the component monocultures. Intercropping maize-climbing bean is a viable agronomic practice to produce higher yield from a unit of land.

Tolera Abera

2005-01-01

44

Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance for grain yield and grain dry matter content in maize using AFLP markers associated with QTL.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction methods to identify single-cross hybrids with superior yield performance have the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid breeding programs. Our objectives were to (1) identify marker loci associated with quantitative trait loci for hybrid performance or specific combining ability (SCA) in maize, (2) compare hybrid performance prediction by genotypic value estimates with that based on general combining ability (GCA) estimates, and (3) investigate a newly proposed combination of the GCA model with SCA predictions from genotypic value estimates. A total of 270 hybrids was evaluated for grain yield and grain dry matter content in four Dent x Flint factorial mating experiments, their parental inbred lines were genotyped with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Markers associated significantly with hybrid performance and SCA were identified, genotypic values and SCA effects were estimated, and four hybrid performance prediction approaches were evaluated. For grain yield, between 38 and 98 significant markers were identified for hybrid performance and between zero and five for SCA. Estimates of prediction efficiency (R (2)) ranged from 0.46 to 0.86 for grain yield and from 0.59 to 0.96 for grain dry matter content. Models enhancing the GCA approach with SCA estimates resulted in the highest prediction efficiency if the SCA to GCA ratio was high. We conclude that it is advantageous for prediction of single-cross hybrids to enhance a GCA-based model with SCA effects estimated from molecular marker data, if SCA variances are of similar or larger importance as GCA variances. PMID:16896712

Schrag, T A; Melchinger, A E; Sørensen, A P; Frisch, M

2006-10-01

45

Estimation of combining ability for grain yield and its components in 4 x 4 diallel cross of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Combining ability effects were estimated for maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield and six related agronomic traits in 4 x 4 diallel analysis. Mean squares due to genotypes and specific combining ability effects for all traits except number of ears per plant were highly significant. Mean squares due to general combining ability effects were highly significant for ear height and number of grain rows per ear and significant for plant height and 100-grain weight, while these were non-significan...

Juma Khan; Shafiullah; Baitullah

1999-01-01

46

Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

2011-08-01

47

Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressin [...] g, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

Maria Anita Gonçalves da, Silva; Antonio Saraiva, Muniz; Anny Rosi, Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé, Porto; Marlene Estevão, Marchetti; Antonio, Nolla; Ivan, Grannemann.

2011-08-01

48

Timing of azoxystrobin + propiconazole application on maize to control Northern Corn Leaf Blight and maximize grain yield.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of foliar fungicides on field maize has increased greatly over the past ten years. There has also been an increasing interest in foliar fungicide applications on maize, because quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, in addition to providing disease control, have been shown to induce physiological benefits for plants in studies conducted under controlled conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the timing of fungicide applications on maximizing grain yiel...

Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

2012-01-01

49

Prediction of single-cross hybrid performance in maize using haplotype blocks associated with QTL for grain yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marker-based prediction of hybrid performance facilitates the identification of untested single-cross hybrids with superior yield performance. Our objectives were to (1) determine the haplotype block structure of experimental germplasm from a hybrid maize breeding program, (2) develop models for hybrid performance prediction based on haplotype blocks, and (3) compare hybrid performance prediction based on haplotype blocks with other approaches, based on single AFLP markers or general combining ability (GCA), under a validation scenario relevant for practical breeding. In total, 270 hybrids were evaluated for grain yield in four Dent x Flint factorial mating experiments. Their parental inbred lines were genotyped with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Adjacent marker loci were combined into haplotype blocks. Hybrid performance was predicted on basis of single marker loci and haplotype blocks. Prediction based on variable haplotype block length resulted in an improved prediction of hybrid performance compared with the use of single AFLP markers. Estimates of prediction efficiency (R(2)) ranged from 0.305 to 0.889 for marker-based prediction and from 0.465 to 0.898 for GCA-based prediction. For inter-group hybrids with predominance of general over specific combining ability, the hybrid prediction from GCA effects was efficient in identifying promising hybrids. Considering the advantage of haplotype block approaches over single marker approaches for the prediction of inter-group hybrids, we see a high potential to substantially improve the efficiency of hybrid breeding programs. PMID:17323040

Schrag, Tobias A; Maurer, Hans Peter; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Peleman, Johan; Frisch, Matthias

2007-05-01

50

Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources on The Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of different NP sources viz., urea + single super phosphate (SSP), Ammonium nitrate (AN) + SSP, ammonium sulphate (AS) + SSP, Urea + Triple super phosphate (TSP), AN + TSP and AS + TSP on the growth and grain yield of maize was studied in the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. A quadruplicated experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design measuring a net plot size of 3m x 8m. The combination of ammonium sulphate and ...

Ayub, M.; Adil Choudhry, M.; Asif Tanveer; Amin, M. M. Z.; Imtiaz Ahmad

2000-01-01

51

Effects of Cow Dung Treated to Various Management Practices and Nitrogen Levels on Maize Grain Yield in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study consisted of collection and incubation of cow dung, followed by evaluation of the incubated cow dung in field experiments in years 2003 to 2004 at the Institute of Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University and Samaru College of Agriculture farms, all located in Samaru, Zaria. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of subjecting cow dung to different management practices and nitrogen fertilizer on maize grain yield. The study was a factorial experiment, with 3 cow dung management practices, 4 storage durations in the field and 2 levels of nitrogen. There was a control treatment, where no cow dung or nitrogen fertilizer was applied. These gave a total of 25 treatment combinations, laid out in a randomized complete block design, replicated three times. The results showed that, the best cow dung management practice that gave the highest maize grain yields in the two farms was the surface heaped covered in April, nitrogen amended treatment. The non N amended treatments were not able to significantly increase the maize grain yields than the untreated control.

Joseph Tanimu

2013-04-01

52

The Effects of Intra-row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L. Hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize hybrids react differently to various plant density and intra-row spacing. A two-year study was conducted at Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Research Farm to determine the optimum intra-row spacing for maize hybrids commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were maize hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer 3335, Dekalb 711 and Dekalb 626. Split-plots were intra-row spacing of 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0 cm. Split-plot size was 2.8 by 5.0 m with four rows per plot. The effects of intra-row spacings on the grain yield and some agronomic characteristics were statistically significant. Hybrid x intra-row spacing interaction effects were significant only at ear length and grain yield. The highest grain yields were obtained from Pioneer 3223 and Dracma at 15.0 cm intra-row spacing (11718 and 11180 kg ha-1, respectively.

Okan Sener

2004-01-01

53

Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm2. Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency (15NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ?) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

54

Maize grain yield as affected by the severity of soil erosion under semi-arid conditions and granitic sandy soils of Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil erosion results in soil degradation through loss of topsoil and organic matter, coupled with loss of plant nutrients. This generally results in yield decline but the relationship between land degradation and subsequent yield decline is still very unclear. To assess this relationship maize was grown on field plots, which were excavated to different depths to represent the erosion levels ranging from 1 (no erosion) to 5 (severe erosion). The plots were further split to allow for two fertiliser levels. Maize yields declined significantly at P < 0.001 with increase in erosion. Under normal fertiliser, maize grain yields declined at 131 kg ha -1 for every cm of soil depth lost while under double fertilised plots the decrease was 158 kg ha -1. Using increased fertiliser amounts only yielded benefits on uneroded and slightly eroded soils, after which there was no yield benefit. This study proved that soil erosion, under granitic sandy soils, results in the decline of soil productivity and that fertilisers cannot mask these effects after ?10 cm of topsoil have been lost. It is therefore, important to conserve the soil, as redressing the effects of erosion using fertilisers can be very costly but still remain ineffective.

Munodawafa, Adelaide

55

Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L. based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria sole, pea (Pisum sativum L. sole, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. sole, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. mend. Fiori and Paol. sole, maize + potato (1:1,maize + mustard (1:1, maize + toria (1:2, maize + pea (1:2, maize + linseed (1:2 and maize + toria (1:2, were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Maize + potato system recorded higher yield attributes and grain yield of maize followed by maize + pea than sole stand of maize. potato was showed most compatible intercrop planted with winter maize as it gave higher maize-equivalent yield, land-equivalent ratio, productivity, monetary returns and lowered weed population, weed dry-biomass and highest weed-control efficiency under irrigated conditions of central Uttar Pradesh. Pea was the next best intercrop with winter maize.

Akhilesh Mishra

2014-02-01

56

Economic effectiveness of irradiation with gamma rays on maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma irradiation of maize grains before sowing increses the yield and improves the quality of agricultural produce. The positive results consist in the net income from silage maize from 45 to 85 per ha and from the grain maize from 85 to 109,9 per ha; the level of raw protein from the silage maize with 11,30% and from the grain maize with 6 to 12%; the level of feed units from the silage maize with 5 to 13% and from grain maize with 6 to 12%. Such direct effect in the same time is a stimulating one and raises the effectiveness of the animal production due to the better feeding of animals

57

Combining ability of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress / Capacidade de combinação da produtividade de milho em ambientes com diferentes intensidades de estresses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o germoplasma de milho e comparar a capacidade de combinação da produtividade do milho em ambientes com diferentes graus de estresse. Um dialelo foi realizado entre cultivares de milho tropical com ampla adaptabilidade, cujas combinações híbridas foram aval [...] iadas em duas épocas de plantio, em dois anos. A significância do efeito ambiental mostrou que os ambientes foram contrastantes. Com base na produtividade, os ambientes foram classificados como: favorável (8.331 kg ha-1); com baixo estresse (6.637 kg ha-1); com alto estresse (5.495 kg ha-1); e com intenso estresse (2.443 kg ha-1). Nenhum dos efeitos genéticos foi significativo nos ambientes classificados como favorável e com intenso estresse, o que indica haver baixa variabilidade para as combinações genéticas nesses ambientes. Em baixo e alto estresse, os efeitos da capacidade de combinação específica foram significativos, o que mostra que os efeitos genéticos não aditivos foram os mais importantes, e que é possível selecionar pares de genitores com potencial para melhoramento. A capacidade geral de combinação e a produtividade de grãos apresentaram correlações significativas somente entre os ambientes mais próximos como favorável/baixo estresse e alto/intenso estresse. O controle genético da produtividade de grãos difere em ambientes contrastantes quanto ao estresse para os quais as cultivares de milho com ampla adaptabilidade não são adequadas. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to caracterize the tropical maize germplasm and to compare the combining abilities of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress. A diallel was performed among tropical maize cultivars with wide adaptability, whose hybrid combinations were evalu [...] ated in two sowing dates, in two years. The significance of the environmental effect emphasized the environmental contrasts. Based on grain yield, the environments were classified as favorable (8,331 kg ha-1), low stress (6,637 kg ha-1), high stress (5,495 kg ha-1), and intense stress (2,443 kg ha-1). None of the genetic effects were significant in favorable and intense stress environments, indicating that there was low germplasm variability under these conditions. In low and high stresses, the specific combining ability effects (SCA) were significant, showing that the nonadditive genetic effects were the most important, and that it is possible to select parent pairs with breeding potential. SCA and grain yield showed significant correlations only between the closer environment pairs like favorable/low stress and high/intense stress. The genetic control of grain yield differed under contrasting stress environments for which maize cultivars with wide adaptability are not adequate.

Leandro Vagno de, Souza; Glauco Vieira, Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso, Galvão; Lauro José Moreira, Guimarães; Izabel Cristina dos, Santos.

1297-13-01

58

Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop) on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm) and minimum (133.6 cm) plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum number of (10.73 leaves plant-1), cob length (19.2 cm) and grains cob-1 (205.2) were recorded with 30,000 maize population ha-1. While maximum barrenness of 18.90 was ...

Imran Haider Shamsi; Wajid Ali Shah; Jehan Bakht; Mujtaba Masood

2003-01-01

59

Rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos de maíz y su generación avanzada F2 / Grain and forage yield in maize hybrids and their advanced F2 generation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante el alto costo de la semilla de híbridos de maíz, los productores a pequeña escala usan semilla en generaciones F2 y F3. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de utilizar semilla autofecundada de híbridos sobre el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco de híbridos de maíz. El estudio [...] se estableció bajo condiciones de riego en Tepezalá y Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes y Calera de Víctor Rosales, Zacatecas, México en el ciclo 2001. Se sembraron 22 híbridos comerciales y su respectiva generación avanzada F2. Se determinó rendimiento de grano y forraje, altura de planta, días a floración masculina y femenina y altura de mazorca. Se utilizó un arreglo en parcelas subdivididas con diseño en bloques completamente al azar y tres repeticiones. Se efectuó el análisis conjunto de la relación beneficio/costo. En general, usar semilla F2 redujo 22% el rendimiento de grano y 8% de forraje seco. La mayoría de los híbridos y sus generaciones avanzadas mostraron estabilidad en el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco en las tres localidades. En promedio, el avance generacional redujo 9% la relación beneficio/costo en la producción de grano; sin embargo, la incrementó 11% en la producción de forraje seco. Los híbridos SB-302 y AS-948 mostraron alto rendimiento de grano y forraje, menor reducción con el avance de generación y alta relación beneficio/costo. Abstract in english To cope with the high seed cost of maize hybrids, small-scale farmers use F2 and F3 seed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of using seed from self-pollinated hybrids on grain and forage yields of maize hybrids. The study was conducted under irrigated conditions at Tepezalá and [...] Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes, and Calera de Victor Rosales, Zacatecas, Mexico during 2001. Twenty-two commercial hybrids and their respective advanced F2 generation were sown under a split split plot arrangement in a complete random block design with three replications. Grain and forage yield, plant height, days to masculine and feminine flowering and husk height were determined. A profit/cost analysis was performed. On average, the use of F2 seed diminished 22% grain and 8% forage yields. Most of the hybrids and their advanced generations did show grain and dry forage yield stability across locations. Due to generational advance, the profit/cost ratio diminished 9% for grain production and increased 11% for dry forage production. Hybrids SB-302 and AS-948 showed high grain and dry forage yields, less reduction with the advance of generation and high profit/cost ratios.

Rodolfo, Gaytán-Bautista; Ma. Isabel, Martínez-Gómez; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

2009-09-01

60

Genomic regions involved in response to grain yield selection at high and low nitrogen fertilization in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to validate the role of genomic regions involved in nitrogen use efficiency and detected in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), we have applied from the same population a recurrent selection for adaptation to low N-input (N0) and to high N-input (N1). Variation of allele frequency at neutral marker during the two cycles of recurrent selection may provide information about markers linked to QTLs. Significant temporal variation of allele frequency was investigated using the test of Waples, which tests the hypothesis of genetic drift versus selection. Most genomic regions (12/19) responding to selection were detected for selection at high N-input and only two were common to selection at high and low N-inputs. This was consistent with the greater grain yield response to selection observed for the population selected under high N-input compared with the population selected under low N-input, when they were evaluated at high N-fertilization. In contrast, when they were evaluated at low N-input both types of selection gave similar yield. As was expected, in the first cycle we observed selection of markers linked to grain yield QTLs. In the course of the second cycle three situations were observed: the confirmation of most regions already selected in C1 including all C1 regions overlapping with grain yield QTLs; the non-confirmation of some C1 regions (2/9); and the identification of new genomic zones (10/17). The detected marker-QTL associations revealed the consistency of the involvement of some traits, such as root architecture and glutamine synthetase activity, which would be of major importance for grain yield setting whatever the nitrogen fertilization. PMID:16552555

Coque, Marie; Gallais, André

2006-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

62

Determining the most important physiological and agronomic traits contributing to maize grain yield through machine learning algorithms: a new avenue in intelligent agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features. PMID:24830330

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

63

Rendimiento de variedades precoces de maíz grano amarillo para valles altos de México / Grain yield of maize varieties with yellow endosperm and earliness for Mexican highlands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estableció como objetivo determinar la capacidad productiva de variedades de grano amarillo desarrolladas en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM) y en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas [...] y Pecuaria (INIFAP). Fueron establecidos, dos experimentos uniformes, uno en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX), en Santa Lucía de Prías y otro en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Cuautitlán, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (FESC-UNAM), en comparación con un testigo comercial de grano blanco y dos testigos de grano amarillo; ambos se sembraron en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010. Se evaluaron trece variedades, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. El mayor rendimiento medio se obtuvo en CEVAMEX (5887 kg/ha), el cual fue superior al obtenido en FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). En el grupo de mayor rendimiento de grano se ubicaron las variedades ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) y V-54 A (5405 kg/ha). Abstract in english The objective in this work was to evaluate the grain yield capacity of yellow grain maize varieties developed in The Cuautitlan Faculty of Superior Studies, of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (FESC-UNAM), and the National Institute for Forestry, Agricultural and Livestock, Research (INI [...] FAP). Two experiments were planted in two locations; one in the CEVAMEX, in Saint Lucia of Prias and another at the FESC-UNAM, compared to white grain and yellow commercial control groups; both were planted mid June, 2010. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated in each experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of CEVAMEX had the best grain yielding, 5887 kg/ha, and was superior (p ? 0.05) to the experiment of FESC-UNAM (3799 kg/ha). The best grain yielding varieties were ORO ULTRA UNAM C (6913 kg/ha), V-55 A (6284 kg/ha), V-53 A (6035 kg/ha) and A V-54 (5405 kg/ha).

Alejandro, Espinosa-Calderón; Margarita, Tadeo-Robledo; Antonio, Turrent-Fernández; Mauro, Sierra-Macías; Noel, Gómez-Montiel; Benjamín, Zamudio-González.

2013-06-01

64

Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha-1) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day-1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day-1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t50) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha-1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha-1) compared with 2167 kg ha-1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulat C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

65

Grain yields with limited water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant reproduction is sensitive to water deficits, especially during the early phases when development may cease irreversibly even though the parent remains alive. Grain numbers decrease because of several developmental changes, especially ovary abortion in maize (Zea mays L.) or pollen sterility in small grains. In maize, the water deficits inhibit photosynthesis, and the decrease in photosynthate flux to the developing organs appears to trigger abortion. Abscisic acid also increases in the parent and may play a role, perhaps by inhibiting photosynthesis through stomatal closure. Recent work indicates that invertase activity is inhibited and starch is diminished in the ovaries or affected pollen. Also, sucrose fed to the stems rescues many of the ovaries otherwise destined to abort. The feeding restores some of the ovary starch and invertase activity. These studies implicate invertase as a limiting enzyme step for grain yields during a water deficit, and transcript profiling with microarrays has identified genes that are up- or down-regulated during water deficit-induced abortion in maize. However, profiling studies to date have not reported changes in invertase or starch synthesizing genes in water-deficient ovaries, perhaps because there were too few sampling times. The ovary rescue with sucrose feeding indicates either that the changes identified in the profiling are of no consequence for inhibiting ovary development or that gene expression reverts to control levels when the sugar stream recovers. Careful documentation of tissue- and developmentally specific gene expression are needed to resolve these issues and link metabolic changes to the decreased sugar flux affecting the reproductive organs. PMID:15286147

Boyer, J S; Westgate, M E

2004-11-01

66

Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

1310-13-01

67

Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed transgenic maize grain containing event DP-O9814O-6 and processed fractions from transgenic soybeans containing event DP-356O43-5.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of broilers fed diets containing maize grain from event DP-Ø9814Ø-6 (98140; gat4621 and zm-hra genes) and processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from soybeans containing event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043; gat4601 and gm-hra genes) was evaluated in a 42-d feeding study. Diets were produced with nontransgenic maize grain and soybean fractions from controls with comparable genetic backgrounds to 98140 and 356043 (control), 98140 maize and 356043 soybean (98140 + 356043), or 3 commercially available nontransgenic maize and soybean combinations. Ross 708 broilers (n = 120/group; 50% male, 50% female) were fed diets in 3 phases: starter (d 0 to 21), grower (d 22 to 35), and finisher (d 36 to 42). Starter diets contained (on average) 63% maize and 28% soybean meal, grower diets 66% maize and 26% soybean meal, and finisher diets 72% maize and 21% soybean meal; soybean hulls and oils were held constant at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in all phases. Weight gain, feed intake, and mortality-adjusted feed efficiency were calculated for d 0 to 42. Standard organ and carcass yield data were collected on d 42. Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA with differences between control and 98140 + 356043 group means considered significant at P 98140 + 356043 and those consuming diets produced with control maize and soybean fractions. All values of response variables evaluated in the control and 98140 + 356043 groups fell within calculated tolerance intervals. Based on these results, it was concluded that the combination of genetically modified 98140 maize and 356043 soybean fractions was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic maize and soybean controls with comparable genetic backgrounds. PMID:21753207

McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hinds, M; Delaney, B; Iiams, C; Sauber, T

2011-08-01

68

Rendimiento de grano y sus componentes en maíces nativos de Tamaulipas evaluados en ambientes contrastantes / Grain yield and yield components of native maize populations from Tamaulipas state evaluated under contrasting environments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las poblaciones nativas de maíz (Zea mays L.) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México, algunas destacan por su alto potencial de rendimiento de grano, pero se han aprovechado en grado limitado. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes en 29 poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tama [...] ulipas (colectadas durante los años 2001 al 2004), más seis variedades mejoradas, en tres ambientes contrastantes en altitud y temperatura. El objetivo fue identificar poblaciones sobresalientes que pudieran ser utilizadas en programas de fitomejoramiento. Los ambientes de evaluación fueron Trópico Seco (TS), Transición (TRN) y Valles Altos (VA), a altitudes de 200, 1950 y 2250 m, respectivamente. Con base en el origen geográfico de las poblaciones nativas se formaron cuatro grupos (Grupos 1 a 4), y dos grupos de variedades mejoradas (Grupos 5 y 6), uno de zona tropical y el segundo de zonas templadas. Entre ambientes hubo diferencias (P ? 0.05) en rendimiento de grano, con la tendencia de dar mayor rendimiento a mayor altura y menor temperatura; entre TRN y VA las diferencias no fueron significativas para los componentes del rendimiento. Las poblaciones nativas de la zona montañosa de Tamaulipas (Grupo 4), de altitud intermedia, fueron las de mayor rendimiento en TRN y VA, entre las que destaca la C-4031 con 8.3 t ha-1, estadísticamente igual a las variedades mejoradas de los Valles Altos Centrales de México. Las poblaciones nativas de Tamaulipas mostraron mazorcas largas con alto número de granos por hilera, olotes delgados, buen rendimiento de grano y alto índice de desgrane, lo que pone de manifiesto que estas poblaciones nativas aportarán diversidad genética y caracteres agronómicos sobresalientes que pueden ser aprovechados en la mejora de la producción de este grano. Abstract in english Among native maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the State of Tamaulipas, México, some stand out in grain yield; however their utilization in breeding programs has been limited. With the aim to identify outstanding populations for potential use in maize breeding programs, 29 native populations of Tam [...] aulipas (collected from 2001 to 2004), plus six improved varieties, were evaluated for grain yield and yield components under three environments contrasting in altitude and temperature. Environments were: Dry Tropical (DT), Transition (TRN) and High Valleys (HV), located at altitudes of 200, 1950 and 2250 m, respectively. Based on their geographic origin, four groups were defined (Groups 1 to 4) for native populations; two groups of improved varieties were added (Groups 5 and 6), one for the tropical region and the other for the temperate zones. There were differences among environments (P ? 0.05) for grain yield, so that grain yield tended to be higher at higher altitude and lower temperature; no statistical differences were detected for grain yield components between TRN and HV. Among native maize populations from Tamaulipas, the ones collected from the mountain region (Group 4), located at intermediate altitude, showed higher yield in the TRN and HV; locations, population C-4031 showed the highest yield (8.3 t ha-1), statistically similar to that of improved varieties used in the central Valleys of México. Native populations from Tamaulipas developed longer ears with high number of kernels per row, thin cobs, good yield and high proportion of grain per ear. There results show that these native populations may contribute to broadening genetic diversity and could enhance for enhancing agronomic traits in of maize breeding.

J. Agapito, Pecina Martínez; Ma. del Carmen, Mendoza Castillo; J. Alberto, López Santillán; Fernando, Castillo González; Moisés, Mendoza Rodríguez; Joaquín, Ortiz Cereceres.

2011-06-01

69

Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbridos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376.The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels, 180 and 240 kg ha-1, were tested; in medium plot plant stands, 60 000, 80 000 and 100 000 plants ha-1 and the hybrids H-376 and Lobo in the small plots. The recorded variables were: grain yield per ha and total dry matter production, neutral and acid detergent fiber content, dry matter digestibility in vitro and milk production per ton of dry matter as well as per hectare. The 240-90-00-fertilization level increased grain yield and total dry matter in 1.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 respectively. The increase in plant stand from 80 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased grain yield in 1 t ha-1 and the change of 60 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased total dry matter in 3.2 t ha-1. The H-376 had the greatest yield of total dry matter with 21.7 t ha-1 and the largest contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and the lowest digestibility in vitro; nonetheless Lobo produced 216 kg of milk t-1 and 3.5 t of milk ha-1 more than H-376.

Alfonso Peña Ramos

70

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index) for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010) and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S); 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% a...

RAIMUNDO NONATO CARVALHO ROCHA; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; PAULO CESAR TEIXEIRA; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; ERNANI LUIZ AGNES; PAULO ROBERTO GOMES PEREIRA; UBERLANDO TIBURTINO LEITE

2005-01-01

71

Efeitos de épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio no rendimento de grãos do milho Effects of timing of nitrogen application on grain yield of maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um estudo foi realizado em dois anos, com irrigação por aspersão, para avaliar os efeitos da época de aplicação de 120 kg/ha de N (sulfato de amônio no rendimento de grãos do milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: aplicação de todo o N por ocasião do plantio (1-0-0, em cobertura, aos 25 (0-1-0 e aos 45 (0-0-1 dias após o plantio, e aplicação do N de forma parcelada (0-1/3-2/3, 1/3-0-2/3, 1/3-2/3-0, 0-1/2-1/2, 1/2-0-1/2, 1/2-1-/2-0, 0-2/3-1/3, 2/3-0-1/3, 2/3-1/3-0 e 1/3-1/3-1/3. O efeito de tratamentos foi independente do efeito de anos. O maior rendimento de grãos (4.960 kg/ha foi obtido com o tratamento 0-1/3-2/3, mas todos os demais tratamentos propiciaram rendimentos comparáveis, exceto os tratamentos 1-0-0, 1/3-2/3-0 e 2/3-1/3-0, que apresentaram os menores rendimentos.A twoyear study was carried out at Mossoró county, Brazil, with sprinkler irrigation, in order to evaluate the effects of timing of application of 120 kg/ha of N (ammonium sulphate on grain yield of maize. The randomized blocks design with five replications and the following treatments were utilized: whole application of preplanting (1-0-0, side dressed at 25 (0-1-0 or at 45 (0-0-1 days after planting and split applications (0-1/3-2/3, 1/3-0-2/3, 1/3-2/3-0, 0-1/2-1/2, 1/2-0-1/2, 1/2-1/2-0, 0-2/3-1/3, 2/3-0-1/3, 2/3-1/3-0 and 1/3-1/3-1/3. The effect of treatments was independent of the effects of the years. The highest grain yield (4,960 kg/ha was obtained with 0-1/3-2/3 treatment, but the other treatments propitiated similar grain yields, except the 1-0-0, 1/3-2/3-0 and 2/3-1/3-0 treatments that showed the lowest grain yields.

Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

2002-08-01

72

Sorghum and maize grain hardness : their measurement and factors influencing hardness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sorghum and maize grain hardness is a very important criterion as grain hardness affects milling yield and product quality. There are several techniques that are used to determine grain hardness but the relationship between these techniques for distinguishing hardness in commercial sorghum and maize cultivars is not known. Moreover, the role of sorghum grain hardness with respect to malting performance is not understood, as is the role of phenolics in sorghum and maize hardness. Therefore thi...

Chiremba, Constance

2012-01-01

73

Crop residue, manure and fertilizer in dryland maize under reduced tillage in northern China: I grain yields and nutrient use efficiencies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rapidly increasing population and associated quest for food and feed in China has led to increased soil cultivation and nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and as a consequence to increased wind erosion and unbalanced crop nutrition. In the study presented here, we explored the long-term effects of various combinations of maize stover, cattle manure and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer applications on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and nutrient and water use efficiencies under reduced tilla...

Wang, X. B.; Cai, D. X.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Perdok, U. D.; Oenema, O.

2007-01-01

74

Rendimiento del máiz de temporal y su relación con la pudrición de mazorca / Grain yield of maize genotypes under rainfed conditions and their relation to ear rot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el Valle Toluca-Atlacomulco, Estado de México, México, se cultivan 250 000 ha con maíz, principalmente con criollos de las razas adaptadas a esta región. En el presente estudio se evaluó la susceptibilidad de 25 genotipos de maíz a la pudrición de mazorca causada por Fusarium spp. y su relación c [...] on días a floración femenina, acame y rendimiento de grano. Los genotipos fueron evaluados en campo durante 2004 en tres localidades bajo condiciones de temporal e infección natural de la enfermedad, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar y cuatro repeticiones por localidad. El análisis de datos se efectuó como una serie de experimentos. Las diferencias entre variedades e híbridos y entre Palomero Toluqueño y Cacahuacintle con Cónico y Chalqueño explicaron el mayor porcentaje de variación entre genotipos para las cuatro características mencionadas. La variedad Ixtlahuaca (testigo) fue más tardía que Palomero Toluqueño y más precoz que los otros genotipos; presentó porcentajes de acame y pudrición de mazorca inferiores a Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle y Chalqueño; sin embargo, el acame fue superior al de los híbridos de otras razas. Ixtlahuaca obtuvo mayor rendimiento que Palomero y Cacahuacintle, pero fue superada por Chalqueño, por híbridos Cónico-Chalqueño y los de otras razas como AS-722, Cóndor y H-40. El análisis genotipo x característica indicó que Palomero Toluqueño fue más precoz y de menor rendimiento. Cacahuacintle, la más susceptible al acame y pudrición de mazorca causada por Fusarium. Cónico y Chalqueño tuvieron mayor re sistencia al acame y pudrición de mazorca y mayor rendimiento que Palomero Toluqueño y Cacahuacintle. Los híbridos comerciales Cóndor, H-33, H-40, H-44 y H-90E mostraron mayor rendimiento y baja pudrición de mazorca; ésta se correlacionó positivamente con el acame y ambas características se correlacionaron negativamente con rendimiento. Abstract in english At the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley, in the State of Mexico, Mexico, 250 000 ha of maize are annually sown mainly with landrace s belonging to races adapted to this highland region. The obj ectives of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of 25 maize genotypes to Fusarium spp. and to determine [...] its relationship with days to female flowering, stalk and root lodging, ear-rot and grain yield. The genotypes were grown during 2004 at three locations under natural disease incidence in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The analysis of the data gathered across environments was performed as a series of experiments. The differences between hybrids and landraces and between Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle with Cónico and Chalqueño races explained most of the variability found among genotypes for the evaluated traits. The Ixtlahuaca landrace (control) showed a delayed flowering than Palomero Toluqueño and was earlier than other genotypes. Ixtlahuaca had lower stalk and root lodging and ear-rot percent than Palomero Toluqueño, Cacahuacintle, and Chalqueño; however, its stalk and root lodging percent was higher than that of hybrids of other races. Ixtlahuaca outyielded Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle, but was outyielded by Chalqueño, Cónico-Chalqueño hybrids, and hybrids of other races such as AS-722, Cóndor, and H-40. The genotype by-trait analysis indicated that Palomero Toluqueño was the earliest and lowest grain yielder race. Cacahuacintle was the most susceptible to stalk and root lodging and to ear-rot caused by Fusarium spp. Cónico and Chalqueño races were more resistant to stalk and root lodging and ear-rot, and outyielded Palomero Toluqueño and Cacahuacintle. As a group, the hybrids Cóndor, H-33, H-40, H-44, and H-90E showed high grain yield and low ear-rot percent. Ear-rot was positively correlated with stalk and root lodging and both traits were negatively correlated with grain yield.

Andrés, González Huerta; Luis Miguel, Vázquez García; Jaime, Sahagún Castellanos; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez Pérez; Delfina de Jesús, Pérez López.

2007-04-01

75

Eficiência da irrigação em rendimento de grãos e matéria seca de milho Irrigation efficiency for grain and dry matter yields of maize crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da irrigação e o efeito do déficit hídrico sobre o rendimento de grãos e o acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea de uma cultura de milho. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, durante quatro anos agrícolas, de 1993/94 a 1996/97. Utilizando um delineamento experimental em faixas com aspersores em linha, foram aplicados cinco níveis de irrigação, da capacidade de campo à ausência de irrigação. Os rendimentos de grãos foram crescentes com aumentos no nível de irrigação até 80% da dose necessária para a capacidade de campo; a máxima eficiência da irrigação foi obtida entre 60 e 80% e esteve associada a déficits hídricos durante o período crítico da cultura, alcançando 40 kg ha-1 mm-1. Por outro lado, a maior eficiência da irrigação para produção de matéria seca da parte aérea foi obtida com déficits hídricos prolongados durante o período de crescimento exponencial da cultura. Reduções no rendimento de grãos, causadas por déficit hídrico, estiveram relacionadas com a redução do número de grãos por espiga e por metro quadrado, já que o peso médio de grãos não foi afetado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation, as well as the effect of water deficits, upon the grain yield and on the aerial biomass production by a maize crop. A field experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil, during four crop seasons, from 1993/94 to 1996/97. Using a line source sprinkler design, the crop was submitted to five levels of irrigation, ranging from field capacity to rainfed conditions. Increasing grain yields were observed as the water supply increased up to 80% of the level necessary for field capacity; the highest efficiency of irrigation was promoted between 60 and 80% levels and it was obtained when the water deficit occurred during the critical period of the crop cycle, reaching 40 kg ha-1 mm-1. By contrast, maximum values of efficiency of irrigation for aerial biomass occurred when the plants were submitted to long periods of water deficits, during the exponential crop growth. Decreasing grain yields due to water deficit were related to reductions on the number of kernels per ear and on the number of kernels per square meter, since the weight per kernel was not affected.

João Ito Bergonci

2001-07-01

76

Plant Growth Regulator (Ethephon) Alters Maize (Zea mays L.)Growth,Water Use and Grain Yield under Water Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present investigation was to study the growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) single cross 704 under different levels of irrigation, plant density and ethephon levels. There were two field experiments during 2003-4 and 2004-5 growing seasons at the experimental farm of the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, located at Badjgah. The experimental design was a randomized complete-blocks with four replicates and the treatments i...

Avat Shekoofa; Yahya Emam

2008-01-01

77

Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

Amir José Klein, Werle; Fernando Rafael Alves, Ferreira; Ronald José Barth, Pinto; Claudete Aparecida, Mangolin; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Leandro Simões Azeredo, Gonçalves.

2014-03-01

78

Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

79

The Effects of Intercropping Sowing Systems with Dry Bean and Maize on Yield and Some Yield Components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is traditionally intercropped with maize by small-scale farmers in the Turkey. In this study, dry bean was sown with different mixed ratio (bean and maize sole crop and 2 lines maize+1 line bean, 2 lines bean+1 line maize and 2 lines maize+2 lines bean with field maize for two years. There were significant differences between cropping systems for pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield (kg ha-1 and grain yield per unit area (kg ha-1 for dry bean. There were non-significant differences between cropping systems except of grain yield for maize. The highest grain yield was found sole cropping system for both crops. The highest LER (Land Equivalent Ratios was found 2 lines maize+2 lines dry bean intercropping system as 1.08. The lowest LER was found 2 line dry bean+1 line maize intercropping system as 0.98. So greatest net income was realized when 2 lines maize and 2 lines dry bean intercropping system.

Vahdettin Ciftci

2006-01-01

80

Effects of hybrid on maize grain and plant carbohydrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials. The basic chemical composition (content of starch, protein, oil, crude fibre and ash and the content of lignocellulose fibres (content of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelullose and cellulose were determined for grain and the whole maize plant of the seven ZP maize hybrids. The negative very significant correlation between protein and starch content (r=-0.78 and significant correlation between oil and starch content (r=-0.65 was obtained in grain. The hybrid ZP 666 had the highest starch, crude fibre, ADF and cellulose content, high NDF content, the lowest ADL and low protein content in grain. The lowest starch, crude fibre, ADF, cellulose content and the highest protein and oil content in grain was determined in hybrid ZP 158. The hybrid ZP 730 had the highest and hybrid ZP158 the lowest dry matter yield of whole plant, whole plant without ear, ear and yield of digestible dry matter of whole plant. The differences in the contents of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelluloses, cellulose and digestibility of the whole maize plant among observed ZP hybrids were 6.21%, 4.01%, 0.79%, 5.65%, 3.88% and 6.79%, respectively. Obtained values for the content of lignocellulose fibres differed significantly among hybrids and were closely related to digestibility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Radosavljevi? Milica

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Characteristics of starch isolated from maize as a function of grain storage temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the importance of maize starch and the lack of knowledge about the effects of storage temperature on the isolated starch properties; maize grains were stored during 12 months at different temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35 °C). The extraction yield and the physicochemical, thermal, pasting, crystallinity and morphological properties of starches were determined. The starch isolated from grains stored at 35 °C was yellowish and showed a 22.1% decrease in starch extraction yield compared to freshly harvested maize grains. At 35 °C, a reduction in crystallinity was observed by the end of 12 months, despite a parallel rearrangement of the starch chains which resulted in an increase in X-ray peak intensities, gelatinisation temperatures and enthalpy. The starch isolated from maize grains stored at 35 °C appears to have smaller granules, which presents some points in their surface, potentially attributed to the protein matrix compressing the granules within maize grains. PMID:24507259

Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Moomand, Khalid; de Oliveira, Maurício; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

2014-02-15

82

Yield of Maize Hybrid-3335 as Affected by NP Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to see the effect of different NP levels on maize hybrid "3335". The fertilizer levels were 90-90-90, 90-120-90, 90-150-90, 150-90-90, 150-120-90, 150-150-90, 210-90-90, 210-120-90, and 210-150-90 Kg ha -1 NPK including control having no fertilizer. The results revealed that maximum plant height (175.8 cm, number of cobs/plant (2.067, number of grains/cob (374.3, 1000-grain weight (226.5 g, Biological yield (15.42 t ha -1, and grain yield (48.08 t ha -1 was obtained by the application of NPK @ 210-120-90 kg ha -1. This level proved to be the optimum for maize crop under local conditions of Dera Ismail Khan.

M. Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

83

Economic efficiency of the maize grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

Ana Mariana Dincu

2014-11-01

84

Contribution of Some Maize Production Factors Towards Grain Yield and Economic Return under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contribution of different factors responsible for the increase of Maize production viz: weeds control, insect/pest control and fertilizer were determined in Kharif, 1996 and 1 997 under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The investigations measured the average maximum yield gap between the improved practices and that of farmer`s practices as 2443 kg/ha, showing an increase of 193.88 % over that of farmer`s practices. The highest share contributed by improved fertilize...

Muhammad Bashir Ahmed; Khizar Hayat; Qamar Zaman; Nazeer Hussain Malik

2001-01-01

85

Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the changes in micronutrient concentrations in grain of intercropped maize. PMID:23900569

Xia, Haiyong; Zhao, Jianhua; Sun, Jianhao; Xue, Yanfang; Eagling, Tristan; Bao, Xingguo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Long

2013-09-01

86

Effect of mucuna intercropped with maize on soil fertility and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two field trials were used to evaluate the effect of mucuna (Mucuna utilis) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on soil fertility and maize yield. In Experiment I, mucuna seeds were sown at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) of maize. A basal application of 50 kg N/ha was administered. These treatments were compared with control (no fertilizer, no mucuna), sole application of 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In Experiment II, complementary application of 0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass, which was sown in the previous year, were administered to maize. The results showed that intercropping of maize with mucuna at planting (0 WAP) recorded averagely 46, 60 and 87 percent of the yields for maize that received 100, 50 and 0 kg N/ha alone, respectively. The maize yield increased as sowing date of mucuna was delayed. Undersowing of mucuna at 6 and 8 WAP with application of 50 kg N/ha resulted in 30 - 62 per cent higher yield than at 0 - 4 WAP, and was comparable (91 %) with application of 100 kg N/ha. It also had residual effect of average yield increase of 52 per cent over the latter. Soil analysis showed positive residual effect on soil fertility. Planting of mucuna under maize raised the organic C, exchangeable Ca and Mg by 81, 14 and 28 percent, respectively, when compared with the chemically fertilized soil. The soil N and P levels also showed 48 and 25 percent increase, respectively. Complementary application of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation ofcation of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass increased plant height, biomass weight, and grain yield of maize by 18, 23 and 31 percent, respectively, compared with incorporation of mucuna alone. The former was equally effective as the complementary use of 100 kg N/ha. The results suggest that undersowing of mucuna in relay with maize could be a good practice for sustaining soil fertility in a cereal based cropping system. (au)

87

Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing / Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições [...] climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Este estudo foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento no rendimento e teor de proteína nos grãos de híbridos de milho. Dois experimentos foram instalados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, nos anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Em 2001/2002, os tratamentos foram compostos por dois híbridos (Agroceres 303 e Pioneer 32R21), três doses de N aplicadas durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo (30, 80 e 130 kg ha-1) e três doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1). Em 2002/2003, quatro híbridos (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 e Syngenta Penta) e quatro doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1) foram testadas. A fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento promoveu incrementos significativos no rendimento e teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. A resposta do rendimento de grãos à cobertura nitrogenada tardia diferiu entre as cultivares. O impacto da fertilização nitrogenada no espigamento foi maior quando se aplicou baixas doses de N na fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os aumentos no rendimento de grãos obtidos com coberturas tardias deveram-se principalmente ao maior peso de grãos. Os híbridos contemporâneos são capazes de absorver N depois do espigamento, contradizendo a hipótese de que coberturas nitrogenadas tardias não são eficientes para aumentar o rendimento de grãos do milho. Abstract in english Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply d [...] uring crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21), three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1) and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1). In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta) and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1) were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.

Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Rúbia Patrícia da Silva, Coser; Lisandro, Rambo; Luís, Sangoi; Gilber, Argenta; Everton Leonardo, Forsthofer; Adriano Alves da, Silva.

2005-10-01

88

Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Este estudo foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento no rendimento e teor de proteína nos grãos de híbridos de milho. Dois experimentos foram instalados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, nos anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Em 2001/2002, os tratamentos foram compostos por dois híbridos (Agroceres 303 e Pioneer 32R21, três doses de N aplicadas durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo (30, 80 e 130 kg ha-1 e três doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1. Em 2002/2003, quatro híbridos (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 e Syngenta Penta e quatro doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 foram testadas. A fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento promoveu incrementos significativos no rendimento e teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. A resposta do rendimento de grãos à cobertura nitrogenada tardia diferiu entre as cultivares. O impacto da fertilização nitrogenada no espigamento foi maior quando se aplicou baixas doses de N na fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os aumentos no rendimento de grãos obtidos com coberturas tardias deveram-se principalmente ao maior peso de grãos. Os híbridos contemporâneos são capazes de absorver N depois do espigamento, contradizendo a hipótese de que coberturas nitrogenadas tardias não são eficientes para aumentar o rendimento de grãos do milho.

Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

2005-10-01

89

The variations in maize grain composition induced by different environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine maize hybrids were grown with the aim to determine variations in chemical composition of the grain. Analyzed hybrids were grown in split-plot experimental design with tree replications in Sremska Mitrovica and Zemun Polje, during the summer of 2010 and 2011. Grain yield, protein, starch, oil, as well as, antioxidants like phytate, soluble phenolics and free sulfhydryl groups (PSH were analyzed. Unfavorable meteorological conditions affected not only grain yield, but its chemical composition too, by decreasing starch, phenolics and PSH and increasing protein, oil and phytate concentrations. Hybrids from the FAO 600 maturity group achieved higher grain yield during unfavourable conditions, with higher starch and phytate contents and decreased levels of PSH and phenolics. Hybrids from the FAO 500 maturity group were much more stable in respect of protein and oil contents, irrespective to year and location. The grain yield did not have the same source of variations as the factors which determine nutritional quality, an exception being oil content, which decreased with the increase in the grain yield. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31068

Dragi?evi? Vesna D.

2014-01-01

90

Historical Weather Conditions and Maize Yields  

Science.gov (United States)

Projections of maize crops response to climate based on empirical models generally show a negative response to warmer temperatures. These models typically use monthly averages of temperature or assume that the response to a high frequency warming event is independent of when it occurs in the growing season. Biophysical modeling and experimental studies indicate that crop yields are dependent on high frequency warming events and that the timing of the event can also play a significant role in crop development. This research looks to the historical record of maize yields in the United States paired with daily station data to categorize high, low, and normal yield years with the particular high frequency patterns in maximum and minimum temperature as well as precipitation that led to such yields. A multiple linear regression model is used with these patterns to predict yields. These results expand on prior empirical modeling by incorporating high frequency temporal sensitivity into the regression model. The United States is the training region for the model because of high quality weather station and crop data. The weather data are taken from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and provide daily records of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation at 1218 sites across the lower 48 states, with some records extending into the mid-19th century. The United States Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS) provides data on maize yields at the county level back to 1910, and provides state level planting and harvest time data back to 1981, at it's peak maize was produced in 2821 counties offering a wide range of different climates. The study is limited by restricting itself to the United States and maize, but could provide the basis for similar studies on a wider range of crops, geographic regions and future projections of climate change.

Butler, E.; Huybers, P.

2010-12-01

91

The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of t...

Ivica Kisi?; Ferdo Baši?; Milan Mesi?; An?elko Butorac; Željka Va?i?

2004-01-01

92

The Effects of Intra-row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize hybrids react differently to various plant density and intra-row spacing. A two-year study was conducted at Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Research Farm to determine the optimum intra-row spacing for maize hybrids commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were maize hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer...

Okan Sener; Huseyin Gozubenli; Omer Konuskan; Mehmet Kilinc

2004-01-01

93

Grain and Stover Yield of Corn with Varying Times of Plant Density Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.). The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and ...

Kiramat Khan; Muhammad Iqbal; Zubair Shah; Bashir Ahmad,; Abdul Azim; Hassan Sher

2003-01-01

94

Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L. c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1 and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1 were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

Mehdi Dahmardeh

2011-01-01

95

GENETICAL HARVEST INDEX AND POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL GENETICS TO IMPROVE MAIZE YIELD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to point out a methodological way to evaluatemaize cultivars through genetical harvest index estimative (GHI. Furthermore, questions areraised about the unique utilization of harvest index (HI. It was used data from researchexperiments as well as from literature. The results showed a significant interference fromenvironmental factors which limit adaptation of maize cultivars, affecting grain yield. The focusis differentiated, since one searches to understand the effects which result in grain yield, identifyingthe causes (genetic and environmental which will result ultimately in a yield reduction of thegenotype maximum capacity to produce grain. The model plant is the maize, and the analysis ofthe data presented suggests methodological alternatives to estimate the GHI of each genotype.This procedure will be useful in maize plant breeding programs, taking into considerationmaximum yields as well as yields under adverse conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses, oragriculture of low technological inputs.

FREDERICO OZANAN MACHADO DURÃES

2002-04-01

96

Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L.) Grain Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU) herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that recei...

Iraj Nosratti; Hassan Muhammad Alizade; Taymour Makmasoumi

2007-01-01

97

Grain and Stover Yield of Corn with Varying Times of Plant Density Reduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.. The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and stover yield. The grain and stover yield were found to have decreased as thinning was delayed. Yield components such as number of ears, ear length, number of grains per ear row, ear diameter and 100 kernel weight were significantly affected by late thinning. In vegetative phase, LAI (leaf area index was the only character, which exhibited significant differences among thinning treatments. The results suggested that thinning of maize crop as early as seedling emergence is important for increasing yield.

Kiramat Khan

2003-01-01

98

Maize growth and yield in Peshawar under changing climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global climate change is consequence of accumulating greenhouse gases (Carbon) at lower atmosphere which might affects crops growth and yield. Maize is an important summer cereals, grown on considerable area in Pakistan every year. We, therefore, study the delay sowing response with changing climate on maize. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design. Sowing was done from June 8 to July 24, 2010 with ten days intervals. Mazie (cv. Azam) was planted in rows at 0.75 m distance in NS orientations. Crop was raised under the uniform recommended cultural practices. Data regarding days to emergence, tasseling and maturity showed a consecutive decrease when so wing was delayed form June 08 onwards. However, the crop life cycle (i.e. vegetative and reproductive durations) initially remained uniform but expanded for late sowing dates (July). Delay sowing showed an increase in the leaf area index with an abrupt decline for the late sown crop. Nonetheless, plant stand at harvest remained static during the growth for all sowing dates. A stable to moderate reduction was noticed in ear length (cm) when sowings was delayed from Jun 08 onwards. Grain rows cob/-1 did not influence by the delay sowing in the season. Moreover, delay sowing did not show any significant (P<0.05) change for the grain number. However, thousand grains weight was initially remained stable but declined (P<0.05) by dremained stable but declined (P<0.05) by delay in sowing. Biological yield, dry matter and grains yield (g m/sup -2/) revealed almost a similar decreasing trend when sowing was delayed. Dry matter to grain yield relationship was linear (r/sup 2/ = 0.95) and revealed a mean loss of 1.65 g m/sup 2/ when sowing delayed from June 08 to July 24 in the season. Radiation use efficiency (RUE), the growth function, was also declined by the delay in sowing. We inferred that losses in leaf area indices, ear length and grain weights were basis of the grain yield reduction by changing climate of the growing season which brought a significant disturbance in the vegetative and reproductive phases of the crop life cycle that resulted losses (P<0.05) in grain yield by the late sown crop in the season. (author)

99

Seed-specific expression of the wheat puroindoline genes improves maize wet milling yields.  

Science.gov (United States)

The texture of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds is important to seed processing properties, and soft dent maize is preferred for both wet-milling and livestock feed applications. The puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) are the functional components of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Hardness locus and together function to create soft grain texture in wheat. The PINs (PINA and PINB) are believed to act by binding to lipids on the surface of starch granules, preventing tight adhesion between starch granules and the surrounding protein matrix during seed maturation. Here, maize kernel structure and wet milling properties were successfully modified by the endosperm-specific expression of wheat Pins (Pina and Pinb). Pins were introduced into maize under the control of a maize gamma-Zein promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic lines were evaluated over two growing seasons. Textural analysis of the maize seeds indicated that the expression of PINs decreased adhesion between starch and protein matrix and reduced maize grain hardness significantly. Reduction in pressure required to fracture kernels ranged from 15.65% to 36.86% compared with control seeds. Further, the PINs transgenic maize seeds had increased levels of extractable starch as characterized by a small scale wet milling method. Starch yield was increased by 4.86% on average without negatively impacting starch purity. The development of softer maize hybrids with higher starch extractability would be of value to maize processors. PMID:19702647

Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M; Beecher, Brian; Morris, Craig F; Curtis Hannah, L; Giroux, Michael J

2009-10-01

100

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm. Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10 and the time of MPR (tm was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05 and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01. It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

D BABNIK

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of fungicide seed treatments on germination, population, and yield of maize grown from seed infected with fungal pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

Seedborne fungi can reduce survival, growth, and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Laboratory, field, and growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the seed treatment fungicides fludioxonil, mefenoxam, and azoxystrobin on germination, plant population, and grain yield of maiz...

102

CONSERVATION AND DETERMINATION OF THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE POLLEN GRAIN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In maize breeding programs, factors related to receptivity length of stigma, longevity of pollen grain in the plant, differences in the period of blossoming among plants and conservations of the genetics resources are some aspects that reinforce the importance of pollen grains storage. In this research the influence of water tenor, period and storage environment were evaluated in regard to the viability and germination of maize pollen grains. The assays took place in laboratories of Analyses ...

CLARISSA ALVES FERREIRA; ÉDILA VILELA DE REZENDE VON PINHO; PATRÍCIA DE OLIVEIRA ALVIM; VINÍCIUS DE ANDRADE; TANISMARE TATIANA DE ALMEIDA SILVA; DEISY LÚCIA CARDOSO

2007-01-01

103

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

104

IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg ...

Murawska, Barbara; Spychaj-fabisiak, Ewa; Knapowski, Tomasz; Bartosz Glowacki

2013-01-01

105

Effects of maize residues on the Fusarium spp. infection and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of wheat grain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains is a worldwide spread disease that reduces yield, causes mycotoxin production in grain and reduces seed quality. Previous crop residues such as maize stalks and grain, and straw of barley, wheat, and other cereals are considered the principal inoculum sources for Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, the most important Fusarium spp. causing FHB in Europe. The residues present on the soil surface and in the first 10 cm of soil in tilled and not ...

Reyneri, Amedeo; Vanara, Francesca; Blandino, Massimo; Maiorano, Andrea

2008-01-01

106

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those reported for US maize systems in previous studies, irrigated maize in central Nebraska achieved higher grain and net energy yields (13.2 Mg?ha?1 and 159 GJ?ha?1, respectively) and lower GHG-emission intensity (231 kg of CO2e?Mg?1 of grain). Greater input-use efficiencies, especially for N fertilizer, were responsible for better performance of these irrigated systems, compared with much lower-yielding, mostly rainfed maize systems in previous studies. Large variation in energy inputs and GHG emissions across irrigated fields in the present study resulted from differences in applied irrigation water amount and imbalances between applied N inputs and crop N demand, indicating potential to further improve environmental performance through better management of these inputs. Observed variation in N-use efficiency, at any level of applied N inputs, suggests that an N-balance approach may be more appropriate for estimating soil N2O emissions than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach based on a fixed proportion of applied N. Negative correlation between GHG-emission intensity and net energy yield supports the proposition that achieving high yields, large positive energy balance, and low GHG emissions in intensive cropping systems are not conflicting goals. PMID:22232684

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

107

Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined. Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also asse...

Wolf, J.; Diepen, C. A.

1995-01-01

108

Effect of zinc and plant-population on the yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2001 to study the effect of two levels of zinc (0 and 5 kg Zn ha-J) and three plant-densities (60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 plants ha-J) on the performance of two varieties of maize Azam and Pahari and two hybrids N7989 and Babar, at Malakandher Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Zinc at the rate of 5 kg ha-J increased the cob yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight, while increase in plant-density significantly increased the number of grains cob-J, number of cob-plant-J, cob-yield, grain-yield and 1000-grain weight. Results revealed that the highest plant-density of 100,000 plant ha-J decreased the number of cobs plant-J, number of grains cob-J and 1000-grain weight. Maximum number of cobs plant-J (0.87), number of grains cob-J (313), cob yield (4602 kg ha-J), grain yield (4222 kg ha-J) and 1000-grain weight (249 g) were obtained with plant- density of 80,000 plant ha-J. The maximum grain-yield of 4333 kg ha-J was recorded in plots of hybrid variety N7989. (author)

109

Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L.) based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) sole, pea (Pisum sativum L.) sole, lin...

Akhilesh Mishra

2014-01-01

110

Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previ(lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation improved the N economy of the cropping system and enhances crop productivity. (author)

111

Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

112

The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

Ivica Kisi?

2004-09-01

113

[Nitrogen status diagnosis and yield prediction of spring maize after green manure incorporation by using a digital camera].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to explore the feasibility of using the image processing technology to diagnose the nitrogen status and to predict the maize yield, a field experiment with different nitrogen rates with green manure incorporation was conducted. Maize canopy digital images over a range of growth stages were captured by digital camera. Maize nitrogen status and the relationships between image color indices derived by digital camera for maize at different growth stages and maize nitrogen status indicators were analyzed. These digital camera sourced image color indices at different growth stages for maize were also regressed with maize grain yield at maturity. The results showed that the plant nitrogen status for maize was improved by green manure application. The leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), aboveground biomass and nitrogen uptake for green manure treatments at different maize growth stages were all higher than that for chemical fertilization treatments. The correlations between spectral indices with plant nitrogen indicators for maize affected by green manure application were weaker than that affected by chemical fertilization. And the correlation coefficients for green manure application were ranged with the maize growth stages changes. The best spectral indices for diagnosis of plant nitrogen status after green manure incorporation were normalized blue value (B/(R+G+B)) at 12-leaf (V12) stage and normalized red value (R/(R+G+B)) at grain-filling (R4) stage individually. The coefficients of determination based on linear regression were 0. 45 and 0. 46 for B/(R+G+B) at V12 stage and R/(R+G+B) at R4 stage respectively, acting as a predictor of maize yield response to nitrogen affected by green manure incorporation. Our findings suggested that digital image technique could be a potential tool for in-season prediction of the nitrogen status and grain yield for maize after green manure incorporation when the suitable growth stages and spectral indices for diagnosis were selected. PMID:24611398

Bai, Jin-Shun; Cao, Wei-Dong; Xiong, Jing; Zeng, Nao-Hua; Shimizu, Katshyoshi; Rui, Yu-Kui

2013-12-01

114

Yields of Maize (Zea mays L. As Affected by Crude Oil Contaminated Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out during the 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons to investigate the effects of crude oil contaminated soil on the yield of seven maize varieties (Composite suwan 1, Hybrid 3x-yx, AMATZBR w, TZBRSYN w, AMATZBR y, TZBRSYN y and Ozoro local in two locations (Asaba and Ozoro in Delta State, Nigeria. Five crude oil concentrations (0.0, 5.2, 10.4, 20.8, and 41.6 mL per maize stand applied to soil at seven weeks after planting (7 WAP constituted treatments. The experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot arrangement and replicated four times. Locations of study were allotted the main plots, the crude oil levels, the sub-plots and the maize varieties, the sub-sub-plots. The results indicated that both the fresh grain yields and dry grain yields of the maize across locations and within locations were not significantly affected (p = 0.05 by crude oil application to soil up to 5.2 mL but higher levels of the oil contamination significantly (p = 0.05 reduced these characters. The Hybrid (3x-yx variety had the highest fresh and dry grain yields across and within locations hence it should be recommended for planting in Asaba and Ozoro locations of Delta State. Ozoro local had the lowest grain yields among the varieties tested. This study has shown that crude oil contaminated soil has a highly significant effect of reducing the yields of maize. The present study also established varietal differences in maize with response to crude oil thereby providing a basis for future study by plant breeders.

P.G. Eruotor

2006-01-01

115

The influence of fusarium ear infection on the maize yield and quality (Transylvania-Romania).  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize is the host for a large number of pathogens, which invade all of its organs from the germination until the harvest, ear and grain infection often remain even during the storage. Diseases, through their symptoms reduce significantly the quantity and the quality of the yield, estimated between 7-17% but, in the favorable years for the diseases, they can be much greater. Fuzarienne diseases reduce yield value and quality by massive accumulation by mycelium biomass of Fusarium (about 85%) on the grain and ears and by mycotoxins contamination such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA). In the paper are presented aspects regarding the reaction of 12 maize hybrids under natural and artificial infections; the effect of Fusarium ear infection on the grain chemical composition; the correlation between ear rot diseased degree and yield ability and starch, protein and fat content. ANOVA evidenced the significant influence for experimental factors: infection conditions with Fusarium spp., genotypes, and their interaction on the discased degree, yield capacity, protein, starch and fat content. Ear diseased degree with Fusarium spp. affected yield ability and grain chemical composition for almost maize hybrids which were tested. Average yield losses ranged between 7.0-9.3% during the testing period. The hybrids Turda SU 181, Turda Mold 188 and Turda 200 are more tolerant to Fusarium ear rot, and Turda SU 210 is most susceptible. The artificial infection of ear with Fusarium spp. determined significantly decrease of starch and fat content and increase the protein content for most part of maize hybrids. Between the analyzed parameters: Fusarium diseases degree, yield ability, starch and fat content, there are negative and significantly correlations. Fusarium era rot modified chemical composition of maize kernels affected the quality of yield, especially for susceptible genotypes. PMID:17390871

Nagy, E; Voichi?a, H; Kadar, R

2006-01-01

116

Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect of previous crop but not by results of tillage, because an unknown factor reduced growth in the no-tillage system. The hypothesis was supported at maturity by increased biomass allocation to grain relative to total shoot weight in treatments with greater shoot-P concentration at early stages.

Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

1998-01-01

117

Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plantha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

118

Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select t...

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

119

Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

Jaeveson da Silva

2004-06-01

120

Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho / The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1) sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012). O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN), de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema [...] de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex. Abstract in english The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1) on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012). The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprink [...] ler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

Jaeveson da, Silva; Paulo S., Lima e Silva; Maurício de, Oliveira; Kathia M., Barbosa e Silva.

2004-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L. With Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata L. on Green Forage Yield and Quality Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study effect of different planting ratios and harvest time of intercropping maize and cowpea on economical and biological yield and quality of maize forage (Zea mays L. was evaluated in the Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol, during 2007. The planting ratios of maize to bean was 100:100, 50:100, 100:50, 25:75, 75:25, 50:50 , 0:100 and 100:0, respectively. The intercropped of maize and bean in different planting ratio significantly affected the quantitative and qualitative characters of the forage. The highest yield of green fodder (65.7 t ha-1 was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100. The highest grain yield (9.0 t ha-1 for maize was recorded from 75+25% ratio, maize and cowpea and the highest grain yield for cowpea (3.9 t ha-1 was recorded from 50+100% ratio, maize and cowpea, respectively. The highest crude protein (19.65% was produced by the cowpea sole cropping and the lowest from the maize plots sole cropping (12.11%. The highest land equivalent ratio (2.26 was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100 and the highest crude protein was obtained by harvest time in milky stage (15.2%.

Mehdi Dahmardeh

2009-01-01

122

Effect of Tillage Intensity and Herbicide Application On Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different tillage intensities in combination with herbicide application or interculture on growth and yield of maize was investigated at Student Farm, Department. of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 1997. Maximum grain yield (4.92 t h -1 along with highest net benefit (Rs. 38660/= per hectare was obtained for the crop raised with tilling the soil twice followed by herbicide application against the lowest grain yield (2.72 t ha -1 and net benefit (Rs. 20890/= per hectare for the crop grown at zero tillage followed by interculture.

Shakeel Ahmad

1999-01-01

123

Estimation of Heterosis and Genetic Parameters for Yield and Yield Components in Maize Using the Diallel Cross Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diallel cross among inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with medium maturity and an evaluation to estimate heterosis and genetic parameters for ear length (cm), ear diameter (cm), No. of rows ear-1, No. of kernels row-1, weight of 100-kernels and grain yield (ardab feddan-1) were carried out. Hybrids mean squares were highly significant for the six traits under both planting dates and combined analysis, except ear diameter. Indicating that the hybrids...

Abdel-moneam, M. A.; Sultan, M. S.; Sadek, S. E.; Shalof, M. S.

2014-01-01

124

Grain Yield Potential of Lentils Germplasm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain yield potential in relation to other important agronomic characters of 20 lentils (L. culinaris germplasm collected from FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas and neglected pockets of NWFP was tested at the Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during 1999-2000 growing season. Based on the grain yield potential, the germplasm were divided into three groups in descending order. Germplasm LT-05 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 1459 kg ha -1, while germplasm LT-03 with 1070 kg ha-1 ranked second. Minimum yield of 180 kg ha -1 was obtained by LT-04, followed by LT-01 with 209 kg ha -1. The germplasm in group I viz. LT-05 and LT-03 gave 64 and 82 % higher yield than group II and group III, respectively. The average values of grain yield decreased in descending order from 1264 kg ha -1 in group I to 456 kg ha -1 in group II and then further decreased to 231 kg ha -1 in group III. Similarly, the average values of branches per plant 100-seed weight, pods per plant and harvest index decreased in descending order and showed positive relationship with grain yield. The association of days to maturity, plant height, and dry matter yield with grain yield was negative because their average values increased in descending order in group I to group III.

Amanullah

2000-01-01

125

Efficacy of Different Herbicides on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research work was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize hybrid P-3203. The treatments were pre-emergence application of dual gold (S-metolachlor at 1.92, primextra (atrazine + metolachlor at 2.25, treflan (trifluralin at 1.5, stomp (pendimethalin at 0.75 and jinong (atrazine at 0.90 kg a.i. ha-1 and post-emergence application of 2,4-D at 0.80 and banvel (dicamba at 0.84 kg a.i. ha-1. The treatments increased plant height (cm, cob length (cm, biological yield (t ha-1, leaf area (cm2, number of leaves plant-1, number of kernels cob-1, 500 kernel weight (g and grain yield (t ha-1 significantly (P? 0.05, while broadleaf weeds, number of cobs plant-1 and harvest index were not significantly affected by different treatments. For controlling weeds, dual gold suppressed 88, primextra 82, stomp 45, treflan 48, Jinong 38, 2,4-D 23 and banvel 5% as compared to 248.7 number of weeds m-2 in weedy check. The dominant weed species found were Leptochloa sp., Echinochloa crus-galli, Cyperus sp. and Digiteria sanguinalis. Hand weeded and dual gold treated plots produced significantly taller plants, more kernels per cob (548.7 and 544.7 and the highest 500 kernel weight (121.33 and 119 g, respectively. Hand weeded, dual gold and primextra treated plots increased grain yield by 22.7, 21 and 15.3%. Application of dual gold proved to be the best and most economical weed control, giving maximum returns of Rs. 42030 ha-1. Primextra emerged as the next best alternative for weed management in maize.

Muhammad Azim Khan

2003-01-01

126

Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain usi...

Kyamuhangire, W.; Kaaya, A. N.

2010-01-01

127

IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

Barbara MURAWSKA

2013-12-01

128

Effect of Variable Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Maize (Golden)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant height was significantly affected by the variable rates of N and T5 (150-120-60) treatment produced the tallest plants than other treatments. The number of cobs plant 1 was significantly different from treatment T5 (150-120-60). The average grain weight (1000-grain weight) was maximum in T4 treatment which was at par with treatments T3 and T5. Grain yield of maize was significantly enhanced by T4 treatment than other treatment except for T5 treatment where it was statistically at par ov...

Maqsood, M.; Amanat Ali Abid; Asif Iqbal; Iftikhar Hussain, M.

2001-01-01

129

Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

130

Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

131

Nitrogen use efficiency in forage yield of tropical maize populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of adapted cultivars to nitrogen stress conditions is shown as an ecologically sustainable option to ensure higher yields in low input agricultural systems. This study aimed to evaluate the NUE in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) populations to forage production in the south of the State of Tocantins. Two experiments were done corresponding to low and high N availability sown on November 21, 2009. Twenty four maize populations and a commercial cultivar BR 106 were used in the expe...

Leandro Lopes Cancellier; Renzo Garcia Von Pinho; Eduardo Lopes Cancellier

2014-01-01

132

Impact of nitrogen and sulfur application on growth and yield of maize (zea mays L.) crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications with net plot of 4.2 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur on growth, yield and quality of double cross hybrid (DCH) maize (Cargil-707). Application of fertilizers at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg of nitrogen and sulfur per hectare respectively greatly increased by dry weight per plant (DWP), plant grains number per ear (GNE) and grain weight per ear (GWE) over other treatments. Similarly, the highest grain yield of 8.59 tons per hectare was recorded from the plot fertilized at the rate of 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare, while maximum grain oil content (GOC) and grain protein contents (GPC) were recorded from plot fertilized at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare respectively. (author)

133

Development of High Yielding Synthetic Maize (Zea mays L. Varieties Suitable for Intercropping with Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to select and develop high yielding synthetic maize variety suitable for intercropping with common bean. S1 selection method was used to extract lines from Kakamega Striga Tolerant Population (KSTP maize and Embu population, and the best 10 lines were recombined to form synthetic maize varieties which were evaluated against the KSTP and recommended commercial hybrid (H512 under monoculture and intercropping. The study led to development of two synthetic maize varieties. Egerton synthetic I had the highest light transmission to the ground and gave the highest bean yield (23% reduction over bean monocrop under intercrop system. It was the best for intercropping with beans. Egerton synthetic II gave the highest maize grain yield (41% yield increase over KSTP. Intercropping Egerton synthetic II with beans offered the highest benefits. There was no significant difference between Egerton synthetic II and H512 in terms of grain yield. The study showed that it is possible to bred genotypes for intercropping system. Intercropping beans with maize selected and bred for intercropping supported transgressive yielding and thus can contributed to food security.

M.M. Muraya

2006-01-01

134

Effect of tillage system on soil properties and yield of Oba 98 maize variety in Zaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria loses significant amount of soil, organic matter and plant nutrients to the continuous tilling of soil for various crop production. This leads to declining and stagnation of crop yields. Three year field trials were conducted during 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons at the experimental farm of Institute for Agricultural Research of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Lat. 11° 11' N: Long 7° 38' E: 686 m above sea level to investigate the effect of tillage system on soil chemical properties, physical properties and grain yield of Oba 98 maize variety. The treatments consisted of six tillage systems laid out in Complete Randomize Block Design and replicated five times. The parameters measured included soil chemical properties such as ions concentrations and Cation Exchange Capacity, soil textural class, soil bulk density and grain yield of the maize under test. The results obtained indicated that GPx (Glyphosate followed by Primextra Gold and PPx (Paraquat followed by Primextra Gold tillage systems enhanced soil nutrients with higher Cation Exchange Capacity, highest cations and anions concentrations due to organic matter accumulation in the soil, improved soil structure that resulted to better grain yield of maize. The two types of tillage systems will therefore help in reducing the effect of soil degradation through frequent tilling and also improved soil aggregate and fertility as a result of organic matter accumulation on the soil surface.

A. Namakka

2014-07-01

135

DISTRIBUTION OF AND ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE LARGER GRAIN BORER PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS (HORN) (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND THE MAIZE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTSCHULSKY (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN MAIZE STORES  

Science.gov (United States)

Interspecific interactions between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera Curculionidae) were studied during two storage seasons in maize stores, in Bénin. Maize ears, randomly sampled from far...

136

A Grain Flow Model to Simulate Grain Yield Sensor Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to develop a flow model for grain combines based on the laboratory and field response of an impact based grain flow sensor. The grain flow model developed in this study is of first order with constant coefficients. A computer code was written to solve the model and to simulate the response of a yield sensor whose response had been determined previously for various types of flow rate inputs both in field and laboratory experiments. The computer program for the s...

Selcuk Arslan

2008-01-01

137

The Effect of NPK Application in Different Proportions on the Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fertilizer levels were kept at 0, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N/ha with a constant dose of 100 kg/ha of phosphorus and potash. Maize variety Sunehri was used as a source of trial. Treatment (200-100-100 kg NPK ha-1 ) seems to be most appropriate to get increased grain yield under the Faisalabad conditions. More precise studies of this nature however, are recommended to be carried out for further confirmation.

Muhammad Maqsood; Riazat Ali; Nazakat Nawaz; Nadeem Yousaf

2000-01-01

138

The Effect of NPK Application in Different Proportions on the Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fertilizer levels were kept at 0, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N/ha with a constant dose of 100 kg/ha of phosphorus and potash. Maize variety Sunehri was used as a source of trial. Treatment (200-100-100 kg NPK ha-1 seems to be most appropriate to get increased grain yield under the Faisalabad conditions. More precise studies of this nature however, are recommended to be carried out for further confirmation.

Muhammad Maqsood

2000-01-01

139

Mulch Induced Eco-physiological Growth and Yield of Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on growth, dry matter partitioning, earliness, yield attributes and yield of maize were studied. All mulches except sawdust significantly influenced the SLA, CGR, NAR and DM partitioning, but with no apparent effect on RGR. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches hastened the tasseling, silking and maturity time by 6, 8 and 8 days respectively and produced double the amount of biological and economic yield as compared to the contro...

Awal, M. A.; Khan, M. A. H.

2000-01-01

140

Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707. Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare was recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare. While maximum grain oil and crude protein contents were recorded from plot fertilized @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively.

Iqrar Hussain

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of Variable Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Maize (Golden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant height was significantly affected by the variable rates of N and T5 (150-120-60 treatment produced the tallest plants than other treatments. The number of cobs plant 1 was significantly different from treatment T5 (150-120-60. The average grain weight (1000-grain weight was maximum in T4 treatment which was at par with treatments T3 and T5. Grain yield of maize was significantly enhanced by T4 treatment than other treatment except for T5 treatment where it was statistically at par overall, average grain yield of 12.6 t ha 1 was obtained under the conditions of this experiment.

M. Maqsood

2001-01-01

142

Improving Maize Yield in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Ghana with Leguminous Cover Crops and PK Fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, Calopogonium mucunoides Des (calopo, Crotalaria juncea L (sunn hemp, C. retusa L. (devil bean and Mucuna pruriens (L DC (mucuna supplied with 17 kg haG1 of P and 33 kg haG1 of K were assessed in 1996–1997 at three locations in Northern Ghana for their dry matter production and nutrient accumulation, mineralization, as well as their effect on the yield of a succeeding maize crop. The dry matter yield of cover crops across locations ranged from 5 to 15 t haG1 with a corresponding total N accumulation of 115 to 306 kg haG1. Cover crop residue amendments increased maize grain yield 2 to 4–fold above the 1–year weed fallow control. Calopo was the best cover crop in increasing maize yield. On the other hand, devil bean, which out–performed all the other cover crops in dry matter and N accumulation, did not increase maize yield commensurate with its dry matter and N yields due to high N immobilization. Small–scale farmers in Northern Ghana can improve their maize yields by growing cover crops in rotation with their maize.

M. Fosu

2004-01-01

143

Impact of Water and Potassium Management on Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crop irrigated at 25 and 50 per cent ASMD gave 21.53 and 17.10 per cent greater grain yield ha-1 than that irrigated at 75 per cent ASMD. Application of P2O5 @ 200, 150 and 100 kg ha-1 increased grain yield by 24.50, 20.31 and 13.64 per cent, respectively over control. In general, maize irrigated at 25 per cent ASMD gave significantly higher grain starch and oil content, than that irrigated of 75 per cent ASMD, but it significantly decreased grain p...

Tariq Mahmood; Saeed, M.; Riaz Ahmad

2000-01-01

144

Evaluation of the effect of soil acidity amelioration on maize yield and nutrient interrelationships using stepwise regression and nutrient vector analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interrelationships between elemental content of selected soil and leaf nutrients and maize grain yield were evaluated in a liming experiment conducted on a Hutton and Oakleaf soil in a resource-poor farming area in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Improved uptake of Mo by maize with increased soil P status was found on the Hutton soil, while N and P uptake improved, due to lime and fertiliser application, on both soils. Boron uptake by maize was depressed with lime application ...

Jansen Rensburg, H. G.; Claassens, A. S.; Beukes, D. J.

2010-01-01

145

The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy and inorganic phosphorus (Pi and soluble proteins among 28 maize populations, consisted into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-phytic populations, with the aim to determine the potential of enhancing the P profile of maize plants and high grain yield through selection. The highest genetic variability of Pi and Pphy content in leaves was expressed in group with intermediate Pphy content in grain. Meanwhile, leaves of low-phytic populations were characterized with low Pphy, too (averagely 18% and high content of soluble proteins (averagely 15% in relation to high- and intermediate-phytic populations. Additionally, the lowest genetic variability of protein content was also noticeable in leaves of low-phytic populations. Positive correlation between Pi and protein content was observed in leaves of low- and high-phytic populations. The negative correlation between Pphy and Pi was detected in maize grain, but correlation was significant only in intermediate-phytic group. The highest, but not significant, average yield was observed in group of low-phytic populations, as well as its relative high genetic variability. That indicates that development of high yielding genotypes with lower phytate in grain is reasonable, and could be potentially useful in enhancing the sustainability and decreasing of environmental impact in agricultural production.

Dragi?evi? Vesna

2010-01-01

146

Interacción gonotipo-ambiente del rendimiento y calidad de grano y tortilla de híbridos de maíz en Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México / Genotype-environment interaction of yield and grain and tortilla quality of maize hybrids at the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente la baja productividad del maíz (Zea mays L.) en los Valles Altos del Centro de México se debe a condiciones ambientales adversas de sequía, temperatura más alta que la usual y heladas tempranas. Para aumentar la productividad es necesario desarrollar variedades estables con rendimiento a [...] lto y que cumplan con las características físicas de grano, nixtamal y tortilla que demandan las industrias procesadoras. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de la interacción genotipo x ambiente sobre el rendimiento, las características físicas del grano y la calidad de nixtamal y tortillade 20 híbridos pre-comerciales y comerciales de maíz cultivados durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2009 en seis localidades de los Valles Altos de Tlaxcala, México. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano, peso hectolítrico, peso de 100 granos (PCG), índice de flotación (IF), color de grano y harina, y la calidad de nixtamal y tortilla. Los resultados para rendimiento y características físicas del grano fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI), y los de calidad de nixtamal y tortilla bajo un diseño completamente al azar. El modelo AMMI proporcionó buena descripción de la interacción genotipo x ambiente, y de la estabilidad de los 20 híbridos. Las condiciones de siembra y las ambientales modificaron las características físicas de los híbridos, especialmente el tamaño del grano y la dureza. Huamantla y Tlatempa fueron las mejores localidades en rendimiento (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), tamaño (PCG > 33 g), dureza (IF 60 %). De los híbridos evaluados 15 cumplieron con las especificaciones de la industria de la masa y tortilla, pero ninguno cumplió las especificaciones de la industria de harina nixtamalizada. Abstract in english Currently, the low productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in the central highlands of México is due to adverse environmental conditions such as drought, higher than usual temperatures and early frosts. To increase productivity, it is necessary to develop stable maize varieties with high yield which can [...] meet the quality characteristics of grain, nixtamal and tortilla demanded by the processing industry. In this study, we determined the effect of the genotype x environment interaction on grain yield and on the physical traits of grain, nixtamal and tortilla of 20 pre-commercial and commercial maize hybrids, grown during the 2009 harvest season in six locations in the highlands of Tlaxcala, México. Grain yield, test weight, 100-grains weight (HGW), flotation index (FI), color of grain and flour, and nixtamal and tortilla quality were evaluated. The results for grain yield and grain physical traits were statistically analyzed using the model of additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI), while data of nixtamal and tortilla quality were analyzed under a completely randomized design. The AMMI model provided a good description of the genotype x environment interaction and stability of the 20 hybrids. Both planting conditions and environment induced changes on the physical characteristics of hybrids, especially the grain size and hardness. Tlatempa and Huamantla were the best localities for yield (9.8 y 8.3 t ha-1), grain size (HGW > 33 g), hardness (FI 60 %). Fifteen hybrids met the specifications for masa and tortilla industry but none met the specifications for nixtamalized flour industry.

María Gricelda, Vázquez Carrillo; David, Santiago Ramos; Yolanda, Salinas Moreno; Israel, Rojas Martínez; José L., Arellano Vázquez; Gustavo A., Velázquez Cardelas; Alejandro, Espinosa Calderón.

2012-09-01

147

The Effects of Intercropping Sowing Systems with Dry Bean and Maize on Yield and Some Yield Components  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is traditionally intercropped with maize by small-scale farmers in the Turkey. In this study, dry bean was sown with different mixed ratio (bean and maize sole crop and 2 lines maize+1 line bean, 2 lines bean+1 line maize and 2 lines maize+2 lines bean) with field maize for two years. There were significant differences between cropping systems for pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield (kg ha...

Vahdettin Ciftci; Necat Togay; Yesim Togay; Yusuf Dogan

2006-01-01

148

Residues of pirimiphos-methyl in stored maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-pirimiphos-methyl (specific activity 16.36 mCi/mmol (1 Ci = 37 GBq)) was applied to maize grains at a concentration of 5 mg/kg using the procedures described in the FAO/IAEA Model Protocol, Annex I, these Proceedings. After treatment, the maize was stored at ambient temperature (20-35 deg. C) in jute sacks lined with polythene. The surface (water soluble) and methanol extractable residues were investigated over a period of 8 months. There was a gradual increase in the methanol extractable residues and a corresponding decrease in the surface residues over the storage period. At the end of this time, the total extractable residue was 56% of the applied dose. For technical reasons no data were available for the residues bound within the grain tissues. Four types of local diet were prepared from the treated maize, these being: akple, roasted akple, kenkey and banku; some reduction in the extractable residues was observed as a result of the cooking process. (author)

149

Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

150

Influence of Post Emergence Application of Glyphosate on Weed Control Efficiency and Yield of Transgenic Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the weed control efficiency and yield potential of glyphosate resistant transgenic maize. Treatments consisted of two transgenic maize hybrids named Hishell and 900 M gold with application of glyphosate as post emergence at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/hathese were compared with non-transgenic counterpart maize hybrids with application of atrazine as pre-emergence at 0.5 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 40 Days After Sowing along with need based insect control practices. Post emergence application of glyphosate at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic maize hybrids was recorded with lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency compared to other treatments. Higher grain yield was recorded with post emergence application of glyphosate at 1800 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid 900 M Gold and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid Hishell during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 seasons, respectively.

Duraisamy Ravisankar

2013-07-01

151

Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Yield and Seed Quality of Maize (cv. Barnali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from November 2000 to May 2001 to find the effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the yield and seed quality of maize (cv. Barnali. The study included three levels of Sulphur, viz., 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 and four levels of Nitrogen, viz., 0, 60, 100 and 120 kg ha-1. Gypsum and urea were used as the sources of Sulphur and Nitrogen, respectively. The highest grain yield and 1000-grain weight were obtained with 20 kg S ha-1. The maximum no of grains/cob, the highest shelling percentage, the highest 1000-gain weight, Maximum grain yield and maximum stover yield were produced by the application of 120 N ha-1. Grain yield increased with the increasing rates of both Sulphur and Nitrogen but their interaction effects were not significant for all the quantitative characters under study. Seed quality attributes like germination percentage, vigour index, seedling shoot and root length and shoot and root dry weights were not influenced by Sulphur application. Nitrogen application had significant effect on vigour index, seedling shoot and root dry weights. The interaction between Sulphur and Nitrogen levels showed significant effect on seedling shoot and root dry weights. Maximum vigour index and root dry weights/ seedling of maize were found with 120 kg but the highest shoot dry weight/seedling was obtained with 100 kg N ha-1. Maximum shoot and root dry weights/seedling was obtained by applying 120 kg N ha-1 in combination with 20 kg S ha-1.

Muhammad Morshed Alam

2003-01-01

152

Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707). Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare wa...

Iqrar Hussain; Tariq Mahmood; Aman Ullah; Amjed Ali

1999-01-01

153

Fumonisin B1 in maize, wheat and barley grain in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A wide variety of commodities in the world have been analyzed for fumonisins contamination. However, they have mostly been reported in maize and maize-based foods and feeds. Just a few scientific researches were conducted to obtain results on natural contamination of wheat and barley with these mycotoxins. This survey was conducted to evaluate fumonisin B1 contamination in maize, wheat and barley grain in Serbia. A total of 203 maize, 180 wheat and 120 barl...

Stankovi? S.; Levi? J.; Krnjaja V.

2011-01-01

154

Mulch Induced Eco-physiological Growth and Yield of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on growth, dry matter partitioning, earliness, yield attributes and yield of maize were studied. All mulches except sawdust significantly influenced the SLA, CGR, NAR and DM partitioning, but with no apparent effect on RGR. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches hastened the tasseling, silking and maturity time by 6, 8 and 8 days respectively and produced double the amount of biological and economic yield as compared to the control and sawdust, the ash mulch behaved intermediately. Significantly higher harvest index was also observed under water hyacinth and rice straw mulches.

M. A. Awal

2000-01-01

155

Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economy of Production of Broilers Fed Maize-Grit and Brewers Dried Grain Replacing Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 28-day feeding trial involving ninety-six (96) four weeks old broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of total replacement of maize with different combination ratios of maize grit and Brewers Dried Grain (BDG) on the performance, carcass characteristics and economy of finisher broilers. Four experimental diets were formulated by substituting maize with maize grit and BDG in the ratio of T1 (0%); T2 (3:1-45 + 15); T3 (1:1-30 + 30) and T4

Anyanwu, G. A.; Iheukwumere, F. C.; Emerole, C. O.

2008-01-01

156

Maize yields hope. Reports from the field -- Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Burundi, researchers supported by IDRC have developed several high-yield varieties of maize that are resistant to the streak virus. Although previously more prevalent at low altitudes, the virus, which is carried by a leafhopper (Cicadulina spp.), has increased its affects at higher altitudes. A maize improvement program was established in 1978, with IDRC help, by ISABU, the national agricultural research institute of Burundi; however, the local and foreign maize varieties that were tested were poorly adapted to local conditions and succumbed to the streak virus. Also, farmers preferred a crop that would be ready to harvest in 4-5 because two crops a year would be possible. In 1985, Dr. Dunstan Malithano, a Malawian researcher who had previously worked for IDRC in Mozambique, joined the team. He changed the emphasis to improving local maize populations; superior varieties were being distributed within two years. By 1989, three high-yield varieties resistant to streak disease had been developed; Mugamba 1 and Isega 1 were appropriate for the high and medium altitude areas, and Imbo 1 was appropriate for the lake shores and Imbo plains. Imbo 1 could also be used for making beer, and Dr. Malithano negotiated with the brewery to multiply his improved varieties. Enough seed was produced by the brewery in one year for a limited number of farmers who, in turn, produced 43 tons of seed. This was sold to farmers throughout the Rift Valley who sold their crop back to the brewery. By 1994, 80% of all Burundi maize growers were using these varieties successfully. Kenyan farmers are now interested, and Burundi researchers have been trained to take over the breeding program completely. PMID:12290329

Ker, A

1997-01-01

157

Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

Ocaya, Cp; Adipala, E.; Osiru, Dso

2001-01-01

158

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG MAIZE GENOTyPES ON CAROTENOID CONTENTS IN GRAINS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biofortification is an efficient alternative in helping to combat micronutrient deficiencies in the human population. In maize, breeding programs aim to obtain materials with high contents of Fe, Zn and pro-vitamin A (carotenoids which require preliminary studies of genetic diversity among entries. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence among maize varieties for content and profile of carotenoids in grains. Data from the National Maize Variety Tests were used, from the 2004/2005 growing season. A total of ten genotypes were evaluated in two environments. Total carotenoids (TC, a and ?-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-criptoxantina, the sum of carotenoids precursors of vitamin A (total of ?-caroteno + ½ of a-caroteno + ½ of ?-criptoxantina = Pro-VA and grain yield were evaluated. Carotenoid levels were relatively low in the evaluated varieties, compared to those reported in the literature for elite-lines. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the most contributing characters to the genetic diversity among genotypes. The environmental effect on trait expression raises questions about the validity of diversity analysis in a single environment, emphasizing the need for studies to be conducted in multiple environmental conditions.

SARA DE ALMEIDA RIOS

2010-12-01

159

Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020, in response to detasseling (with or without tassel. A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids defined as plots and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ from each other on the dry matter mass and number of tassel branches. In E1 (baby corn production at 180 thousand plants ha-1, for both hybrids, the following effects were observed due to detasseling: a an increase in ear total number, in ear total weight, in marketable unhusked ears number and in marketable unhusked ears weight; b no change was observed in the number and weight of marketable husked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for weight of marketable husked ears, but the two hybrids did not differ in other traits utilized to evaluate baby corn yield. In E2 (green ear yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1, detasseling did not change the following traits in both hybrids: total number and weight of ears; number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and marketable husked ear weight. Detasseling reduced the number of marketable husked ears in cultivar AG 1051, but not in BRS 2020. The two hybrids did not differ in total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 in regard to the total ears weight, marketable unhusked ears weight and number and weight of marketable husked ears. In E3 (grain yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1, detasseling did not affect grain yield (RG and hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for grain yield.Três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3 foram realizados em Mossoró-RN com o objetivo de se avaliar, respectivamente, os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho (AG 1051 e BRS 2020, em resposta ao despendoamento (com e sem pendão. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas (cultivares nas parcelas e dez repetições. Os três experimentos foram plantados no mesmo dia e em áreas vizinhas. Os híbridos não diferiram, nos três experimentos, quanto à massa da matéria seca e quanto ao número de ramificações do pendão. Em E1 (produção de minimilho na densidade de 180 mil plantas ha-1, em ambos os híbridos, os seguintes efeitos foram observados devido ao despendoamento: um aumento no número e peso totais de espigas e no número e peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis; b nenhuma mudança foi observada no número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao híbrido BRS 2020 quanto ao peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, mas os dois híbridos não diferiram quanto às outras características utilizadas para avaliar o rendimento de minimilho. Em E2 (produção de espigas verdes na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1, o despendoamento não alterou as seguintes características em ambos os híbridos: números e pesos totais de espigas e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O despendoamento reduziu o número de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis no híbrido AG 1051, mas não em BRS 2020. Os híbridos não diferiram quanto aos números total e de espigas verdes empalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao BRS 2020 quanto aos pesos total e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e quanto ao número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. Em E3 (produção de grãos na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1, o despendoamento não afetou o rendimento de grãos e o híbrido AG 1051 foi superior quanto ao RG.

Joserlan N Moreira

2010-12-01

160

IBIS Yield and Nitrate Loss Predictions for Maize Agroecosystems Receiving Varied N-Fertilizer  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture in the Midwest US faces the formidable challenge of improving crop productivity, while simultaneously mitigating the environmental consequences of intense management. This study examined the simultaneous response of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching losses and maize (Zea mays L.) yield to varied fertilizer-N management using field observations and the IBIS model. The model was validated against 6 yr of field observations in maize plots receiving an optimal (180 kg N/ha) fertilizer-N application and in N-unfertilized plots on a silt loam soil near Arlington, Wisconsin. Predicted values of grain yield, harvest index, plant N uptake, residue C:N ratio, LAI, grain-N, and drainage were within 20% of observations. However, simulated NO3-N leaching losses, NO3-N concentrations, and net N-mineralization exhibited less interannual variability than observations, and had higher levels of error (20-65%). Potential impacts of 30% higher (234 kg N/ha) and 30% lower (126 kg N/ha) fertilizer-N use (from optimal) on NO3-N leaching loss and maize yield were simulated. A 30% increase in fertilizer-N use increased annual NO3-N leaching by 56%, while yield increased by only 1%. The NO3-N concentration in the leachate solution at 1.4 m below the soil surface was 30.7 mg/L. When fertilizer-N use was reduced by 30% (from optimal), annual NO3-N leaching losses declined by 42% after 7 years, and annual average yield only decreased by 8%. However, NO3-N concentration in the leachate solution remained above 10 mg/L (11.3 mg/L). Clearly, non-linear relationships existed between changes in fertilizer use and NO3-N leaching losses over time. Simulated changes in NO3-N leaching were greater in magnitude than fertilizer-N use changes.

Kucharik, C. J.; Brye, K. R.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Application of a stability statistic to international maize yield trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genotype x environment (GE) interaction encountered in experiments complicates genotype selection and varietal recommendation. The integration of yield and stability of genotypes into a single parameter may make selection and recommendation easier. Kang developed a rank-sum method that allows selection for both yield and the stability variance statistics (? i (2) or s i (2) ) of Shukla. The objective of this research was to compare the rank-sum selection method to selection based on yield alone in five international maize (Zea mays L.) yield trials. Ranks were assigned for yield (the highest mean yield received a rank of 1) and for ? i (2) and s i (2) (the lowest value received a rank of 1). The yield and ? i (2) ranks and/or the yield and s i (2) ranks for each genotype were summed. Each trial contained two reference entries (REs). Yield rank or rank-sum of each genotype was compared to yield rank or rank-sum of the best RE (BRE). GE interaction was significant for all trials. Heterogeneity in the GE interaction due to the linear effect of a covariate (differences in fertility and/or cultural practices) was significant in Trials 1, 2, and 5. Overall, in all trials, 29 genotypes were selected on the basis of yield alone. On the basis of ? i (2) and yield rank-sum, 32 genotypes were identified, with 11 being lower yielding than the 29 yield-based selections. On the basis of s i (2) and yield rank-sum, 31 genotypes were selected, with 11 being lower yielding than the yield-bases selections. Obviously, yield is sacrificed when the rank-sum method is used in the selection process. However, selection based on yield alone may not be adequate when GE interaction is significant because of testing in diverse environments. PMID:24221198

Kang, M S; Gorman, D P; Pham, H N

1991-02-01

162

Alley Cropping Gliricidia sepium with Maize: 1. The Effect of Hedgerow Spacing, Pruning Height and Phosphorus Application Rate on Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 1996 farming season sprouted Gliricidia sepium seedlings were planted at three hedgerow spacing (alley width to investigate the appropriate spacing, pruning height and phosphorus application rate that could improve and sustain soil fertility and increase crop production. The 3-hedgerow spacing (4, 6 and 8 m was established as the main plot. Hedgerow spacing significantly influenced the quantity of Gliricidia biomass applied. In the farming seasons of 1997 and 1998 three pruning height (50, 100 and 150 cm were imposed on the hedgerow spacing and three rates of phosphorus (0, 20 and 40 kg P ha ha-1 were applied. Maize (Zea mays was planted as a test crop in the first week of June each year. Pruned Gliricidia biomass yield was in a decreasing order of 150>100>50 cm pruning height. In a good rainfall year as in 1997 the 4 m hedgerow spacing significantly out yielded the 8 m hedgerow spacing, while in a relatively low rainfall year as in 1998 the 6 m hedgerow spacing gave the highest grain yield. In both years maize stover and grain yield followed closely the amount of pruned biomass applied per treatment. Application of 20 kg P ha ha-1 resulted in significant increase in maize dry matter yield.

A. Abunyewa

2004-01-01

163

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Pods per plant, 100 grain weight and branches per plant were the most important determinants of grain yield.

Syed Arif Hussain Shah

2000-01-01

164

Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg...

Okogun, J. A.; Sanginga, N.; Abaidoo, R. C.

2007-01-01

165

Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in diallel cross of maize (zea maysl.) in f/sub 2/ generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genetic analysis was carried out for six maize cultivars and their 30 F/sub 2/ crosses under agro-climatic conditions at Agricultural Research Institute of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences among parents and their F/sub 2/ progeny for all the parameters. The genetic analysis revealed that the characters Viz ; kernels/ear, kernels rows/ear, kernels/row, ear length, 1000 grain weight and grain yield have shown additive type gene action. According to regression analysis, the non-significant deviation of the regression line from unit slope indicated the absence of non-allelic interaction, which was presented in all the characters. (author)

166

The effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM) applied every second year on maize grown for grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Recently, due to the detection of cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, it has become necessary to use animal meals differently. The EU Council Decision of 4 December 2000 forbade use of processed animal protein to make feeds for cattle, swine, and poultry. Meat and bone meal (M [...] BM) is rich in macro- and microelements as well as in organic substance, and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers containing N and P. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of MBM applied every second year as an organic fertilizer on maize (Tea mays L.) grown for grain. A two-factorial field experiment with a randomized block design was carried out in 20102011, in north-eastern Poland. Experimental factor I was MBM dose (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 Mg ha-1 applied every second year), and experimental factor II was the year of the study (two consecutive years). Increasing MBM doses applied every second year increased maize grain yield and improved grain plumpness, in comparison with mineral fertilization. The highest yield-forming effect was observed when MBM was applied at 3 Mg ha-1. Macronutrient uptake by maize plants and macronutrient concentrations in maize grain were affected by the year of the study rather than MBM dose. The results of a 2-yr experiment indicate that MBM is a valuable source of N and P for maize grown for grain, and that it is equally or more effective when compared with mineral fertilizers.

Anna, Nogalska; Matgorzata, Skwierawska; Zenon, Nogalski; Monika, Kaszuba.

2013-12-01

167

[Effects of reduced N application rate on yield and nutrient uptake and utilization in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with three N application rates (0, 180, 240 N kg x hm(-2), representing zero, reduced and conventional N application, respectively) and three planting patterns (maize monoculture, soybean monoculture and maize-soybean relay strip intercropping) was conducted to reveal the effects of cropping patterns and N application rates on yield, nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of maize and soybean. The results showed that the grain yield, N, P and K uptake and harvest index of the intercropped maize reduced slightly compared with the monoculture maize, however these indices of the intercropped soybean increased significantly compared with the monoculture. With the increase in nitrogen fertilizer application, the excellence of relay strip intercropping was weakened in the maize-soybean intercropping system. The grain yield, economic coefficient, N, P and K uptake, harvest index, N agronomy efficiency and N uptake efficiency of maize and soybean increased significantly at the reduced nitrogen rate (180 N kg x hm(-2)), but the rate of soil N contribution declined, compared with the conventional rate of N application by local farmers (240 N kg x hm(-2)). In the reduced nitrogen rate treatment, total soil N and P contents of the maize strip reduced, whereas the total soil N, P and K contents of soybean strip and the total K content of maize strip increased compared with the zero N application treatment. With the reduced N application, the annual total grain yield, N, P and K uptake of above-ground biomass in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system were higher than in the monoculture, and the land equivalent ratio (LER) was 2.28. N uptake efficiency of maize in the relay strip intercropping system was 20.2% higher than in the maize monoculture, and the index of soybean was 30.5% lower than in the monoculture. The rate of soil N contribution in the relay strip intercropping system was 20.0% and 8.8% lower than in the maize and soybean monoculture, respectively. The reduced N application in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system was helpful to promote annual grain yield and improve N utilization efficiency. PMID:24830248

Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wen-Yu, Liu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

2014-02-01

168

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD IN DURUM WHEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 period, with the objective of estimating the associations between yield and yield-related traits and to identify direct effects of characters for durum wheat grain yield improvement. The experimental material consisted of 20 durum wheat genotypes, which are randomly taken from the germoplasm collection. Significant genotypic differences (P<0.01 were observed for all the traits studied, indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. Grain yield had strong positive correlations (P<0.01 with plant height, number of kernels spike-1, grain yield plant-1, biological yield and thousand-kernel weight. On the other hand, grain yield had strong negative correlation (p< 0.01 with days to heading, suggesting the usefulness of selecting early heading genotypes with long grain filling period in improving grain yield. The remaining traits recorded moderate to low phenotypic and genotypic estimates. The maximum positive direct effect on grain yield was exerted by biological yield (0.99 followed by days to maturity (0.89 and harvest index (0.73. While, maximum negative direct effects were exerted by days to heading (-0.81 and grain filling period (-0.68. Therefore, days to heading, biological yield and harvest index could be used as an indirect selection criterion for better grain yield. Thus, selecting early heading genotypes having high biological yield and harvest index could improve grain yield.

F. Kashta

2011-04-01

169

Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping w...

Dong, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Dai, T.; Boer, W.; Qi, J.; Cao, W.

2006-01-01

170

The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

Van?etovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

171

Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balali?-Kraljevi? Marija

2006-01-01

172

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND GRAIN YIELD FOR SOYBEAN CULTIVARS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grain yield components are important indicators of the grain yield level of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). The objective of this study was to estimate the efficiency and reliability of soybean yield components as selection criteria for grain yield and to evaluate agronomic value of domestic soybean cultivars as potential parents in hybridizations for further genetic improvement of soybean grain yield. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of The Agricultural Institute Osijek ov...

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Tomislav Duvnjak

2002-01-01

173

Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids / Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3) foram realizados em Mossoró-RN com o objetivo de se avaliar, respectivamente, os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho (AG 1051 e BRS 2020), em resposta ao despendoamento (com e sem pendão). O delineamento experimental foi de [...] blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas (cultivares nas parcelas) e dez repetições. Os três experimentos foram plantados no mesmo dia e em áreas vizinhas. Os híbridos não diferiram, nos três experimentos, quanto à massa da matéria seca e quanto ao número de ramificações do pendão. Em E1 (produção de minimilho na densidade de 180 mil plantas ha-1), em ambos os híbridos, os seguintes efeitos foram observados devido ao despendoamento: um aumento no número e peso totais de espigas e no número e peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis; b) nenhuma mudança foi observada no número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao híbrido BRS 2020 quanto ao peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, mas os dois híbridos não diferiram quanto às outras características utilizadas para avaliar o rendimento de minimilho. Em E2 (produção de espigas verdes na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não alterou as seguintes características em ambos os híbridos: números e pesos totais de espigas e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O despendoamento reduziu o número de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis no híbrido AG 1051, mas não em BRS 2020. Os híbridos não diferiram quanto aos números total e de espigas verdes empalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao BRS 2020 quanto aos pesos total e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e quanto ao número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. Em E3 (produção de grãos na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não afetou o rendimento de grãos e o híbrido AG 1051 foi superior quanto ao RG. Abstract in english Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3) were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020), in response to detasseling (with or without tassel). A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids def [...] ined as plots) and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ from each other on the dry matter mass and number of tassel branches. In E1 (baby corn production at 180 thousand plants ha-1), for both hybrids, the following effects were observed due to detasseling: a) an increase in ear total number, in ear total weight, in marketable unhusked ears number and in marketable unhusked ears weight; b) no change was observed in the number and weight of marketable husked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for weight of marketable husked ears, but the two hybrids did not differ in other traits utilized to evaluate baby corn yield. In E2 (green ear yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not change the following traits in both hybrids: total number and weight of ears; number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and marketable husked ear weight. Detasseling reduced the number of marketable husked ears in cultivar AG 1051, but not in BRS 2020. The two hybrids did not differ in total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 in regard to the total ears weight, marketable unhusked ears weight and number and weight of marketable husked ears. In E3 (grain yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not affect grain yield (RG) and hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for grain yield.

Joserlan N, Moreira; Paulo Sérgio L, Silva; Kathia MB, Silva; Jeferson LD, Dombroski; Renato S, Castro.

2010-12-01

174

Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

Nikoli? Ana

2011-01-01

175

A dynamic risk assessment model (FUMAgrain) of fumonisin synthesis by Fusarium verticillioides in maize grain in Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fumonisin contamination of maize grain starts in the field. Forecasting Fusarium infection and fumonisin synthesis could allow operators in the field to control contamination during the growing season and to make the best agronomic decisions for high quality yields while respecting the limits imposed by the European Union. A research project to develop a decision support system for the control of field-phase fumonisin contamination began in Italy in 2003. This paper presents a preliminary ver...

Reyneri, Amedeo; Maiorano, Andrea; Sacco, Dario

2009-01-01

176

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG MAIZE GENOTyPES ON CAROTENOID CONTENTS IN GRAINS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biofortification is an efficient alternative in helping to combat micronutrient deficiencies in the human population. In maize, breeding programs aim to obtain materials with high contents of Fe, Zn and pro-vitamin A (carotenoids) which require preliminary studies of genetic diversity among entries. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence among maize varieties for content and profile of carotenoids in grains. Data from the National Maize Variety Tests were used, from the ...

SARA DE ALMEIDA RIOS; ALUÍZIO BORÉM; PAULO EVARISTO DE OLIVEIRA GUIMARÃES; MARIA CRISTINA DIAS PAES

2010-01-01

177

Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterize the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (ca. 40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ca. 20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought stress were reduced by ca. 15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought-stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for studies examining genetic and physiological crop responses to environmental stresses. PMID:24038882

Harrison, Matthew T; Tardieu, François; Dong, Zhanshan; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L

2014-03-01

178

Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumán, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

E, Viruel; L. E, Erazzú; L, Martínez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Siñeriz.

179

Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumán, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

E, Viruel; L. E, Erazzú; L, Martínez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Siñeriz.

2014-12-01

180

Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams) were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive a...

Amanpour-balaneji, Bahman; Sedghi, Mohammad

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Deficit hídrico e produtividade na cultura do milho / Water deficit and yield in maize crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto do deficit hídrico, no rendimento de grãos de milho, e a eficácia da irrigação em todo ciclo e, especificamente, no florescimento. Os dados foram obtidos em dez anos de experimentação, durante os quais doses variáveis de irrigação foram aplicadas por u [...] m sistema de aspersão, localizado no centro da área experimental. Foram calculados balanços hídricos, tendo como variáveis a água precipitada (chuva e irrigação) e a evapotranspiração máxima do milho. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão para 27 condições hídricas, relacionando-se rendimento de grãos com deficit hídrico e razão evapotranspiração real sobre evapotranspiração máxima (ETr/ETm). A maior redução na produção ocorre em conseqüência do deficit hídrico na polinização, formação do zigoto e desenvolvimento inicial do grão, numa relação quadrática. Nesse período, a razão ETr/ETm explica quase 80% das variações na produção de grãos, que se estabiliza acima de uma razão de 0,7. A irrigação aumenta e estabiliza a produção do milho; doses de rega de aproximadamente 60% daquela necessária para elevar a umidade do solo à capacidade de campo aumentam a eficiência de uso da irrigação. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of water deficit on maize grain yield, as well as the irrigation effectiveness, considering all the crop cycle and, specifically, the flowering period. Data were collected during ten years in several experiments, in which variable doses of irriga [...] tion were applied by an aspersion system located in the center of the experimental area. Water balances were calculated, and the precipitated water (rainfall and irrigation) and the maximum evapotranspiration of the maize were considered as inputs. Models of regression for 27 water conditions were adjusted, relating grain yield to water deficit and actual evapotranspiration to maximum evapotranspiration ratio (ETr/ETm). The highest reduction on grain production occurred in consequence of the water deficit during pollination, zygote formation and initial development of the grain, with a quadratic relation. For this period, the ratio ETr/ETm explains almost 80% of the variations in grain yields, stabilizing over a ratio of 0.7. The irrigation increases and stabilizes the maize production; doses of irrigation of approximately 60% of that necessary to rise soil moisture up to field capacity increase the efficiency of use of the irrigation.

Homero, Bergamaschi; Genei Antonio, Dalmago; Flávia, Comiran; João Ito, Bergonci; Artur Gustavo, Müller; Solange, França; Antonio Odair, Santos; Bernadete, Radin; Cleusa Adriane Menegassi, Bianchi; Pedro Gabert, Pereira.

2006-02-01

182

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf) was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%)  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55%) and ba...

Jongman M, Khare Kb And Khonga Eb

2013-01-01

183

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

2014-01-01

184

Source limitation, nitrogen topdressing and seed yield relationship in different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize has now become an important staple food. In Iran, maize in its many forms, is included as a part of the diet of many people. This experiment was done in 2010 to evaluate the effects of nitrogen topdressing on source limitation, seed yield and yield components of different cultivars of maize. The experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch (Isfahan). It was a split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block ...

Et Al, Jafartayari D.

2012-01-01

185

Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

186

Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

Silva Ricardo Machado da

2003-01-01

187

Growth and Yield Performance of Cassava/Maize Intercrop Under Different Plant Population Density of Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiments involving cassava/maize intercrops under different plant population densities of maize were conducted during 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons on the research farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training situated at Ilora, Nigeria (7o 22? N, 3o 52? E). Results obtained in 2002 and 2003 consistently showed that increases in plant population density of maize in maize/cassava intercrop directly increased maize plant height at tasselling, pla...

Adeniyan, O. N.; Aluko, O. A.; Olanipekun, S. O.; Olasoji, J. O.; Aduramigba-modupe, V. O.

2014-01-01

188

Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

189

Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear [...] insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha). There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

Karoline Guedes, Araújo; Severino Delmar Junqueira, Villela; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Patrícia Monteiro, Costa; Leonardo de Oliveira, Fernandes; Wagner Pessanha, Tamy; Vinícius Raimundi, Andrade.

1539-15-01

190

Controle químico da Cercosporiose, Mancha-Branca e dos Grãos Ardidos em milho / Chemical control of gray leaf spot, white spot and rot grain in maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de fungicida, no controle da Cercosporiose e da Mancha-Branca do milho, e suas consequências na produtividade de grãos e na incidência de grãos ardidos, além de estabelecer a relação existente entre a produtividade de grão [...] s e a severidade dessas doenças. Dois experimentos distintos (com Azoxystrobina + Cyproconazole e tratamento controle) foram conduzidos em três locais, no ano agrícola de 2007/2008. Utilizaram-se 12 híbridos comerciais de milho, que foram avaliados em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizadas cinco avaliações da severidade das doenças Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca, por meio de escala de notas, variando de 1 (altamente resistente) a 9 (altamente susceptível). Estimou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD). A aplicação de fungicida é eficiente no controle de doenças foliares e na redução da incidência de grãos ardidos, além de proporcionar 12% de aumento na produtividade de grãos, em relação à do tratamento controle. As doenças foliares Cercosporiose e Mancha-Branca reduzem a produtividade de grãos de milho e essa redução é maior quando as doenças ocorrem mais precocemente. A Cercosporiose provoca maior redução na produtividade de grãos, quando comparada com a Mancha-Branca. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and rot grain, as well as to establish the relationship between grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cros [...] s hybrids were evaluated in a randomized block design with three repetitions. Five evaluations of disease severity (maize white spot and maize gray leaf spot) were performed using scale-visual symptoms, with scores ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). In addition, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was estimated. Fungicide application is effective in the control of maize leaf diseases, and the experiments without control of the diseases had grain yield lower than that of the experiments with control, with a reduction of 1.2 t.ha-1 (12.3%) on average. The fungicide application had a positive effect in the control of rot grains, with a reduction of 2.6% on average. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduce the maize grain yield and this reduction is greater when diseases occur earlier. Gray leaf spot causes a greater reduction in grain yield compared with white spot.

André Humberto, Brito; Renzo Garcia, Von Pinho; José Luiz de Andrade Rezende, Pereira; Marcio, Balestre.

2013-10-01

191

Evaluation of Combining Ability and Heterosis for Yield and its Components Traits of Five Maize Inbreds under Normal and Stress Nitrogen Fertilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A half diallel cross among 5 inbred lines of maize was evaluated under two different nitrogen rates for yield and yield components characters i.e., ears No. plant-1, ear length, ear diameter, 100-kernel weight, grain yield plant-1 and shelling percentage to evaluate the role of GCA and SCA of inbred lines in hybrids performance under normal and stress of nitrogen levels and to establish the magnitude of heterosis. Mean squares of genotypes w...

Abdel-moneam, M. A.; Sultan, M. S.; Salama, S. M. G.; El Oraby, A. M.

2014-01-01

192

The Effects of Rate and Placement of Boma Manure on Maize Yield in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A six session study on the response of maize to boma manure was conducted on farmer's field in Wamuyu, Machakos District in the Eastern province of Kenya to; a) determine the yield response of maize to application of boma manure in the 0-100 t ha-1 range, b)evaluate the benefits of banding of boma manure as compared with broadcasting, c)determine the residual response to boma manure application; d)compare the response of boma manure with that of inorganic fertiliser. The soil on the experimental site was a well drained ,dark red, loamy sand with an average of 16.64 mg kg-1 extractable P and 0.065 % total N in the 0-1 cm depth. Maize grain yield and total dry matter markedly increased with increasing rates of boma manure while placement method and interaction between placement and rate of application effect. A combined analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in grain yield above the rate of 40 t ha -1 of manure. Using inorganic fertiliser at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 + 20 kg P ha-1 was found to be the best option in terms of economic benefits. The residual effects of the manure were, however, still very evident in the last season, indicating that more benefits would have been obtained from manure over a number of succeeding seasons, especially from the high rates (60-100 t ha-1)

193

Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from ...

Piens Kathleen; Ståhlberg Jerry; Sandgren Mats; Eriksson Anna; Passoth Volkmar; Schnürer Johan

2009-01-01

194

Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butro?n Go?mez, Ana Mari?a; A?lvarez Rodri?guez, A?ngel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea Gonza?lez, Mari?a Elena; Revilla Temin?o, Pedro; Orda?s Pe?rez, Amando

2007-01-01

195

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

Henry De-Graft Acquah

2012-10-01

196

Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

Bahman AMANPOUR-BALANEJI

2010-09-01

197

YIELD POTENTIAL AND VARIABILITY OF TWO MAIZE COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 1994/95 season, 1272 accesses of the Active Maize Germplasm Bank (CENARGEN-EMBRAPA were evaluated in several locations previously chosen to assure incidence of leaf diseases caused by Phaeosphaeria maydis and Exserohilum turcicum. Two composite populations named RPM (Resistant to P. maydis and RET (Resistant to E. turcicum were synthesized after recombination of 46 and 34 accesses, respectively. After two generations of recombination, a sample of 300 open pollinated ears (half-sib families was chosen from each population. Families were evaluated in Anhembi (SP in the 1999/00 season in six experiments with 50 families representing each population. The hybrid Master (Novartis Seeds was used as check. The additive genetic variance ( 2 A and the coefficient of heritability ( 2 F h were estimated for ear yield, plant height and ear height. Mean yield of the RPM composite was 5.707 t ha-1 (77% of the hybrid check. Plant and ear height means were 19.4% and 36.3% higher than check. Parameters of variability were high with estimates of 2 A and 2 F h of 554.73 (g/pl2 and 0.58, respectively. Mean yield of the RET composite was 4.393 t ha-1 (56.7% of the hybrid check. For plant and ear height, means were slightly lower than check. In the RET composite the variability for yield was less expressive with estimates of 195.58 (g/pl2 and 0.40 respectively.

JOSÉ BRANCO DE MIRANDA FILHO

2003-08-01

198

Genetics and statistical association between lethal alleles and quantitative yield factors in maize (Zea mays l.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los procesos genéticos relacionados con el vigor híbrido (heterosis) y la identificación de QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) en el maíz. Para obtener los resultados, se construyó un modelo biométrico usando los formalismos relacionados a las cadenas absorbentes [...] discretas de Markov en forma canónica, con el fin de analizar la evolución de segmentos cromosómicos, con genes recesivos letales ligados con factores de rendimiento en grano a través de las sucesivas generaciones. El rendimiento en grano obtenido de una línea de maíz regulada por un sistema de letales balanceados y otras líneas sin este sistema como testigo, se evaluó durante 5 generaciones de endocría. El uso de la teoría de las cadenas de Markov con el fin de estudiar la evolución durante estas generaciones fue una aproximación diferente a los métodos matemáticos clásicos. Abstract in english The objective of this work is to study the genetic process related to the hybrid vigour (heterosis) and the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in maize. A biometric model was built using the mathematical formalism relating to the discrete absorbent Markov chain in canonical form, in ord [...] er to analyse the evolution of chromosome segments, with recessive lethal genes linked with grain yield factors through generations. The grain yield obtained from an inbred maize line regulated by a balanced lethal system, and other lines without this system as control, were evaluated during five inbreeding generations. The use of the Markov chain theory for the study of evolution during these generations was a different approach of the classical mathematical ones.

Juan Carlos, Salerno; Mariana, Kandus; R., Boggio Ronceros; O., Sorarrain; Cecilia, González; David, Almorza.

2007-06-01

199

Improving yield and nitrogen nutrition of maize (zea mays, L) through azotobacterization and sulphur fertilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment was conducted in plastic pots each, containing 20 kg soil to study the effect of sulphur (20, 40, 60 kg S/ha) and azotobacter inoculation alone and in combination on the yield and nutrition of maize (cv. Azam). A basal dose of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and potash (K/sub 2/O) at 40, 80, 40 kg/ha was applied to each pot. The results revealed that increasing rates of sulphur application significantly improved the total biomass yield by 31.4 to 34.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 61.0 to 65.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. The effect of sulphur application in improving the total biomass and biomass N yield of maize was statistically at par with that of azotobacter inoculation alone. Application to sulphur at all the applied levels along with azotobacter inoculation further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 66.0 to 70.0 percent and total biomass N yield by 99.0 to 104.0 percent as compared to control receiving no sulphur or azotobacter. Azotobacterization of maize in the presence of sulphur fertilization further improved significantly the total biomass yield by 24.1 to 29.0 percent and total biomass N yield of maize by 13.0 to 17.0 percent as compared to control receiving azotobacter alone. Inoculation of maize with azotobacter alone or in combination with sulphur markedly stimulated the azotobacter population in the root rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (fic soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil sulphur alone had no effect in stimulating the azotobacter population in the rhizospheric soil as compared to non-rhizospheric (free) soil of maize plant. Azotobacterization of maize alone or in the presence of sulphur fertilization significantly improved the maize height. (author)

200

Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from caro...

Rafael da Silva Messias; Vanessa Galli; Silva, Se?rgio Delmar Dos Anjos E.; Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Variability of pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. originating from maize and wheat grains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti), originating from maize kernels (61) and wheat grains (32), were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest...

Sonja Tan?i?; Slavica Stankovi?; Jelena Levi?

2009-01-01

202

An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during...

Stevanovi? Milan; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana; Dragi?evi? Vesna; Camdžija Zoran; Filipovi? Milomir; Veli?kovi? Nevena; Stankovi? Goran

2012-01-01

203

Influence of Different Osmopriming Treatments on Emergency and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor crop establishment can be major constrain to produce crop yield in marginal soils. The present study, was designed to investigate the effect of osmopriming on emergence and yield of maize (Zea mays L.. For osmopriming seeds were treated in aerated solutions of KNO3, KH2PO4 and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000 for 24 under room condition. Osmotic potential of the solutions were 0 (control, -0.5, -1.0 and -1.5 MPa. Control seeds were not treated. After osmopriming operation seeds were given 3 surfaces washing with distilled water then re-dried to near original weight under shad. Results showed grain and biological yields and some yield components affected by osmopriming treatments. Our results indicated solution kind and osmotic potential effected above characters. We obtain osmopriming of maize (Zea mays L. seeds with polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8000 at -0.5 MPa osmotic potential improved emergency, grain and biological yields compared with other treatments.

2008-01-01

204

QUANTITATIVE GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND GRAIN YIELD FOR SOYBEAN CULTIVARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain yield components are important indicators of the grain yield level of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill. The objective of this study was to estimate the efficiency and reliability of soybean yield components as selection criteria for grain yield and to evaluate agronomic value of domestic soybean cultivars as potential parents in hybridizations for further genetic improvement of soybean grain yield. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of The Agricultural Institute Osijek over five years, from 1996 to 2000. The study involved 14 domestic soybean cultivars (cv. ranging maturity groups 0 to II. Mean values, coefficient of variation and broad-sense heritability were calculated for grain yield and the following yield components: plant height (cm, number of plant-1fertile nodes, plant-1 pod number, plant-1seed number, plant-1 of seeds weight (g, plant-1 harvest index (% and 1000 seed weight (g. Path-coefficient analysis was applied to determine the effects of analyzed yield components on grain yield. The obtained results of quantitative genetic analysis showed that components weight and number of plant-1seeds had the lowest variability, the highest heritability and the highest positive direct effect on grain yield among analyzed yield components. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Ika had the highest mean for both yield components. The obtained results suggest that the indirect selection for higher soybean grain yield using the yield components, seed weight and number of seeds per plant was more efficient and more reliable than selection over the other yield components. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Ika appeared to be the most suitable as a parent in future hybridizations to achieve further genetic advance in soybean grain yield.

Aleksandra Sudari?

2002-12-01

205

IMPACT OF OZONE ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Grain sorghum(sorghum vulgare Pers.) is an important animal feed crop, and it is sometimes planted as a substitute for field corn. Although sorghum is grown in areas of the central and southern U.S. where potentially damaging concentrations of 03 exist, no data are available rega...

206

Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

2012-05-01

207

Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage per...

Gueye, Mt; Goergen, G.; Ndiaye, S.; Asiedu, Ea; Wathelet, Jp; Lognay, G.; Seck, D.

2013-01-01

208

Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I Three Year Yield Performances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006 field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

Vincenzo Tabaglio

209

Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I Three Year Yield Performances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006 field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

Carolina Gavazzi

2011-02-01

210

Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of maize in loess plateau of northwest china  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China. (author)

211

Gene Action for Yield and Morpho-Physiological Traits in Maize (Zea mays L. Inbred Lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of 28 hybrids generated by crossing 8 diverse and new maize inbred lines in a half diallel fashion. The estimated value of average degree of dominance (H1/D0.5 revealed that non-additive genetic effects was more pronounced in the inheritance of days to 50 per cent maturity, anthesis-silking interval and grain yield per plant. On contrary, additive genetic effects was evident for days to 50 per cent tasseling and days to 50 per cent silking. The distribution of positive and negative genes were not too distant  for the traits viz., days to 50 per cent tasseling, days to 50 per cent  silking and grain yield per plant. Dominance to recessive genes ratio [4DH1]0.5 + F / [4DH1]0.5- F ranged from one to two, indicating that excess of dominant genes against one recessive genes were not much higher. The results indicated that most traits were under the genetic control of non-additive (over dominance type of gene action, therefore the material can easily be exploited for heterotic effect.

T. Sandeep Kumar

2012-03-01

212

Micronutrient and functional compounds biofortification of maize grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize, in addition to being the main staple food in many countries, is used in the production of hundreds of products. It is rich in compounds with potential benefits to health, such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and minerals that act as cofactors for antioxidant enzymes. Many of these compounds have been neglected thus far in the scientific literature. Nevertheless, deficiencies in the precursors of vitamin A and some minerals, such as iron and zinc, in maize, in association with the great genetic variability in its cultivars and our genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic knowledge of this species make targeted biofortification strategies for maize promising. This review discusses the potential of the main microconstituents found in maize with a focus on studies aimed at biofortification. PMID:24915397

Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos E; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Rombaldi, César Valmor

2015-01-01

213

Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses on maize yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Daytime sprinkler irrigation with a solid-set system can result in higher water losses, lower uniformity, and lower maize (Zea mays L.) yield compared with nighttime irrigation. We studied the relevance of irrigation time (daytime or nighttime) and water losses (compensating them or not in the irrigation applied) for the growth and yield of maize during 2 yr. The seasonal average sprinkler water losses compensated ranged from 14 to 19% for daytime irrigation and from 5 to 11% for nighttime ir...

Urrego-pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Marti?nez-cob, Antonio; Cavero Campo, Jose?

2013-01-01

214

Effects of Water Saving Materials on Soil Physical Characters and Maize Yield in Loess Plateau  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the comparison of soil aggregates, soil bulk density and total porosity, soil water content and maize yield were made among four water saving materials in Qingshuihe County of Inner Mongolia, the results showed that all the four water saving materials can change soil aggregates, increase soil total porosity, soil water content and maize yield, the order of their effects is treatment A (using PAA) >treatment B (using PAM) >treatment D (using bentonite) >treatment C (using humic ...

Xia Liu; Lu Tian; Jinghui Liu; Xiaoxia Guo; Lijun Li

2013-01-01

215

Relationship Between Rapid Canopy Closure and Grain Yield in Wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to determine the relationship between rapid canopy closure and grain yield in wheat and to identify the traits that affect rapid canopy closure, a research was conducted using 5 wheat cultivars (Atrak, Tajan, Zagros, Golestan and Viniak). A field experiment with randomized complete blocks was carried out at the Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, in 2003-2004. Rapid canopy closure had significant effect on grain yield, cultivars with faster canopy closure...

Mir-mahmoodi, T.; Soleimanzadeh, H.

2009-01-01

216

Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

Paji? Zorica

2008-01-01

217

Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

218

YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF EXTRA-EARLY MAIZE (Zea mays L. AS AFFECTED BY RATES OF NPK FERTILIZER SUCCEEDING CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens SUPPLIED WITH DIFFERENT RATES SHEEP MANURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to study response of extra-early maize variety (95TZEE-Y1 to rates of NPK (0, 40:20:20, 80:40:40 and 120:60:60 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 and residual FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 applied to chilli pepper the previous season in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Higher values for soil physical and chemical properties were obtained in plots supplied with manure the previous season with soil from 2006 experiment more fertile than for the first year, hence produced 21% more grain yield. All the applied NPK rates in 2005 and except 40:20:20 ha1 in 2006 had resulted in early maize crop as compared to control. Husked and de-husked cob and 100-grain weights and grain yield/ha were higher at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1. Maize grown in plot supplied with 15 t FYM ha1 the previous year matured earlier. Cobs and 100-grain weights and grain yield were highest in plot supplied with 10 t FYM ha1. The 10t FYM ha-1 had 69% and 68% more grain yield than the control in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Highest maize yield was obtained at 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 or 10t FYM ha-1. All the parameters measured significantly and positively related to each other when the two years data were combined.

Bashir Ahmad Babaji

2014-02-01

219

Impact of tembotrione and flufenacet plus isoxaflutole application timings, rates, and adjuvant type on weeds and yield of maize  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the steadily increasing cost of weed control in corn (Zea mays L.) and possible negative impact of chemicals on environment the demand for less and more efficient herbicide use is rising. Field studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in the Middle-West Poland in order to assessment the effe [...] ctive weed control. Treatments included herbicides tembotrione and flufenacet + isoxaflutole at recommended (88.0 and 36.0 + 7.5 g ha-1) and reduced rates (44 and 22 g ha-1; 19.2 + 4.0 or 9.6 + 2.0 g ha-1) with addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) and ammonium nitrate (AMN) adjuvants. Tembotrione was applied once at the stage of 3-5 maize leaves and flufenacet + isoxaflutole once at pre-emergence of maize. Mixtures of these herbicides were applied sequentially post-emergence, at 16-20-d intervals, after successive weed emergence. Results indicate that herbicide applied at reduced rates with adjuvants provided satisfactory weed control in maize. Application of reduced rates of tembotrione (44 and 22 g ha-1) and especially mixture of tembotrione with flufenacet + isoxaflutole and MSO + AMN adjuvants applied twice provided similar grain yield of maize as from treatments where tembotrione or flufenacet + isoxaflutole herbicides were applied only once at recommended rates (9.5, 9.7, and 10.0 t ha-1, respectively).

Robert, Idziak; Zenon, Woznica.

2014-04-01

220

Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize and sorghum grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release a-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibil [...] ity of sorghum and maize grain was measured after 6 and 12 hours of fermentation with or without exogenous a-amylase in powder form or dispersed in a matrix system for slow release by a diffusional mechanism. Tablets were used as the drug release matrix system, and were formulated with barium sulphate and ethylcellulose as the core of the final tablet. Treatments consisted of incubation of sorghum or maize grains with four doses of enzyme, using a-amylase in powder or in the press-coated tablet (16 treatments). The results showed that with a higher dose of exogenous enzyme, the digestibility of the grains was improved. Sorghum and maize digestion with tablets were improved compared with a-amylase in powder form. Releasing a-amylase from matrix tablets represents a potential technology to improve grain digestion in ruminants.

M., Crosby; G.D., Mendoza; I., Bonola; F.X., Plata; H., Sandoval; L.M., Melgoza.

 
 
 
 
221

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Po...

Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

2000-01-01

222

Evaluation of special grains bean lines for grain yield, cooking time and mineral concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic variability of 32 inbred special grains bean lines was investigated for grain yield, mass of 100 grains, cooking time, and mineral concentrations in grains, and Z index was used for selection of superior lines in most of the characters. IAC Centauro, IAC Galante, Xamego, Ouro Branco, Montcalm, and Hooter lines presented high yield grain, short cooking time (less than 24 min, and high potassium (>14 g kg-1 dry matter [DM], calcium (>1.42 g kg-1 DM, iron (>97.60 mg kg-1 DM, zinc (>29.05 mg kg-1 DM and copper (>8.67 mg kg-1 DM concentrations, and their dietary use is therefore recommended. Cal-96 line presents higher Z index for grain yield and for the most of the minerals, and its use is recommended for crosses for the development of superior lines.

Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

2014-03-01

223

EFFECT OF MAIZE HARVEST DELAY ON THE INCIDENCE OF SPOILED GRAINS AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of harvest delay on the incidence of spoiled grains and pathogenic fungi on maize grains of the hybrids XL 212 and XL 344, sowed through direct planting system in two areas of 60 x 100 m, with 55.000 plants per hectare and cultivated above soil vegetal coverage, black oat and foraging turnip. The spoiled grains (SG) incidence was determined through the average of four repetitions of 250g per sample and the fungus incidence was determined on 400 grains in...

JOÃO ANARACY SANTIN; ERLEI MELO REIS; AIDA TEREZINHA SANTOS MATSUMURA; MARCELO GRAVINA DE MORAES

2004-01-01

224

FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD PERFORMANCES OF SOYBEAN LINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of twelve soybean genotypes as a forage and a grain crop in Marmara Region of Turkey in 2003-2004 growing seasons. Forage and dry matter yield and yield components at one vegetative stage (V5 and two reproductive stages (R2, and R4 and seed yield was determined in all soybean genotypes. The experiments showed that the harvest stages had signifi cant effects on forage and dry matter yield, and R4 reproductive stage had the highest forage and dry matter yield. Dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts was greatly affected by harvest stages, while the genotypes had little effect on dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts. There were statistically signifi cant differences between soybean genotypes in seed yield, but the differences were small. The correlations between forage and dry matter yield and seed yield were not statistically signifi cant.

Ugur BILGILI

2006-05-01

225

Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. ( approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

226

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55% and barley grains (3.46, 14 days, 13 days and 55.24% in terms of mycelium growth vigor, colonization time, spawn running time of the substrate and yield  of the oyster mushroom. Hot water treatment and steaming of substrate significantly reduced substrate contamination and improved mushroom yield as compared to the untreated control. Mushrooms grown on steamed substrates had significantly higher yield (BE: 69.4% than those grown on substrates treated with hot water (BE: 53.3%.

Jongman M, Khare KB* and Khonga EB

2013-09-01

227

Effect of planting dates and densities on yield and yield components of short and ultra-short growth period maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In general, yield reduction in most dryland maize growing areas of South Africa occur because seasonal rainfall distribution is erratic with annual variation that cannot be predicted accurately. Cultivar selection, planting date and plant density are other factors that consistently affect maize yield. Long growing season maize cultivars are higher yielding, particularly under conditions of good moisture and nutrient supply. However, as both moisture and nutrient availability becomes more l...

Kgasago, Hans

2007-01-01

228

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD IN DURUM WHEAT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 period, with the objective of estimating the associations between yield and yield-related traits and to identify direct effects of characters for durum wheat grain yield improvement. The experimental material consisted of 20 durum wheat genotypes, which are randomly taken from the germoplasm collection. Significant genotypic differences (P<0.01) were observed for all the traits studied, indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes fo...

Kashta, F.; Canko, A.; Harizaj, P.; Vata, N.

2011-01-01

229

Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2011-04-15

230

Crop yield and CO2 fixation monitoring over Asia by a photosynthetic-sterility model comparing with MODIS and carbon amounts in grain yields  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have developed a photosynthesis crop model for grain production under the background of climate change and Asian economic growth in developing countries. This paper presents an application of the model to grain fields of paddy rice, winter wheat, and maize in China and Southeast Asia. The carbon hydrate in grains has the same chemical formula as that of cellulose in grain vegetation. The partitioning of carbon in grain plants can validate fixation amounts of computed carbon using a satellite-based photosynthesis model. The model estimates the photosynthesis fixation of rice reasonably in Japan and China. Results were validated through examination of carbon in grains, but the model tends to underestimate results for winter wheat and maize. This study also provides daily distributions of the PSN, which is the CO2 fixation in Asian areas combined with a land-cover distribution classified from MODIS data, NDVI from SPOT VEGETATION, and meteorological re-analysis data by European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF). The mean CO2 and carbon fixation rates in paddy areas were 25.92 (t CO2/ha) and 5.28 (t/ha) in Japan, respectively. The method is based on routine observation data, enabling automated monitoring of crop yields.

Kaneko, Daijiro; Yang, Peng; Kumakura, Toshiro

2009-08-01

231

Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi melon-cotton-cotton-maize, cotton-maize-cotton-maize and cassava-maize-cotton-maize) including for each, four replications of three fertilizer treatments: recommended practice [150 kg ha -1 of 14-23-14 ...

Saidou, A.; Kossou, D.; Acakpo, K.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T. W.

2012-01-01

232

Rendimiento y calidad de elote en poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tehuacán, Puebla / Yield and quality of tender maize from native maize populations of Tehuacán, Puebla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el estado de Puebla, la región más importante en producción de maíz (Zea mays L.) para elote es Tehuacán. Las variedades usadas son principalmente poblaciones nativas, de las cuales se desconoce su potencial para la producción de elote y la calidad del mismo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue [...] evaluar agronómicamente un conjunto de poblaciones nativas de maíz colectadas en Tehuacán, para determinar su variación en rendimiento y calidad de elote. En 2009 se evaluaron 100 variedades en tres localidades bajo condiciones de riego, de las cuales 95 fueron colectadas en el área de Tehuacán. Las cinco restantes fueron dos variedades mejoradas y tres testigos raciales de Bolita, Celaya y Pepitilla. Se midieron 20 variables de planta y elote. Los resultados del análisis de varianza combinado mostraron en todas las variables evaluadas, excepto en una, diferencias altamente significativas (P ? 0.01) entre variedades, lo que indica la presencia de diversidad para tales características entre los maíces nativos estudiados. En rendimiento de elote, un grupo de 16 poblaciones nativas resultó sobresaliente (P ? 0.05). La variedad local TEH77 obtuvo el mayor número de características deseables para rendimiento y calidad de elote: rendimiento promedio de 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11.3 °Brix, 13.7 cm de longitud de mazorca, 5.5 cm de ancho de mazorca y 30.7 granos por hilera. Esta variedad superó al mejor híbrido comercial 'AS900' en 52, 23, 30, 33 y 47 % en rendimiento (kg·ha-1), contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), longitud y diámetro de mazorca (cm), número de hileras y granos por hilera, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the state of Puebla, Tehuacán is the most important region in the production of tender maize (Zea mays L.) sold on the cob. The varieties used are mainly native populations, whose potential for production and quality are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate agronomically a set of native [...] maize populations collected in Tehuacán to determine their variation in tender maize yield and quality. In 2009, 100 irrigated varieties were evaluated in three locations; of these 95 were collected in the Tehuacán area. The remaining five were two improved varieties and three control races: Bolita, Celaya and Pepitilla. Twenty variables were measured on plant and ear. The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ? 0.01) among varieties, except one, indicating presence of diversity for the characteristics measured among the native maize under study. In tender maize yield, the group of 16 native populations was outstanding (P ? 0.05). The local variety TEH77 had the highest number of desirable traits for yield and quality of tender maize ears: average yield 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11,3 °Brix, 13.7 cm ear length, 5.5 cm ear width and 39.7 grains per row. This variety surpassed the best commercial hybrid 'AS900' by 52, 23, 30, 33 and 47 % in yield kg·ha-1, total soluble solids content (°Brix), ear length and diameter (cm), number of rows and grains per row, respectively.

Enrique, Ortiz-Torres; Pedro Antonio, López; Abel, Gil-Muñoz; Juan de Dios, Guerrero-Rodríguez; Higinio, López-Sánchez; Oswaldo R., Taboada-Gaytán; J. Arahón, Hernández-Guzmán; Mario, Valadez-Ramírez.

2013-08-01

233

Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roles of two cytosolic maize glutamine synthetase isoenzymes (GS1), products of the Gln1-3 and Gln1-4 genes, were investigated by examining the impact of knockout mutations on kernel yield. In the gln1-3 and gln1-4 single mutants and the gln1-3 gln1-4 double mutant, GS mRNA expression was impaired, resulting in reduced GS1 protein and activity. The gln1-4 phenotype displayed reduced kernel size and gln1-3 reduced kernel number, with both phenotypes displayed in gln1-3 gln1-4. However, at maturity, shoot biomass production was not modified in either the single mutants or double mutants, suggesting a specific impact on grain production in both mutants. Asn increased in the leaves of the mutants during grain filling, indicating that it probably accumulates to circumvent ammonium buildup resulting from lower GS1 activity. Phloem sap analysis revealed that unlike Gln, Asn is not efficiently transported to developing kernels, apparently causing reduced kernel production. When Gln1-3 was overexpressed constitutively in leaves, kernel number increased by 30%, providing further evidence that GS1-3 plays a major role in kernel yield. Cytoimmunochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that GS1-3 is present in mesophyll cells, whereas GS1-4 is specifically localized in the bundle sheath cells. The two GS1 isoenzymes play nonredundant roles with respect to their tissue-specific localization. PMID:17138698

Martin, Antoine; Lee, Judy; Kichey, Thomas; Gerentes, Denise; Zivy, Michel; Tatout, Christophe; Dubois, Frédéric; Balliau, Thierry; Valot, Benoît; Davanture, Marlène; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Quilleré, Isabelle; Coque, Marie; Gallais, André; Gonzalez-Moro, María-Begoña; Bethencourt, Linda; Habash, Dimah Z; Lea, Peter J; Charcosset, Alain; Perez, Pascual; Murigneux, Alain; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Edwards, Keith J; Hirel, Bertrand

2006-11-01

234

Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Levels of Soybean Seed Rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted with an objective to study the land use efficiency and economic return in maize-soybean intercropping system under various seed rates of soybean. Intercropping significantly reduced the thousand grains weight and grain yield of soybean at all seed rates. Maize thousand grain weight and grains yield remained unaffected in intercropping. The relative yield total of maize and soybean was greater in intercropping than monoculture. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER...

Ghulam Hayder; Suhail Mumtaz, S.; Aslam Khan; Sherin Khan

2003-01-01

235

Interactive Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium Nutrition on the
Growth and Yield of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactive effect of varying levels of phosphorus viz. 75, 100 and 125 kg/ha with that of potassium viz. 50, 75 and 100 kg ha -1 on the growth and yield of hybrid maize "Shahensha" was studied at the agronomic research area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. The results revealed that the highest grain yield of 6.02 t/ha and thousand grain weight 405.2 g respectively were obtained from the plot fertilized at the rate of 125-75 PK kg/ha against the lowe...

Mahboob Akhtar; Shakeel Ahmad; Saleem Mohsin; Tariq Mahmood

1999-01-01

236

Improvement of maize yield on dryland with cover-crop management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize cultivation on dry land encounters many constraints, among which were limited water supply and low soil fertility. This study aimed to analyze the effect of cover crop management in increasing maize yield on dry and in South Sulawesi. An experiment implementing this aim was arranged in randomized complete block design with four treatments, namely without cover crop, and subsequently with Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides, and Crotalaria anagyroides as cover pl...

Subaedah, Siti; Jalal, Nur Alam; Suriyanti; Ibrahim, B.

2011-01-01

237

Análise econômica da produtividade de grãos de milho consorciado com forrageiras dos gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum em sistema plantio direto Economic analysis of grain yield of maize intercropped with forage plants of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in no-tillage system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP é uma alternativa de recuperação e renovação de pastagens degradadas, contudo, é importante mostrar sua viabilidade econômica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na ILP, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2009/2010, em Selvíria-MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com as forrageiras Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e cv. Mombaça. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de cultivo não reduziram a produtividade de grãos em relação ao milho cultivado sem consórcio, e o consórcio mais recomendado é o milho cultivado com B. ruziziensis, principalmente em semeadura simultânea, pois além de ter sido um dos mais produtivos, o preço dessa semente é o mais acessível, vindo alcançar maior Índice de Lucratividade que os demais tratamentos. Em geral, os cultivos simultâneos foram os mais produtivos, vindo a apresentar maior Receita Bruta, Custo Operacional Total (devido à aplicação do herbicida Sanson, menor Lucro Operacional (com exceção do MBS e maior Índice de Lucratividade.The integrated crop-livestock (ILP is an alternative recovery and renewal of degraded pastures; however, it is important to show its economic viability. The objective of this research was to analyse the yields and economic outcomes of modalities of growing corn with fodder of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in the ILP under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2009/2010 in Selvíria - MS, Brazil, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four repetitions and the treatments consisted of eight methods of cultivation of maize intercropped with Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania, Panicum maximum jacq cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Stapf cv. MG-5, or Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, sown simultaneously or at side dressing nitrogen fertilization, besides single grown corn. The operating cost analysis was based on prices of inputs and operations, and gross revenue in the average selling price of corn in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The cropping systems didn't reduce the grain yield for maize comparatively to single grown, and the consotium more recommended is corn with B. ruziziensis, especially in simultaneously sowing, because besides being one of the most productive, the price of this seed is the most affordable, obtaining larger Profitability Index than the other treatments. In general, the simultaneous crops were the most productive, having a higher Gross Income, Total Operating Cost (due to herbicide application Sanson, lower Operating Profit (excluding MBS and higher Profitability Index.

Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

2012-04-01

238

The physiological processes determining grain yield potential in winter wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) is the most important crop grown extensively in the UK. There is a gap between yield production and world demand for wheat. So, there is a need to fill this gap. The overall objective of the present study is to investigate the physiological determinants of grain yield potential in winter wheat grown in UK conditions using doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between winter wheat varieties Rialto and Spark. These varieties are known from previous work...

Al-ghzawi, Abdul Latief Ali

2007-01-01

239

Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and Mollic gleysols. Farmers also identified the soil fertility management niches in terms of topography, physical discontinuities, management and classified them as productive or unproductive. The productive niches occupied between 0.25 to 0.30 ha and were used for maize, bananas and vegetables production. Non-productive niches were between 1.5 to 6.0 ha and were either left fallow or used for maize and sweet potato production. Productive niches had a pH of 5.3% C of 2.3 and silt fraction of 232 g kg-1 and maize yield of 4.3 t ha-1. Non productive niches had a pH of 3.99, % C of 1.9 and a silt fraction of 193 g kg-1 and maize yield of 2.8 t ha-1. Management should target processes that enhance these variables in addition to incorporating the farmers` local knowledge.

I.M. Tabu

2005-01-01

240

EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a “balanced” fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

Eche N. Mary

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

242

Irrigation and nitrogen effects on wheat grain yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two agronomic experiments with wheat crop were conducted during the period of May through October of 1999 and 2000 at the experimental site of the University of Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on grain yield of two wheat cultivars. The work also intended to present the feasibility of this agriculture activity during the winter crop season in the Paraíba Valley region of São Paulo State. The experimental design allowed simulating different wheat crop growth conditions in the field in terms of the interactions among irrigation, cultivar and nitrogen factors. Results showed no significant interaction among the three factors for the analyzed agronomic characteristics. Interaction of irrigation and nitrogen, for grain yield and biomass, was observed only in 1999. Soil fertility was improved in 2000 with a positive effect on grain yield. Irrigation had a significant impact on grain yield indicating that wheat crop needs water supply for a profitable production in the Paraíba Valley region. Water balance is recommended for efficient irrigation.

Marcelo do Santos Targa

2007-06-01

243

The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

Deleti? Nebojša

2009-01-01

244

CREEPING THISTLE (CIRSIUM ARVENSE (L. SCOP. – AN IMPORTANT COMPETITOR OF NUTRIENTS CONSUMPTION IN GRAIN MAIZE STANDS (ZEA MAYS L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the competition ability of creeping thistle to grain maize stands during vegetation period, to establish the nutrient equivalents according the elements content in plants and to find out the coherence between competitive relations of grain maize and creeping thistle. In 2002 – 2004 nutrient equivalents of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. in grain maize stands (Zea mays L. were researched on experimental fields of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (locality Nitra – Dolná Malanta. The ratio between nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in dry mass weight of creeping thistle and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in dry mass weight of grain maize was compute as nutrient equivalent. The creeping thistle has shown the higher competitive ability against grain maize expressed as nutrient equivalent in May 2004 (soil dryness condition. It declined about in order June 2003 ? June 2004 ? May 2003 ? May 2002 ? June 2002. Creeping thistle with comparison to grain maize absorbed in average 1.09 – 1.65 N, 1.12 – 1.16 P, 0.87 – 2.51 K, 2.59 – 11.29 Ca and 0.82 – 1.74 Mg (table 3. Ca was the most drawn element from soil during all observed period 2002 – 2004. The competitive ability of creeping thistle in grain maize was the highest in water deficit conditions mainly, lower competition ability was recorded in sufficient soil moisture conditions. Nutrients absorption by grain maize and creeping thistle was affected by an individual climatic characteristics in each year.

Emil LÍŠKA

2008-05-01

245

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

246

Isolation of high-quality RNA from grains of different maize varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of gene expression in maize varieties represents a powerful tool aiming to increase vitamin A precursors. However, the isolation of RNA from different maize varieties is challenging because these varieties show different levels of polysaccharides, and most methods available for RNA isolation are inappropriate for grain samples. The polysaccharides co-purify and co-precipitate with RNA during isolation, resulting in low-quality RNA, compromising the use of RNA in subsequent applications. Thus, a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based method was adapted in this study and compared with six methods for RNA isolation, including commercial reagents and RNA and DNA isolation kits, in order to identify the most appropriate for maize grains from different varieties. Most of the methods evaluated were considered inadequate due to limitations in terms of purity and/or quantity of the isolated RNA, which affected the efficiency of subsequent RT-qPCR analysis, resulting in nonamplification of ?-carotene hydroxylase gene (HYD3) or high deviation among replicates. However, the CTAB modified method allowed the study to obtain intact RNA, with high quality and quantity, from 25 maize varieties. Furthermore, this RNA was successfully used to evaluate the expression of HYD3 gene by real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and thus represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost strategy. PMID:24400636

Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Buss, Julieti Huch; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Nora, Leonardo; e Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos Anjos; Margis, Rogério; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2014-10-01

247

Dry matter partitioning, grain filling and grain yield in wheat genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an experiment with new hexaploid wheat lines existing lines and other tetraploids was conducted in the Rabi (post-rainy 2001 and 2002 dry seasons. The data on yield and yield components shows that the tetraploids had more spikes plant-1 but fewer seeds spike-1 and a lower seed weight spike-1. The most important yield component the 1000-grain yield was shown by the hexaploids. The new hexaploid lines DL-1266-1 and DL-1266-2 had the maximum grain growth rate at 5 – 15 days after anthesis (DAA. Line DL-1266-2 had the highest grain growth rate 0.09 g g-1 day-1. Photosynthetic rate values showed that the hexaploids had a higher rate than the tetraploids. Generally, at 7 and 15 DAA, the photosynthetic rate was higher compared to 25 DAA and 35 DAA. It appears that in the high yielding hexaploids (DL-1266-1 & DL-1266-2 a better photosynthetic rate and better mobilization of photosynthates during grain filling contributes to their higher yield

Sridhar Gutam

2011-10-01

248

Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the U.S. Midwest.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key question for climate change adaptation is whether existing cropping systems can become less sensitive to climate variations. We use a field-level data set on maize and soybean yields in the central United States for 1995 through 2012 to examine changes in drought sensitivity. Although yields have increased in absolute value under all levels of stress for both crops, the sensitivity of maize yields to drought stress associated with high vapor pressure deficits has increased. The greater sensitivity has occurred despite cultivar improvements and increased carbon dioxide and reflects the agronomic trend toward higher sowing densities. The results suggest that agronomic changes tend to translate improved drought tolerance of plants to higher average yields but not to decreasing drought sensitivity of yields at the field scale. PMID:24786079

Lobell, David B; Roberts, Michael J; Schlenker, Wolfram; Braun, Noah; Little, Bertis B; Rejesus, Roderick M; Hammer, Graeme L

2014-05-01

249

YIELD OF MAIZE-BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA INTERCROPPING AFFECTED BY FERTILIZER LOCATION AND APPLICATION OF HERBICIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The maize-brachiaria brizantha intercropping (Zea mays-Brachiaria brizantha is the technology ofgreatest interest in crop-livestock integration. In order to study this intercropping system, different base fertilizationstrategies were evaluated (intra and inter-row of maize and also the use of suboptimal doses of herbicide to control theBrachiaria growth in soil with improved fertility. Growth and yield of maize were not affected neither by intercroppingwith Brachiaria, even without chemical control of the grass, nor by the location of the fertilizer. On the other hand,the growth of signal grass was lower when intercropped and presented lower growth within the maize row comparedto plants cultivated inter-rows. The herbicide delayed Brachiaria growth. The greatest growth of inter-row Brachiariacompared to that of intra-rows was attributed to the lower pressure exerted by maize and to the inter-row fertilization. Theresults allow to recommend (to chemically recovered soil, the base fertilization of maize-Brachiaria intercropping at theproportion 33.3-33.3-33.3% or 25-50-25% at planting furrows and only side-fertilization for Brachiaria, for integratedcrop-livestock, rather than the current recommendation of 100% of the fertilizer in the row of corn (00-100-00.

RAMON COSTA ALVARENGA

2011-12-01

250

Relationship Between Rapid Canopy Closure and Grain Yield in Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to determine the relationship between rapid canopy closure and grain yield in wheat and to identify the traits that affect rapid canopy closure, a research was conducted using 5 wheat cultivars (Atrak, Tajan, Zagros, Golestan and Viniak. A field experiment with randomized complete blocks was carried out at the Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, in 2003-2004. Rapid canopy closure had significant effect on grain yield, cultivars with faster canopy closure produced comparatively more grain yield per unit area. Leaf area index and seedling dry weight at the beginning of the exponential growth phase; relative leaf area development rate and relative growth rate during the exponential phase and the average of individual leaf area and leaf area ratio were detected as the effective traits in rapid canopy closure. It was concluded that the RCC is an appropriate way especially in the environment where growing season is limited and there is little scope for lengthening the growing season in order to increase dry matter production and yield.

T. Mir-Mahmoodi

2009-01-01

251

Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

252

Grain yield and phosphorus use efficiency of wheat and pea in a high yielding environment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of grain yield, phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE, g yield g-1 P available) and related root traits of wheat and pea to different P availabilities in a high yielding environment (e.g.: yield higher than 10 Mg ha-1 for wheat). Two experiments [...] were conducted in southern Chile. Treatments consisted of the combination of (i) two crops (spring-bred wheat and pea) and (ii) three rates of P fertilization (0 (P0), 100 (P1) and 250 (P2) kg P ha-1). Grain yield of wheat was more sensitive to P deficiency than pea. Wheat showed consistently higher (P

P, Sandaña; D, Pinochet.

2014-12-01

253

Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient for maize grains ( Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

2014-10-01

254

SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Ia?i contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

Gh. Lixandru

2005-10-01

255

Forecasting Zimbabwean maize yield using eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

SOUTHERN Africa is subject to recurrent droughts which cause severe food shortages. There is considerable evidence1 that El Niño2 warm events in the Pacific Ocean are linked to below-average rainfall in southern Africa, and the 1991-92 El Niño event was accompanied by the worst drought in southern Africa this century, affecting nearly 100 million people. But although models can predict El ñ events a year in advance3-6, the drought was not anticipated, increasing relief costs. Here we present data show-ing a strong correlation between an El Niño index and both rainfall and maize yield in Zimbabwe. Surprisingly, the correlation with maize yield is stronger than that with rainfall, with more than 60% of the variance in yield accounted for by sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean-half-way around the world. We also show that model predictions of the El Niño index provide accurate forecasts of maize yield in Zimbabwe, with lead times of up to a year. As maize is the most important food crop for the ten-nation Southern African Development Community region7, we suggest that this approach could provide an effective early-warning system for southern African drought-induced famines.

Cane, Mark A.; Eshel, Gidon; Buckland, R. W.

1994-07-01

256

Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions fo...

Mahadeb Prasad Poudel; Shwu-En Chen

2012-01-01

257

Irrigation and nitrogen effects on wheat grain yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two agronomic experiments with wheat crop were conducted during the period of May through October of 1999 and 2000 at the experimental site of the University of Taubaté, Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on grain yield of two wheat cultivars. The work also intended to present the feasibility of this agriculture activity during the winter crop season in the Paraíba Valley region of São Pau...

Marcelo do Santos Targa; Mauricio Alves Moreira; Bernardo Friedrich Theodor Rudorff; José Guilherme Freitas

2007-01-01

258

High yielding small grain mutant of rice variety Pankaj  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: By treatment with EMS a mutant has been produced from the variety Pankaj which has better tillering, longer panicle and more grains per panicle. In multilocation trials at Burdwan, Suri and Rampurhat in West Bengal it yielded significantly more than Pankaj and Mahsuri at all locations, with a mean 5.2t. The mutant named BU 79 would be a suitable substitute for Pankaj and similar long-duration rices. (author)

259

FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quali [...] ty.

Antônio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa, Crestani; Rafael, Nornberg; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

2012-06-01

260

Interactions among Bt maize, entomopathogens, and rootworm species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the field: effects on survival, yield, and root injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 yr field study was conducted to determine how a blend of entomopathogens interacted with Bt maize to affect mortality of Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), root injury to maize (Zea maize L.) and yield. The blend of entomopathogens included two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, and one entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Bt maize (event DAS59122-7, which produces Bt toxin Cry34/35Ab1) decreased root injury and survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) but did not affect yield. During year 1 of the study, when rootworm abundance was high, entomopathogens in combination with Bt maize led to a significant reduction in root injury. In year 2 of the study, when rootworm abundance was lower, entomopathogens significantly decreased injury to non-Bt maize roots, but had no effect on Bt maize roots. Yield was significantly increased by the addition of entomopathogens to the soil. Entomopathogens did not decrease survival of corn rootworm species. The results suggest that soil-borne entomopathogens can complement Bt maize by protecting roots from feeding injury from corn rootworm when pest abundance is high, and can decrease root injury to non-Bt maize when rootworm abundance is low. In addition, this study also showed that the addition of entomopathogens to soil contributed to an overall increase in yield. PMID:23786047

Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Clifton, Eric H; Dunbar, Mike W; Jackson, Mark A; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lüleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, K?z?ltan95, Ayd?n 93 and Alt?n 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

T. Kahraman

2008-05-01

262

Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols) were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and...

Tabu, I. M.; Obura, R. K.; Bationo, A.; Nakhone, L.

2005-01-01

263

Evaluation of the relationship between maize yield spatial and temporal variability and different topographic attributes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize yield data were collected in seven agricultural fields irrigated by centre-pivot irri-gation systems, in Southern Portugal, from 2002 to 2004. These data were then correlated with different primary and secondary topographic attributes. The attained correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship between yield spatial variability and each individual topographic attribute. In this three-year period applied water was always lower than crop water requirements. The increase o...

Marques Da Silva, Jose? Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo

2008-01-01

264

Effect of a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP) on nitrate leaching and maize yield during two growing seasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) to urea on nitrate leaching and maize (Zea mays L.) yield over two growing seasons. Two nitrogen (N) levels (optimum and excessive) were applied to an irrigated maize crop under Mediterranean conditions. There were five treatments: optimal N (as urea) and the same dose plus DMPP; optimal N (as urea plus 40 kg N ha-1) and the same N dose plus DMPP; and a control with no added N fe...

Di?ez Lo?pez, Jose? Antonio; Herna?iz, Pedro J.; Arauzo, Mercedes; Carrasco Marti?n, I.

2008-01-01

265

Comparative Analysis of Two Crop Yield Potential Models Based on Yield Potential per Plant of Maize and Bread Wheat Genotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crop yield potential assessment under a single density, assumed as optimum for maximum yield per unit area, might lead to biased judgment due to genotype by density interactions. Two models emphasizing yield per plant in the absence of competition (i.e., yield potential per plant, were applied in maize (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to assess crop yield potential. The first model distinguishes crop yield potential into two components, yield potential per plant and tolerance to density, predicted through linear regression of yield per plant over a range of densities. The second model proposes three components, which are yield potential per plant, tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, determined in the absence of competition. Genotypes suggested by the models as the most promising were different than those depicted on the basis of the experimental data. Both models favoured genotypes characterized by improved yield potential per plant and being less density-dependent. Nevertheless, the two components of the first model were negatively associated. The first model determines the key parameter (i.e., yield potential per plant indirectly, accuracy of which depends on the lowest density used. The second model assesses yield potential per plant in a direct way and seems to consider crop yield potential in a more integrated manner, whereas appears to represent an integral part of whole breeding approach.

Ioannis S. Tokatlidis

2008-01-01

266

The fractal dimension of agricultural parcels considering maize yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Before making any decisions, all farm managers would like to have some indication about the effectiveness of a particular investment, especially when investing in precision agriculture technologies. Usually, the best indicator should be associated with the yield geometric complexity and its spatial and temporal dynamics. The fractal dimension of corn yield in a given year was calculated for six studied parcels, considering the fractal dimension of yield buffer zones above and b...

Marques Da Silva, Jr; Silva, Ll; Sousa, Amo

2012-01-01

267

Stability Analysis of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf. Grain Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the study of the genotype×environment interaction of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. varieties tested during six consecutive cropping seasons (1997/98 to 2002/03, under semi-arid conditions, indicated the lack of reproducibility of the yield information because genotype rank changes from one year to another. During the six cropping seasons, except Beliouni, MBB and Semito which performed always poorly the remaining genotypes ranked among the top yielding at least once. The presence of genotypexyear interaction is suggested by the combined analysis of variance which indicated that the treatment sum of squares consisted of 42.41, 8.43 and 49.15% due, respectively to cropping season, genotype and interaction effects. The AMMI model was appropriate, explaining 84.0% of the interaction sum of squares. The results showed that the interactions lead to different rankings of the tested genotypes across the cropping seasons with a diversification between genotypes groups. Cyprus1, Deraa and Bousselem exhibited low nominal grain yield under low yielding conditions and were more responsive to good growth conditions; while Mrb5, Heider and Waha, on the contrary, showed a high nominal yield under low yielding conditions and exhibited a minimal responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. Heider combined low interaction and above average yield, making it suitable for cultivation in the semi-arid region of the Eastern high plateaus of Algeria.

A. Adjabi

2014-01-01

268

Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

Mihailovi? Vojislav M.

2004-01-01

269

Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

Sonja Tan?i?

2009-01-01

270

Effect of Canopy Temperature Depression on Grain Yield and Yield Components in Bread and Durum Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relationships of CTD (Canopy Temperature Depression with grain yield and its components were evaluated under Cukurova conditions, Turkey, in 2003 growth season. With this aim, six bread and five durum wheat genotypes were used as a material. CTD was measured three times during beginning of heading to full anthesis stages and only at the last measurements, both bread wheat and durum wheat genotypes showed significant differences. At the last measurements, CTD of bread wheat ranged between -0.22 and 0.57degree. On the other hand, CTD average values of durum wheat genotypes changed 0.63 to 1.23degree. This study showed that durum wheat was cooler than bread wheat in high temperature conditions. In addition, CTD was positively correlated with grain yield, spike yield, and grain numbers per spike. Overall, CTD has played an important role to search physiological basis of grain yield of wheat, and CTD can successfully use as a selection criterion in breeding programs.

Celaleddin BARUTCULAR

2008-08-01

271

Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual maize yields in Shandong, Henan, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia increased by 98.4, 90.4, 98.7, and 121.5 kg hm-2 yr-1 over the past 30 years, respectively. Correspondingly, the maize yields affected by technological advancement increased by 113.7, 97.9, 111.5, and 124.8 kg hm-2 yr-1, respectively. On the contrary, maize yields reduced markedly under climate change, with an average reduction of -9.0 kg hm-2 yr-1. Our findings highlight that agronomic technological advancement has contributed dominantly to maize yield increases in China in the past three decades.

Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

2014-12-01

272

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

Alfred Obia

2013-04-01

273

Effect of Bt maize and soil insecticides on yield, injury, and rootworm survival: implications for resistance management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the effects on Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an insecticidal seed treatment (Poncho 1250, (AI)/clothianidin) and a granular insecticide (Aztec 2.1G, (AI)/tebupirimphos and cyfluthrin) alone and in combination with maize producing the insectidical toxin Cry3Bb1 derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Yields for Bt maize plots were significantly greater than for non-Bt maize; however, insecticides did not significantly affect yield. Insecticides significantly decreased root injury in non-Bt maize plots, but there were no significant differences in root injury between Bt maize with or without either insecticide. Maize producing the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 and the soil-applied insecticide Aztec significantly decreased survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), while only Bt maize significantly decreased survival of the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence). For both species, Bt maize and each of the insecticides delayed emergence. In the absence of density-dependent mortality, Bt maize imposed 71 and 80% reduction in survival on the western corn rootworm and the northern corn rootworm, respectively. The data from this study do not support combining insecticide with Bt maize because the addition of insecticide did not increase yield or reduce root injury for Bt maize, and the level of rootworm mortality achieved with conventional insecticide was likely too low to delay the evolution of Bt resistance. In addition, delays in emergence from Bt maize combined with insecticides could promote assortative mating among Bt-selected individuals, which may hasten resistance evolution. PMID:24224233

Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Meinke, Lance J; Gray, Michael E; Estes, Ronald E; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-10-01

274

Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

Marina Vrani?

2011-09-01

275

GENETIC ADVANCE IN GRAIN YIELD QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND GRAIN QUALITY OF SOYBEAN OS-LINES I. MATURITY GROUP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to assess the genetic advance in soybean grain yield and grain quality of 29 promising lines in comparison to four standard cultivars within I. maturity group during the three-year period (1998-2000) at Osijek. Phenotypic variability, wide-sense heritability, genetic gain and relative genetic gain from selection were calculated for grain yield, protein and oil content in grain. The obtained results of biometrical analysis indicated on achieved advance in soy...

Aleksandra Sudari?; Marija Vratari?; Tomislav Duvnjak; Rezica Sudar

2001-01-01

276

Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

Nurjaya

2013-03-01

277

Carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic pathways: gene expression and carotenoid content in grains of maize landraces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 ?g·g?¹, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase) was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts. PMID:24476639

da Silva Messias, Rafael; Galli, Vanessa; Dos Anjos E Silva, Sérgio Delmar; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2014-01-01

278

Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 ?g·g?1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase expression levels were positively correlated with ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts.

Rafael da Silva Messias

2014-01-01

279

Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 ?g·g?1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase) was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better enable us to select promising varieties for biofortification efforts. PMID:24476639

Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos Anjos e; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2014-01-01

280

Maize Yield Estimation Through the Simulation of Radiation Penetration Into the Canopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is essential for planning purposes to be able to assess or predict the output of vital crops in order to develop strategies to cope with shortfalls or surplusses with sufficient lead time. This is usually done by developing yield prediction models based on well specified production factors. Crop yield results from the interaction among plant, physical and environmental factors. Radiation is a key environmental factor in this regard and the principal driver of the biological system. When all the other conditions are optimum, productivity is a function of the available energy and the size of the plant surface able to trap it. However, the distribution of radiation within the plant canopy is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the light extinction coefficients of three maize hybrids of different morphological description are different; whether these coefficients change with time during the growing season; and attempt to establish the nature of the relationships between biomass accumulation and the observed morphological plant characters. The extinction coefficients of the three hybrids were not significantly different. They increased with vegetative growth to reach maxima at anthesis and decreased subsequently as the crops approached physiological maturity. These coefficients were used to fit Beer-Bougher type regressions for predicting light penetration into the various canopy levels. There were significant differences in light penetration, among the hybrids, during the growing season as well as within each day. The largest leaf area (index) and the highest light absorption occurred at the top layer of the canopies. Moreover, the highest light penetration into the canopies does not appear to take place at zenith but seems to occur when the solar elevation and leaf angles reach certain critical values. Leaf area index (LAI) had the greatest effect on light penetration during the growing season while the effect of leaf angle was secondary and more manifest after anthesis. Biomass and grain yields were not significantly different among the hybrids and a lower LAI seemed to favour a higher light use efficiency. No correlation was found between biomass and LAI. Consequently, no method was developed to predict biomass accumulation in the study. Growing conditions were sub-optimal in a few occasions during the season which, together with inadequate instrumentation, made it difficult to isolate the effects of extraneous factors from those of the main factors. Recommendations are given for conducting the experiment to insure better results.

Musembi, David Kasina

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS, municipal compost (MC and cow manure (CM on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.. The treatments were control (without any organic waste and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 and 45 t ha-1. This research was done in the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology (Lavark-Najafabad. The experimental design was a randomized, complete block with three replications. Treatments were incorporated into the soil before the maize planting (on 23 June 2008 and soil sampling was performed after 132 days (Simultaneously with maize harvesting. Application of the organic wastes resulted in significant increase soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and significantly decreased bulk density. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was decreased by application of PSS. Application of 15 and 45 t ha-1 of PSS reduced Ks more than 14% and 42%, respectively, compared with control; however, the reduction was significant only in the plots which received 45 t ha-1 of PSS compared with control. The results of plant yield and growth showed that leaf area index (LAI, plant length, biological yield, 1000 seed weight and seed yield increase due to the application of organic wastes.

J. Zamani Babgohari

2011-01-01

282

The long-term effects of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system in Southern Malawi, on gliricidia and maize yields, and soil properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A gliricidia¿maize (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)¿Zea mays L.) simultaneous intercropping agroforestry system has shown to be a suitable option for soil fertility improvement and yield increase in highly populated areas of sub Saharan Africa where landholding sizes are very small and inorganic fertilizer use is very low. An 11 year old field experiment, gliricidia¿maize simultaneous intercropping, with and without a small application of inorganic fertilizer was studied to increase our understa...

Makumba, W. I. H.; Janssen, B. H.; Oenema, O.; Akinnifesi, F. K.; Mweta, D.; Kwesiga, F. R.

2006-01-01

283

Effects of storage temperature on the fungal and chemical spoilage of maize grains and flour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical and fungal spoilage of maize grains and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow varieties in relation to time temperature (10 C, 15 C, 20 C and room (30-56 C) storage period at 8-12 months was studied. The results showed that total fungal counts and percent infestation markedly increased with advanced storage and increased temperature. Percentage germination generally decreased during extended storage. Peroxide values of both the grain and flour increased with increasing temperature and storage time. At the end of one year storage the total fungal counts in the grain and flour of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 13.6x10/sup 12/ - 20.0x10/sup 13/ and Yellow ranged 17.1x10/sup 13/ - 22.1x10/sup 14/ respectively. germination and infestation percentage of the grains of Sarhad White and Sarhad Yellow ranged 76-78% and 96-99%. The peroxide value ranged 6.6-7.0 and 6.4-6.8 meg/Kg in the grain and flour of Sarhad White respectively after one year storage. There was more fungal infestation, fungal counts and peroxidation in the grain and flour Sarhad Yellow than that of Sarhad White. (author)

284

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF LEAF DISEASES AND KERNEL ROT IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leafspot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and kernel rot, and also to establish the relationshipbetween grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cross hybrids were evaluated in a randomizedblock design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity were performed using a visual symptomsscale, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. Fungicide application was effective in the control ofmaize leaf diseases, and the reduced incidence of kernel rot provided on average 12% increased grain yield comparedto the control treatment. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduced maize grain yield, and this reduction wasgreater when diseases occurred earlier. Maize gray leaf spot caused higher decrease in grain yield than white spot.

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO BRITO

2012-04-01

285

An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD at Zemun Polje (Serbia, during the summer of 2009. Average content of proteins, oil and starch of analyzed maize hybrids was 10.5%, 4.7% and 80.8%, respectively. Hybrids from FAO maturity group 600 had highest grain mass (in average 419.5 g. Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 2.64 to 3.75, averaged 3.44 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi concentrations were between 0.120 µ g g-1 (ZP 805 to 0.415 µ g g-1 (ZP 588ex, averaged 0.24 µ g g-1. Content of soluble proteins varied from 54.33 to 78.74 mg g-1. The high positive correlation was observed between total proteins and oil content in hybrids, as well as between starch and phenolics content. Phytate content was positively correlated with proteins, but this correlation was not significant, while the correlation between phytate and mass of 1,000 grains was positive and significant. A negative correlation occurred between phytate and starch. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Stevanovi? Milan

2012-01-01

286

Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Yield and Seed Quality of Maize (cv. Barnali)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from November 2000 to May 2001 to find the effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the yield and seed quality of maize (cv. Barnali). The study included three levels of Sulphur, viz., 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 and four levels of Nitrogen, viz., 0, 60, 100 and 120 kg ha-1. Gypsum and urea were used as the sources of Sulphur and Nitrogen...

Muhammad Morshed Alam; Md Nazrul Islam; Shah Md. Munirur Rahman; Md. Halaluddin; Md. Moynul Hoque

2003-01-01

287

Maize Growth and Yield under Daytime and Nighttime Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nighttime sprinkler irrigation usually results in lower wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) and better irrigation uniformity compared with daytime irrigation. However, daytime sprinkler irrigation modifies the microclimatic conditions within the crop canopy which could result in improved crop growth. We studied the effect of daytime and nighttime irrigation on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) irrigated with a solid-set sprinkler system. Two irrigation treatments were tested: ...

Cavero Campo, Jose?; Jime?nez, Laura; Puig Basa, Miriam; Faci Gonza?lez, Jose? Mari?a; Marti?nez-cob, Antonio

2008-01-01

288

Effect of sodium and nitrogen on yield function of irrigated maize in Southern Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salinization and nitrate leaching are two of the leading threats to the environment of the European Mediterranean regions. Inefficient use of water and fertilizers has led to a nitrate increase in the aquifers and reduction in crop yields caused by salts. In this study, a triple emitter source irrigation system delivers water, salt (Na+), and fertilizer (N) applications to maize (Zea mays L.). The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of saline water and nitrogen applicat...

Ramos, Tiago; Gonc?alves, M. C.; Castanheira, N. L.; Martins, J. C.; Santos, F. L.; Fernandes, M. L.

2009-01-01

289

COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Combining ability of some polygenic and quality traits was studied in a set of diallel crosses involving 10 maize inbreds (P1 to P10) to know the inheritance pattern of yield attributes. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant differences among themselves for all the traits in all environments. The ratio of gca /sca was less than unity there by indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of most of the characters studied. The parents P1 , ...

Krupakar, A.; BINOD KUMAR; Marker, S.

2013-01-01

290

Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p < 0.001) and a higher pH range (0.79 vs. 0.94; p = 0.003). In this study, grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. PMID:23826742

De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

2014-06-01

291

Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity. PMID:24878747

Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

292

Stability analysis for grain yield and yield components in chick pea (Cicer arietinum l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty one advanced breeding lines selected from All India Coordinated trials and one local popular variety “annegiri’ werestudied over three years to identify high yielding stable genotypes. Genotype , environment and G x E interaction variance foundto be significant. Genotypic variance over environments was significant for grain yield , pods/plant and 100 seed weight. Bothlinear and non linear components were found to be important for the traits studied. Significant non linear component for grainyield indicated the predictability of the trait. Of all the genotypes C-506 and C-527 were found to be stable

P.J.M.Rao

2011-03-01

293

EFFECT OF MAIZE HARVEST DELAY ON THE INCIDENCE OF SPOILED GRAINS AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of harvest delay on the incidence of spoiled grains and pathogenic fungi on maize grains of the hybrids XL 212 and XL 344, sowed through direct planting system in two areas of 60 x 100 m, with 55.000 plants per hectare and cultivated above soil vegetal coverage, black oat and foraging turnip. The spoiled grains (SG incidence was determined through the average of four repetitions of 250g per sample and the fungus incidence was determined on 400 grains incubated in potato-dextrose-agar, in growth chamber at 25ºC and photoperiod of 12 hours for seven days. The SG incidence increased in all treatments until the fourth evaluation, considering that the hybrid XL 344, cultivated above turnip coverage, reached 6.2% of SG and, above the oat coverage, reached 3.5%. In the XL 212 hybrid, the maximum incidence was 2.3% and 2.0% above oat and turnip coverage, respectively.The delay did not influence the increase of the spoiled grains incidence, but it influenced the decrease of the F. moniliforme and the raise of the incidence of the F. graminearium and the Aspergillus, Cephalosporium and Penicillium genus species.

JOÃO ANARACY SANTIN

2004-08-01

294

Leguminous cover crops differentially affect maize yields in three contrasting soil types of Kakamega, Western Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize production in smallholder farming systems in Kenya is largely limited by low soil fertility. As mineral fertilizer is expensive, green manuring using leguminous cover crops could be an alternative strategy for farmers to enhance farm productivity. However due to variability in soil type and crop management, the effects of green manure are likely to differ with farms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate Mucuna pruriens and Arachis pintoi on (i biomass and nitrogen fixation (15N natural abundance, (ii soil carbon and nitrogen stocks and (iii their effects on maize yields over two cropping seasons in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Mucuna at 6 weeks accumulated 1–1.3 Mg ha^{-1} of dry matter and 33–56 kg ha^{-1} nitrogen of which 70% was nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa. Arachis after 12 months accumulated 2–2.7 Mg ha^{-1} of dry matter and 51–74 kg N ha^{-1} of which 52-63 % was from Ndfa. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at 0–15 cm depth were enhanced by 2-4 Mg C ha^{-1} and 0.3–1.0 Mg N ha^{-1} under Mucuna and Arachis fallow, irrespective of soil type. Maize yield increased by 0.5-2 Mg ha^{-1} in Mucuna and 0.5–3 Mg ha^{-1} in Arachis and the response was stronger on Nitisol than on Acrisol or Ferralsol. We concluded that leguminous cover crops seem promising in enhancing soil fertility and maize yields in Kenya, provided soil conditions and rainfall are suitable.

Kelvin Mark Mtei

2011-06-01

295

Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) assessment of ?(18)O and nitrogen and ash contents for improved yield potential and drought adaptation in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oxygen isotope composition (?(18)O), accumulation of minerals (ash content), and nitrogen (N) content in plant tissues have been recently proposed as useful integrative physiological criteria associated with yield potential and drought resistance in maize. This study tested the ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict ?(18)O and ash and N contents in leaves and mature kernels of maize. The ?(18)O and ash and N contents were determined in leaf and kernel samples from a set of 15 inbreds and 18 hybrids grown in Mexico under full irrigation and two levels of drought stress. Calibration models between NIRS spectra and the measured variables were developed using modified partial least-squares regressions. Global models (which included inbred lines and hybrids) accurately predicted ash and N contents, whereas prediction of ?(18)O showed lower results. Moreover, in hybrids, NIRS clearly reflected genotypic differences in leaf and kernel ash and N contents within each water treatment. It was concluded that NIRS can be used as a rapid, cost-effective, and accurate method for predicting ash and N contents and as a method for screening ?(18)O in maize with promising applications in crop management and maize breeding programs for improved water and nitrogen use efficiency and grain quality. PMID:21175211

Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Sánchez, Ciro; Rosales, Aldo; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, José Luis

2011-01-26

296

Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significanest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

297

Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group) and sorghum silage (S group), had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein). Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea), somatic cell count, coagulation...

Borghese, A.; Manzi, P.; Mattera, M.; Maschio, M.; Allegrini, S.; Palocci, G.; Pacelli, C.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Tripaldi, C.; Barile, V. L.

2010-01-01

298

Genetic Variability and Heritability for Grain Yield and Other Characters in Lentil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for grain yield and six other characters in lentil. Experimental material included five lentil cultivars and 26 lentil lines grown during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Maximum variability was recorded for biological yield; grain yield and seed yield plant ha-1 . Maximum heritability was found for seed weight and days to 50% flowering.

Tuba Bicer, B.; Dogan Sakar

2004-01-01

299

Efficacy of Different Herbicides on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research work was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize hybrid P-3203. The treatments were pre-emergence application of dual gold (S-metolachlor) at 1.92, primextra (atrazine + metolachlor) at 2.25, treflan (trifluralin) at 1.5, stomp (pendimethalin) at 0.75 and jinong (atrazine) at 0.90 kg a.i. ha-1 and post-emergence application of 2,4-D at 0.80 and banvel (dicamba) at 0.84 kg a.i. ha-1. The treatments increased plant ...

Muhammad Azim Khan; Khan Bahadar Marwat; Naeem Khan; Ijaz Ahmad Khan

2003-01-01

300

Yield Responses of Maize to Organic and Mineral Fertilizers at Different Inclinations in Tropical Smallholder Farming Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field study was conducted on the potential of Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. to enhance productivity of degraded soils. Maize was cropped in a hilly region of Sri Lanka with and without the recommended mineral fertilization, in two major seasons, October-January in 2007/8 (Year 1 and in 2008/9 (Year 2 on 92 farms at two inclinations: Flat (0-10% and Moderate (10-30%. On half the farms, green manure (Gliricidia leaves was added (3 tonnes per hectare per season. NPK boosted production to a very respectable mean grain yield of 4.2 t/ha on Flat farms. At ZERO, the yield was lower by 60%, irrespective of the inclination. Gliricidia failed to replace the required nitrogen, even with an adequate supply of phosphorous and potassium (PK. In contrast, together with NPK, Gliricidia increased yields by 15-20% compared to NPK alone, while the gain was 35% at ZERO. Fields in the Moderate category were more responsive to green manure and mineral fertilizers. The high response to mineral fertilizers indicated that the degradation of the soils resulted to a greater extent in chemical rather than in physical deficits. But intensive cropping reduced the soil organic matter within two years, to some extent slowed down by Gliricidia green manure. Therefore an intense cropping for the sake of food security must be accompanied by soil conserving cropping systems.

W. C. P. Egodawatta

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

2011-02-01

302

Effect of Bio-phosphate and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizer Accompanied with Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Yield, Quality and Phosphorus and Zinc Concentration of Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran during 2008-2009 to evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizer, phosphorus and foliar application of micronutrients on dry matter accumulation, yield, and phosphorus and zinc concentration of maize (Zea mays L.. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four replications was followed in the study. The micronutrients foliar application in two levels (foliar application and non foliar application were the main plots, and four levels of phosphate (T1: 0 (no fertilizer, T2: 100 kg ha-1 P2O5, T3: 100g bio-phosphate, T4: 100g bio-phosphate with 50 kg ha-1 P2O5 as the sub plots. Results showed that micronutrients foliar application and biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers had a significant influence on dry matter accumulation. The maximum dry matter accumulation was obtained by applying 50 kg/ha P2O5 plus bio-fertilizer. Grain yield, 1000-seed weight and protein content of grain were significantly affected by micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers treatments. Micronutrients foliar application and phosphorus fertilizers interaction had no significantly effect on grain yield, 1000-seed weight and grain protein content. Grain phosphorus and zinc concentration where significantly increased by application of micronutrients and phosphorus fertilizers.

Mohammad Galavi

2011-11-01

303

Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

2012-12-01

304

Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Phosphorus Fertilizer Use Efficiency, Mycorrhizal Dependence and Maize Yield under Water Deficit Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria on phosphorus fertilizer use efficiency, mycorrhizal dependence and grain yield and dry matter yield of maize under water deficit conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments in this experiment were included as follows: irrigation (normal irrigation and water deficit stress based on evaporation from class A pan evaporation; combined different seed inoculations with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens and treatment of chemical phosphate fertilizer (non- consumption of phosphate fertilizer, consumption of 50 percent of triple superphosphate fertilizer needed, and consumption of rock phosphate, based on the quantity of consumed phosphorus of triple superphosphate source. The results showed that effects of irrigation, seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens biological phosphate fertilizer and chemical phosphate fertilizer were significant on yield and yield components, dry matter yield, relative agronomic efficiency and root colonization. Mild stress significantly reduced grain yield, relative agronomic efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency compared to optimum irrigation. Results showed that grain and dry matter yield are highly correlated with root colonization under mild stress condition. Maximum mycorrhizal dependence was obtained in mild stress condition. Maximum relative agronomic efficiency, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, yield and yield components was related to seed inoculation with AM and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of triple superphosphate fertilizer were increased grain yield in comparison with rock phosphate along with inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. However, maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal dependence was achieved in non- consumption treatment of phosphate fertilizer.

M. Ghorchiani

2013-06-01

305

Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L. stover  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Results Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Conclusion Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

de Leon Natalia

2009-03-01

306

Yield-trait performance landscapes: from theory to application in breeding maize for drought tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of breeding strategies to increase drought resistance in crops could be increased further if some of the complexities in gene-to-phenotype (G ? P) relations associated with epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype-by-environment interactions could be captured in realistic G ? P models, and represented in a quantitative manner useful for selection. This paper outlines a promising methodology. First, the concept of landscapes was extended from the study of fitness landscapes used in evolutionary genetics to the characterization of yield-trait-performance landscapes for agricultural environments and applications in plant breeding. Second, the E(NK) model of trait genetic architecture was extended to incorporate biophysical, physiological, and statistical components. Third, a graphical representation is proposed to visualize the yield-trait performance landscape concept for use in selection decisions. The methodology was demonstrated at a particular stage of a maize breeding programme with the objective of improving the drought tolerance of maize hybrids for the US Western Corn-Belt. The application of the framework to the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in maize supported selection of Doubled Haploid (DH) lines with improved levels of drought tolerance based on physiological genetic knowledge, prediction of test-cross yield within the target population of environments, and their predicted potential to sustain further genetic progress with additional cycles of selection. The existence of rugged yield-performance landscapes with multiple peaks and intervening valleys of lower performance, as shown in this study, supports the proposition that phenotyping strategies, and the directions emphasized in genomic selection can be improved by creating knowledge of the topology of yield-trait performance landscapes. PMID:21041371

Messina, Carlos D; Podlich, Dean; Dong, Zhanshan; Samples, Mitch; Cooper, Mark

2011-01-01

307

On correlation of maize and wheat yield with NDVI: Example of hungary (1985-1998)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to quantify statistical relations between the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from NOAA/AVHRR multi-channel irradiance, and yield of wheat and maize commonly covering 23.5% of Hungary. The 14 years period, 1985-1998 is used, reserving the later vegetation seasons for independent validation, in the future. The yield reporting units are the 19 administrative counties, characterized by 50-90 km of linear measure and diverse vegetation. Cluster analysis of the yield series is performed to identify possible outliers, but there are no qualitatively separating outliers found among the 14 years and 19 counties for the investigated plants. The same procedure is performed for the average proportion of land-use types and for the NDVI series with the aim of finding coherent groups of counties to unify them into larger, cumulative samples. However, these analyses did not yield the necessary similarities, hence, no further spatial integration was performed. The applied NDVI series are filtered against possible remained atmospheric disturbances, whereas the yield data are standardized against the, actually decreasing, linear trends. The relationships between weekly composite NDVI data are residual yield percentages are rather different for maize and wheat: wheat yield is closely related to the early spring NDVI, whereas for maize yield only the much later, near-harvest periods exhibit some informative value. Since the obtained correlations are rather similar in the neighboring weeks and the weekly NDVI series are strongly auto-correlated, themselves, a four-weekly integration of NDVI is performed before the final estimation of the yield from the NDVI. This integration is performed in four different ways, recommended by literature sources, with no real differences of the results, that promises stability of the correlation, despite the short samples. This statistical predictability of wheat yield residuals with about three months time lead, can be interpreted as follows: Mixed vegetation of the counties indicate the spring restart of wheat development, which conditions determine a substantial part of yield variability.

Mika, J.; Kerényi, J.; Rimóczi-Paál, A.; Merza, Á.; Szinell, C.; Csiszár, I.

308

Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf.) in Thrace Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lüleburgaz and Edirne) during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003). Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length a...

Kahraman, T.; Ozturk, I.; Daglioglu, O.; Baser, I.; Korkut, K. Z.; Bilgin, O.

2008-01-01

309

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) parents (n = 11) and their F1 (n = 55) and F2 (n = 55) offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD), GFD for growing degree days (GDD), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of varianc [...] e for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low). The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

, Kamaluddin; Rishi M., Singh; Lal C., Prasad; Malik Z., Abdin; Arun K., Joshi.

2007-03-01

310

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

Kamaluddin

2007-03-01

311

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior perf...

Asrar Mahboob; Muhammad Asghar

2002-01-01

312

GENETIC VARIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS IN DOUBLE CROSS MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. GENOTYPES IN KITALE COUNTY OF KENYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was conducted to select hybrids with improved yield, to identify testers for grain yield and to determine the magnitude of genetic variability in maize hybrids for yield and its elements. Adaptability of  double cross hybrids was studied under varying agro-climatic conditions of  parts of Western Kenya. Seventeen experimental hybrids and one commercial maize variety (standard were planted in a 6x6 balanced lattice design with three replicates. Physiological and agronomic traits were observed and recorded from germination to maturity. Collected data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model SAS. The results showed that ear height ranged between 169.0 and 214.0 cm showed by genotype  (95xFx(50x82 and (95x8x(50x16 respectively. The plant height ranged between 309.0 and 330.7 cm  showed by genotype  (44xAx(50x93 and  (44xAx(82x93 respectively, grain weight ranged between 253.3 and 441.7 g showed by genotype (44xAx(82x93 and  (64x8x(82x93 respectively, rows per cob ranged between 12.3 and 13.9 showed by genotype  (95xFx(82x16 and  (Fx82x(93x16 respectively. Grains per row ranged between 34.3 and 42.1 which was shown  by genotype (AxF x (50x82 and (95x8x(50x16 respectively, the cob length ranged between 19.6 cm and 23.4 cm shown by genotype  (56x44x(50x93  and  (95x8x(50x16 respectively and the grain yield ranged between 5.2 and 12.8 t/ha produced by genotypes  (95xFx(82x16 and (56x44x(50x16  respectively. Evaluating the various results revealed that genotype  (56x44x(50x16 and  (95x8x(50x16 were the most promising  and their adaptation to the agro-ecological condition to this area can bring a  substantial increase in maize grain yield.

Melil K. Charles

2013-04-01

313

Simulating the yield impacts of organ-level quantitative trait loci associated with drought response in maize: a "gene-to-phenotype" modeling approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under drought, substantial genotype-environment (G x E) interactions impede breeding progress for yield. Identifying genetic controls associated with yield response is confounded by poor genetic correlations across testing environments. Part of this problem is related to our inability to account for the interplay of genetic controls, physiological traits, and environmental conditions throughout the crop cycle. We propose a modeling approach to bridge this "gene-to-phenotype" gap. For maize under drought, we simulated the impact of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling two key processes (leaf and silk elongation) that influence crop growth, water use, and grain yield. Substantial G x E interaction for yield was simulated for hypothetical recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across different seasonal patterns of drought. QTL that accelerated leaf elongation caused an increase in crop leaf area and yield in well-watered or preflowering water deficit conditions, but a reduction in yield under terminal stresses (as such "leafy" genotypes prematurely exhausted the water supply). The QTL impact on yield was substantially enhanced by including pleiotropic effects of these QTL on silk elongation and on consequent grain set. The simulations obtained illustrated the difficulty of interpreting the genetic control of yield for genotypes influenced only by the additive effects of QTL associated with leaf and silk growth. The results highlight the potential of integrative simulation modeling for gene-to-phenotype prediction and for exploiting G x E interactions for complex traits such as drought tolerance. PMID:19786622

Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Tardieu, François; McLean, Greg; Welcker, Claude; Hammer, Graeme L

2009-12-01

314

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

315

Determining Possible Relationships between Yield and Yield-Related Components in Forage Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Correlation and Path Analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to determine the optimum plant density and nitrogen rate in maize (Zea mays L.) under the ecological conditions of the Southern Marmara Region. For this purpose, maize was grown at different plant densities and was fertilized with different rates of nitrogen during 2006 and 2007. The dry forage yield, plant height, first ear height, stem diameter, leaf number plant-1, ear number plant-1, leaf ratio, stem ratio, ear ratio, ear diameter, leaf area index, and light int...

Celik, Necmettin; Carpici, Emine Budakli

2010-01-01

316

Rendimiento de las generaciones F1 y F2 de híbridos trilineales de maíz en los valles altos de México / Grain yield of the F1 and F2 generations of three-way maize hybrids in the high valleys of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México se usa 25% de semilla mejorada de maíz y 75% de semillas criollas ó variedades mejoradas acriolladas (generaciones avanzadas de híbridos). El precio de la semilla híbrida F1, es el más alto del mundo, esto limita un mayor uso, por lo que se emplea semilla obtenida de la propia parcela de h [...] íbridos, dado que en los Valles Altos los híbridos que se siembran en mayor superficie son H-50 y H-48, en este trabajo se estableció como objetivo definir la productividad de las generaciones F1 y F2 de los híbridos H-48, H-50, H-153, H-50 AE y H-47 AE, los cuales se evaluaron en el ciclo primavera-verano 2007 en dos experimentos; en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) de la UNAM y en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del INIFAP. El análisis estadístico combinado detectó para rendimiento diferencias altamente significativas para localidades, genotipos, generaciones F1 F2, así como para la interacción genotipos x generaciones F1 F2. La media de rendimiento fue 8 560 kg ha-¹ y el coeficiente de variación fue 18.8%. En CEVAMEX la media de rendimiento fue 10 053 kg ha-¹ diferente estadísticamente a la FESC donde la media fue 7 069 kg ha ¹. La generación F1 en promedio rindió 9 985 kg ha-¹ que representó 139.9% con respecto a la generación F2 que produjo 7 137 kg ha-¹. Los resultados obtenidos ratifican que no es conveniente el uso de semilla de la generación F2, por el decremento en productividad ya que la diferencia en rendimiento justifica la adquisición de semilla nueva cada ciclo. Abstract in english In Mexico, 25% of improved maize seed and 75% of native seed or improved native varieties (advanced generations of hybrids) are used. The price of the F1 hybrid seed is the highest in the world, limiting its greater use, for which reason farmers use seeds from their own plots of hybrid seeds. In the [...] high valleys of Mexico, the maize hybrids most planted are the H-50 and H-48. The purpose of this study was to determine the productivity of the F1 and F2 generations of the hybrids H-48, H-50, H-153 H-50 AE and H-47 AE. They were evaluated during the 2007 Spring-Summer season in two experiments carried out at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) of the UNAM and the experimental station Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) of the INIFAP. With respect to yield, the combined statistical analysis detected highly significant differences for localities, genotypes and F1 F2 generations, as well as for the interaction genotypes x F1 F2 generations. Mean yield was 8 560 kg ha-¹ and the coefficient of variation was 18.8%. The mean yield obtained at the CEVAMEX was 10 053 kg ha¹. This was statistically different from that recorded in the FESC where a mean of 7 069 kg ha-¹ was logged. The F1 generation yielded 9 985 kg ha-¹ on average, which represented 139.9% with respect to the F2 generation that produced 7 137 kg ha¹. The results indicate that the use of F2 generation seeds is not convenient due to a decrease in productivity, and that the difference in yield justifies acquiring new seeds every season.

A, Espinosa-Calderón; M, Tadeo-Robledo; I, Arteaga-Escamilla; A, Turrent-Fernández; M, Sierra-Macías; N, Gómez-Montiel; A, Palafox-Caballero; R, Valdivia-Bernal; V, Trejo-Pastor; E, Canales-Islas.

2012-04-01

317

Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

Amedeo Reyneri

2011-02-01

318

Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

Amedeo Reyneri

2008-06-01

319

Biochemical constraints that determine protein quality and grain yield in cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most cereal grain proteins are nutritionally poor because of the high proportion of prolamin, which is deficient in lysine. Improved protein quality mutants in maize, barley and sorghum have a lower proportion of prolamin and a higher albumin content. Protein accumulation in high-lysine mutants of maize and sorghum is more rapid during the early stages of grain development than in normal grains. Higher protein concentration during early grain development in high-lysine mutants was associated with increased levels of soluble amino nitrogen, glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate-oxaloacetate amino transferase activity. Regulatory control of mRNA synthesis for prolamin is important in determining protein quality. Post-translational modification of proteins may account for the loss of protein lysine during later stages of maturity. Starch synthesis studies indicate a decreased rate of starch accumulation during the later stages of grain development in high-lysine maize. Regulatory controls on starch synthesis in high-lysine mutants are discussed. (author)

320

Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 aultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation ding is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

322

Determinantes de la oferta de maíz grano en México / Supply determinants of grain maize in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y analizar los factores que afectan la oferta de maíz grano en México. Se usó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto por dos de oferta, tres de transmisión de los precios y una identidad; durante el periodo de 1980 a 2010. La oferta de m [...] aíz grano en México, con base en los resultados, responde inelásticamente ante cambios en el precio medio rural del maíz producido bajo riego y temporal, con elasticidades precio-propias de 0,3025 y 0,2282; los cambios en el precio de los insumos que más afectan la oferta total de maíz son los registrados en el precio del plaguicida con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,4108; los cambios en el bien competitivo que más le impactaron fueron los registrados en el sorgo, con una elasticidad precio-cruzada de -0,2898, si es producido bajo riego y de -0,1531 en temporal. El precio al productor de maíz en riego y temporal en México es influenciado directamente por el precio al mayoreo a razón de 0,64 y 0,62% por cada 1% de cambio en este último, mientras que el costo de transporte y el precio internacional del maíz inciden sobre el de mayoreo a niveles de 0,31 y 0,24% por cada cambio porcentual unitario en estos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine and analyze the factors that affect maize grain supply in Mexico. An econometric model of simultaneous equations composed of two supply equations, three transmission prices and one identity; during the period from 1980 to 2010. Based on the results of the [...] model, the supply of maize grain in Mexico responds inelastically to changes in the price of maize produced under irrigation and temporary, with elasticities own-price of 0,3025 and 0,2282, changes in input prices that more affect the total offer are pesticide prices, with a cross-price elasticity of -0,4108; changes in the competitive product that more impacted maize supply was sorghum, with a crossprice elasticity of -0,2898, if produced under irrigation and -0,1531 if produced in temporary. The price to the producer of maize grown under irrigation and temporary in Mexico is directly influenced by the wholesale price at a rate of 0,64 and 0,62% for each 1% change in it, while the cost of transport and the international price of maize influence the wholesale price at levels of 0,31 and 0,24% for every unit percentage change in them.

Eugenio, Guzmán-Soria; María Teresa, de la Garza-Carranza; José Alberto, García-Salazar; Juvencio, Hernández-Martínez; Samuel, Rebollar-Rebollar.

2012-12-01

323

Genotype variations in grain yield of spring barley depending on sowing density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year study was carried out for grain yield in five cultivars of the spring brewer's barley at the Small Grains Research Center of in Kragujevac from 1996 to 1998. The effect of three sowing densities on the number of spikes, grain number per spike and grain yield was studied for each cultivars. Research results have shown that the cultivars displayed a highly significant effect on the grain number per spike and grain yield. It has also been noticed that, in the course of every research year, sowing density induced increases in spike number and grain yield. In contrast, the higher sowing density brought about a decrease in the grain number per spike.

Paunovi? Aleksandar S.

2006-01-01

324

Yield of several maize varieties under two dosages of urea and several defoliation times of leaf under ear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to study the effect of several maize varieties, urea fertilizer, defoliation of leaf under ear, and interaction between them on growth and yield of maize. An experiment was conducted in Experimental Farm of STPP Gowa in Borongloe-Bontomarannu, from April to July 2006. It was arranged in a split-split plot design in block. Main plots were maize varieties consisted of Agricorn, Bisi-2 and C-7. Subplot was urea dosage consisting of two levels: 250 and 350 kg ha-1....

Kuruseng, Muh Askari

2011-01-01

325

Compositional equivalence of grain from multi-trait drought-tolerant maize hybrids to a conventional comparator: univariate and multivariate assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

MON 87460 (D1) maize contains a gene that expresses the cold shock protein B (CSPB) from Bacillus subtilis to confer a yield advantage when yield is limited by water availability. This study evaluated the composition of grain from the D1-containing combined-trait maize hybrids D1 × NK603, D1 × MON 89034 × NK603, and D1 × MON 89034 × MON 88017. These stacks offer a combination of insect protection and herbicide tolerance traits. These hybrids were grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions at three replicated field sites across Chile during the 2006-2007 growing season. Compositional analyses included measurement of proximates, fibers, total amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, raffinose, phytic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The statistical analyses included an evaluation of the applicability of multiblock principal component analysis (MB-PCA) and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) to studies when more than one experimental factor will contribute to compositional variability. Results from these multivariate procedures highlighted that water treatment was the greatest contributor to compositional variability and, as expected, confirmed that the grain of combined-trait drought-tolerant hybrids was compositionally equivalent to that of conventional comparators as established by traditional statistical significance testing. PMID:25175069

Xu, Yun; Goodacre, Royston; Harrigan, George G

2014-10-01

326

Yield and plant ion concentrations in maize (Zea mays L.) subject to diurnal and nocturnal saline sprinkler irrigations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing competition for good-quality waters is forcing to use saline waters for irrigation in many areas around the world. Maize (Zea mays L.) is considered a moderately sensitive crop to soil salinity, but its response to saline sprinkling irrigations and the potential benefits of irrigating at night to minimize leaf Na+ and Cl- uptake are not established. Our objective was to appraise plant ion concentrations and yields of maize subject to diurnal and nocturnal saline sprinkling irri...

Isla Climente, Ramo?n; Aragu?e?s Lafarga, Ramo?n

2010-01-01

327

Genetic variability for carotenoid content of grains in a composite maize population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Local maize (Zea mays L.) varieties are cultivated by small-scale farmers in western Santa Catarina (SC) State, in southern Brazil. These small areas frequently present many problems related to biotic and non-biotic stresses, which have limited the economic output and income of the farmers. Producti [...] on from local varieties for human consumption would be an alternative way of improving income and stimulating on farm conservation. The genetic variability of the total carotenoid content (TCC) of kernels in a local maize population was evaluated for their economic exploitation potential as biofortified food. Two independent samples of 96 half-sib families (HSF) plus four checks were evaluated in two groups of experiments in western SC and each one was carried out in two environments. They were set out in a 10 × 10 partially balanced lattice with three replications per location; plots consisted of one row, 5.0 m long with 1.0 m between rows. TCC ranged from 11 to 23 µg g-1, averaging ?16 µg g-1 in the pooled analysis over the two sets. The local composite population exhibited genetic variability in order to increase the TCC of grains in the second cycle of selection by the convergent-divergent scheme.

Volmir, Kist; Vanessa Stainbach, Albino; Marcelo, Maraschin; Juliana Bernardi, Ogliari.

2014-12-01

328

Impact of genetics and environment on the metabolite composition of maize grain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to assess genetic and environmental impacts on the metabolite composition of maize grain. Gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) measured 119 identified metabolites including free amino acids, free fatty acids, sugars, organic acids, and other small molecules in a range of hybrids derived from 48 inbred lines crossed against two different tester lines (from the C103 and Iodent heterotic groups) and grown at three locations in Iowa. It was reasoned that expanded metabolite coverage would contribute to a comprehensive evaluation of the grain metabolome, its degree of variability, and, in principle, its relationship to other compositional and agronomic features. The metabolic profiling results established that the small molecule metabolite pool is highly dependent on genotypic variation and that levels of certain metabolite classes may have an inverse genotypic relationship to each other. Different metabolic phenotypes were clearly associated with the two distinct tester populations. Overall, grain from the C103 lines contained higher levels of free fatty acids and organic acids, whereas grain from the Iodent lines were associated with higher levels of amino acids and carbohydrates. In addition, the fold-range of genotype mean values [composed of six samples each (two tester crosses per inbred x three field sites)] for identified metabolites ranged from approximately 1.5- to 93-fold. Interestingly, some grain metabolites showed a non-normal distribution over the entire corn population, which could, at least in part, be attributed to large differences in metabolite values within specific inbred crosses relative to other inbred sets. This study suggests a potential role for metabolic profiling in assisting the process of selecting elite germplasm in biotechnology development, or marker-assisted breeding. PMID:20158212

Skogerson, Kirsten; Harrigan, George G; Reynolds, Tracey L; Halls, Steven C; Ruebelt, Martin; Iandolino, Alberto; Pandravada, Anand; Glenn, Kevin C; Fiehn, Oliver

2010-03-24

329

Sensitivity of southern African maize yields to the definition of sowing dekad in a changing climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most African countries struggle with food production and food security. These issues are expected to be even more severe in the face of climate change. Our study examines the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture with a view to propose adaptation options, especially in hard hit regions. We use a crop model to evaluate the impact of various sowing decisions on the water satisfaction index (WSI) and thus the yield of maize crop. The crop model is run for 176 stations over southern Afr...

Crespo, Olivier; Hachigonta, Sepo; Tadross, Mark

2011-01-01

330

Yield of Silage Maize as Affected by Compaction Treatments at the Planting Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, effects of the different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and plant properties and dry matter yield of second crop silage maize were investigated. Soil compaction was applied in the forms of the following treatments; Compaction on Furrow Surface (CFS), Compaction on Furrow Bottom (CFB), Compaction on Inter Rows (CIR) and non-compaction as a Control (C). The tire-soil contact pressures were selected as 0.025, 0.051 and 0.076 MPa control t...

Ebubekir Altuntas; Faruk Taser, O.; Kara, O.

2008-01-01

331

Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage period, all granaries were artificially infested with 7 pairs Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais. No damage, losses or live insects were observed during 7 months of storage when maize cobs were placed between layers of H. spicigera. Compared with the control, incorporation of insecticidal plants within the granary bottom had no significant effect on the damage and loss level irrespective of the storage mode. Non-winnowed maize always suffered less damage and losses than the winnowed variant. In all granaries depredation, insect abundance and moisture content were highest toward the end of storage period between June and July.

Gueye, MT.

2013-01-01

332

Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dia [...] s a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2. Abstract in english The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concen [...] trations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.

Marcelo De, Carli; Bruna, Bresolin; Caciano Pelayo Zapata, Noreña; Irineu, Lorini; Adriano, Brandelli.

1469-14-01

333

Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

Marcelo De Carli

2010-12-01

334

GRAIN AND OIL YIELD INVESTIGATED SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE GROWING SEASON  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In four-year field experiments (2001-2004) conducted in Western Slavonia (Nova Gradiška) influence of weather conditions (year) and sunflower hybrids on grain and oil yield was investigated. In the experiments five sunflower hybrids (PR63A90, Alzan, Aleksandra, Opera and Pixel) were investigated. Obtained results have indicated that weather conditions, hybrid and their interaction have significant influence on grain and oil yield. The highest grain and oil yield per hectare were obtained in ...

Milan Pospišil; Ana Pospišil; Manda Antunovi?

2006-01-01

335

Effects of heat stress during grain filling on the structure and thermal properties of waxy maize starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clarifying the waxy maize starch physicochemical characteristics response to heat stress could modify starch quality. The effects of heat stress during grain filling (1-40day after pollination) on starch structure and thermal properties of four waxy maize varieties were investigated. The mean day/night temperature during grain filling for heat stress and control treatments was 35.2/16.1°C and 27.4/15.6°C, respectively. Heat stress during grain filling increased the starch average granule size and the proportion of long chains in amylopectin. Starch granules under heat stress presented more pitting or uneven surfaces. X-ray peak intensities in response to heat stress were variety dependent. Heat stress during grain filling decreased the swelling power and increased the gelatinization temperature and retrogradation percentage, while the gelatinization enthalpy was not affected. In conclusion, heat stress during grain filling significantly affected structural characteristics of waxy maize starch and consequently, changed its swelling and thermal properties. PMID:24054245

Lu, Dalei; Shen, Xin; Cai, Xuemei; Yan, Fabao; Lu, Weiping; Shi, Yong-Cheng

2014-01-15

336

Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F1 and F2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F1 and segregation in F2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F1, suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F1 was observed. In the F2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F2, a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

337

Temperature Variations within Wooden and Metal Grain Silos in the Tropics during Storage of Maize (Zea Mays)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was carried out on the comparative analysis of temperature variation within wooden and metal grain silos under a typical tropical weather condition in Nigeria. Temperature variations within and outside the silos were monitored for 130days (July to November) during storage of maize. Results showed that the grain temperature at the centre of the silos ranged between 24.0-32.7°C and 23.8-35.0°C for wooden and metal silos respectively. Also, at the silo walls, grain temperatures range...

Alabadan, B. A.; Oyewo, O. A.

2005-01-01

338

Determination of Some Yield Characters of Grain Corn in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in Van, located in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, in 2000 and 2001 year to determine some yield characters of grain corn cultivars. In the experiment eleven (C-955, DK-626, Antbey, LG-60, Flash, LG-55, TTM-8119, Vero, TTM-813, Ant-90 and Akp nar corn cultivars were used and experimental design was Randomized Complete Block. Corn cultivars had the lowest 711.2 kg da-1 and the highest 1062.5 kg da-1 grain yield. DK-626 (1062.5 kg da-1, LG-55 (1027.4 kg da-1 and C-955 (1005.4 kg da-1 cultivars produced the highest grain yield had better performance while TTM-8119 and Vero cultivars having the lowest grain yield. Grain yield of corn cultivars in van were found sufficient compare to other region of Turkey. So, Van region can be a new corn grain production area in future.

Bilal Keskin

2005-01-01

339

Manuring Effect on the Potential Grain Yield of Wheat in the Light of The Holy Quran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined application of chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure increased the ears m -2 and grains per ear than alone application of organic or inorganic fertilizer to wheat variety Ghaznavi under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan however both parameters i.e. ears per emerged seedling and grains per ear remained lower than the predicted yield in Ayah No. 261 of Surah Al-Baqrah of The Holy Quran. This variety produced the grain yield of 5.5 t ha -1 when fertilized with 20 t ha -1 FYM + 138 kg P2O5 t ha -1. Unfortunately this grain yield is far below than the grain yield (Y=axb predicted in The Holy Quran which comes about 70 t ha -1. Therefore, it is suggested for the agricultural intellectuals to evolve varieties and agronomic techniques to achieve the grain yield predicted in The Holy Quran.

Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

2001-01-01

340

A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize. Contrary to our hypothesis, total growing-season root CO2 flux was not proportional to end-of-season root biomass of cropping systems; unfertilized prairie contained nearly twice the root biomass of N-fertilized prairie, but the two systems' total root CO2 fluxes were not significantly different in either year. We found that the total growing-season flux of both root- and organic matter-derived CO 2 was higher in the prairie systems compared to the maize system. However, on a percentage basis, the prairies' soil-surface CO2 flux from May-September averaged 29% root-derived while from mid-June through September the maize averaged 22% root-derived. The percentage of the total CO2 flux that was root-derived in a given system varied from year to year, indicating there is no set relationship for a given cropping system.

Nichols, Virginia A.

 
 
 
 
341

Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sa soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

342

Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawsoil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

343

Potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole grain sorghum and maize lager brewing and bioethanol production through grain genetic modification and phytase treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brewing and bioethanol production with raw grain and exogenous enzymes produces wort with satisfactory hot water extract (HWE). However, the free amino nitrogen (FAN) and mineral content can be too low, owing to low protein digestibility (PD) and phytate–mineral chelation, respectively. This study evaluated the potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole sorghum and maize brewing and bioethanol production by genetic modification (GM) of sorghum to improve PD and reduce phytate...

Kruger, Johanita; Oelofse, Andre; Taylor, Janet; Taylor, J. R. N.

2012-01-01

344

Yield of Silage Maize as Affected by Compaction Treatments at the Planting Time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, effects of the different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and plant properties and dry matter yield of second crop silage maize were investigated. Soil compaction was applied in the forms of the following treatments; Compaction on Furrow Surface (CFS, Compaction on Furrow Bottom (CFB, Compaction on Inter Rows (CIR and non-compaction as a Control (C. The tire-soil contact pressures were selected as 0.025, 0.051 and 0.076 MPa control treatment was 0.0085 MPa. After planting and before harvesting; soil penetration resistance and soil bulk density were determined as soil properties at different soil compaction treatments stated above. Before and after harvesting period, as generative growth, plant stalk diameter, plant height, single plant dry weight, percentage of corncob, harvesting index and dry matter yield were determined. Soil penetration resistance values changed in the soil depth of 0-10 cm from the 0.23 to 0.45 MPa after planting and from the 0.64 to 1.15 MPa before harvesting. Also values changed 0.32 to 0.83 MPa in the soil depth of 10-20 cm after planting and from 0.95 to 1.33 MPa before harvesting. C treatment gave low mean values of soil penetration resistance in the soil depth of 0-20 cm. The lowest mean dry matter yield was obtained in CIR treatment as 8.39 Mg ha-1. The highest values obtained at C and CFS treatments as 9.98 and 9.28 Mg ha-1, respectively. Compaction treatments caused by press wheel increased soil bulk density and penetration resistance. Dry matter yield of maize was affected by compaction treatments.

Ebubekir Altuntas

2008-01-01

345

Effect of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) caused injury on maize grain content, especially regarding to the protein alteration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner), which migrated in the Carpathian-basin from Mediterraneum in the last decades, is becoming an increasingly serious problem for maize producers in Hungary. In several regions the damage it causes has reached the threshold of economic loss, especially in the case of the sweet maize cultivation. The aim of the research was to determine the changing of ears weights and in-kernel accumulation and alteration in grain as a function of cotton bollworm mastication.Our investigation confirmed that there is an in-kernel and protein pattern change of maize grain by cotton bollworm. Our results proved the significant damaging of each part of ears by cotton bollworm masticating (the average weight loss of ears: 13.99%; the average weight loss of grains: 14.03%; the average weight loss of cobs: 13.74%), with the exception of the increasing of the grain-cob ratio. Our examinations did not prove the water loss - that is the "forced maturing" - caused by the damage. Decreasing of raw fat (control: 2.8%; part-damaged: 2.6%; damaged: 2.4%) and starch content (control: 53.1%; part-damaged: 46.6%; damaged: 44.7%) were registered as a function of injury. In contrast, the raw protein content was increased (control: 4.7%; part-damaged: 5.3%; damaged: 7.4%) by maize ear masticating. The most conspicuous effect on protein composition changing was proved by comparison of damaged grain samples by SDS PAGE. Increased amounts of 114, 50, 46 and 35 kDa molecular mass proteins were detected which explained the more than 50% elevation of raw protein content. The statistical analysis of molecular weights proved the protein realignment as a function of the pest injuries, too. PMID:21388919

Keszthelyi, S; Pál-Fám, F; Kerepesi, I

2011-03-01

346

Relationship Between Grain Filling Rate, Grain Filling Duration, Yield Components and Other Physiological Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relationship between grain filling rate , grain filling duration, yield components and other physiological traits of rice was investigated in 93 genotypes of rice at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht, Iran) during the growing season of 2001-2002. The experiment was performed without any statistical design. Panicles of main stem were tagged and taken at 3- day intervals during the grain filling period. A cubic polynomial model was used to fit the grain dry weight data (mean of R2= 0.98 fo...

Alahgholipour, M.; Honarnejad, R.; Esfahany, M.; Mojtabaie Zamani, M.

2007-01-01

347

Soil physical characteristics and yield of wheat and maize as affected by mulching materials and sowing methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil physical degradation due to agriculture activity is a pressing issue in Pakistan causing reduction in crop yields. The study was conducted to assess the effects of two sowing methods and two mulching materials on soil physical characteristics and yields of wheat and maize during 2008-10 at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results showed that Bed sowing method along with wheat straw mulch increased Leaf Area Index of wheat by 5 to 16%, and of maize by 4 to 14% compared with other treatments. This tr...

Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Anwar-ul-hassan; Allah Bakhsh

2013-01-01

348

Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

349

Cross-Continental Comparisons of Grain Yields Under Climate Change: Potential for Agricultural Adaptation to Offset Losses  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the timing and magnitude of warming and changes in precipitation patterns will have differential effects on the yields of staple grains under climate change. Modeling these changes accurately at the regional scale is important to prioritize adaptation measures to continue to provide food for a growing global population. We used climate projections from five IPCC AR4 CMIP3 climate models (BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, IPSL-CM4v1, CCSR-MIROC3.2-medres, and NCAR-CCSM3) and three emissions scenarios (B1, A1b, and A2) to obtain a robust estimate of future climate possibilities. Key modeled hydroclimatic variables impacting yield were compared with 20th century observational data to assess the model's representation of the mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual to decadal variability for four sites located in Iowa, USA; Punjab, India; Free State, South Africa; and the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. We used the process-based model Agro-IBIS to project climate change impacts to annual yield and growing season net primary productivity of maize (USA and India) and winter wheat (South Africa and Australia) in these regions. Changes in productivity at each of the four sites are related to current climate variability and projected changes, taking into account model performance and limiting factors for growth in the different regions. Relative changes in maize/wheat yields in the four regions between three periods (the late 20th and mid- and late-21st century) can be attributed to progressively changing local climate conditions and linked to large-scale circulation changes. For example, India is projected to experience the greatest warming along with a decrease in mean precipitation, which might substantially decrease yields, while under some scenarios of warming and increased mean precipitation, Iowa is predicted to experience yield increases. In addition to mean changes, frequency and magnitude of high- and low-yield years are assessed for the three periods and related to changes in the variability of local climate conditions in the four regions. We also modeled various adaptation strategies, such as changing planting date, irrigation practices, and cultivar, and found different optimal strategies in each region. Such information can be used to direct agricultural research and extension efforts to continue high levels of grain production under climate change.

Nicholas, K. A.; Twine, T. E.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Girvetz, E. H.; Chhetri, N.; McCarthy, H. R.; Xu, H.

2011-12-01

350

Effects of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat or maize on four stored-grain insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., or maize, Zea mays L., was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insect species: lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and the psocid Lepinotus reticulatus (Enderlein) (Psocoptera: Trogiidae). Adult mortality of these species was recorded after 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 40 h on commodities treated with 1 ppm of spinosad (immediate mortality). Then, the surviving individuals were removed and placed on untreated wheat or maize, and mortality was recorded again 7 d later (delayed mortality). Progeny production then was determined 65 and 35 d later for the beetles and psocids, respectively. Among the four species tested, R. dominica was the most susceptible, and immediate mortality after 40 h reached 78 and 72% on wheat and maize, respectively. Moreover, 7 d later, all adults that had been exposed for >2 h were dead on both commodities. Progeny production was significantly reduced in comparison with the controls, and no progeny were found when parental adults had been exposed for >8 or >4 h on wheat and maize, respectively. For S. oryzae, 40-h exposures significantly increased delayed mortality on both wheat and maize, but progeny production still was high. Generally, no effect of short exposures was noted for T. castaneum. For L. reticulatus, despite the fact that the increase of exposure interval increased mortality on maize, progeny production was not avoided. With the exception of T. castaneum, more progeny were found on wheat than on maize. The results of the current study indicate that R. dominica is very susceptible after short exposures to spinosad-treated substrate, but the other species are able to survive and reproduce at the exposure range examined. PMID:20214387

Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

2010-02-01

351

Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatmen [...] ts arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf and tasseling stage). Internal lesion length, adjusted yield, and yield components (length, diameter and ear weight) were evaluated 120 days after emergence. Significant differences in yield and ear weight were detected in the susceptible hybrid inoculated at the earliest stage: yield was reduced by 16.1 and 20.2% in the first and second experiment, respectively. Although lesion length in the susceptible hybrid was approximately three times greater than in the resistant, there were no significant differences in lesion length among treatments for each hybrid. However, there were differences in the number of dead plants and ear weight. It is suggested that damage caused by early infection with C. graminicola results mainly from plant death and reduction in ear weigh rather than from the extent of colonization of the stalk.

Rodrigo R., Matiello; Maria Teresa G., Lopes; Kátia R., Brunelli; Luis Eduardo A., Camargo.

2013-04-01

352

Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

353

Comparative evaluation of modified neem leaf, neem leaf and woodash extracts on soil fertility improvement, growth and yields of maize (Zea mays L. and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Sole and Intercrop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Akure (7oN, 5o101E in the rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2006 and 2007 to determine the effectiveness of neem leaf, woodash and modified neem leaf extracts as fertilizer sources in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus sole and intercrop. There were six treatments namely, poultry manure, neem leaf extract (sole, woodash extract, modified neem leaf (neem leaf + woodash, NPK 15-15-15 and a control (no fertilizer nor extract, replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB. The extracts (neem leaf, wood ash and modified neem leaf were applied at 1200 litres per hectare each, NPK 15-15-15 at 300 kg/ha and poultry was applied at 6t/ha. The results showed that there were significant increases (P < 0.05 in the maize growth and yield parameters (leaf area, plant height stem girth grain yield, cob weight and % shelling percentage as well as in watermelon (vine length, stem girth, number of branches, fruits weight, population and fruit diameter under sole and intercrop compared to the control treatment. Generally, the growth and yield parameters values were slightly higher under the sole crop than the intercrop. The modified neem leaf extract increased the plant height and stem girth of maize (sole by 11.78% and 27.43% respectively compared to that of neem leaf extract and the same trend of increase was experienced in maize (intercrop where modified neem leaf extract increased plant height and stem girth by 11.5% and 24.48% compared to neem leaf. Poultry manure also increased the maize leaf area (sole and intercrop compared to the extracts and NPK 15-15-15. For instance, under maize (sole, the poultry manure increased the leaf area by 8.74% compared to NPK 15-15-15. For yield parameters of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop, modified neem leaf increased most all values of yield parameters compared to neem leaf and woodash extract. For example, modified neem leaf increased the values of sole maize grain yield, cob weight by 65.63% and 57.58% respectively compared to neem leaf extract. The LER value for maize and watermelon (intercrop and sole was 2.61 while relative yield is 1.575 or 157.5%. For soil fertility improvement after harvesting, modified neem leaf extract and poultry manure had the highest values of soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N compared to NPK 15-15-15 and neem leaf extract. For instance, modified neem leaf extract increased soil pH (H2O, K, Ca, Mg, Na, O.M, P and N by 12.4%, 32.8%, 25%, 23.7%, 19.32%, 17.24% and 20% respectively compared to neem leaf extract under intercrop plot. The high soil K/Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios in the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer treatment led to an imbalance in the supply of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients to maize and watermelon crops. The least values for growth, yield and soil parameters were recorded under the control treatment. In these experiments, modified neem leaf extract (woodash + neem leaf extracts applied at 1200 litres/ha was the most effective in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize and watermelon (sole and intercrop and could substitute for 6 tons per hectare of poultry manure and 300kg/ha of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer.

Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu

2012-01-01

354

Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeability and toughness, the studied cereal grains could be ranked as follow: rice > corn > thousand. Mushes flours also showed very low moisture content, high starch and carbohydrates contents, poor levels in lipids and proteins. They contain some essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in variable concentrations. Contents in phytic acid were also variable. In consequence, the energy density of these flours appeared very high but it was lower than the one of the existing complement flours of Cote d`Ivoire markets.

Brou Kouakou

2008-01-01

355

Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

2014-06-01

356

Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ? Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ? More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ? Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ? New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

357

Supplements of transgenic malt or grain containing (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase increase the nutritive value of barley-based broiler diets to that of maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A diet with addition to normal barley of malt from transgenic barley expressing a protein engineered, thermotolerant Bacillus (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination has previously been demonstrated to provide a broiler chicken weight gain comparable to maize diets. It also reduced dramatically the number of birds with adhering sticky droppings, but did not entirely eliminate sticky droppings. One of the objectives of the broiler chicken trials reported here was to determine if higher concentrations of transgenic malt could alleviate the sticky droppings. 2. Another aim was to investigate the feasibility of using mature transgenic grain containing the thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase as feed addition and to compare diets containing transgenic grain to a diet with the recommended amount of a commercial beta-glucanase-based product. 3. Inclusion of 75 or 151 g/kg transgenic malt containing 4.7 or 98 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase with 545 or 469 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize yielded a weight gain in Cornish Cross broiler chickens indistinguishable from presently used maize diets. The gene encoding the enzyme is expressed in the aleurone with a barley alpha-amylase gene promoter and the enzyme is synthesised with a signal peptide for secretion into the endosperm of the malting grain. 4. Equal weight gain was achieved, when the feed included 39 g/kg transgenic barley grain [containing 66 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase] and 581 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize. In this case, the gene encoding the enzyme has been expressed with the D-hordein gene (Hor3-1) promoter during grain maturation. The enzyme is synthesised as a precursor with a signal peptide for transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted into the storage vacuoles. Deposition of the enzyme in the prolamin storage protein bodies of the endosperm protects it from degradation during the programmed cell death of the endosperm in the final stages of gr