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NUMBER AND TIME OF WEEDING EFFECTS ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD  

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Full Text Available Several problems are to blame for the low yields of maize in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Among these problems, the lack of weed control in the proper season is one of the biggest. The experiment was conducted in Mossoró-RN, in a sprinkler-irrigated area. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of one weeding (at 15, 30, 45 or 60 days after planting, DAP, two weedings (15 and 30, 15 and 45, 15 and 60, 30 and 45, 30 and 60 or 45 and 60 DAP, three weedings (15, 30 and 45; 15, 30 and 60 or 30, 45 and 60 DAP or four weedings (15, 30, 45 and 60 DAP on cultivar Centralmex grain yield. A “no weeding” treatment was also included. A random block design with four replicates was utilized. The lack of weeding reduced plant and ear heights, as well as grain yield and its components. The highest grain yields were obtained with treatments 30 DAP, 15-30 DAP, 30-45 DAP, 30-45-60 DAP, and 15-30-45-60 DAP. Greater net revenue with grain commercialization can be obtained with treatment 15-30 DAP.

PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

2004-08-01

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Character Association and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components Maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available Interrelationships between grain yield and its components were determined by genotypic correlation and path co-efficient analysis in eighteen maize lines/hybrids. The results indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with all parameters studied. The results also showed that number of kernels row?1 has maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1. Ear height had negative direct effect on grain yield. It was concluded that number of kernels row?1, 1000-kernel weight, ear length and number of rows ear?1 were the main yield components.

Muhammad Bashir Alvi

2003-01-01

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Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize  

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Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

2009-01-01

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Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components  

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Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was used as a female parent.

Živanovi? Tomislav

2010-01-01

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Grain Yield and Heterosis of Maize Hybrids under Nematode Infested and Nematicide Treated Conditions  

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Plant-parasitic nematodes are present on maize but resistant genotypes have not been identified in Uganda. This study was aimed at determining the level of nematode resistance among F1 hybrids, and to estimate grain yield, heterosis and yield losses associated with maize hybrids under nematode infestation. The 30 F1 hybrids and two local checks were evaluated in a split plot design with nematode treatment (nematode infested versus nematicide treated) as the whole plot factor, and the hybrids ...

Kagoda, Frank; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Coyne, Daniel L.; Talwana, Herbert L.

2011-01-01

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Correlation study for Protein Content, Grain yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.)  

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Seventy Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.) hybrids were grown in duplicate randomized complete block design forcharacter association study to assess the relationship among total grain protein content, grain yield and its components. Totalgrain protein showed significant correlation with plant height and ear height. Character association analysis revealed strongpositive association of Grain yield per plant with plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per cob, ker...

2012-01-01

7

IMPACTS OF LIMING BY DOLOMITE ON THE MAIZE AND BARLEY GRAIN YIELDS  

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Full Text Available In a five year experiment the effect of liming on maize and spring barley grain yields and maize nutrient status were examined. The field trial with application of increasing rates of dolomite (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 containing 56% CaO and 40% MgO was conducted on the very acid soil with pH (KCl 3.78 on the location in the central Croatia (45°30’ N, 17°11’ E. Maize crops were grown during 2003-2005 and 2007, whereas spring barley was grown in 2006. Soil chemical properties and maize leaf nutrient concentrations were evaluated after the second year of trial. Liming raised the soil pH by 2.62 pH units and AL-P2O5 by 5.65 mg 100 g-1 and increased crops yield in all years. There were no statistically confirmed differences between treatments with 10 and 15 t ha-1 dolomite for maize yields, while barley grain yield significantly increased only at the highest dolomite rate. Liming also improved maize nutritional status and increased P, Ca, Mg and Mo concentration and decreased high Mn content to the adequate range.

Mirta Rastija

2010-12-01

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Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing transgenic maize grains from event DP-O9814O-6 (Optimum GAT), near-isogenic control maize grain, or commercial reference maize grains.  

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A genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) line that contains the Optimum GAT trait (event DP-Ø9814Ø-6; 98140) was produced by integration of the gat4621 and zm-hra genes. The expressed GAT4621 and ZM-HRA proteins confer tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, respectively. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of 98140 maize grain to nontransgenic maize grain in a 42-d feeding trial in broiler chickens. Diets were prepared using grain from untreated 98140 plants and from plants treated with an in-field application of herbicides (98140 + Spray). For comparison, additional diets were produced with maize grain obtained from the nontransgenic near-isogenic control (control) and nontransgenic commercial reference Pioneer brand hybrids 33J56, 33P66, and 33R77. Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter, grower, and finisher containing 58.5, 64, and 71.5% maize grain, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables, or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with maize grains from unsprayed or sprayed 98140 and those consuming diets produced with near-isogenic control maize grain. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control, 98140, and 98140 + Spray test maize treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from reference maize groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that 98140 maize grain (unsprayed or sprayed with a herbicide mixture) was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic control maize with comparable genetic background. PMID:19038812

McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Rood, T; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

2008-12-01

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Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.  

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Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants. PMID:23926950

Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

2013-12-01

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THE EFFECT OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON GRAIN YIELD OF MAIZE IN VARIOUS EARLINESS CLASS  

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Full Text Available The research aimed to determine the effect of mineral fertilization (NPK on grain yield of maize in various earliness classes. The field experiment was conducted on very good wheat soil complex (degraded chernozem formed from loess in the years 2006-2009. The analysed factors were NPK fertilization with 150; 300; 450 kgha-1 and non-fertilized treatment. The second order factor was three maize cultivars: early Fido c.v., medium early Grom c.v. and medium late PR38F70. Increase in mineral fertilization (NPK level influenced a growth of maize grain yield from 8.39 tha-1 on the non-fertilized treatment to 10.69 tha-1after the application of the highest fertilizer dose.

Aleksander SZMIGIEL

2013-03-01

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The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids  

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The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depe...

2010-01-01

12

Narrow Rows and High Maize Densities Decrease Maize Grain Yield but Suppress Weeds under Dryland Conditions in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted during the 2002/03 and 2003/04 seasons at two sites in Chinyika Resettlement Area in Zimbabwe to determine the effects of maize density (30,000, 36,000 and 42,000 plants ha-1, inter-row spacing (60, 75 and 90 cm and weeding regime {weeding once at 3 Weeks after Emergence (WAE, twice at 3 and 6 WAE and thrice at 3, 6 and 9 WAE} on maize grain yield and weed biomass and seed production under dryland conditions. The first experiment was organized as a 3x3 factorial testing the effect of the first two factors. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of increasing frequency of weeding in the maize densities and inter-row spacing used in the first experiment. A significant decrease (p<0.05 in maize grain yield, by 16-35%, was observed with an increase in maize density from 30 000 to 42 000 plants ha-1 at Site 1 in both seasons and Site 2 in the 2002/03 season. There was a significant (p<0.05 maize density and weeding regime interaction on weed biomass at 9 WAE at the two sites in the 2002/03 season. At 30,000 plants ha-1, a second weeding was required to reduce weed biomass to that attained in the higher maize densities weeded once. There was a consistent decrease, across sites and seasons, in weed biomass by 61-83 and 50-94% when inter-row spacing was reduced from 90 to 60 cm at 6 and 9 WAE, respectively. The results of this study suggest that there is increased risk of a reduction in maize grain yield from competition for moisture and nutrients when row spacing is reduced below 90 cm and maize density increased above 30 000 plants ha-1, making it difficult to integrate these cultural practices for weed suppression, under semi-arid conditions.

M. Fanadzo

2007-01-01

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Correlation study for Protein Content, Grain yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Quality Protein Maize (QPM (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available Seventy Quality Protein Maize (QPM (Zea mays L. hybrids were grown in duplicate randomized complete block design forcharacter association study to assess the relationship among total grain protein content, grain yield and its components. Totalgrain protein showed significant correlation with plant height and ear height. Character association analysis revealed strongpositive association of Grain yield per plant with plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per cob, kernelsper row, test weight and shelling per cent. Total grain protein showed strong negative association with days to 50 % flowering,days to anthesis and days to 50% silking. Hence, simultaneous selection of plant height and ear height would contribute for theimprovement of the grain yield per plant and total protein content in the grains at the same time.

Ravi V. Mural*, Chikkalingaiah And Shailaja Hittalmani

2012-03-01

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Genetic and phenotypic relationship between grain yield and components of grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.)  

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For efficient selection of grain yield, like the most importance economic trait, in regard to its on the great influence the environmental factors, has complex mode of inheritance and low heritability, is necessary to know genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of correlations between grain yield and morphological traits of the plant and ear which are influencing on the grain yield. The objective of this paper was to determine relationship between grain yield and morphological traits, in 8 inbr...

Bo?anski Jan; Sre?kov Zorana; Nastasi? Aleksandra

2009-01-01

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EVALUATION OF SEVERITY OF GRAY LEAF SPOT AND GRAIN YIELD IN COMMERCIAL MAIZE HYBRIDS  

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Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the severity of Gray Leaf Spot and grain yield in commercial maize hybrids and determining the best time to evaluate the disease, two experiments were carried out in two sowing seasons (two planted on 11/11/2005, and other two planted on 12/23/2005 at Lavras Federal University - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Twelve commercial maize hybrids were used, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications. Eight evaluations of disease severity based on visual symptoms were performed at seven-days intervals from the 60th day after maize emergence (DAE, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and grain yield per plot was also obtained and so the correlation between severity of the disease in each evaluation season and the estimates of the AUDPC were supported by the data. Considering the data of the AUDPC, it was observed that the most resistant hybrids to Cercospora zeae-maydis were P 30K75, P 30F87, AG 7000, and DKB 350, while the most susceptible were AG 9020, DKB 214, and P 30F44. The most susceptible hybrids to Gray Leaf Spot are not necessarily those with lowest grain yield. The disease severity evaluation between 88 and 109 DAE is efficient to discriminate the level of resistance of the hybrids and the results are similar to those obtained by the AUDPC.

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO DE BRITO

2008-04-01

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Grain Yield and Heterosis of Maize Hybrids under Nematode Infested and Nematicide Treated Conditions.  

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Plant-parasitic nematodes are present on maize but resistant genotypes have not been identified in Uganda. This study was aimed at determining the level of nematode resistance among F(1) hybrids, and to estimate grain yield, heterosis and yield losses associated with maize hybrids under nematode infestation. The 30 F(1) hybrids and two local checks were evaluated in a split plot design with nematode treatment (nematode infested versus nematicide treated) as the whole plot factor, and the hybrids as subplot factors arranged in an 8 x 4 alpha-lattice design. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at three sites. The hybrids were also evaluated in a split plot design under greenhouse conditions at IITA-Namulonge. Results revealed 24 P. zeae susceptible hybrids compared to only six P. zeae resistant hybrids. Grain yield across sites was higher by about 400 kg ha(-1) under nematicide treatment than under nematode infestation. The nematode tolerant/resistant hybrids exhibited yields ranging from 5.0 to 8.4 t ha(-1) compared to 5.0 t ha(-1) obtained from the best check. Grain yield loss was up to 28% among susceptible hybrids, indicating substantial economic yield losses due to nematodes. Under field conditions, desired heterosis was recorded on 18 hybrids for P. zeae, and on three hybrids for Meloidogyne spp. Under nematode infestation, only 16 hybrids had higher relative yield compared to the mean of both checks, the best check and the trial mean, whereas it was 20 hybrids under nematicide treated plots. Overall, most outstanding hybrids under nematode infestation were CML395/MP709, CML312/5057, CML312/CML206, CML312/CML444, CML395/CML312 and CML312/CML395. Therefore, grain yield loss due to nematodes is existent but can be significantly reduced by growing nematode resistant hybrids. PMID:23429435

Kagoda, Frank; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Coyne, Daniel L; Talwana, Herbert L

2011-09-01

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The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids  

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Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

Božinovi? Sofija

2010-01-01

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Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions  

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Full Text Available Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-dominance type of gene action for protein content, osmotic potential, stomata size and grain yield per plant under normal condition also remained unchanged under water stress whereas additive type of gene action for stomatal frequency under normal changed to over-dominance type of gene action under water stress.

Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum

2005-01-01

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The Genetic Architecture of Grain Yield and Related Traits in Zea maize L. Revealed by Comparing Intermated and Conventional Populations  

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Using advanced intermated populations has been proposed as a way to increase the accuracy of mapping experiments. An F3 population of 300 lines and an advanced intermated F3 population of 322 lines, both derived from the same parental maize inbred lines, were jointly evaluated for dry grain yield (DGY), grain moisture (GM), and silking date (SD). Genetic variance for dry grain yield was significantly lower in the intermated population compared to the F3 population. The confidence interval aro...

2010-01-01

20

The Effects of Weeding Regimes and Maize Planting Density on Quantity of Management and Grain Yields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of four weeding regimes: weed free, herbicide use, two times hand cultivation at week three and eight after emergency and any two planting densities: Low planting density of 10 plants per m2, high planting density of 21 plants per m2 were evaluated on maize H511. A 4x2 factorial blocked design was used. Thinning done at 112 DAP interaction effect was not significant; weeding regime was significant while planting density was highly significant. Herbicide use regime had highest mean dry matter yield of thinnings of 13.82 t/ha. High planting density showed the highest mean dry matter yield of thinning of 15.2 t/ha while low planting density showed the lowest of 8.7 t/ha. The treatment interaction on stover dry matter was not significant, while planting density and weeding regimes were significant. Two times hand cultivation gave the highest stover dry matter forage yield of 19.4 t/ha while weedy regime gave the least yield of 10.2t/ha. Low planting density which gave 11.1 t/ha. Hand cultivation-2 times had the highest grain dry matter yield of 5.03t/ha, while weedy regime had the least of 1.93t/ha. Low planting density had the highest grain dry matter yield of 4.9t/ha, while high planting density had the least yield of 2.4t/ha

2002-11-11

 
 
 
 
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Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

1998-11-09

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Genetic Variation for Grain Yield of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Sole and Maize/Bean Intercropping Systems  

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Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is grown in both sole and maize/bean intercrop systems in Ethiopia. Increasing bean yield partly requires developing cultivars that are adapted to both cropping systems. An experiment was carried out using 20 common bean genotypes in sole and maize/bean intercrop during 2012 main cropping season in Dilla, Ethiopia, to investigate genetic variances and broad-sense heritabilities and to estimate correlation coefficients for grain yield and yield related traits of bean in sole and maize/bean intercrop. Genetic variances for grain yield (g m-2 and pods plant-1 in sole crop were greater than that of intercrop. Broad-sense heritability for grain yield, pods plant-1, seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight (g was 0.91, 0.82, 0.71 and 0.90, respectively, for sole crop and its respective value for the intercrop was 0.79, 0.66, 0.67 and 0.91. Grain yield was positively correlated (p-1 (rp = 0.50, rg = 0.59 and 100-seed weight (rp = 0.47, rg = 0.52 in sole crop and pods plant-1 (rp = 0.64, rg = 0.80; p-1 would be used as a selection criterion to improve grain yield under both sole and intercropping systems. Moreover, genotypes DAB243 and DAB245 may be incorporated in the future breeding programs to develop high yielding cultivars in sole and intercropping systems.

Alemayehu Balcha

2014-01-01

23

Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids  

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Full Text Available Maize is an important staple crop for millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa. The crop grows in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study was performed to analyze the genotype-by-environment (G×E interaction for grain yield of fourty two single cross hybrids grown in three environments located at different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. The maize genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2006 and 2007. Grain yield data of the single cross hybrids was analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and GGE biplot methods. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI analysis of variance (additive main effects showed significant effects for genotypes, environment and the genotype by environment interaction. The total proportion contributed by environment and G x E interaction accounted for 78% and 10% of the total variation. The results also showed that 64.5% of the total variation was contributed by the environment while the genotype and interaction was associated with 20.7% and 10.3% of the total variation, respectively. The most stable genotype in the high yielding group in this study was CML312/TZMI 711 (X20, followed by genotypes TZMI 102/CML384 (designated as X33, and CML312/TZMI 712 (X21. The genotype CML312/TZMI 711 (designated as X20 could be used for broad selection since it was found to be the most ideal genotypes with both high mean yield and high stability. In the biplot analysis, X20 was also close to the origin, had the shortest vector from the ATC and with large PC1 scores (high mean yield and small (absolute PC2 scores (high stability implying it had the least contribution to genotype by environment interaction (GEI. Through the stability analysis, the superior genotypes identified could also be used as references for genotype evaluation and also included in further testing in both early and later stages of selection.

F. Nzuve

2013-10-01

24

Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing  

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Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.

Silva Paulo Regis Ferreira da

2005-01-01

25

[Effects of stubble-standing mode on the grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat and maize in wheat/maize intercropping system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat/maize intercropping is the main intercropping pattern in the irrigation region of Hexi Oasis, Northwest China, but the traditional intercropping needs much water, making the regional water resource lacked increasingly. In 2010, a field experiment was conducted in the irrigation region of Shiyang River basin oasis, Gansu Province of Northwest China, aimed to study the effects of traditional stubble-burning, stubble-returning, and stubble-standing on the grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economical benefits of wheat and maize in wheat/maize inter-cropping system. Compared with stubble-burning and stubble-returning, stubble-standing increased the grain yield of mono- and intercropped wheat by 7.2% and 5.1% , and 6.2%, 5.1%, and that of mono- and intercropped maize by 4.7% and 2.5%, and 7.2% and 3.3%, and increased the WUE of mono- and intercropped wheat by 20.4% and 16.2%, and 17.9% and 14.6%, and that of mono- and intercropping maize by 16.7% and 10.9%, and 11. 8% and 17.0%, respectively. As for the mono- and intercropped wheat and maize, their average net economical benefits under stubble-burning, stubble- returning, and stubble-standing were 10946, 11471, and 13454 RMB.hm-2, respectively. In considering the grain yield, WUE, and economic benefits, stubble- standing would be the optimal mode of wheat/maize intercropping in the oasis of Hexi irrigation region, Northwest China. PMID:23705389

Liu, Chao-Wei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qing-Lin; Guan, Xiao-Kang; Yang, Yong; Zhang, En-he

2013-02-01

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Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions  

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Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-domina...

Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum; Muhammad Saleem; Asif Ali; Muhammmad Asghar Malik

2005-01-01

27

The Effect of Sowing Date and Some Growth Physiological Index on Grain Yield in Three Maize Hybrids in Southeastern Iran  

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Full Text Available One of the most important objectives in farming systems is to minimize the risk probability as well as maximizing the production level. This study, using a spilt plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications, aims to study the effect of sowing date on yield and growth physiological index of maize cultivars. It was conducted in 2005/06 at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture in University of Zabol, Sistan-Baluchistan province, Southeastern Iran. Experiment factors were: Three maize hybrid cultivars (Namely, S.C 108, S.C 604 and S.C704 that were subplot and sowing dates (5 July, 20 July, 5 August and 20 August that were main plots. Results indicated that sowing dates have significant effects on yield and physiological index in maize cultivars. They Maize hybrids have different response to these parameters. The highest grain yield and harvest index was obtained from 5 August. The first sowing date (5 July was associated with a decrease in Leaf Area Index (LAI. Leaf Area Index Duration (LAID and Crop Growth Rate (CGR. As a result, S.C 704 cultivar has the highest of CGR, LAI, LAID and grain yield (11.5 t ha-1, On the contrary, S.C 108 cultivar has the lowest of the CGR, LAI, LAID and grain yield (6.4 t ha-1. Consequently, it can suggest that S.C 704 cultivar should be applied and the sowing date should be adjusted to 5 August in conditions of Sistan. This could be contributed to optimum temperature and decrease wind speed during the flowering, grain formation and filling stage.

M. Dahmardeh

2010-01-01

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Effect of Microelements and Selenium on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme, Malondialdehyde Activity and Grain Yield Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using) and...

Sajedi, Nour Ali; Madani, Hamid; Mashhadiakbar Bujar, Masoud

2011-01-01

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Plant Density Effects on Grain Yield per Plant in Maize: Breeding Implications  

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Full Text Available Breeding in maize (Zea mays L. succeeded in improving tolerance to stresses and responsiveness to inputs, but failed to improve the potential yield per plant. Modern hybrids are highly productive, but their yield per unit area is dependent on high plant densities. Results of present study verified that modern hybrids require a narrow range of densities to give their maximum yield per unit area, since plant density affected significantly all kind of genetic materials. Results also showed that high densities are associated with high plant-to-plant variability and barrenness, affecting negatively the stability of hybrid performance. F2 and F1+F2 (mixture genetic materials showed increasing yields, as plant density was increasing. This was due to high competition and the presence of heterotic plants. These findings pointed out the necessity for the development of maize hybrids with more stable performance across growing seasons. Density-independent hybrids can be effectively attained through selection in the absence of competition, aiming to improve the potential yield per plant. Very low densities, so that any plant-to-plant interference for growth resources use is eliminated, maximize mean yield per plant differentiation and optimise the phenotypic-genotypic correspondence, facilitating the identification of the superior entries. Evaluation under high plant densities may distinguish between different genetic materials, based on F2 yielding performance, to be used as starting materials in breeding programs. Even though the main goal is breeding for density-independent maize hybrids, since modern maize hybrids depend their yielding performance on higher plant densities, breeding for density tolerance may easily contribute to higher field yields.

C.G. Ipsilandis

2005-01-01

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Genotype-Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L. in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Fifteen maize genotypes were tested at nine different locations in 2005 under rainfed condition to determine stable maize genotypes for grain yield and determine genotypes with high yield and form homogenous grouping of environments and genotypes. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. Stability was estimated using the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI. Based on the stability analysis, genotypes 30H83, BH-540, Ambo Synth-1, AMH-800 and BHQP-543 were found to be stable for grain yield. The first two Interaction Principal Component axis (IPCA1 and IPCA2 were significant (p<0.01 and cumulatively contributed 70.27% of the total genotype by environment interaction. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes 30H83 was as high as 0.92, confirming its high predictability to stability. Among the genotypes, the highest grain yield was obtained from genotype 30H83 and BH-541 (8.98 and 8.05 t ha-1 across environments. Clustering of AMMI-estimate values grouped genotypes in to four clusters and the environment in to three clusters. Environment Goffa was unique as it is grouped differently from all other environments.

Solomon Admassu

2008-01-01

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Evaluation the Efficiency of Three Sulfonylurea Herbicide and Their Effects on Maize (Zea mays L. Grain Yield  

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Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2005 at Karaj, northern of Iran, to evaluate the efficacy of Sulfonyl Urea (SU herbicides on weed control in maize and compare them with other herbicides at single and double row planting patterns. The treatments were three SU herbicides, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, foramsulfuron and most commonly used herbicides in maize. Hoe weeded and unweeded treatments also were included. The findings of this study showed that at both planting patterns all plots that received nicosulfuron had significantly higher maize grain yield than other two SU herbicides. At Double Row (DR planting pattern, all the treatments controlled weeds more effectively than at Single Row (SR planting pattern and increased maize grain yield by mean of 1.0 t haG1. At both planting patterns herbicidal mixture of atrazine and alachlor was the best treatment in controlling weeds. The hoe weeded control and all herbicidal treatments had lower weed dry matter than the untreated control at crop harvest period. In addition the lowest weed dry matter was obtained from the hoe weeded control. Results of this study revealed that nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron were the best and the weakest SU herbicide at both planting patterns, respectively.

Iraj Nosratti

2007-01-01

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Influence of Farmers` Crop Management Practices on Striga hermonthica Infestation and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L. in the Savanna Zones of Northeast Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of farmers` crop management practices on Striga infestation and maize grain yield. Sixty farmers` fields were randomly selected in nine communities across three savanna zones. About 35% of the farmers had cultivated their fields for over 10 years, 48% grew the Striga resistant variety 97 TZL Comp-1-W, 68% planted maize in mid-June and 60% practiced legume-maize rotation. About 33% intercropped maize + cowpea, 42% applied 100 kg N ha-1 and 87% conducted 2 to 3 hoe weedings. The Striga resistant maize variety reduced Striga count and host damage score and increased grain yield ha-1 in northern and southern Guinea savannas. However, the varieties grown in Sudan savanna increased Striga count ha-1 (R = 0.56** and Striga damage (R = 0.59** because they were not resistant to Striga. Planting maize in mid-July reduced Striga infestation in northern Guinea, but grain yield ha-1 was highest when maize was planted in mid-June in all three zones. Soybean-maize or groundnut-maize rotation reduced Striga count in all the agro-ecosystems. Relay intercropping of cowpea into maize reduced Striga count in northern Guinea. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rate reduced Striga count and score and significantly increased grain yield in the three zones. Two or three hoe weedings reduced Striga count in the three zones and Striga score in Sudan savanna. Thus, the farmers` practices sampled significantly influenced Striga infestation of maize fields in the three agro-ecosystems. The Striga resistant maize variety, Soybean-maize rotation, 100 kg N ha-1 and three hoe weedings could serve as component technologies in an integrated package for combating Striga menace in the region.

I.Y. Dugje

2008-01-01

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Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical  

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The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied) and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake), in maize grown in environments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls) were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the sta...

Leandro Vagno Souza; Glauco Vieira Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso Galvão 1; Fernando Roberto Eckert; Éder Eduardo Mantovani; Rodrigo Oliveira Lima; Lauro José Moreira Guimarães

2008-01-01

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RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010 and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S; 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 4th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 8th leaf stage and 20% at S, 40% at 4th leaf stage and 40% at 8th leaf stage. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with four replications in split-plot design, being maize hybrids the plot and portioning of nitrogen fertilization the split. Determinations of the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index, evaluated with the chlorophyll meter, leaf nitrogen content, and grain yield were done. The chlorophyll meter readings were efficient to provide early diagnose of nitrogen content at the fourth tally expanded leaf of maize cultivars AG9010 (super-early cycle and P32R21 (early cycle. Concerning the hybrid DKB333B (normal cycle there was no correlation between chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD index and nitrogen content on the fourth fully expanded leaf.

RAIMUNDO NONATO CARVALHO ROCHA

2005-08-01

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Influence of undersowing perennial forages in maize on grain, fodder yield and soil properties in the sub-humid region of western Ethiopia  

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In the densely populated mixed farming areas of western Ethiopia, the integration of forages with food crops may be crucial to the achievement of sustainable crop and livestock production. This study investigated the effects of pure grass (Chloris gayana), legumes (Stylosanthes hamata, Desmodium intortum and Macrotyloma axillare) and grass/legume mixtures of the same species undersown in maize, on maize grain yields, fodder yields and soil parameters. The forages were undersown six weeks afte...

Hassen, Abubeker; Gizachew, L.; Rethman, N. F. G.; Niekerk, Willem A.

2007-01-01

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A desuniformidade de emergência reduz o rendimento de grãos de milho Uneven emergence reduces maize grain yield  

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Full Text Available Altos rendimentos de milho estão relacionados à emergência rápida, completa e regular das plantas. Este trabalho foi conduzido em Lages (SC, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da desuniformidade de emergência e da população de plantas sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas sub-divididas, alocando-se nas parcelas principais quatro populações de plantas (40.000, 60.000, 80.000 e 100.000 plantas.ha-1 e nas subparcelas os tratamentos de desuniformidade de emergência realizados através da variação da data de semeadura em covas adjacentes na linha de plantio, resultando nas seguintes situações de emergência entre plantas vizinhas: 1 - uniforme (0-0-0-0-0; 2 - desuniformidade de 12 dias (0-12-0-12-0; 3 - 19 dias (0-19-0-19-0; e, 4 - 12 e 19 dias (0-12-19-0-12-19. Na situação de emergência uniforme, o aumento da população de plantas até 76.500 plantas.ha-1 incrementou o rendimento de grãos para 12.900kg.ha-1. Nesta população de plantas, a diferença do rendimento de grãos entre as plantas de emergência uniforme e aquelas em desuniformidade foi aproximadamente 2.900kg.ha-1, indicando que sob níveis de rendimento semelhantes, a realização da ressemeadura pode ser uma prática economicamente vantajosa. A desuniformidade de emergência diminuiu o rendimento de grãos de milho e limitou a resposta ao incremento da população de plantas.High maize grain yields are related to a fast, complete and regular plant emergence. This experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of an uneven plant emergence on maize grain yield at different plant populations. A split plot design was used, with the main plots disposed in randomized complete blocks. Four plant populations, equivalent to 40,000, 60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 pl.ha-1 were tested in the main plots. Different levels of unevenness in plant emergence were analyzed in the split plots by varying the sowing dates of adjacent hills inside each as it follows: 1 - even emergence (0-0-0-0; 2 - unevenness of 12 days (0-12-0-12; 3 - unevenness of 19 days (0-19-0-19; 4 - unevenness of 12 and 19 days (0-12-19-0-12-19. The increase in plant population up to 76,500 pl.ha-1 enhanced grain yield to 12,900kg.ha-1. At this plant population, the difference in yield grain per hectare among treatments with even and uneven emergence was nearly 2,900kg. This indicates that under similar productivity levels replanting maize may be on economically viable option. Besides reducing grain yield, uneven emergence also limited maize response to the increment in plant population.

Aldo Merotto Junior

1999-12-01

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Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressin [...] g, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC).

Silva, Maria Anita Gonçalves da; Muniz, Antonio Saraiva; Mannigel, Anny Rosi; Porto, Simone Maria Altoé; Marchetti, Marlene Estevão; Nolla, Antonio; Grannemann, Ivan.

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Timing of azoxystrobin + propiconazole application on maize to control Northern Corn Leaf Blight and maximize grain yield.  

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The use of foliar fungicides on field maize has increased greatly over the past ten years. There has also been an increasing interest in foliar fungicide applications on maize, because quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, in addition to providing disease control, have been shown to induce physiological benefits for plants in studies conducted under controlled conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the timing of fungicide applications on maximizing grain yiel...

Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

2012-01-01

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Stability of yield and yield components in maize hybrids  

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Two-year grain yield and 1000-grains mass data of 24 maize hybrids of FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600, 700 were analyzed. Investigations were performed at the two environments in two years. Nonparametric methods of the Kubinger and the van der Laan-de Kroon showed genotype x environment interaction for both investigated features, and method of Hildebrand showed interaction for 1000-grains mass. Maize hybrids stability was estimated with stability parameters: Si(1)- the mean of the absolute ...

?varkovi? Radomir; Brankovi? Gordana; ?ali? Irena; Deli? Nenad; Živanovi? Tomislav; Šurlan-Momirovi? Gordana

2009-01-01

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[Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF. PMID:20136000

Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
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ESTIMATING GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR GRAIN YIELD IN THE MAIZE POPULATIONS UFVM 100 AND UFVM 200 SUBJECTED TO WATER DEFICIT  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to estimate the genetic parameters for grain weight of two maize populations, for verifying their genetic potential under contrasting conditions concerning water availability. Forty nine half-sib families (HSF were randomly taken from each of the two populations, UFVM 100 and UFVM 200, in order to evaluate the tolerance to water deficit, using two sets of experiments representing water deficit and optimum irrigation conditions. The experiments were set up under a 7 x 7 lattice design, with two replications. Sprinkler irrigation was applied and a tensiometer used for its management. The experiments were irrigated whenever the soil water potential showed -0.03 MPa. However, the experiments under water stress were not irrigated during seven days, until the soil water potential reaches -0.09 to -0.1 Mpa, at vegetative, flowering and grain filling stages. The experimental plot comprised a row length 5m, 0.90m row spacing and plants spaced 0.20m within rows. Grain yield was determined for each plot. Analysis of variance was performed, involving the 49 HSF of each population, in each production system, and corresponding estimates of the genetic parameters were obtained. Within each production systems, genetic progress was estimated for each population assuming selection of the 15% superior HSF and subsequent recombination. Results showed that the experiments did not reveal sufficient genetic variation, in both populations, able to be explored in selection programs under water deficit conditions and also a low concordance level between the performance of the families under normal irrigation and water deficit.

RICARDO GONÇALVES SILVA

2008-04-01

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Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de grãos de milho sob espaçamento entrelinhas reduzido  

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Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 ...

Mércio Luiz Strieder; Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva; Lisandro Rambo; Luís Sangoi; Adriano Alves da Silva; Paulo César Endrigo; Douglas Batista Jandrey

2008-01-01

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Effect of Microelements and Selenium on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme, Malondialdehyde Activity and Grain Yield Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Stress  

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This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using) and...

Sajedi, Nourali; Madani, Hamid; Naderi, Ahmad

2011-01-01

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Effects of Cow Dung Treated to Various Management Practices and Nitrogen Levels on Maize Grain Yield in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

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This study consisted of collection and incubation of cow dung, followed by evaluation of the incubated cow dung in field experiments in years 2003 to 2004 at the Institute of Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University and Samaru College of Agriculture farms, all located in Samaru, Zaria. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of subjecting cow dung to different management practices and nitrogen fertilizer on maize grain yield. The study was a fa...

Joseph Tanimu; Uyovbisere, Edward O.; Lyocks, Sunday W. J.; Yahuza Tanimu; Ayorinde, Michael O.

2013-01-01

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Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance  

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Full Text Available The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX. Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS and without subsoiling (ST were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV. Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season?1, the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season?1, the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha?1 and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m?3 followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season?1, T=178 mm-season?1, Y=1840 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.60 kg-m?3 and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season?1,T=158 mm-season?1, Y=1720 kg-ha?1, WPET=0.58 kg-m?3. However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

M. Temesgen

2007-07-01

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Maize grain yield as affected by the severity of soil erosion under semi-arid conditions and granitic sandy soils of Zimbabwe  

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Soil erosion results in soil degradation through loss of topsoil and organic matter, coupled with loss of plant nutrients. This generally results in yield decline but the relationship between land degradation and subsequent yield decline is still very unclear. To assess this relationship maize was grown on field plots, which were excavated to different depths to represent the erosion levels ranging from 1 (no erosion) to 5 (severe erosion). The plots were further split to allow for two fertiliser levels. Maize yields declined significantly at P < 0.001 with increase in erosion. Under normal fertiliser, maize grain yields declined at 131 kg ha -1 for every cm of soil depth lost while under double fertilised plots the decrease was 158 kg ha -1. Using increased fertiliser amounts only yielded benefits on uneroded and slightly eroded soils, after which there was no yield benefit. This study proved that soil erosion, under granitic sandy soils, results in the decline of soil productivity and that fertilisers cannot mask these effects after ?10 cm of topsoil have been lost. It is therefore, important to conserve the soil, as redressing the effects of erosion using fertilisers can be very costly but still remain ineffective.

Munodawafa, Adelaide

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Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test-cross populations of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU1 population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS test crosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. In second studied population the highest value of coefficient of correlations also was found between grain yield and kernel row number, but that relation was negative. Path coefficient analysis provides more information among variables than do correlation coefficients. Because of that goal of this study also was founding the direct and indirect effects of morphological traits on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for ear height, in both studied populations. Plant height, in both test cross populations, kernel row number and oil content, at B73 test crosses, has high significant undesirable effect on grain yield. (author)

2011-06-01

48

Effect of Microelements and Selenium on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme, Malondialdehyde Activity and Grain Yield Maize (Zea mays L. under Water Deficit Stress  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using and microelements (with and without using as sub plots. The result indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde content under water deficit stress increased, but grain yield was reduced. The highest grain yield was obtained from optimum irrigation, while in the case of with water deficit stress at V8 stage it was non significant. Selenium spray increased activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme, malondialdehyde content of leaves in V8, R2 and R4 stages and also grain yield. Application of microelements increased the leaves superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content. Selenium and microelements spray under water deficit stress conditions during vegetative growth and dough stage increased grain yield in comparison to not spraying elements under water stress conditions. The present results also showed that by using selenium and microelements under water stress can obtain acceptable yield compared to not using these elements.

Ahmad NADERI

2011-11-01

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The Effect of Sowing Date and Some Growth Physiological Index on Grain Yield in Three Maize Hybrids in Southeastern Iran  

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One of the most important objectives in farming systems is to minimize the risk probability as well as maximizing the production level. This study, using a spilt plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications, aims to study the effect of sowing date on yield and growth physiological index of maize cultivars. It was conducted in 2005/06 at the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture in University of Zabol, Sistan-Baluchistan province, Southeastern Iran. Experiment factors were: Thre...

2010-01-01

50

Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L. based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria sole, pea (Pisum sativum L. sole, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. sole, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. mend. Fiori and Paol. sole, maize + potato (1:1,maize + mustard (1:1, maize + toria (1:2, maize + pea (1:2, maize + linseed (1:2 and maize + toria (1:2, were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Maize + potato system recorded higher yield attributes and grain yield of maize followed by maize + pea than sole stand of maize. potato was showed most compatible intercrop planted with winter maize as it gave higher maize-equivalent yield, land-equivalent ratio, productivity, monetary returns and lowered weed population, weed dry-biomass and highest weed-control efficiency under irrigated conditions of central Uttar Pradesh. Pea was the next best intercrop with winter maize.

Akhilesh Mishra

2014-02-01

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Combining ability of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress Capacidade de combinação da produtividade de milho em ambientes com diferentes intensidades de estresses  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to caracterize the tropical maize germplasm and to compare the combining abilities of maize grain yield under different levels of environmental stress. A diallel was performed among tropical maize cultivars with wide adaptability, whose hybrid combinations were evaluated in two sowing dates, in two years. The significance of the environmental effect emphasized the environmental contrasts. Based on grain yield, the environments were classified as favorable (8,331 kg ha-1, low stress (6,637 kg ha-1, high stress (5,495 kg ha-1, and intense stress (2,443 kg ha-1. None of the genetic effects were significant in favorable and intense stress environments, indicating that there was low germplasm variability under these conditions. In low and high stresses, the specific combining ability effects (SCA were significant, showing that the nonadditive genetic effects were the most important, and that it is possible to select parent pairs with breeding potential. SCA and grain yield showed significant correlations only between the closer environment pairs like favorable/low stress and high/intense stress. The genetic control of grain yield differed under contrasting stress environments for which maize cultivars with wide adaptability are not adequate.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o germoplasma de milho e comparar a capacidade de combinação da produtividade do milho em ambientes com diferentes graus de estresse. Um dialelo foi realizado entre cultivares de milho tropical com ampla adaptabilidade, cujas combinações híbridas foram avaliadas em duas épocas de plantio, em dois anos. A significância do efeito ambiental mostrou que os ambientes foram contrastantes. Com base na produtividade, os ambientes foram classificados como: favorável (8.331 kg ha-1; com baixo estresse (6.637 kg ha-1; com alto estresse (5.495 kg ha-1; e com intenso estresse (2.443 kg ha-1. Nenhum dos efeitos genéticos foi significativo nos ambientes classificados como favorável e com intenso estresse, o que indica haver baixa variabilidade para as combinações genéticas nesses ambientes. Em baixo e alto estresse, os efeitos da capacidade de combinação específica foram significativos, o que mostra que os efeitos genéticos não aditivos foram os mais importantes, e que é possível selecionar pares de genitores com potencial para melhoramento. A capacidade geral de combinação e a produtividade de grãos apresentaram correlações significativas somente entre os ambientes mais próximos como favorável/baixo estresse e alto/intenso estresse. O controle genético da produtividade de grãos difere em ambientes contrastantes quanto ao estresse para os quais as cultivares de milho com ampla adaptabilidade não são adequadas.

Leandro Vagno de Souza

2009-10-01

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Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm and minimum (133.6 cm plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum number of (10.73 leaves plant-1, cob length (19.2 cm and grains cob-1 (205.2 were recorded with 30,000 maize population ha-1. While maximum barrenness of 18.90 was observed in plots containing maximum maize population of 60,000 plants ha-1. Maximum grain weight (240 g, grain yield (2400 kg ha-1 and harvest index (15.45 were recorded with lowest maize population of 30,000 plants ha-1, while maximum (7.2 and minimum (4.5 kg biological yield unit area-1 were recorded in 30,000 and 60,000 plant population of maize ha-1 respectively, maximum number of shoots stump-1 were 8.91, 11.33 and 12.08 with 30,000 plant population of maize ha-1, while minimum 0.57 were observed in 30,000 maize population ha-1, respectively. Maximum of 68.88 and minimum of 59.02 cm sugarcane heights at maize harvest were recorded with 30,000 and 60,000 maize population ha-1, respectively.

Imran Haider Shamsi

2003-01-01

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Rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos de maíz y su generación avanzada F2 / Grain and forage yield in maize hybrids and their advanced F2 generation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante el alto costo de la semilla de híbridos de maíz, los productores a pequeña escala usan semilla en generaciones F2 y F3. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de utilizar semilla autofecundada de híbridos sobre el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco de híbridos de maíz. El estudio [...] se estableció bajo condiciones de riego en Tepezalá y Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes y Calera de Víctor Rosales, Zacatecas, México en el ciclo 2001. Se sembraron 22 híbridos comerciales y su respectiva generación avanzada F2. Se determinó rendimiento de grano y forraje, altura de planta, días a floración masculina y femenina y altura de mazorca. Se utilizó un arreglo en parcelas subdivididas con diseño en bloques completamente al azar y tres repeticiones. Se efectuó el análisis conjunto de la relación beneficio/costo. En general, usar semilla F2 redujo 22% el rendimiento de grano y 8% de forraje seco. La mayoría de los híbridos y sus generaciones avanzadas mostraron estabilidad en el rendimiento de grano y forraje seco en las tres localidades. En promedio, el avance generacional redujo 9% la relación beneficio/costo en la producción de grano; sin embargo, la incrementó 11% en la producción de forraje seco. Los híbridos SB-302 y AS-948 mostraron alto rendimiento de grano y forraje, menor reducción con el avance de generación y alta relación beneficio/costo. Abstract in english To cope with the high seed cost of maize hybrids, small-scale farmers use F2 and F3 seed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of using seed from self-pollinated hybrids on grain and forage yields of maize hybrids. The study was conducted under irrigated conditions at Tepezalá and [...] Pabellón de Arteaga, Aguascalientes, and Calera de Victor Rosales, Zacatecas, Mexico during 2001. Twenty-two commercial hybrids and their respective advanced F2 generation were sown under a split split plot arrangement in a complete random block design with three replications. Grain and forage yield, plant height, days to masculine and feminine flowering and husk height were determined. A profit/cost analysis was performed. On average, the use of F2 seed diminished 22% grain and 8% forage yields. Most of the hybrids and their advanced generations did show grain and dry forage yield stability across locations. Due to generational advance, the profit/cost ratio diminished 9% for grain production and increased 11% for dry forage production. Hybrids SB-302 and AS-948 showed high grain and dry forage yields, less reduction with the advance of generation and high profit/cost ratios.

Rodolfo, Gaytán-Bautista; Ma. Isabel, Martínez-Gómez; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

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Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize / Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG) e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado) e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado) e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido) -, [...] em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e três testemunhas) foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes. Abstract in english The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied) and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake), in maize grown in envir [...] onments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls) were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.

Leandro Vagno de, Souza; Glauco Vieira, Miranda; João Carlos Cardoso, Galvão; Fernando Roberto, Eckert; Éder Eduardo, Mantovani; Rodrigo Oliveira, Lima; Lauro José Moreira, Guimarães.

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Genetic control of grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical maize Controle genético da produção de grão e da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio em milho tropical  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to study the genetic control of grain yield (GY and nitrogen (N use efficiency (NUE, grain yield/N applied and its primary components, N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N uptake/N applied and N utilization efficiency (NUtE, grain yield/N uptake, in maize grown in environments with high and low N availability. Experiments with 31 maize genotypes (28 hybrid crosses and three controls were carried out in soils with high and low N rates, in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was a reduction of 23.2% in average GY for maize grown in soil with low N, in comparison to that obtained with high N. There were 26.5, 199 and 400% increases in NUtE, NUpE, and NUE, respectively, for maize grown with low N. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were significant for GY, NUE and NUpE for maize grown in high N soil. Only GCA was significant for NUpE for maize grown in low N soil. The GCA and SCA for NUtE were not significant in either environment. Additive and non-additive genetic effects are responsible for the genetic control of NUE and GY for maize grown in soils with high N availability, although additive effects are more important.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o controle genético da produtividade de grãos (PG e da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio (EUN, produção de grãos/N aplicado e seus componentes primários - eficiência de absorção (EAbN, N absorvido/N aplicado e utilização (EUtN, produção de grãos/N absorvido -, em milho cultivado em ambientes com alta e baixa disponibilidade de nitrogênio. Trinta e um genótipos de milho (28 cruzamentos entre híbridos comerciais e três testemunhas foram avaliados em solos com alta e baixa doses de aplicação de N. Houve redução de 23,2% na média de PG em milho cultivado em solo com baixo teor de N, em relação à obtida com alto N. Com baixo teor de N no solo, observaram-se aumentos de 26,5, 199 e 400% em EUtN, EAbN, e EUN, respectivamente. Em milho cultivado em solo com alto teor de N, as capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação foram significativas em PG, EUN e EAbN. Em milho de solos com baixo teor de N, apenas a CGC, na EAbN, foi significativa. A CGC e a CEC não foram significativas, em nenhum dos ambientes, na EUtN. Efeitos genéticos aditivos e não aditivos são responsáveis pelo controle genético da EUN e PG, em milho cultivado em solos com elevada disponibilidade de N, mas os efeitos aditivos são mais importantes.

Leandro Vagno de Souza

2008-11-01

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Determining the Most Important Physiological and Agronomic Traits Contributing to Maize Grain Yield through Machine Learning Algorithms: A New Avenue in Intelligent Agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction is an attempt to accurately forecast the outcome of a specific situation while using input information obtained from a set of variables that potentially describe the situation. They can be used to project physiological and agronomic processes; regarding this fact, agronomic traits such as yield can be affected by a large number of variables. In this study, we analyzed a large number of physiological and agronomic traits by screening, clustering, and decision tree models to select the most relevant factors for the prospect of accurately increasing maize grain yield. Decision tree models (with nearly the same performance evaluation) were the most useful tools in understanding the underlying relationships in physiological and agronomic features for selecting the most important and relevant traits (sowing date-location, kernel number per ear, maximum water content, kernel weight, and season duration) corresponding to the maize grain yield. In particular, decision tree generated by C&RT algorithm was the best model for yield prediction based on physiological and agronomical traits which can be extensively employed in future breeding programs. No significant differences in the decision tree models were found when feature selection filtering on data were used, but positive feature selection effect observed in clustering models. Finally, the results showed that the proposed model techniques are useful tools for crop physiologists to search through large datasets seeking patterns for the physiological and agronomic factors, and may assist the selection of the most important traits for the individual site and field. In particular, decision tree models are method of choice with the capability of illustrating different pathways of yield increase in breeding programs, governed by their hierarchy structure of feature ranking as well as pattern discovery via various combinations of features.

Shekoofa, Avat; Emam, Yahya; Shekoufa, Navid; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

2014-01-01

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Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield  

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The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox). Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1) with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI) was s...

Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva; Antonio Saraiva Muniz; Anny Rosi Mannigel; Simone Maria Altoé Porto; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; Antonio Nolla; Ivan Grannemann

2011-01-01

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UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS  

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Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grai...

Luís Sangoi

2001-01-01

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Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed transgenic maize grain containing event DP-O9814O-6 and processed fractions from transgenic soybeans containing event DP-356O43-5.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of broilers fed diets containing maize grain from event DP-Ø9814Ø-6 (98140; gat4621 and zm-hra genes) and processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from soybeans containing event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043; gat4601 and gm-hra genes) was evaluated in a 42-d feeding study. Diets were produced with nontransgenic maize grain and soybean fractions from controls with comparable genetic backgrounds to 98140 and 356043 (control), 98140 maize and 356043 soybean (98140 + 356043), or 3 commercially available nontransgenic maize and soybean combinations. Ross 708 broilers (n = 120/group; 50% male, 50% female) were fed diets in 3 phases: starter (d 0 to 21), grower (d 22 to 35), and finisher (d 36 to 42). Starter diets contained (on average) 63% maize and 28% soybean meal, grower diets 66% maize and 26% soybean meal, and finisher diets 72% maize and 21% soybean meal; soybean hulls and oils were held constant at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in all phases. Weight gain, feed intake, and mortality-adjusted feed efficiency were calculated for d 0 to 42. Standard organ and carcass yield data were collected on d 42. Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA with differences between control and 98140 + 356043 group means considered significant at P < 0.05. Reference group data were used only to estimate experimental variability and to generate tolerance intervals. No significant differences were observed in weight gain, mortality, mortality-adjusted feed efficiency, organ yields, or carcass yields between broilers consuming diets produced with 98140 + 356043 and those consuming diets produced with control maize and soybean fractions. All values of response variables evaluated in the control and 98140 + 356043 groups fell within calculated tolerance intervals. Based on these results, it was concluded that the combination of genetically modified 98140 maize and 356043 soybean fractions was nutritionally equivalent to nontransgenic maize and soybean controls with comparable genetic backgrounds. PMID:21753207

McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hinds, M; Delaney, B; Iiams, C; Sauber, T

2011-08-01

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Influencia de la precipitación sobre el rendimiento del maíz: caso híbridos blancos / Influence of the precipitation on maize yield: case white grain hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se utilizaron los valores de rendimiento de grano de maíz Zea mays L., (kg ha-1) obtenido en ensayos regionales uniformes de híbridos blanco (ERUsHMB), con datos de 7 años de evaluación, en el Campo Experimental de la Estación Local Yaritagua del INIA Yaracuy, en El Rodeo municipio Peña del estado Y [...] aracuy, ubicado a 10º 04’ N, 69º 70’ W, y 308 m.s.n.m.; y los registros de Precipitación (P) y Evapotranspiración (ETP) de la estación antes señalada, con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de la distribución de la precipitación sobre los rendimientos de los cultivares de maíz inscritos en los ERUsHMB, durante los ciclos de siembra 2000 al 2006. Se calculó la lámina de agua en el suelo a 20 cm de profundidad y la ETP se obtuvo por la fórmula de Hargreaves y Samani. El año con el rendimiento promedio más bajo (5 900 kg ha-1) fue 2005, quien recibió 174,2 mm de lluvia en el período crítico y 521,6 en todo el ciclo del cultivo, mientras que el 2004 resultó el año que mostró los mejores rendimientos (8 300 kg ha-1), con 315,2 mm de lluvia en el período crítico y 866,9 mm en todo el ciclo. Los años con mayores productividades correspondieron a aquellos donde hubo mayor precipitación durante las etapas de prefloración, floración y llenado de grano (período crítico) y viceversa. El año que mostró el mayor nivel de productividad también presentó una mejor distribución de lluvia durante todo el ciclo del cultivo. Los resultados sugieren que la cantidad de lluvia caída durante la etapa de prefloración ha llenado de grano, determinan los rendimientos de maíz en la zona de estudio. Abstract in english Regional uniform tests with white maize, Zea mays L., hybrids (URTsWMH) were evaluated during seven years in the field of the Local Experimental Station of Yaritagua, INIA Yaracuy, located in El Rodeo municipio Peña, of Yaracuy state, at 10º 04’ N, 69º 70’W, and 325 mosl. Maize grain yield (kg ha-1) [...] of these test, Precipitation (P) and Evapotranspiración (ETP) registered in the location formally described, were used to determine the influence of the rain distribution on the yields of the maize cultivars evaluated in the URTsWMH during the period 2000-2006. Soil water level at 20 cm depth was calculated and the ETP was obtained with the Hargreaves y Samani (1985) formula. The year with the lowest mean yield (5.900 kg ha-1) was 2005, with a rainfall of 174,2 mm in the critical period and 521,6 mm during the total period of the crop, meanwhile the year 2004 showed the highest yields (8.300 kg ha-1), with 315,2 mm of rain in its critical period and 866,9 mm during the total period of the crop. The years with highest productivity, corresponded to those who received higher P during preblooming, blooming and grain full (critical period) and viceversa. The year that showed the highest level of productivity also presented a better rainfall distribution during the total crop cycle. These results suggest that the maize yield obtained in this study depended on the amount of rain that occurs during preblooming to grain full period.

Pedro, Monasterio; Pedro, García; Gleenys, Alejos; Alberto, Pérez; Jacinto, Tablante; Waner, Maturet; Luís, Rodríguez.

 
 
 
 
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Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha-1) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day-1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day-1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t50) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha-1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha-1) compared with 2167 kg ha-1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

2008-01-01

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Crescimento inicial de milho e sua relação com o rendimento de grãos Initial growth of maize hybrids and its relation with grain yield  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando identificar características morfo-fisiológicas de milho que se correlacionam com seu crescimento inicial, para determinar sua importância no rendimento de grãos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Lages, SC, nos anos agrícolas de 1998/99 e 1999/00. Em 1998/99 avaliaram-se os híbridos C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 e AS 32 e em 1999/00 os híbridos C909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 e AS 32. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado através de seis coletas semanais, da emergência até o estádio de dez folhas expandidas. Em cada coleta, determinou-se a área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF, acúmulo de massa seca, taxa de crescimento celular (TCC e taxa de expansão celular (TEC. O híbrido AS 3601 apresentou maior área foliar, IAF e TEC do que os demais híbridos em 1998/99. No segundo ano agrícola, o híbrido AS 3466 destacou-se dos demais em acúmulo de massa seca e TCC. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no rendimento de grãos dos híbridos testados nas duas estações de crescimento. Houve baixa correlação entre os parâmetros de crescimento inicial e o rendimento de grãos da cultura do milho. Já as variáveis utilizadas para estimar o crescimento inicial (MS, área foliar, TEC, IAF e TCC se correlacionaram positivamente.This study was conducted aiming to identify morphological and physiological traits associated with the initial growth speed and to determine the importance of a vigorous early growth to set high grain yields. The study was conducted in Lages, SC, during 1998/99 and 1999/00 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design was used. Hybrids C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 and AS 32 were avaluated in 1998/99, whereas in 1999/00 the studied hybrids were C 909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 and AS 32. Maize initial growth was evaluated through six samplings. Samples were taken weekly from plant emergence the ten fully expanded leaves stage. Leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, cellular growth rate (CGR and cellular expansion rate (CER were estimated. Hybrid AS 3601 presented larger values of leaf area, IAF and CER than the other genotypes in 1998/99. In the second growing season, Hybrid AS 3466 had the highest values for dry mass and CGR. There was no significant difference among hybrids for grain yield. Low correlation values between initial growth parameters and maize grain yield were found. Otherwise, leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, CGR and CER showed high correlation.

Milton Luiz de Almeida

2003-04-01

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RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES  

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The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index) for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010) and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S); 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% a...

2005-01-01

64

A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions  

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Conservation agriculture involves reduced tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotations to enhance soil fertility and to supply food from a dwindling land resource. Recently, conservation agriculture has been promoted in Southern Africa, mainly for maize-based farming systems. However, maize yields under rain-fed conditions are often variable. There is therefore a need to identify factors that influence crop yield under conservation agriculture and rain-fed conditions. Here, we studied mai...

Rusinamhodzi, L.; Corbeels, M.; Wijk, M. T.; Rufino, M. C.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K. E.

2011-01-01

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Produtividade do milho em condições de diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de nitrogênio / Maize grain yield in response to different soil management and nitrogen rates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas buscando identificar a melhor dose de N para o milho nos mais diferenciados sistemas de manejo do solo. Contudo, não há ainda concordância quanto aos resultados, pois a dinâmica desse nutriente é influenciada pelo manejo do solo e pelas coberturas vegetais. O objetiv [...] o deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes em coberturas vegetais e produtividade do milho em sucessão, submetidos a diferentes manejos do solo e de doses de N. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no município de Selvíria, MS, durante os anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, sob Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico argiloso. Foram estabelecidos 36 tratamentos com quatro repetições, em blocos casualizados, resultantes da combinação de coberturas vegetais (milheto, Crotalaria juncea e milheto + Crotalaria juncea), manejo do solo (preparo com escarificador + grade "leve", grade "pesada" + grade "leve" e sistema plantio direto) e doses de N em cobertura (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - ureia como fonte). O híbrido de milho utilizado foi o DKB 350 YG® e o N, aplicado no estádio V5 (quinta folha expandida). Ocorreu incremento linear do índice de clorofila foliar, teor de N foliar, comprimento e diâmetro de espiga, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade, com o aumento nas doses de N em cobertura. A utilização de crotalária e de milheto + crotalária como antecessoras, associada à aplicação de 120 kg ha-1 de N em cobertura, proporcionou maior produtividade do milho após dois anos agrícolas. Abstract in english Research has been conducted to identify the best nitrogen (N) rate for maize in most diverse types of soil management. However, there is no agreement on the results, once the dynamic of N is influenced by soil management and cover crops. This study evaluated dry mass production and nutrient uptake b [...] y cover crops, agronomic parameters and grain yield of maize in response to soil management and N rates. Field trials were carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, on a clayey Rhodic Haplustox (20º 20' S and 51º 24' W, 340 m asl). Thirty-six treatments were established with four replications, in a randomized blocks design, with the combination of cover crops (millet, Crotalaria juncea and millet + Crotalaria juncea), soil management systems (tillage with chisel plow + lightweight disking, heavy disking + lightweight disking, and no-tillage) and topdressing N rates (0, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 - urea as source). Maize hybrid DKB 350 YG® was used and N applied at stage V5 (fifth expanded leaf). A linear increase with the increase of N rates was observed for chlorophyll leaf index, leaf N content, ear length and diameter, and grain weight and yield. Previously grown sunn hemp and millet + sunn hemp grown, associated with 120 kg ha-1 N for maize, induced a higher grain yield after two growing seasons.

Claudinei, Kappes; Orivaldo, Arf; João Antonio da Costa, Andrade.

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Manejo agronómico para incrementar el rendimiento de grano y forraje en híbridos tardíos de maíz / Agronomic management to increase grain and forage yield in full season maize hybrids  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El manejo agronómico del maíz tiene impacto sobre el rendimiento de grano y la producción y calidad del forraje. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de dos dosis de nitrógeno y tres densidades de población sobre el rendimiento de grano y materia seca, así como la calidad del forraje de maíces híbri [...] dos tardíos. El experimento se estableció en mayo de 2003 en Aguascalientes, México. El diseño fue bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, donde las parcelas de mayor a menor fueron: niveles de N, 180 y 240 kg ha-1; densidades de población, 60 000, 80 000 y 100 000 plantas ha-1 y los híbridos H-376 y Lobo. Las variables cuantificadas fueron: rendimiento de grano por hectárea y por planta; para el forraje se determinó, producción de materia seca total, contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido, digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca y se estimó producción de leche por tonelada de materia seca y por hectárea. La dosis 240-90-00 incrementó el rendimiento y la materia seca total en 1.3 y 3.3 t ha-1, respectivamente. El aumento en densidad de población de 80 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incrementó el rendimiento en 1 t ha-1 y el aumento de 60 000 a 100 000 plantas ha-1 incremento la materia seca total en 3.2 t ha-1. El H-376 obtuvo el mayor rendimiento de materia seca total con 21.7 t ha-1 y los mayores contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y ácido y menor digestibilidad in vitro; sin embargo, Lobo produjo 216 kg de leche t-1 y 3.5 t de leche ha-1 más que H-376. Abstract in english The agronomic management of maize impacts grain yield and production and quality of forage. The objective was to determine the effects of two nitrogen levels and three plant stands upon grain yield and dry matter production, also on the forage quality of full season maize hybrids. The experiment was [...] established on May 2003 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The experimental design was a completely random with split-split plots, in large plots N levels, 180 and 240 kg ha-1, were tested; in medium plot plant stands, 60 000, 80 000 and 100 000 plants ha-1 and the hybrids H-376 and Lobo in the small plots. The recorded variables were: grain yield per ha and total dry matter production, neutral and acid detergent fiber content, dry matter digestibility in vitro and milk production per ton of dry matter as well as per hectare. The 240-90-00-fertilization level increased grain yield and total dry matter in 1.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 respectively. The increase in plant stand from 80 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased grain yield in 1 t ha-1 and the change of 60 000 to 100 000 plants ha-1 increased total dry matter in 3.2 t ha-1. The H-376 had the greatest yield of total dry matter with 21.7 t ha-1 and the largest contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and the lowest digestibility in vitro; nonetheless Lobo produced 216 kg of milk t-1 and 3.5 t of milk ha-1 more than H-376.

Alfonso, Peña Ramos; Fernando, González Castañeda; Francisco Javier, Robles Escobedo.

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Rendimiento de grano y sus componentes en maíces nativos de Tamaulipas evaluados en ambientes contrastantes / Grain yield and yield components of native maize populations from Tamaulipas state evaluated under contrasting environments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las poblaciones nativas de maíz (Zea mays L.) del Estado de Tamaulipas, México, algunas destacan por su alto potencial de rendimiento de grano, pero se han aprovechado en grado limitado. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes en 29 poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tama [...] ulipas (colectadas durante los años 2001 al 2004), más seis variedades mejoradas, en tres ambientes contrastantes en altitud y temperatura. El objetivo fue identificar poblaciones sobresalientes que pudieran ser utilizadas en programas de fitomejoramiento. Los ambientes de evaluación fueron Trópico Seco (TS), Transición (TRN) y Valles Altos (VA), a altitudes de 200, 1950 y 2250 m, respectivamente. Con base en el origen geográfico de las poblaciones nativas se formaron cuatro grupos (Grupos 1 a 4), y dos grupos de variedades mejoradas (Grupos 5 y 6), uno de zona tropical y el segundo de zonas templadas. Entre ambientes hubo diferencias (P ? 0.05) en rendimiento de grano, con la tendencia de dar mayor rendimiento a mayor altura y menor temperatura; entre TRN y VA las diferencias no fueron significativas para los componentes del rendimiento. Las poblaciones nativas de la zona montañosa de Tamaulipas (Grupo 4), de altitud intermedia, fueron las de mayor rendimiento en TRN y VA, entre las que destaca la C-4031 con 8.3 t ha-1, estadísticamente igual a las variedades mejoradas de los Valles Altos Centrales de México. Las poblaciones nativas de Tamaulipas mostraron mazorcas largas con alto número de granos por hilera, olotes delgados, buen rendimiento de grano y alto índice de desgrane, lo que pone de manifiesto que estas poblaciones nativas aportarán diversidad genética y caracteres agronómicos sobresalientes que pueden ser aprovechados en la mejora de la producción de este grano. Abstract in english Among native maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the State of Tamaulipas, México, some stand out in grain yield; however their utilization in breeding programs has been limited. With the aim to identify outstanding populations for potential use in maize breeding programs, 29 native populations of Tam [...] aulipas (collected from 2001 to 2004), plus six improved varieties, were evaluated for grain yield and yield components under three environments contrasting in altitude and temperature. Environments were: Dry Tropical (DT), Transition (TRN) and High Valleys (HV), located at altitudes of 200, 1950 and 2250 m, respectively. Based on their geographic origin, four groups were defined (Groups 1 to 4) for native populations; two groups of improved varieties were added (Groups 5 and 6), one for the tropical region and the other for the temperate zones. There were differences among environments (P ? 0.05) for grain yield, so that grain yield tended to be higher at higher altitude and lower temperature; no statistical differences were detected for grain yield components between TRN and HV. Among native maize populations from Tamaulipas, the ones collected from the mountain region (Group 4), located at intermediate altitude, showed higher yield in the TRN and HV; locations, population C-4031 showed the highest yield (8.3 t ha-1), statistically similar to that of improved varieties used in the central Valleys of México. Native populations from Tamaulipas developed longer ears with high number of kernels per row, thin cobs, good yield and high proportion of grain per ear. There results show that these native populations may contribute to broadening genetic diversity and could enhance for enhancing agronomic traits in of maize breeding.

Pecina Martínez, J. Agapito; Mendoza Castillo, Ma. del Carmen; López Santillán, J. Alberto; Castillo González, Fernando; Mendoza Rodríguez, Moisés; Ortiz Cereceres, Joaquín.

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Efeitos de épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio no rendimento de grãos do milho Effects of timing of nitrogen application on grain yield of maize  

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Full Text Available Um estudo foi realizado em dois anos, com irrigação por aspersão, para avaliar os efeitos da época de aplicação de 120 kg/ha de N (sulfato de amônio no rendimento de grãos do milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: aplicação de todo o N por ocasião do plantio (1-0-0, em cobertura, aos 25 (0-1-0 e aos 45 (0-0-1 dias após o plantio, e aplicação do N de forma parcelada (0-1/3-2/3, 1/3-0-2/3, 1/3-2/3-0, 0-1/2-1/2, 1/2-0-1/2, 1/2-1-/2-0, 0-2/3-1/3, 2/3-0-1/3, 2/3-1/3-0 e 1/3-1/3-1/3. O efeito de tratamentos foi independente do efeito de anos. O maior rendimento de grãos (4.960 kg/ha foi obtido com o tratamento 0-1/3-2/3, mas todos os demais tratamentos propiciaram rendimentos comparáveis, exceto os tratamentos 1-0-0, 1/3-2/3-0 e 2/3-1/3-0, que apresentaram os menores rendimentos.A twoyear study was carried out at Mossoró county, Brazil, with sprinkler irrigation, in order to evaluate the effects of timing of application of 120 kg/ha of N (ammonium sulphate on grain yield of maize. The randomized blocks design with five replications and the following treatments were utilized: whole application of preplanting (1-0-0, side dressed at 25 (0-1-0 or at 45 (0-0-1 days after planting and split applications (0-1/3-2/3, 1/3-0-2/3, 1/3-2/3-0, 0-1/2-1/2, 1/2-0-1/2, 1/2-1/2-0, 0-2/3-1/3, 2/3-0-1/3, 2/3-1/3-0 and 1/3-1/3-1/3. The effect of treatments was independent of the effects of the years. The highest grain yield (4,960 kg/ha was obtained with 0-1/3-2/3 treatment, but the other treatments propitiated similar grain yields, except the 1-0-0, 1/3-2/3-0 and 2/3-1/3-0 treatments that showed the lowest grain yields.

Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

2002-08-01

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Sorghum and maize grain hardness : their measurement and factors influencing hardness  

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Sorghum and maize grain hardness is a very important criterion as grain hardness affects milling yield and product quality. There are several techniques that are used to determine grain hardness but the relationship between these techniques for distinguishing hardness in commercial sorghum and maize cultivars is not known. Moreover, the role of sorghum grain hardness with respect to malting performance is not understood, as is the role of phenolics in sorghum and maize hardness. Therefore thi...

2012-01-01

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Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop  

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Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

Ocaya, CP.

2001-01-01

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Rendimiento de grano de genotipos de maíz sembrados bajo tres densidades de población / Grain yield of maize genotypes grown at three population densities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la densidad de población sobre el rendimiento de grano de nueve genotipos de maíz (Zea mays L.) tropical, se condujo en 2005 un estudio en el campo experimental de la Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco en el municipio de Centro, Tabasco. Se utilizó un d [...] iseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones. En las parcelas grandes se establecieron las densidades de población de 44 289, 53 200 y 66 500 plantas ha-1, y en la parcela chica se establecieron las poblaciones de maíz: población 21, 22, 23, 25, 32, 43, 49, híbrido HS-3G y variedad VS-536. Hubo diferencias significativas entre densidades sólo para rendimiento de grano (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the population density on the grain yield of nine tropical maize genotypes (Zea mays L.). A study was conducted in 2005 at the experimental station of the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Centro municipality, Tabasco. A randomized com [...] plete block experimental design with four replicates and a split plot arrangement was used. The big plots contained population densities of 44 289, 53 200 and 66 500 plants ha-1, and the small plot contained population densities of 21, 22, 23, 25, 32, 43, 49, the HS-3G hybrid and the VS-536 variety. Significant differences among densities were recorded only for grain yield (p

de la Cruz-Lázaro, E; Córdova-Orellana, H; Estrada-Botello, MA; Mendoza-Palacios, JD; Gómez-Vázquez, A; Brito-Manzano, NP.

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Growth and Yield Performance of Cassava/Maize Intercrop Under Different Plant Population Density of Maize  

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Full Text Available Field experiments involving cassava/maize intercrops under different plant population densities of maize were conducted during 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons on the research farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training situated at Ilora, Nigeria (7o 22? N, 3o 52? E. Results obtained in 2002 and 2003 consistently showed that increases in plant population density of maize in maize/cassava intercrop directly increased maize plant height at tasselling, plant height at harvest and plant lodging percentage, but reduced stalk diameter, average cob weight, dry matter yield and grain yield. Significantly least values (2.03 and 2.11 t/ha were obtained from maize grain yield in 2002 and 2003 under 20,000 plants/ha while the highest values (3.28 and 3.55 t/ha were obtained in 2002 and 2003 under 40,000 plants/ha. Results obtained in 2002 and 2003 showed that increased in plant population density of maize in cassava/maize intercropping system significantly affected the cassava plant height at 2 and 4 month after planting (MAP and fresh tuber yield. Increased in plant population density of maize in cassava/maize intercrop did not significantly affect cassava plant height at 7 and 12 MAP. The highest values (25.9 and 25.3 t/ha cassava fresh tuber were obtained in 2002 and 2003 under 20,000 plants/ha maize component. The least values (17.6 and 18.2 t/ha were obtained in 2002 and 2003 under 80,000 plants/ha maize component.

O. N. Adeniyan

2014-07-01

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Crescimento inicial de milho e sua relação com o rendimento de grãos / Initial growth of maize hybrids and its relation with grain yield  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando identificar características morfo-fisiológicas de milho que se correlacionam com seu crescimento inicial, para determinar sua importância no rendimento de grãos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Lages, SC, nos anos agrícolas de 1998/99 e 1999/00. Em [...] 1998/99 avaliaram-se os híbridos C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 e AS 32 e em 1999/00 os híbridos C909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 e AS 32. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O crescimento inicial foi avaliado através de seis coletas semanais, da emergência até o estádio de dez folhas expandidas. Em cada coleta, determinou-se a área foliar, índice de área foliar (IAF), acúmulo de massa seca, taxa de crescimento celular (TCC) e taxa de expansão celular (TEC). O híbrido AS 3601 apresentou maior área foliar, IAF e TEC do que os demais híbridos em 1998/99. No segundo ano agrícola, o híbrido AS 3466 destacou-se dos demais em acúmulo de massa seca e TCC. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no rendimento de grãos dos híbridos testados nas duas estações de crescimento. Houve baixa correlação entre os parâmetros de crescimento inicial e o rendimento de grãos da cultura do milho. Já as variáveis utilizadas para estimar o crescimento inicial (MS, área foliar, TEC, IAF e TCC) se correlacionaram positivamente. Abstract in english This study was conducted aiming to identify morphological and physiological traits associated with the initial growth speed and to determine the importance of a vigorous early growth to set high grain yields. The study was conducted in Lages, SC, during 1998/99 and 1999/00 growing seasons. A randomi [...] zed complete block design was used. Hybrids C901, AS 3601, C 505, AS 3466 and AS 32 were avaluated in 1998/99, whereas in 1999/00 the studied hybrids were C 909, AS 3601, DINA 500, AS 3466 and AS 32. Maize initial growth was evaluated through six samplings. Samples were taken weekly from plant emergence the ten fully expanded leaves stage. Leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, cellular growth rate (CGR) and cellular expansion rate (CER) were estimated. Hybrid AS 3601 presented larger values of leaf area, IAF and CER than the other genotypes in 1998/99. In the second growing season, Hybrid AS 3466 had the highest values for dry mass and CGR. There was no significant difference among hybrids for grain yield. Low correlation values between initial growth parameters and maize grain yield were found. Otherwise, leaf area, leaf area index, dry mass accumulation, CGR and CER showed high correlation.

Milton Luiz de, Almeida; Luís, Sangoi; Itamar Cristiano, Nava; Jonantam, Galio; Paulo Sérgio, Trentin; Clair, Rampazzo.

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Influence of Seed Size on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Three Maize Genotypes  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size on maize (Zea mays L. performance. Among three genotypes under study the seed size categories and their interaction showed non significant effect on yield, yield components, photo biomass production and quality of maize under Faisalabad agro-meteorological conditions. All the parameters including germination, number of plants per plot, plant height, number of cobs per plant, number of rows per cob, number of grains per cob, 1000 grain weight, seed yield, stalk yield biological yield, harvest index and protein contents were increased with Golden variety, bold seed sizes but the difference were non significant.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2001-01-01

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Effect of non-uniform sprinkler irrigation and plant density on simulated maize yield  

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Typical field conditions under sprinkler irrigation include low irrigation uniformity and non-uniform plant density, which can affect the crop yield and the environmental impact of irrigation. The effect of the uniformity of sprinkler irrigation and plant density on the variability of maize grain yield under semi-arid conditions was evaluated, and the relevance of the spatial variability of these two variables on the simulation of maize grain yield was tested with the DSSAT-CERES-Maize model ...

Salmero?n Cortasa, Montserrat; Isla Climente, Ramo?n; Cavero Campo, Jose?; Urrego, Yenny Fernanda

2012-01-01

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Plant Growth Regulator (Ethephon) Alters Maize (Zea mays L.)Growth,Water Use and Grain Yield under Water Stress  

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The aim of the present investigation was to study the growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) single cross 704 under different levels of irrigation, plant density and ethephon levels. There were two field experiments during 2003-4 and 2004-5 growing seasons at the experimental farm of the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, located at Badjgah. The experimental design was a randomized complete-blocks with four replicates and the treatments i...

Avat Shekoofa; Yahya Emam

2008-01-01

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Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content / Análise dialélica de linhagens de milho para rendimento de grãos, teores de óleo e proteína  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivos investigar a capacidade combinatória e o efeito heterótico de linhagens tropicais e temperadas sobre o rendimento de grãos (RG), teor de óleo (TO) e proteína (PB). Os híbridos e as linhagens foram avaliados a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos, em d [...] ois experimentos delineados em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O desdobramento da soma de quadrado de genótipos em soma de quadrados para capacidade geral (CGC) e específica (CEC) de combinação e a subsequente constatação de significância de CGC e de CEC evidenciaram que tanto efeitos aditivos quanto não-aditivos estiveram envolvidos no controle genético das características avaliadas. Pelas estimativas dos componentes quadráticos, houve superioridade dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos no controle das características. Contudo, percebe-se que para PB e TO o efeito não-aditivo influenciou negativamente as combinações híbridas. O cruzamento L6x L10foi considerado promissor, pois associou positivamente RG com PB e TO. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY), oil content (OC) and crude protein (CP) in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized b [...] locks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influence on the hybrid combinations. The cross L6x L10was considered promising, because it associated RG positively with BP and OC.

Werle, Amir José Klein; Ferreira, Fernando Rafael Alves; Pinto, Ronald José Barth; Mangolin, Claudete Aparecida; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; Gonçalves, Leandro Simões Azeredo.

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Effects of hybrid on maize grain and plant carbohydrates  

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Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials. The basic chemical composition (content of starch, protein, oil, crude fibre and ash and the content of lignocellulose fibres (content of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelullose and cellulose were determined for grain and the whole maize plant of the seven ZP maize hybrids. The negative very significant correlation between protein and starch content (r=-0.78 and significant correlation between oil and starch content (r=-0.65 was obtained in grain. The hybrid ZP 666 had the highest starch, crude fibre, ADF and cellulose content, high NDF content, the lowest ADL and low protein content in grain. The lowest starch, crude fibre, ADF, cellulose content and the highest protein and oil content in grain was determined in hybrid ZP 158. The hybrid ZP 730 had the highest and hybrid ZP158 the lowest dry matter yield of whole plant, whole plant without ear, ear and yield of digestible dry matter of whole plant. The differences in the contents of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelluloses, cellulose and digestibility of the whole maize plant among observed ZP hybrids were 6.21%, 4.01%, 0.79%, 5.65%, 3.88% and 6.79%, respectively. Obtained values for the content of lignocellulose fibres differed significantly among hybrids and were closely related to digestibility. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Radosavljevi? Milica

2012-01-01

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The Effects of Intercropping Sowing Systems with Dry Bean and Maize on Yield and Some Yield Components  

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Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is traditionally intercropped with maize by small-scale farmers in the Turkey. In this study, dry bean was sown with different mixed ratio (bean and maize sole crop and 2 lines maize+1 line bean, 2 lines bean+1 line maize and 2 lines maize+2 lines bean with field maize for two years. There were significant differences between cropping systems for pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield (kg ha-1 and grain yield per unit area (kg ha-1 for dry bean. There were non-significant differences between cropping systems except of grain yield for maize. The highest grain yield was found sole cropping system for both crops. The highest LER (Land Equivalent Ratios was found 2 lines maize+2 lines dry bean intercropping system as 1.08. The lowest LER was found 2 line dry bean+1 line maize intercropping system as 0.98. So greatest net income was realized when 2 lines maize and 2 lines dry bean intercropping system.

Vahdettin Ciftci

2006-01-01

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Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities  

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Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement), seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is nec...

Srdi? Jelena; Simi? Milena; Videnovi? Živorad; Paji? Zorica

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos de genótipos de milho em diferentes sistemas de manejo / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize genotypes in different management systems  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A monocultura do milho é uma prática comum em algumas regiões do Brasil, sendo responsável pelo incremento dos danos causados pelas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de produção de milho contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo sobre a incidência de [...] podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e produtividade de grãos. Foram testados quatro sistemas: S1 (baixo nível de manejo), S2 (médio), S3 (alto) e S4 (proposto para maximizar o produtividade). Os níveis de manejo diferiram quanto à densidade de semeadura, espaçamento entre linhas, quantidade de fertilizantes e uso da irrigação. Em cada sistema, foram utilizadas três genótipos de milho: BRS Planalto (variedade de polinização aberta), Traktor (híbrido duplo) e P32R21 (híbrido simples). Os experimentos foram conduzidos nas safras 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de plantio direto e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta de aveia preta+ervilhaca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Nas duas safras agrícolas, a variedade Planalto apresentou maior incidência de podridões do colmo do que os híbridos em todos os sistemas de manejo. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o principal patógeno associado às podridões do colmo. A produtividade de grãos oscilou entre 3.986 a 13.489kg ha-1 em 2003 e entre 1.787 a 13.849kg ha-1 em 2004, variando conforme o genótipo e o sistema de produção. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas em S4 com a utilização do híbrido simples P32R21. A incidência de grãos ardidos nas duas safras foi baixa, não atingindo em nenhum tratamento o valor de 6% considerado no desconto. O fungo Fusarium verticillioides foi o principal patógeno associado aos grãos ardidos. Por outro lado, C. graminicola não foi detectado nos grãos ardidos, demonstrando que sua alta incidência nos colmos não significa sua presença nos grãos. Não foi possível identificar um sistema de manejo que reduzisse a incidência de podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos na cultura do milho. Abstract in english Maize monoculture is an usual practice in some regions of Brazil, being responsible for the growing damage caused by diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different maize production systems, contrasting in management investments, on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains [...] and grain yield. Four production systems were tested: S1 (low management level), S2 (medium), S3 (high) e S4 (designed to maximize the grain yield). The production systems differed in relation to plant density, row spacing, amount of fertilizer and irrigation use. Three genotypes were used for each production system: BRS Planalto (open-pollinated variety), Traktor (double-cross hybrid) and P32R21 (single-cross hybrid). The experiments were carried out during 2002/03 and 2003/04 grown seasons, in no-till system and a monoculture area, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experiments was a split-plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with four replications. In both grown seasons, regardless management system, open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto showed higher stalk rot than the hybrids. Colletotrichum graminicola was the main pathogen associated with stalk rot. Grain yield ranged from 3,986 to 13.489kg ha-1 in 2003 and from 1,787 to 13.849kg ha-1 in 2004, depending on genotype and crop management system. The highest values of grain yield were obtained in S4 with the single-cross hybrid. The incidence of rot grain was low (below 6%) during the whole experimental period. Fusarium verticillioides was the main pathogen associated with rot grain. There was no association between incidence and causal agent of stalk rot and rot grain. It was not possible to identify a crop management system that was more efficient to reduce incidence of stalk rot and rot grain.

Noel Alves, Ribeiro; Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Amauri, Bogo; Luis, Sangoi; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Leonardo Almeida, Wille.

82

Contribution of Some Maize Production Factors Towards Grain Yield and Economic Return under the Agro-climatic Conditions of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Contribution of different factors responsible for the increase of Maize production viz: weeds control, insect/pest control and fertilizer were determined in Kharif, 1996 and 1 997 under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The investigations measured the average maximum yield gap between the improved practices and that of farmer`s practices as 2443 kg/ha, showing an increase of 193.88 % over that of farmer`s practices. The highest share contributed by improved fertilize...

Muhammad Bashir Ahmed; Khizar Hayat; Qamar Zaman; Nazeer Hussain Malik

2001-01-01

83

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas  

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The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and M...

Silva, P. S. L.; Silva, K. M. B.; Silva, P. I. B.; Oliveira, V. R.; Ferreira, J. L. B.

2010-01-01

84

Effect of Legume Intercrops and Nitrogen Levels on the Yield Performance of Maize  

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Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the beneficial effect of legumes and inorganic quantities of N on maize crop. Different levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 were used. Besides maize alone, intercrops were; maize+mungbean, maize+pigeon pea and maize+janter. Maize @ 40, mungbean 20, pigeon pea 50 and janter at 25 kg ha-1 were used respectively. Maximum seedlings emerged m?2 (40.20 was obtained at 120 kg N ha-1 in maize alone. Maximum days (61.7 to earing were taken by maize intercropped with janter. Maximum days (67.50 to silking were taken by maize+janter intercrop at 0 kg N ha-1. Maximum plant height (165.50 cm was observed in maize alone at 120 kg N ha-1. Maximum cob length (12.55 cm was noticed in maize and mungbean intercrop under 40 kg N ha-1. Maximum biological yield (28429.63 kg ha ha-1 was obtained from maize alone by 40 kg N ha-1. Maximum number of grains cob-1 (309 was obtained from maize and pigeon pea intercropping at 120 kg N ha-1. For maximum yield potential maize alone and maize+mungbean intercropping was at par statistically at 80 and 40 kg N ha-1 by giving 3463 and 3444 kg ha-1 yield, respectively. Overall legume intercrop was superior by decreasing less yield of maize crop in addition to legume seed yield and N cost minimization.

Nazim Hussain

2003-01-01

85

The Effects of Intra-row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids  

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Maize hybrids react differently to various plant density and intra-row spacing. A two-year study was conducted at Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Research Farm to determine the optimum intra-row spacing for maize hybrids commercially grown in Eastern Mediterranean Region during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block in a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Main plots were maize hybrids of Dracma, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer...

Okan Sener; Huseyin Gozubenli; Omer Konuskan; Mehmet Kilinc

2004-01-01

86

Dissection of Drought Stress as a Grain Production Constraint of Maize in Iran  

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The major objective of this study was to assess grain yield and its components in some genotypes of maize under different levels of drought stress. Therefore, eight medium maturity hybrids of maize were evaluated using a split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with four replications in three stress (the vegetative, reproductive and grain filling phases) and normal conditions, at the Agricultural Research station of Miando'ab, West Azerbaijan, North West of Iran. Some phenol...

Khalily, M.; Moghaddam, M.; Kanouni, H.; Asheri, E.

2010-01-01

87

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho  

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Baby corn (BC) consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear) and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the f...

Silva, Paulo Se?rgio L. E.; Silva, Paulo Igor B. E.; Sousa, Ana Karenina F.; Gurgel, Kamila M.; Pereira Filho, Israel A.

2006-01-01

88

Grain and Stover Yield of Corn with Varying Times of Plant Density Reduction  

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Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.). The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and ...

Kiramat Khan; Muhammad Iqbal; Zubair Shah; Bashir Ahmad,; Abdul Azim; Hassan Sher

2003-01-01

89

Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain  

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Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

Wosnitza, Andrea

2014-02-01

90

Ethylene dibromide residues in stored maize grains  

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Ethylene dibromide (EDB) is an insecticidal fumigant used extensively in Ghana for fumigation of maize during storage. Treatment is usually done in jute bags lined with polyethylene material at a dose rate of 0.05 mL/kg. The present study was conducted using U-14C-ethylene dibromide to determine residues in maize grain from the time of fumigation to the point of human consumption. 14C-EDB (1 mCi/mmol (1 Ci = 37 GBq) was added to 10 mL cold EDB and applied to grain at a dose rate of 50 ?Ci/kg. As in actual practice, the grains were exposed to EDB for 7 d, soaked in cotton wool and then thinly spread at ambient temperature of 28-30 deg. C and relative humidity of 80-90%. Samples were analysed at 0 time and at regular intervals up to 40 weeks. Surface and methanol extractable residues were determined according to a standard protocol (see Annex 1, these Proceedings). Total and bound residues were determined by directly counting a powdered sample. It was shown that substantial amounts of EDB were taken up by the grains during fumigation. Total residues declined from 82 mg/kg at 0 time to about 20 mg/kg after 4 weeks and 12 mg/kg after 40 weeks. Surface and methanol extractable residues accounted for 5 mg/kg of the terminal residue after 40 weeks, the remaining being bound. The preparation of some diets as practised in Ghana removed a part of the residue (15-30%). The study demonstrates the importance of using the nuclear techniques to detect and quantify EDB residues, in particular the bound or 'hidden' portion which is not determined by conventional techniques. Data indicate the presence of high unacceptable levels of EDB and/or derivatives in maize grain at the point of human consumption. This finding would necessitate that local practices be modified, revised or changed. According to the recommendations of the FAO/WHO report FAO/WHO Pesticide Residues in Food, WHO Technical Report Series No. 417(1969), EDB may be used under the condition that no detectable residue of the parent chemical reaches the consumer. (author)

1988-06-03

91

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds / Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plan [...] tas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura). Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas), Leguminosas (Fabáceas), Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas. Abstract in english The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in co [...] mpetition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing) in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae), Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.

Silva, P.S.L.; Silva, K.M.B.; Silva, P.I.B.; Oliveira, V.R.; Ferreira, J.L.B..

92

A remoção dos perfilhos não aumenta o rendimento de grãos do milho, independentemente da época de semeadura / Tiller removal does not increase maize grain yield, regardless of the sowing date  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Historicamente, os perfilhos têm sido considerados indesejáveis na cultura do milho, porque não produzem espigas e podem drenar fotoassimilados do colmo principal. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido objetivando avaliar o efeito do estádio de remoção dos perfilhos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho, em [...] duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, durante os anos agrícolas de 2006/07 e 2008/09. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas duas épocas de semeadura: segunda quinzena de outubro (recomendada) e segunda quinzena de dezembro (tardia). Nas subparcelas, foram avaliados quatro estádios de remoção dos perfilhos: colmo principal com seis (V6), nove (V9) e quinze folhas expandidas (V15) e testemunha com perfilhos mantidos até a colheita. Testou-se o híbrido P30F53, na densidade de 55.000 plantas ha-1 e espaçamento entrelinhas de 0,7m. A percentagem de plantas perfilhadas e o número de perfilhos por planta foram maiores nas semeaduras de outubro do que nas de dezembro. Não houve diferenças no rendimento de grãos do tratamento em que os perfilhos foram mantidos, em relação àqueles em que eles foram removidos em V6, V9 ou V15, independentemente da época de semeadura. Isso demonstra que os perfilhos não são drenos que comprometam o desempenho agronômico do milho. Além disso, eles podem contribuir para o rendimento de grãos nas semeaduras feitas em outubro. Abstract in english Historically, tillers have been considered detrimental to maize because they do not produce ears and may act as sinks competing for carbohydrates with the main stem. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of tiller removal on maize grain yield at different sowing dates. The experime [...] nt was set during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design disposed in split-plots was used. Two sowing dates were tested in the main plots: second half of October (recommended) and second half of December (late). Four tiller's fates were evaluated in the split-plots: tiller removal when the main stem had six expanded leaves (V6), nine expanded leaves (V9), fifteen expanded leaves (V15) and tiller maintenance until harvesting. Hybrid P30F53 was sowed at 55,000 plants ha-1, with a row spacing of 0.7m. The percentage of plants with tillers and the number of tillers per plant were higher when maize was sown in October than in December. There was no grain yield difference between treatments where tillers were preserved and those where they were removed at V6, V9 or V15, regardless of sowing date. Such behavior demonstrates that tillers are not sinks that compromise maize agronomic performance. Furthermore, tillers may contribute positively to grain yield when maize is sown in October.

Sangoi, Luís; Schmitt, Amauri; Vieira, Jefferson; Vargas, Vitor Paulo; Girardi, Daniélle; Zoldan, Sérgio Roberto.

93

Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L. c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1 and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1 were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

Mehdi Dahmardeh

2011-01-01

94

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF MAIZE ON PROTEIN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO FEMENTABILITY OF GRAIN  

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Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen fertilization of maize on fermentability of maize grain in the rumen was studied by means of in vitro method based on the measurement of gas produced during the incubation of samples with rumen liquor. Gas production was recorded continuously up to 72 h incubation time and cumulative gas production was described by the Gompertz equation Y=A*exp(-exp(-d*(t-tm. Seven treatments, one of them unfertilized and others fertilized with 100 to 250 kg N ha–1, were compared. Grain yield and concentration of crude protein (CP in grain increased linearly with nitrogen fertilization. Grain yield increased for 25 kg dry matter (DM ha–1 and CP concentration for 0.13 g kg–1 DM per each additional kg of N. Concentration of CP in grain, which varied from 83 to 115 g kg–1 DM, was closely related to the dynamics of gas production. The maximal gas production rate (MPR was negatively related to CP concentration in the grain (R2 = 0.53; p < 0.10 and the time of MPR (tm was positively related to the amount of added N (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.05 and concentration of CP in the grain (R2 = 0.88; p < 0.01. It is likely that intensive N fertilization of maize limits ruminal digestion of maize starch. Due to the shift of starch digestion from the rumen to lower gastrointestinal tract better utilization of energy can be expected in maize grain of extensively fertilized maize than in the grain of maize, in which supply of N is sub-optimal.

D BABNIK

2002-12-01

95

PHOSPHORUS SOURCES AND PLACEMENT ON MAIZE YIELD AND MINERAL NUTRITION  

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Full Text Available With the aim of evaluating the effect of phosphorus sources in different placement options on maize yield and mineral nutrition, a trial was carried out in field conditions on a clayey Typical Red Argisol under cerrado vegetation. The treatments were: triple superphosphate (TS, magnesium termophosphate (MT, Arad reactive rock phosphate (RP, and Araxá rock phosphate (AP, which were spread on the whole area or banded in the seeding furrow. All fertilizers were applied at the rate of 180 kg P2O5 ha-1, based on the total P2O5 of each fertilizer. A check, without P, was used as an additional treatment. It was measured the nutrient concentrations in the maize leaves at the flowering and in different plant parts at harvest. The shoot dry matter, grain yield, and accumulation of nutrients were also determined. Greater yields were obtained with the most soluble sources (TS and MT when spread and with the reactive phosphate (RP banded in the planting furrow. Placement of TS in the planting furrow decreased yield because of metabolic disorders due to the P and Zn interaction. The leaf analysis at the flowering showed to be appropriate for maize P/Zn balance evaluation.

IVÂNIA BARBOSA ARAÚJO

2004-08-01

96

GENETICAL HARVEST INDEX AND POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL GENETICS TO IMPROVE MAIZE YIELD  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to point out a methodological way to evaluatemaize cultivars through genetical harvest index estimative (GHI. Furthermore, questions areraised about the unique utilization of harvest index (HI. It was used data from researchexperiments as well as from literature. The results showed a significant interference fromenvironmental factors which limit adaptation of maize cultivars, affecting grain yield. The focusis differentiated, since one searches to understand the effects which result in grain yield, identifyingthe causes (genetic and environmental which will result ultimately in a yield reduction of thegenotype maximum capacity to produce grain. The model plant is the maize, and the analysis ofthe data presented suggests methodological alternatives to estimate the GHI of each genotype.This procedure will be useful in maize plant breeding programs, taking into considerationmaximum yields as well as yields under adverse conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses, oragriculture of low technological inputs.

FREDERICO OZANAN MACHADO DURÃES

2002-04-01

97

UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD / A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no dese [...] nvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura. Abstract in english Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on e [...] ar development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.

Sangoi, Luís.

98

Grain and Stover Yield of Corn with Varying Times of Plant Density Reduction  

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Full Text Available Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.. The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and stover yield. The grain and stover yield were found to have decreased as thinning was delayed. Yield components such as number of ears, ear length, number of grains per ear row, ear diameter and 100 kernel weight were significantly affected by late thinning. In vegetative phase, LAI (leaf area index was the only character, which exhibited significant differences among thinning treatments. The results suggested that thinning of maize crop as early as seedling emergence is important for increasing yield.

Kiramat Khan

2003-01-01

99

Estimating yields of tropical maize genotypes from non-destructive, on-farm plant morphological measurements  

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Maize is the main grain crop grown in the highlands of sub-Saharan Africa, on a broad range of soil fertility and management conditions. Important yield variability has been reported at different scales, reflecting the intensity and spatial distribution of growth-limiting and growth-reducing factors. Maize yield estimation represents a valuable tool to assess within-farm variability in soil fertility through crop performance. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical relationshi...

2005-01-01

100

Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession  

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Full Text Available O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N, que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1 no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

Adriano Alves da Silva

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão / Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N), que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comu [...] m (Vicia sativa) e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus), visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1) no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca. Abstract in english The black oats use (Avena strigosa) as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N), that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa) and b [...] rassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus) is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N) disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

Adriano Alves da, Silva; Paulo Regis Ferreira da, Silva; Elias, Suhre; Gilber, Argenta; Mércio Luiz, Strieder; Lisandro, Rambo.

102

Effects of hybrid on maize grain and plant carbohydrates  

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Maize is one of the most important naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials. The basic chemical composition (content of starch, protein, oil, crude fibre and ash) and the content of lignocellulose fibres (content of NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicelullose and cellulose) were determined for grain and the whole maize plant of the seven ZP maize hybrids. The negative very significant correlation between protein and starch content (r=-0.78) and significant correlation between oil and starch cont...

2012-01-01

103

Maize Yield Response in a Long-term Rotation and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Northern Ghana  

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Full Text Available To sustain crop production, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, sorghum and cassava were compared for their potential in crop rotation or as an intercropping partner to maize over an eleven-year period in Northern Ghana. The trial in each year consisted of 12 treatments arranged in an RCBD with five replicates. There was a gradual decline in maize yield for groundnut-maize, soybean-maize and cassava-maize as compared to a rapid decline in the other rotation combinations over the years. The best combination was maize-groundnut rotation with grain yields above 3.0 t ha-1. Intercropping advantage for most combinations in the first two years was not sustained in later years, except for sorghum-maize and cassava-maize systems. Sorghum-maize combination was the best in terms of crop yield, based on Land Equivalent Ratio (LER. Cassava-maize and soybean-maize systems were the best in terms of energy value and protein yield respectively. Maize yields obtained were comparatively better in rotation than intercrops, underlining the superiority of rotation to intercropping in the long-term, consequently its potential to improve on household food security. The results so far indicate that good cropping system and proper agronomic practices can sustain maize production on the same piece of land for more than 10 years.

W.A. Agyare

2006-01-01

104

Effects of maize residues on the Fusarium spp. infection and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of wheat grain  

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains is a worldwide spread disease that reduces yield, causes mycotoxin production in grain and reduces seed quality. Previous crop residues such as maize stalks and grain, and straw of barley, wheat, and other cereals are considered the principal inoculum sources for Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, the most important Fusarium spp. causing FHB in Europe. The residues present on the soil surface and in the first 10 cm of soil in tilled and not ...

Reyneri, Amedeo; Vanara, Francesca; Blandino, Massimo; Maiorano, Andrea

2008-01-01

105

Tillage and NPK Effect on growth and yield of spring maize in islamabad, pakistan  

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Tillage is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha. The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK at the rate 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero tillage plots produced the low emergence percentage, plant height, grains cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Therefore, considering the environ-mental conditions, the deep tillage with recommended dose of NPK performed best and provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK at the rate 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop. (author)

2013-01-01

106

Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities  

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Full Text Available Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement, seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is necessary to provide the most suitable cropping practices for sweet maize hybrids developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. The adequate sowing density is one of more important elements of correct cropping practices. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of four sowing densities in four ZP sweet maize hybrids of different FAO maturity groups on ear qualitative traits and yields obtained on chernozem type of soil in Zemun Polje. The observed traits of sweet maize (ear length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row, yield and shelling percentage significantly varied over years. The higher sowing density was the higher yield of sweet maize was, hence the highest ear yield of 9.67 t ha-1 , on the average for all four hybrids, was recorded at the highest sowing density of 70,000 plants ha-1. The highest yield was detected in the hybrid ZP 424su. The highest shelling percentage (67.81% was found in the hybrid ZP 521su at the sowing density of 60,000 plants ha-1. Generally, it can be stated that sweet maize hybrids of a shorter growing season (FAO 400 could be cultivated up to 70,000 plants ha-1, while those of a longer growing season (FAO 500 could be grown up to 60,000 plants ha-1. In such a way, the most favorable parameters of yields and the highest yields can be obtained.

Srdi? Jelena

2008-01-01

107

Is ear value an effective indicator for maize yield evaluation?  

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Under the scope of a Portuguese regional maize ear competition (the "Sousa Valley Best Ear Competition"), an ear value (EV) formula was developed in 1993 based on published maize trait correlations. This formula had two main purposes, ears evaluation for the ear competition and maize improvement selection. The EV formula included only ear length, kernel weight at 15% moisture, number of rows and number of kernels/ear, with no direct inputs from farmers maize yield. In order to add a m...

2014-01-01

108

Green ear yield and grain yield of maize after harvest of the first ear as baby corn Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho após a colheita da primeira espiga como minimilho  

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Full Text Available Baby corn (BC consists of the corn ear harvested two or three days after silk emergence. BC is a profitable crop, making possible a diversification of production, aggregation of value and increased income. Removing the first female inflorescence induces corn to produce others, making possible to produce several BC ears or, alternatively, BC (by harvesting the first ear and green ears or grain. The objective of this work was to evaluate green ear yield and grain yield, after harvesting the first ear as BC. Corn cultivar AG 1051 was submitted to the following treatments, in a random block design with ten replicates (52 plants per plot: BC harvesting; green ear harvesting (grain moisture content between 60 and 70%; mature ear harvesting; BC harvesting and harvesting of other ears as green or mature ears. Marketable green ears yield or grain yield produced without removing the first inflorescence were superior to the green ears yield or grain yield produced after removal of the first inflorescence harvested as baby corn. Harvesting only the first ear as baby corn, and then harvesting green ears or the mature ears, provided lower baby corn yields than that obtained by harvesting all ears as baby corn. Economically, the best net revenues would be obtained by exploring the crop for the production of green ears, green ears + baby corn, baby corn, baby corn + grain, and grain, in this order.O minimilho (MM é a espiga do milho colhida dois a três dias após a emergência dos estilo-estigmas. O MM é rentável e propicia diversificação da produção, agregação de valor e ampliação de renda. A remoção da primeira inflorescência feminina induz o milho a produzir outras. Isso possibilita a produção de várias espigas de MM ou, alternativamente, MM (colhendo-se a primeira espiga e espigas verdes ou grãos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos, após a colheita da primeira espiga como MM. A cultivar AG 1051 foi submetida aos seguintes tratamentos, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com dez repetições (52 plantas por parcela: colheita de MM; colheita das espigas verdes (grãos com teor de umidade de 60 a 70%; colheita das espigas maduras; colheita de MM e colheita das outras espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes comercializáveis e de grãos, produzidos sem a remoção da primeira inflorescência, foram superiores aos rendimentos respectivos produzidos após a remoção da primeira inflorescência, colhida como minimilho. Colhendo-se somente a primeira espiga como minimilho e as demais espigas como espigas verdes ou maduras obtiveram-se menores rendimentos de minimilho que o obtido colhendo-se todas as espigas como minimilho. Economicamente, as melhores receitas líquidas seriam obtidas explorando-se a cultura para a produção de espigas verdes, espigas verdes + minimilho, minimilho, minimilho + grãos e grãos, nesta ordem.

Paulo Sérgio L e Silva

2006-06-01

109

Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo / Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adequação das características do genótipo com as do sistema de manejo é importante para incrementar a eficiência técnica e econômica da produção de milho no sul do Brasil. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta obtida com a utilização de cultiv [...] ares de milho com diferentes variabilidades genéticas em sistemas de produção contrastantes quanto ao investimento em manejo. O trabalho foi conduzido em Lages, SC, utilizando o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, testaram-se quatro sistemas de produção equivalentes a baixo (S1), médio (S2), alto (S3) e muito alto (S4) nível de manejo. Nas subparcelas, avaliaram-se três cultivares: o híbrido simples Pioneer 32R21 (HS), o híbrido duplo Traktor (HD) e a variedade de polinização aberta BRS Planalto (VPA). Os sistemas de manejo diferiram entre si quanto à quantidade e à época de aplicação dos fertilizantes, quanto à densidade de semeadura, do espaçamento entre linhas e à suplementação hídrica. Os ensaios foram implantados em 20/11/2002 e 22/10/2003, no sistema de semeadura direta. Independentemente de cultivar, o rendimento de grãos e a margem bruta aumentaram com o maior investimento em práticas de manejo, variando, respectivamente, de 1.787 (S1) a 13.848kg ha-1(S4) e de 206,00 (S1) a 2.937,00R$ ha-1 (S4), dependendo da cultivar e do ano agrícola. A maior variabilidade genética da cultivar BRS Planalto não lhe assegurou rendimento de grãos superior ao dos híbridos nos sistemas com baixo investimento em insumos (S1). As cultivares híbridas foram mais produtivas e mais rentáveis do que a BRS Planalto em S2. A utilização do híbrido simples propiciou rendimento de grãos e margem bruta maiores do que as demais cultivares em S3 e S4, demonstrando que é possível associar máxima eficiência técnica e econômica com alto teto rendimento, desde que se tenha condições para investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar. Abstract in english The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at di [...] fferent management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1), medium (S2), high (S3) and very high (S4) management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1) to 13,848 (S4)kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1) to 2,937,00 (S4)R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

Sangoi, Luís; Ernani, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Paulo Regis Ferreira da; Horn, Delson; Schmitt, Amauri; Schweitzer, Cleber; Motter, Franchielli.

110

Lower mycotoxin levels in Bt maize grain  

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Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. during plant cultivation induce severe diseases in animal and humans. In 2007 a European Union regulation set maximum concentrations of mycotoxins in maize and derivatives of 4000 ppb for fumonisins B1 and B2, 1750 ppb for deoxynivalenol, and 350 ppb for zearalenone. To assess the safety of French maize food, investigations are currently being carried out by the national Biological Risk Monitoring network. Here, 84 plots were cropped with the Bt maize MON ...

Folcher, L.; Delos, M.; Marengue, E.; Jarry, M.; Weissenberger, A.; Eychenne, N.; Regnault-roger, C.

2010-01-01

111

Effect of Different Intertillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

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A field study pertaining to different intertillage practices on maize was conducted in spring 1998. Different intertillage practices comprised of no intertillage + no earthing-up, no intertillage + earthing-up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + no earthing up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + earthing-up, manual weeding + no earthing up, intertillage twice with spade + earthing-up. The significant maximum grain yield (4.3 t ha-1) of maize and net income (Rs. 27713) was obtained ...

Riaz Ahmad; Intikhab Hazoor Wahla; Cheema, Z. A.; Ehsan Ullah

2000-01-01

112

Actual prestigious properties of maize inbred lines: A good initial basis for the efficient development of new and yielding maize hybrids  

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This study conforms our hypothesis that there are elite maize inbred lines, which can be considered actual and prestigious as they have not only a property of the water status and a greater grain dry down rate during the maturation period, but also a property of the efficient photosynthetic-fluorescence model that is successfully used in the contemporary processes of breeding, and thereby in the development of new and yielding maize hybrids. Presented results obtained on the dynamics of grain...

2008-01-01

113

Effect of zinc and plant-population on the yield and yield components of maize (zea mays L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2001 to study the effect of two levels of zinc (0 and 5 kg Zn ha-J) and three plant-densities (60,000, 80,000 and 100,000 plants ha-J) on the performance of two varieties of maize Azam and Pahari and two hybrids N7989 and Babar, at Malakandher Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Zinc at the rate of 5 kg ha-J increased the cob yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight, while increase in plant-density significantly increased the number of grains cob-J, number of cob-plant-J, cob-yield, grain-yield and 1000-grain weight. Results revealed that the highest plant-density of 100,000 plant ha-J decreased the number of cobs plant-J, number of grains cob-J and 1000-grain weight. Maximum number of cobs plant-J (0.87), number of grains cob-J (313), cob yield (4602 kg ha-J), grain yield (4222 kg ha-J) and 1000-grain weight (249 g) were obtained with plant- density of 80,000 plant ha-J. The maximum grain-yield of 4333 kg ha-J was recorded in plots of hybrid variety N7989. (author)

2005-01-01

114

Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation improved the N economy of the cropping system and enhances crop productivity. (author)

2010-06-01

115

The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat  

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Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

Ivica Kisi?

2004-09-01

116

Comparação de métodos de adaptabilidade e estabilidade relacionados à produtividade de grãos de cultivares de milho Comparison of adaptability and stability methods related to grain yield of maize cultivars  

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Full Text Available Foram usados dados de produtividade de grãos oriundos de 34 ensaios de competição de cultivares de milho, realizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, com o objetivo de comparar os métodos de análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade de: Yates e Cochran (1948, Plaisted e Peterson (1959, Wricke (1965, Annicchiarico (1992, Eberhart e Russell (1966, Tai (1971 e Lin e Binns (1988 modificado por Carneiro (1998. Para verificar as concordâncias e/ou discordâncias entre as estimativas dos parâmetros de adaptabilidade e estabilidade, obtidas pelos diferentes métodos, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Cultivares indicadas pelos métodos de Plaisted e Peterson e Wricke estão associadas à maior estabilidade, porém independem da produtividade média e da adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Cultivares indicadas pelo método YATES e COCHRAN, estão associadas a maior estabilidade, menor produtividade e mais indicadas a ambientes desfavoráveis. Cultivares com alta produtividade e associadas à alta instabilidade e adaptada à ambientes favoráveis são as mais indicadas pelos métodos de Lin e Binns modificado por Carneiro e Annicchiarico. O método de Eberhart e Russell, por considerar simultaneamente a produtividade, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade a ambientes gerais, favoráveis e desfavoráveis, deve ser a metodologia preferida.Grain yield data were used from 34 maize cultivar trials carried out in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul, in the agricultural years of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004, with the objective of comparing the following methods of adaptability and stability analysis: Yates and Cochran (1948, Plaisted and Peterson (1959, Wricke (1965, Annicchiarico (1992, Eberhart and Russell (1966, Tai (1971 and Lin and Binns (1988 modified by Carneiro (1998. In order to verify the degree of agreement among the estimates of adaptability and stability parameters, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used. The cultivars indicated by the methodologies of Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke are associated with the highest stability. However they are independent of the average yield and of the adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments. The cultivars indicated by Yates and Cochran method are associated with the highest stability, less yield and more appropriate to unfavorable environments. The cultivars with high yield and associated to high instability and adapted to favorable environments are preferably indicated by the LIN and BINNS modified by Carneiro and Annicchiarico methods. The Eberhart and Russell methodology must be preferred because of considering simultaneously the yield, the stability and adaptability to general, favorable and unfavorable environments.

Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

2007-01-01

117

Selection on uniformity and yield stability in maize  

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Full Text Available Historically speaking, both the introduction of double-cross hybrids and use of single crosses have caused the increase in grain yield and significantly improved agricultural practice. Nowadays, the uniformity of crops is regarded as an advantage of modern agriculture, since the uniformity of products is crucial in global market. Thus, uniformity of crop maturation provides both planning and efficient mechanized harvest. F1 single-cross hybrids of maize, which is an allogamous species, not only exploit heterosis, but also impose homogeneity. Basically, the uniformity of hybrids has been regarded as their crucial advantage. There are two aspects of hybrid maize uniformity: (i genetic homogeneity and (ii genetic stability. Genetic homogeneity refers to presence of identical genotypes, whereas genetic stability refers to phenotypic uniformity (homeostasis in different environments. At present, yield performance of inbreds has not advanced as rapidly as performance of hybrids, especially in stressful environments. Focusing on inbred productivity combined with stability may be more appropriate strategy in the future. Poor farmers are not able to employ superior genotypes because they require considerable financial investment and farmers survive not due to high yield in good seasons, but due to enduring extreme ones. Breeding process may create genotypes in favorable seasons when genetic variance is maximal and environmental influence is minimal, which should be followed by breeding for different environments. The aim of such breeding are, most probably, genotypes intended for a specific set of conditions which, in fact, represents a convergence of two strategies of plant breeding. One should probably bear in mind the strategy of both yield improvement and survival of farmers in extreme conditions without decreasing yield of best genotypes, especially those adapted only to favorable conditions. Solution to this problem should be: financial (best possible loans, social (education, and technological (breeding improved genotypes and advanced agricultural production.

Živanovi? Tomislav

2004-01-01

118

Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect of previous crop but not by results of tillage, because an unknown factor reduced growth in the no-tillage system. The hypothesis was supported at maturity by increased biomass allocation to grain relative to total shoot weight in treatments with greater shoot-P concentration at early stages.

Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

1998-01-01

119

Effect of fertigated phosphorus on P use efficiency and yield of wheat and maize  

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Full Text Available Field studies were made on wheat and maize crops grown on loam soil to determine the effect of fertigated phosphorus (P on crop yield and P use efficiency. In case of wheat, rate of P application was 33 and 44 kg P ha-1 (not P2O5 from single supperphosphate (SSP and diammonium phosphate (DAP, while to maize it was 22 and 33 kg P ha-1 from SSP only. The results showed that fertigated SSP enhanced the grain yield of wheat significantly over broadcast, while fertigated DAP did not affect it significantly. Application of lower dose (33 kg P ha-1 from DAP by fertigation resulted in almost equivalent wheat yield with higher dose (44 kg P ha-1 applied by broadcast method. Phosphorus uptake, P use and agronomic efficiency were higher in fertigation for both the P fertilizers than broadcast method. In case of the maize experiment, application of SSP by fertigation produced significantly higher grain yield as compared to the yield obtained from same dose applied by broadcast method. The lower dose (22 kg P ha-1 applied through fertigation resulted in significantly higher grain yield than the full dose (44 kg P ha-1 applied by broadcast. The P use efficiency and agronomic efficiency were higher in fertigation than broadcast method. In both studies, fertigated P enhanced the grain yield of the tested crops and improved the P use and agronomic efficiency, indicating the superiority of fertigation technique.

M. Mohsin Iqbal

2003-11-01

120

Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content. PMID:24368275

Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

2010-01-01

122

Effects of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was conducted during the fall of 1991 and 1992 at Al-Latyfia Experimental Station to determine the effect of low doses of gamma rays on yield, yield components, and other characters of two maize varieties. Five doses were used in addition to control. A factorial experiment with randomized complete block design in three replications was used in the study. Results revealed that there was significant difference between varieties in plant and ear height in 1992. However, differences between varieties were also significantly affected by most yield component characters. Low doses significantly affected plant height, weight of 500 kernels in 1991, and kernel row number in 1992. Grain yield was affected significantly in 1991 and 1992 by low doses. Results showed that 2.0 krad was the most useful low dose to increase grain yield, whereas there was no significant effect between varieties in grain yield. 7 refs., 6 tabs

1994-11-01

123

Efeito de esterco bovino sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de milho The effect of cattle manure on yield of green corn ears and maize grains  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de esterco bovino (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 e 40 t ha-1 sobre os rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de duas cultivares de milho (Centralmex e AG-9012. O trabalho foi realizado em Mossoró (RN, de setembro a dezembro/99, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As doses de esterco foram aplicadas às parcelas e as cultivares, às subparcelas. O rendimento de milho verde foi avaliado pelo número e peso totais de espigas verdes empalhadas e pelo número e peso de espigas comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. O rendimento de grãos foi avaliado pelo peso dos grãos corrigido para 15,5% de umidade. Análises do solo, realizadas aos 120 dias após o plantio, constataram que o esterco aumentou a retenção e a disponibilidade de água e os teores de fósforo, potássio e sódio, na camada do solo de 20-40 cm, mas não influenciou o pH e os teores de cálcio, soma de bases e de matéria orgânica. Tanto o rendimento de espigas verdes como o rendimento de grãos aumentaram com o aumento da dose de esterco, exceto o número e o peso totais de espigas verdes da cultivar Centralmex. A cultivar AG-9012 foi superior à cultivar Centralmex quanto aos rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos. A receita líquida, calculada com a comercialização de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, foi maior na ausência de esterco para a cultivar AG-9012 e com a aplicação de 8 t ha-1para a Centralmex.The effect of different levels of cattle manure (0; 8; 16; 24; 32 and 40 t ha-1 on yield of green corn ears and grains of two maize cultivars was evaluated (Centralmex and AG-9012. The study was carried out at Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, from September to Dezember 1999 using sprinkler irrigation. The experimental design was complete random blocks arranged in splitplot with three replications. The manure was applied to main plots and cultivars in the subplots. The green corn yield was evaluated by total number and weight of green ears with husk and by marketables ears, with husk and without husk. The grain yield was evaluated by grain weight corrected for 15,5% humidity. The soil analysis, carried out 120 days after planting, indicated that the manure increased the water retention, water availability and the potassium, sodium and phosphorus contents, however, did not influence pH, calcium, sum of bases and organic matter contents. The manure levels x cultivars interaction was significant for number of marketable ears with husk only. All evaluated traits increased with the increase of manure levels. The cultivar AG-9012 was superior to the cultivar Centralmex for the evaluated traits. The net income, obtained with the sale of marketable ears with husk, was higher when no manure was applied for AG-9012. For the cultivar Centralmex, the net income was higher with 8 t ha-1 cattle manure application.

Jaeveson da Silva

2004-06-01

124

Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas / Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o ren [...] dimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento) e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento). Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos. Abstract in english The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowdin [...] g. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding) and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding). Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

Ricardo Trezzi, Casa; Eder Novaes, Moreira; Amauri, Bogo; Luís, Sangoi.

125

Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento. Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos.The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowding. The experiment was carried out in Lages-SC, during the crop seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04, in an area of no-tillage and monoculture, having a mixture of black oat and vetch as the preceding winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plot arrangement and three replications per treatment. Two hybrids were evaluated in the main plots: Speed (a single-cross hybrid tolerant to crowding and AG 303 (a double-cross hybrid intolerant to crowding. Each hybrid was submitted to five plant densities in the split-plots: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 thousand plants per ha. The increase in plant density enhanced linearly the occurrence of stalk rot and rot grains for both hybrids and crop seasons. The fungus Colletotrichum graminicola was detected with great frequency in the stalk rot, regardless of hybrid and crop season, followed by Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides and Stenocarpella sp. The predominant fungi in rot grains were F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and Penicillium spp. The grain yield of AG 303 was less responsive to the increment in plant density. No association between the higher grain yield of the single-cross hybrid Speed at dense stands and the lower incidence of stalk rot and rot grains was detected.

Ricardo Trezzi Casa

2007-12-01

126

Maize ARGOS1 (ZAR1) transgenic alleles increase hybrid maize yield  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop improvement for yield and drought tolerance is challenging due to the complex genetic nature of these traits and environmental dependencies. This study reports that transgenic over-expression of Zea mays ARGOS1 (ZAR1) enhanced maize organ growth, grain yield, and drought-stress tolerance. The ZAR1 transgene exhibited environmental interactions, with yield increase under Temperate Dry and yield reduction under Temperate Humid or High Latitude environments. Native ZAR1 allele variation associated with drought-stress tolerance. Two founder alleles identified in the mid-maturity germplasm of North America now predominate in Pioneer’s modern breeding programme, and have distinct proteins, promoters and expression patterns. These two major alleles show heterotic group partitioning, with one predominant in Pioneer’s female and the other in the male heterotic groups, respectively. These two alleles also associate with favourable crop performance when heterozygous. Allele-specific transgene testing showed that, of the two alleles discussed here, each allele differed in their impact on yield and environmental interactions. Moreover, when transgenically stacked together the allelic pair showed yield and environmental performance advantages over either single allele, resembling heterosis effects. This work demonstrates differences in transgenic efficacy of native alleles and the differences reflect their association with hybrid breeding performance.

Guo, Mei

2014-01-01

127

Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

2011-06-01

128

Effect of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L. With Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata L. on Green Forage Yield and Quality Evaluation  

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Full Text Available In this study effect of different planting ratios and harvest time of intercropping maize and cowpea on economical and biological yield and quality of maize forage (Zea mays L. was evaluated in the Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol, during 2007. The planting ratios of maize to bean was 100:100, 50:100, 100:50, 25:75, 75:25, 50:50 , 0:100 and 100:0, respectively. The intercropped of maize and bean in different planting ratio significantly affected the quantitative and qualitative characters of the forage. The highest yield of green fodder (65.7 t ha-1 was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100. The highest grain yield (9.0 t ha-1 for maize was recorded from 75+25% ratio, maize and cowpea and the highest grain yield for cowpea (3.9 t ha-1 was recorded from 50+100% ratio, maize and cowpea, respectively. The highest crude protein (19.65% was produced by the cowpea sole cropping and the lowest from the maize plots sole cropping (12.11%. The highest land equivalent ratio (2.26 was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100 and the highest crude protein was obtained by harvest time in milky stage (15.2%.

Mehdi Dahmardeh

2009-01-01

129

Effect of Tillage Intensity and Herbicide Application On Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available Effect of different tillage intensities in combination with herbicide application or interculture on growth and yield of maize was investigated at Student Farm, Department. of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 1997. Maximum grain yield (4.92 t h -1 along with highest net benefit (Rs. 38660/= per hectare was obtained for the crop raised with tilling the soil twice followed by herbicide application against the lowest grain yield (2.72 t ha -1 and net benefit (Rs. 20890/= per hectare for the crop grown at zero tillage followed by interculture.

Shakeel Ahmad

1999-01-01

130

IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE  

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Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

Barbara MURAWSKA

2013-12-01

131

Response of Grain Weight of Maize to Variety, Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Asaba Area of Delta State  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the response of grain weight of maize to variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factional layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15cm and evaluated for the grain weight. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety which produced yield of 2.1 tha-1 in 2008 and 2.3 tha-1 in 2009 was superior. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for farmers who prefer local varieties in maize production. (ii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizers for increased grain weight of maize should apply 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10. (iii Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

Enujeke E. C.

2013-05-01

132

Maize yield response to water supply and fertilizer input in a semi-arid environment of Northeast China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize grain yield varies highly with water availability as well as with fertilization and relevant agricultural management practices. With a 311-A optimized saturation design, field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2009 to examine the yield response of spring maize (Zhengdan 958, Zea mays L) to irrigation (I), nitrogen fertilization (total nitrogen, urea-46% nitrogen,) and phosphorus fertilization (P2O5, calcium superphosphate-13% P2O5) in a semi-arid area environment of Northeast China. According to our estimated yield function, the results showed that N is the dominant factor in determining maize grain yield followed by I, while P plays a relatively minor role. The strength of interaction effects among I, N and P on maize grain yield follows the sequence N+I >P+I>N+P. Individually, the interaction effects of N+I and N+P on maize grain yield are positive, whereas that of P+I is negative. To achieve maximum grain yield (10506.0 kg · ha(-1)) for spring maize in the study area, the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 930.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 304.9 kg · ha(-1) and 133.2 kg · ha(-1) respectively that leads to a possible economic profit (EP) of 10548.4 CNY · ha(-1) (CNY, Chinese Yuan). Alternately, to obtain the best EP (10827.3 CNY · ha(-1)), the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 682.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 241.0 kg · ha(-1) and 111.7 kg · ha(-1) respectively that produces a potential grain yield of 10289.5 kg · ha(-1). PMID:24465896

Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Fasheng; Hao, Liang; Cong, Peifei; Liu, Zuoxin

2014-01-01

133

A Grain Flow Model to Simulate Grain Yield Sensor Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to develop a flow model for grain combinesbased on the laboratory and field response of an impact based grain flow sensor. The grainflow model developed in this study is of first order with constant coefficients. A computercode was written to solve the model and to simulate the response of a yield sensor whoseresponse had been determined previously for various types of flow rate inputs both in fieldand laboratory experiments. The computer program for the simula...

Selcuk Arslan

2008-01-01

134

Effect of Tillage Intensity and Herbicide Application On Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Effect of different tillage intensities in combination with herbicide application or interculture on growth and yield of maize was investigated at Student Farm, Department. of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 1997. Maximum grain yield (4.92 t h -1) along with highest net benefit (Rs. 38660/=) per hectare was obtained for the crop raised with tilling the soil twice followed by herbicide application against the lowest grain yield (2.72 t ha -1) and net...

Shakeel Ahmad; Mahboob Akhtar; Amer Sohail Bhatti; Tariq Mahmood

1999-01-01

135

Efficacy of Different Herbicides on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize  

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Full Text Available The research work was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize hybrid P-3203. The treatments were pre-emergence application of dual gold (S-metolachlor at 1.92, primextra (atrazine + metolachlor at 2.25, treflan (trifluralin at 1.5, stomp (pendimethalin at 0.75 and jinong (atrazine at 0.90 kg a.i. ha-1 and post-emergence application of 2,4-D at 0.80 and banvel (dicamba at 0.84 kg a.i. ha-1. The treatments increased plant height (cm, cob length (cm, biological yield (t ha-1, leaf area (cm2, number of leaves plant-1, number of kernels cob-1, 500 kernel weight (g and grain yield (t ha-1 significantly (P? 0.05, while broadleaf weeds, number of cobs plant-1 and harvest index were not significantly affected by different treatments. For controlling weeds, dual gold suppressed 88, primextra 82, stomp 45, treflan 48, Jinong 38, 2,4-D 23 and banvel 5% as compared to 248.7 number of weeds m-2 in weedy check. The dominant weed species found were Leptochloa sp., Echinochloa crus-galli, Cyperus sp. and Digiteria sanguinalis. Hand weeded and dual gold treated plots produced significantly taller plants, more kernels per cob (548.7 and 544.7 and the highest 500 kernel weight (121.33 and 119 g, respectively. Hand weeded, dual gold and primextra treated plots increased grain yield by 22.7, 21 and 15.3%. Application of dual gold proved to be the best and most economical weed control, giving maximum returns of Rs. 42030 ha-1. Primextra emerged as the next best alternative for weed management in maize.

Muhammad Azim Khan

2003-01-01

136

Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth, yield and yield components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was conducted at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, to study maize varieties and Nitrogen (N) rates for growth, yield and yield components. Three varieties (Azam, Jalal and Sarhad white) and three N rates (90, 120, 150, kg N ha/sup -1/) were compared. Experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block design; split plot arrangement with 4 replications. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. The results revealed that maize variety 'Jalal' performed relatively better crop growth rate (CGR) and leaf area profile (LAP) at nodal position one to six as compared to the other two varieties (Sarhad white and Azam). This resulted higher radiation use efficiency by the crop canopy at vegetative stage of development and hence contributed higher assimilates towards biomass production. Heavier grains in number and weight were due to higher LAP and taller plants of Jalal which yielded higher in the climate. Nitrogen applications have shown that maize seed yield increase in quadratic fashion with increased N to a plateau level. Considering soil fertility status and cropping system, the 150 kg ha/sup -1/ N application to maize variety Jalal in Peshawar is required for maximum biological and seed production. (author)

2010-06-01

137

Impact of nitrogen and sulfur application on growth and yield of maize (zea mays L.) crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications with net plot of 4.2 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur on growth, yield and quality of double cross hybrid (DCH) maize (Cargil-707). Application of fertilizers at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg of nitrogen and sulfur per hectare respectively greatly increased by dry weight per plant (DWP), plant grains number per ear (GNE) and grain weight per ear (GWE) over other treatments. Similarly, the highest grain yield of 8.59 tons per hectare was recorded from the plot fertilized at the rate of 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare, while maximum grain oil content (GOC) and grain protein contents (GPC) were recorded from plot fertilized at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare respectively. (author)

2004-01-01

138

Development of High Yielding Synthetic Maize (Zea mays L. Varieties Suitable for Intercropping with Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to select and develop high yielding synthetic maize variety suitable for intercropping with common bean. S1 selection method was used to extract lines from Kakamega Striga Tolerant Population (KSTP maize and Embu population, and the best 10 lines were recombined to form synthetic maize varieties which were evaluated against the KSTP and recommended commercial hybrid (H512 under monoculture and intercropping. The study led to development of two synthetic maize varieties. Egerton synthetic I had the highest light transmission to the ground and gave the highest bean yield (23% reduction over bean monocrop under intercrop system. It was the best for intercropping with beans. Egerton synthetic II gave the highest maize grain yield (41% yield increase over KSTP. Intercropping Egerton synthetic II with beans offered the highest benefits. There was no significant difference between Egerton synthetic II and H512 in terms of grain yield. The study showed that it is possible to bred genotypes for intercropping system. Intercropping beans with maize selected and bred for intercropping supported transgressive yielding and thus can contributed to food security.

M.M. Muraya

2006-01-01

139

Effect of Different Intertillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Spring Maize  

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Full Text Available A field study pertaining to different intertillage practices on maize was conducted in spring 1998. Different intertillage practices comprised of no intertillage + no earthing-up, no intertillage + earthing-up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + no earthing up, intertillage twice with Tarphali + earthing-up, manual weeding + no earthing up, intertillage twice with spade + earthing-up. The significant maximum grain yield (4.3 t ha-1 of maize and net income (Rs. 27713 was obtained by intertillage twice with spade and earthing-up as against the minimum grain yield (3.02 t ha-1 with net income of Rs. 20385/- ha-1 in case of no intertillage + no earthing up treatment.

Riaz Ahmad

2000-01-01

140

Effect of Sowing Dates on Yield of Maize Under Agroclimatic Condition of Kaghan Valley  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out at Himalayan Agricultural Research Station (PARC,Kaghan during kharif season 2001 to study the effect of various sowing dates on maize. The crop was sown on 2nd, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 30th May, 6th and 13th June. Days to 50% silking, days to maturity, number of grains row-1,100 grain weight (gm and grain yield (kg ha-1 was significantly affected by various sowing dates while the effect on number of rows ear-1 was non significant. Delay in sowing substantially reduced days to 50% silking, days to maturity, number of grains row-1, 100 grain weight (gm and grain yield (kg ha-1.Maximum grain yield (2988.89 kg ha-1 was record in crops sown on 2nd May while minimum grain yield (780.44 kg ha-1 was observed in crops sown on 13th June. Early sowing produced highest yield as compared to delay sowing.

Nadar Khan

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of Intercropping and Crop Arrangement on Yield and Productivity of Late Season Maize/soybean Mixtures in the Humid Environment of South Southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out between September and December in 2007 and 2008 at Akamkpa (150 15'' N; 80 22'' E, Nigeria. The objective was to investigate yield and productivity of maize and soybean as sole crops and as additive mixtures (100:100 in response to five levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha and five crop arrangements (sole maize at 53,333 plants/ha, sole soybean at 266,666 plants/ha and maize: soybean intercrop arrangements of 1:1, 2:2 and 1:2. The trial was a split-plot design in a randomized complete block with nitrogen in main plot and crop arrangement in sub-plot, with three replications. Intercropping had no significant effect on grain yield of maize in 2007. In 2008, maize grain yield grain yield reduction in mixture was 6 percent compared to sole cropping. Soybean seed yield reduction in mixture was 32 and 43 percents in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Crop arrangement significantly influenced yield components and yield in both maize and soybean. Planting maize and soybean in 1:1, 2:2 or 1:2 arrangement had no significant effect on maize in 2007 but depressed grain yield of maize by 38, 35 and 14 percents in 2008. Spatial arrangement of maize and soybean in 1:1, 2:2, and 1:2 depressed soybean yield by 51, 44 and 45 percents in 2007 and by 86, 64 and 73 percents in 2008. Intercropping reduced the relative maize grain yield by only 1 percent in 2007 and from 4 to 9 percents in 2008. Soybean relative yields were from 31 to 34 percent lower than sole crop yield in 2007 and 39 to 46 percent lower in 2008. The relative yield totals for both 2007 and 2008 were well above unity, an indication that the system was highly productive. This implies that intercrops were 64, 66 and 63 percents in 2007 and 43, 57 and 65 percents in 2008, more productive than the sole crops at 2:2, 1:2 and 1:1 arrangements, respectively. Late season maize and soybean may be planted in 2:2 or 1:2 arrangements to take advantage of optimum soybean seed yield and 65-100 percents of the maize grain yield in the humid South Southern Nigeria.

U. L. Undie

2012-02-01

142

Strategies for selecting high-yielding and broadly adapted maize hybrids for the target environment in Eastern and Southern Africa  

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Maize is a major food crop in Africa and primarily grown by small-holder farmers under rain-fed conditions with low fertilizer input. Projections of decreasing precipitation and increasing fertilizer prices accentuate the need to provide farmers with maize varieties tolerant to random abiotic stress, especially drought and N deficiency. Genetic improvement for the target environment in Eastern and Southern Africa can be achieved by: (i) direct selection of grain yield in random abiotic stress...

Windhausen, Sandra Vanessa

2012-01-01

143

CONSERVATION AND DETERMINATION OF THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE POLLEN GRAIN  

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Full Text Available In maize breeding programs, factors related to receptivity length of stigma, longevity of pollen grain in the plant, differences in the period of blossoming among plants and conservations of the genetics resources are some aspects that reinforce the importance of pollen grains storage. In this research the influence of water tenor, period and storage environment were evaluated in regard to the viability and germination of maize pollen grains. The assays took place in laboratories of Analyses of Seed Molecular Biology of the seeds sector and in the experimental area of Agricultural Department of UFLA. In the pre-tests, different culture methods were verified to evaluate the in vitro germination as well the best time to collect the pollen grains. The germination pollen grains in different water tenors was also evaluated: 51,7%; 29,4%, 21,7%; 17,7%; 17%. In a second experiment the pollen grains with water tenors of 51,7%; 29,4%; 21,7% were stored in deep freezer (-86oC, fridge (4oC, and liquid nitrogen (-193oC for 14 and 30 days. After the storage, the germination and viability of pollen grains were evaluated in vitro in culture medium and through the tetrazoilium test, respectively. The viability of stored pollen grain for 14 days in different water tenors and storage places/environment was also tested in vivo through auto fecundation in plants of Le-57 inbred lines and GNZ 2004 hybrid, when both showed receptive style-stigmas. For the evaluation of germination and viability of pollen grains, a completely randomized design was used, in factorial scheme 2 (period of storage x 3 (water tenors of pollen grains x 3 (places storage, with four repetitions. In the pre-tests higher values of germination of pollen grains were observed in culture medium containing 10% sucrose; 0,03% boric acid; 0,15% calcium chloride (M2, and when the collection took place at 9 a.m. the viability of pollen grains was reduced substantially below 21,7% of water tenor indicating they don’t tolerate the desiccation. For a better conservation during the storage, the pollen grains should be dried until 21,7% of water tenor and storage in liquid nitrogen.

CLARISSA ALVES FERREIRA

2007-08-01

144

Evaluation of maize yield in an on-farm maize-soybean and maize-Lablab crop rotation systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.  

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An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha(-1) from improved soybean variety (TGx 1448-2E) and 17 kg N ha(-1) from farmer soybean variety (Samsoy-2) as N balance, this did not significantly (p = 0.05) affect the maize yields. The soybean shed 90-100% of its leaves at physiological maturity which resulted in about 110 kg N ha(-1) N uptake. This source of N might be one of the factors responsible for the increase in maize yield that followed soybean (20 to 24%) compared with continuous maize yield plot. Maize yield in previous Lablab plot was significantly (p = 0.05) higher than in all other treatments. Maize yield in farmer-managed plot ranged between 0.13 and 4.53 t ha(-1), maize yield in researcher-managed plot was over 200% higher than maize yield in farmer-managed plot because of poor crop management on the part of the farmer. PMID:19090251

Okogun, J A; Sanginga, N; Abaidoo, R C

2007-11-01

145

Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg N ha-1 from improved soybean variety (TGx 1448-2E and 17 kg N ha-1 from farmer soybean variety (Samsoy-2 as N balance, this did not significantly (p = 0.05 affect the maize yields. The soybean shed 90-100% of its leaves at physiological maturity which resulted in about 110 kg N ha-1 N uptake. This source of N might be one of the factors responsible for the increase in maize yield that followed soybean (20 to 24% compared with continuous maize yield plot. Maize yield in previous Lablab plot was significantly (p = 0.05 higher than in all other treatments. Maize yield in farmer-managed plot ranged between 0.13 and 4.53 t ha-1, maize yield in researcher-managed plot was over 200% higher than maize yield in farmer-managed plot because of poor crop management on the part of the farmer.

J.A. Okogun

2007-01-01

146

Interactive Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium Nutrition on the
Growth and Yield of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.
 

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Full Text Available The interactive effect of varying levels of phosphorus viz. 75, 100 and 125 kg/ha with that of potassium viz. 50, 75 and 100 kg ha -1 on the growth and yield of hybrid maize "Shahensha" was studied at the agronomic research area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. The results revealed that the highest grain yield of 6.02 t/ha and thousand grain weight 405.2 g respectively were obtained from the plot fertilized at the rate of 125-75 PK kg/ha against the lowest grain yield (4.20 t/ha and 1000 grain weight (372.4 g were obtained from the control plots. This increase in grain yield was attributed to increased leaf area per plant, greater cob length, increased number of grains per cob and the heavier grain weight.

Mahboob Akhtar

1999-01-01

147

Morphological and physiological changes during drought in critical periods and their effects on maize yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is of interest to find out the best way of increasing productivity of maize by water management as well as exposing grains to gamma rays to eliminate the effect of soil moisture stress. therefore this study was performed to investigate the mechanism of environmental stress on the morphology, physiology, yield and yield components of maize. three sets of experiments were performed to realize this target as follows: 1)effect of skipping an irrigation : two field experiments were conducted during 1980 and 1981 at the experimental farm of Ain shams university at Shoubra El-kheima, Kaluobia governorate to study the effect of skipping one irrigation at a certain stage of growth on maize plant. 2) effect of water deficit: two field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 at the experimental farm of Ain Shams university at Shubra El-kheima, Kalubia governorate to study the effect of soil moisture deficit on maize plant. 3) effect of salinity and gamma radiation: two pot experiments were performed in the greenhouse of agriculture department for soils and water research, atomic energy establishment, at Inshas in 1981 and 1982 growth seasons to study the effect of salinity and gamma rays on maize plant

148

Evaluation of the effect of soil acidity amelioration on maize yield and nutrient interrelationships using stepwise regression and nutrient vector analysis  

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The interrelationships between elemental content of selected soil and leaf nutrients and maize grain yield were evaluated in a liming experiment conducted on a Hutton and Oakleaf soil in a resource-poor farming area in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Improved uptake of Mo by maize with increased soil P status was found on the Hutton soil, while N and P uptake improved, due to lime and fertiliser application, on both soils. Boron uptake by maize was depressed with lime application ...

Jansen Rensburg, H. G.; Claassens, A. S.; Beukes, D. J.

2010-01-01

149

Evaluation of Botanical Products as Stored Grain Protectant Against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamays (L.) on Maize  

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Eucalyptus macrorhyncha F. Muell), pawpaw (Carica papaya L.), neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and lantana (Lantana camara L.) against the infestation of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamays (L.) on stored maize grains. These botanicals were compared with synthetic chemical (Actellic Super Dust) and without insecticides application as controls. All tested plant ...

2007-01-01

150

Composition of open pollinated varieties and newly developed hybrids for yield and contributing trials in maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen hybrids and 13 open pollinated varieties of maize were evaluated at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during kharif 2007. Significant differences were observed for days to 50% tasseling and silking, plant height, ear height, number of kernel rows per ear, number of grain per row, 100 grain weight. grain moisture and grain yield. The hybrids NT-6622 and NT-6651 ranked top and second in grain yield by producing 7842 and 7759 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively. Generally the hybrids produced more grain yield than the open pollinated varieties. Days to 50% tasseling ranged from 47.33 (EV-1098) to 64 (NT- 6632) while for silking varied from 47.67 (EV-1098) to 63.33 (30-K-95). The variety Soan-3 (149 cm) was the shortest and hybrid 30-K-95 (202.3 cm) was the tallest amongst all the varieties and hybrids. Ear height ranged from 70.33 (Soan-3) to 107 cm (NT-6651) while number of kernel rows per ear varied from 12 (NT-6622, 30- K95, 2512 and 2514) to 18 (R-2207). The hybrid P-30-25 produced the maximum number of grains (51) Grast-8288 produced the lowest (29). One hundred grain weight ranged from 23g (EV-6098) to 39g (2512). (author)

2010-01-01

151

Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration  

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A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 ?g selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals ...

Courtman, C.; Ryssen, J. B. J.; Oelofse, A.

2012-01-01

152

Yield responses of crops to changes in environment and management practices: model sensitivity analysis. I. Maize  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

YIELD, a parametric crop production model, employs climatic data to calculate actual and potential yield for various crops and includes formulations for specific crop and growth stage effects. The objective was to demonstrate the sensitivity of YIELD for grain corn (maize) to changes in various environmental and decision-making inputs. Five temperature, five solar radiation, six relative humidity regimes, five water application schemes, and four irrigation frequencies were included in this study. The effects of different soil types and wind regimes on crop water requirements were investigated. The model output includes crop yield, water use efficiency, and management efficiency. Among the results, yield decreased on the average by 3.9% per one degree (C) increase in air temperature. A 1% change in solar radiation resulted in an average of 1% change in yield. Similar changes in relative humidity caused a yield change of about 0.8%.

Terjung, W.H.; Hayes, J.T.; O' Rourke, P.A.; Todhunter, P.E.

1984-01-01

153

Yield responses of crops to changes in environment and management practices: Model sensitivity analysis. I. Maize  

Science.gov (United States)

YIELD, a parametric crop production model, employs climatic data to calculate actual and potential yield for various crops and includes formulations for specific crop and growth stage effects. The objective was to demonstrate the sensitivity of YIELD for grain corn (maize) to changes in various environmental and decision-making inputs. Five temperature, five solar radiation, six relative humidity regimes, five water application schemes, and four irrigation frequencies were included in this study. The effects of different soil types and wind regimes on crop water requirements were investigated. The model output includes crop yield, water use efficiency, and management efficiency. Among the results, yield decreased on the average by 3.9% per one degree (C) increase in air temperature. A 1% change in solar radiation resulted in an average of 1% change in yield. Similar changes in relative humidity caused a yield change of about 0.8%.

Terjung, W. H.; Hayes, J. T.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Todhunter, P. E.

1984-12-01

154

Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

1991-01-01

155

GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG MAIZE GENOTyPES ON CAROTENOID CONTENTS IN GRAINS  

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Full Text Available Biofortification is an efficient alternative in helping to combat micronutrient deficiencies in the human population. In maize, breeding programs aim to obtain materials with high contents of Fe, Zn and pro-vitamin A (carotenoids which require preliminary studies of genetic diversity among entries. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence among maize varieties for content and profile of carotenoids in grains. Data from the National Maize Variety Tests were used, from the 2004/2005 growing season. A total of ten genotypes were evaluated in two environments. Total carotenoids (TC, a and ?-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-criptoxantina, the sum of carotenoids precursors of vitamin A (total of ?-caroteno + ½ of a-caroteno + ½ of ?-criptoxantina = Pro-VA and grain yield were evaluated. Carotenoid levels were relatively low in the evaluated varieties, compared to those reported in the literature for elite-lines. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the most contributing characters to the genetic diversity among genotypes. The environmental effect on trait expression raises questions about the validity of diversity analysis in a single environment, emphasizing the need for studies to be conducted in multiple environmental conditions.

SARA DE ALMEIDA RIOS

2010-12-01

156

Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

157

Influence of Post Emergence Application of Glyphosate on Weed Control Efficiency and Yield of Transgenic Maize  

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Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the weed control efficiency and yield potential of glyphosate resistant transgenic maize. Treatments consisted of two transgenic maize hybrids named Hishell and 900 M gold with application of glyphosate as post emergence at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/hathese were compared with non-transgenic counterpart maize hybrids with application of atrazine as pre-emergence at 0.5 kg/ha followed by one hand weeding at 40 Days After Sowing along with need based insect control practices. Post emergence application of glyphosate at 900, 1800 and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic maize hybrids was recorded with lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency compared to other treatments. Higher grain yield was recorded with post emergence application of glyphosate at 1800 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid 900 M Gold and 3600 g a.e/ha in transgenic hybrid Hishell during kharif 2009 and rabi 2009-2010 seasons, respectively.

Duraisamy Ravisankar

2013-07-01

158

Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Yield and Seed Quality of Maize (cv. Barnali  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from November 2000 to May 2001 to find the effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the yield and seed quality of maize (cv. Barnali. The study included three levels of Sulphur, viz., 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 and four levels of Nitrogen, viz., 0, 60, 100 and 120 kg ha-1. Gypsum and urea were used as the sources of Sulphur and Nitrogen, respectively. The highest grain yield and 1000-grain weight were obtained with 20 kg S ha-1. The maximum no of grains/cob, the highest shelling percentage, the highest 1000-gain weight, Maximum grain yield and maximum stover yield were produced by the application of 120 N ha-1. Grain yield increased with the increasing rates of both Sulphur and Nitrogen but their interaction effects were not significant for all the quantitative characters under study. Seed quality attributes like germination percentage, vigour index, seedling shoot and root length and shoot and root dry weights were not influenced by Sulphur application. Nitrogen application had significant effect on vigour index, seedling shoot and root dry weights. The interaction between Sulphur and Nitrogen levels showed significant effect on seedling shoot and root dry weights. Maximum vigour index and root dry weights/ seedling of maize were found with 120 kg but the highest shoot dry weight/seedling was obtained with 100 kg N ha-1. Maximum shoot and root dry weights/seedling was obtained by applying 120 kg N ha-1 in combination with 20 kg S ha-1.

Muhammad Morshed Alam

2003-01-01

159

Effect of Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.5 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulphur on growth, yield and quality of hybrid maize (cargill-707). Application of fertilizer @ 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare, respectively greatly increased dry weight per plant, No. of grains per cob and grain weight per cob over other treatments. Similarly, highest grain yield of 8.59 tones per hectare wa...

Iqrar Hussain; Tariq Mahmood; Aman Ullah; Amjed Ali

1999-01-01

160

White Lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga Increases Solubility of Minjingu Phosphate Rock, Phosphorus Balances and Maize Yields in Njoro Kenya  

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Full Text Available Exudation of high amounts of citrate in white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga has the advantage of being effective in mobilization of a wide range of sparingly soluble P sources. To improve cultivation system of maize, a field experiment was conducted to assess effectiveness of white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga in increasing solubility of minjingu phosphate rock (MPR, phosphorus balances and maize yields in Njoro sub-County, Kenya. The randomized complete block design experiment was conducted for four seasons; short (October – February and long rain seasons (March-September of 2010 and 2011. The treatments were; (i fallow (F – maize (M rotation with triple superphosphate (TSP applied (MTSP- F, (ii fallow - maize rotation with MPR applied (MMPR –F, (iii lupin (L – maize rotation with MPR applied (MMPR- L and (iv maize/lupin intercrop with MPR applied (M/LMPR – F. Soil and plant P and maize grain yield were higher in M/LMPR – F (with additional lupin grain yield and MTSP– F treatments. All treatments resulted in positive P balances at the end of two years with highest values in MTSP– F treatment and lowest in M/LMPR – F. Intercropping lupin with maize amid application of MPR is recommended for enhanced maize performance in the farming systems of resource poor farmers. Measurement of available soil nitrogen and comparison of lupin with other legumes in solubilizing MPR is recommended. 

Joyce J. Lelei

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Criterios para elegir el mejor probador de la aptitud combinatoria general para rendimiento de grano de líneas autofecundadas de maíz / Criteria to choose the best tester of the general combining ability for grain yield of maize inbred lines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En un programa de mejoramiento genético por hibridación de maíz (Zea mays L.) es importante disponer de un probador confiable y eficiente de la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de líneas autofecundadas de maíz. Con el propósito de aportar más evidencia experimental relativa a la identificación del [...] mejor probador de la ACG de líneas autofecundadas de maíz, en el presente trabajo se usaron 50 líneas S1 derivadas de la variedad Compuesto Universal original (variedad original), más cuatro líneas de alta y cuatro de baja ACG derivadas de las poblaciones de maíz Xolache y Mex. Gpo. 10. Las líneas S1 fueron cruzadas con tres probadores: una línea de baja ACG (P1), una línea de alta ACG (P2) y la variedad original (P3). La hipótesis fue que la línea de baja ACG es el mejor probador. Para evaluar los probadores los criterios fueron: 1) la variación fenotípica y genotípica de los mestizos (línea×probador); 2) la clasificación de las ocho líneas de ACG conocida, con cada uno de los tres probadores; 3) el coeficiente de divergencia (CD); 4) el efecto del probador, el efecto y la varianza de interacción línea×probador. La variable estudiada fue el rendimiento promedio de mazorca por planta. Con base en los criterios señalados, el mejor probador fue la línea de baja ACG en comparación con la línea de alta ACG y la variedad original; además, la variedad original fue también un buen probador, pero con menor valor discriminatorio que la línea de baja ACG. Abstract in english In a maize (Zea mays L.) breeding program by hybridization it is important to have a reliable and efficient tester for the general combining ability (GCA) of maize inbred lines. With the aim to contribute more experimental evidence relative to the identification of the best tester of GCA of maize in [...] bred lines, in this study 50 S1 lines derived from the Compuesto Universal original (original variety), plus four lines of high and four of low GCA derived from populations of Xolache and Mex. Gpo. 10 were used. The S1 lines were crossed with three testers: a line of low GCA (P1), a line of high GCA (P2), and the original variety (P3). The hypothesis was that the line of low GCA is the best tester. The criteria to evaluate the testers were: 1) the phenotypic and genotypic variation of top crosses (line × tester); 2) the classification of the eight lines of known GCA, with each of the three testers, 3) the coefficient of divergence (CD), 4) the effect of the tester, effect and variance of interaction line × tester. The variable studied was the average yield of ear by plant. Based on the mentioned criteria, the best tester was the line of low GCA compared to the line of high GCA and the original variety; besides, the original variety was also a good tester, but with less discriminatory value than the low GCA line.

Lobato-Ortiz, Ricardo; Molina-Galán, José D.; López-Reynoso, José de J.; Mejía-Contreras, José A.; Reyes-López, Delfino.

162

Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat  

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Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the final grain dry weight, rate and duration of grain filling were important parameters in differentiating among cultivars grain filling curves. The yield was positively correlated with number of grains/m2, grain weight and grain filling rate, and negatively correlated with grain filling duration. Correlation between grain weight and rate of grain filling was positive. Grain filling duration was negatively correlated with grain filling rate and number of grains/m2. The highest yield on three year average had medium late Mironovska 808, by the highest grain weight and grain filling rate and optimal number of grains/2 and grain filling duration.

Brdar Milka

2006-01-01

163

Manejo do nitrogênio no milho em semeadura direta em sucessão a espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno e em dois locais: II - efeito sobre o rendimento de grãos Nitrogen management in maize in no-till system in succession to winter cover crops at two locations: II - effect on grain yield  

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Full Text Available A liberação de nitrogênio (N de restos culturais depende dos processos de imobilização e mineralização microbiana, que são influenciados pelo ambiente. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar, em dois locais, os efeitos de dose e época de aplicação de N em milho (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 e 60-100kg/ha, respectivamente, na semeadura e em cobertura, em sistema de semeadura direta, implantado em duas épocas, após a dessecação (1 e aos 20 dias de duas coberturas de solo no inverno (aveia preta e ervilhaca comum e pousio invernal, sobre o rendimento de grãos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com suplementação hídrica, sendo um em Eldorado do Sul e outro em Passo Fundo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano agrícola 1996/97. A resposta à aplicação de N dependeu do local, da cobertura de solo no inverno e da época de semeadura após a dessecação. Em Eldorado do Sul, a aplicação de N na semeadura aumentou o rendimento de grãos em relação ao tratamento com todo o N em cobertura, independentemente do tipo de planta de cobertura de solo no inverno. Em Passo Fundo, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos com N. O aumento na dose de N na semeadura de 30 para 60kg/ha não afetou o rendimento de grãos, independente do fator testado. O atraso em 20 dias na época de semeadura do milho em sucessão à aveia preta somente foi benéfico em Eldorado do Sul, aumentanto em 34% o rendimento de grãos.The release of nitrogen (N of crop residues depends on the processes of microbial immobilization and mineralization, which are influenced by environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate, at two locations, the effects of rate and timing of N application in maize (0-0; 0-160; 30-130 and 60-100kg/ha, respectively, at sowing and sidedressed, in no-till system, established in two sowing dates after desiccation (1 and 20 days of two winter cover crops (black oat and common vetch and bare area, on grain yield. The experiment was conducted at two locations of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the 1996/97 growing season. Maize response to N application depended on the location, on the specie of winter cover crop used and on sowing date after desiccation. In Eldorado do Sul, N application at sowing increased grain yield in relation to the treatment with total N sidedressed. At Passo Fundo there were no differences among the treatments with N application. The increase of the N rate from 30 to 60kg/ha at sowing date did not affect grain yield of maize, regardless of the other treatments used. The delay in 20 days of maize sowing date in succession to black oat was benefitial only in Eldorado do Sul, with 34% of increase of the grain yield.

Gilber Argenta

1999-12-01

164

Correlation of yield and heterosis of maize hybrids and their parental lines with genetic distance based on SSR markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The yield, grain yield heterosis and genetic distance based on SSR markers were analyzed in eight maize hybrids and their parental lines. The mean grain yield of all F1 hybrids was 11.37 tha-1. The F1 hybrid from the crosses between L4xL6 gave the highest grain yield of 12.12 tha-1. For the mid parent heterosis (MPH) grain yields of the F1 hybrids, the data showed the average value of 164.25%, and ranged from 136.72% (L4xL6) to 218.07% (L8xL2), and for better parent heterosis (BPH) from...

2012-01-01

165

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.  

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Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Pods per plant, 100 grain weight and branches per plant were the most important determinants of grain yield.

Syed Arif Hussain Shah

2000-01-01

166

The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain  

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Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

Van?etovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

167

Evaluation of Maize Yield in an On-Farm Maize-Soybean and Maize-Lablab Crop Rotation Systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  

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An attempt was made to solving the problem of shortfall of fertilizer to maize production in the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) of Nigeria by harnessing the potentials of legume/cereal crop rotation in on-farm trials. The yield of maize that succeeded two soybean varieties and Lablab in a two-cycle of soybean/maize and Lablab/maize crop rotation in NGS Nigeria was assessed in researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots. Though maize that followed the soybean received between 5 kg...

Okogun, J. A.; Sanginga, N.; Abaidoo, R. C.

2007-01-01

168

Alley Cropping Gliricidia sepium with Maize: 1. The Effect of Hedgerow Spacing, Pruning Height and Phosphorus Application Rate on Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available During the 1996 farming season sprouted Gliricidia sepium seedlings were planted at three hedgerow spacing (alley width to investigate the appropriate spacing, pruning height and phosphorus application rate that could improve and sustain soil fertility and increase crop production. The 3-hedgerow spacing (4, 6 and 8 m was established as the main plot. Hedgerow spacing significantly influenced the quantity of Gliricidia biomass applied. In the farming seasons of 1997 and 1998 three pruning height (50, 100 and 150 cm were imposed on the hedgerow spacing and three rates of phosphorus (0, 20 and 40 kg P ha ha-1 were applied. Maize (Zea mays was planted as a test crop in the first week of June each year. Pruned Gliricidia biomass yield was in a decreasing order of 150>100>50 cm pruning height. In a good rainfall year as in 1997 the 4 m hedgerow spacing significantly out yielded the 8 m hedgerow spacing, while in a relatively low rainfall year as in 1998 the 6 m hedgerow spacing gave the highest grain yield. In both years maize stover and grain yield followed closely the amount of pruned biomass applied per treatment. Application of 20 kg P ha ha-1 resulted in significant increase in maize dry matter yield.

A. Abunyewa

2004-01-01

169

Climatic change and grain corn yields in the North American Great Plains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A basis parametric crop yield model (YIELD) that uses climatic and environmental data to calculate yield and associated parameters for grain corn (maize) was applied to a transect through the North American Great Plains. This paper continues our examination of the impact of probable climatic change scenarios on crop evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements (Terjung et al., 1984). This study of grain corn yields showed highest yield for the first (or primary) harvest under full irrigation occurring under a sunny and cold scenario in Austin, TX, sunny and cool in Kansas City, KS, and sunny and warm in Bismarck, ND. Lowest irrigated yield was found with cloudy and hot a very dry climate change scenarios. Under rainfed-only conditions, minima were obtained under the sunny-hot and-warm scenarios and very dry conditions. 51 refs., 9 figs.

Liverman, D.M.; Terjung, W.H.; Hayes, J.T.; Mearns, L.O.

1986-01-01

170

Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat  

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Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balali?-Kraljevi? Marija

2006-01-01

171

Effect of Pakistan lignitic derived humic acids on the agriculture growth part II: studies on the effect of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein content of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various minute concentrations of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein contents of maize were studied. The results revealed that the humic acid application in small doses produce higher grain yield, more protein content and better developed plants and roots compared to control. There was a positive correlation between the grain yield, protein contents and plant growth of maize to different levels of humic acid application. (author)

1994-01-01

172

Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids / Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3) foram realizados em Mossoró-RN com o objetivo de se avaliar, respectivamente, os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho (AG 1051 e BRS 2020), em resposta ao despendoamento (com e sem pendão). O delineamento experimental foi de [...] blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas (cultivares nas parcelas) e dez repetições. Os três experimentos foram plantados no mesmo dia e em áreas vizinhas. Os híbridos não diferiram, nos três experimentos, quanto à massa da matéria seca e quanto ao número de ramificações do pendão. Em E1 (produção de minimilho na densidade de 180 mil plantas ha-1), em ambos os híbridos, os seguintes efeitos foram observados devido ao despendoamento: um aumento no número e peso totais de espigas e no número e peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis; b) nenhuma mudança foi observada no número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao híbrido BRS 2020 quanto ao peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, mas os dois híbridos não diferiram quanto às outras características utilizadas para avaliar o rendimento de minimilho. Em E2 (produção de espigas verdes na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não alterou as seguintes características em ambos os híbridos: números e pesos totais de espigas e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O despendoamento reduziu o número de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis no híbrido AG 1051, mas não em BRS 2020. Os híbridos não diferiram quanto aos números total e de espigas verdes empalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao BRS 2020 quanto aos pesos total e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e quanto ao número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. Em E3 (produção de grãos na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1), o despendoamento não afetou o rendimento de grãos e o híbrido AG 1051 foi superior quanto ao RG. Abstract in english Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3) were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020), in response to detasseling (with or without tassel). A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids def [...] ined as plots) and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ from each other on the dry matter mass and number of tassel branches. In E1 (baby corn production at 180 thousand plants ha-1), for both hybrids, the following effects were observed due to detasseling: a) an increase in ear total number, in ear total weight, in marketable unhusked ears number and in marketable unhusked ears weight; b) no change was observed in the number and weight of marketable husked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for weight of marketable husked ears, but the two hybrids did not differ in other traits utilized to evaluate baby corn yield. In E2 (green ear yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not change the following traits in both hybrids: total number and weight of ears; number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and marketable husked ear weight. Detasseling reduced the number of marketable husked ears in cultivar AG 1051, but not in BRS 2020. The two hybrids did not differ in total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 in regard to the total ears weight, marketable unhusked ears weight and number and weight of marketable husked ears. In E3 (grain yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1), detasseling did not affect grain yield (RG) and hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for grain yield.

Joserlan N, Moreira; Paulo Sérgio L, Silva; Kathia MB, Silva; Jeferson LD, Dombroski; Renato S, Castro.

173

Grain filling parameters in high-yielding ns wheat cultivars  

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Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat is dependent on grain weight, which is the result of grain filling duration and rate. The study was undertaken to examine the relation between grain weight and rate and duration of grain filling in five high-yielding NS wheat cultivars. Stepwise multivariate analysis of nonlinear regression estimated grain filling parameters was used to examine cultivar differences in grain filling. On the basis of three-year average, the highest grain dry weight had cultivar Renesansa, and the lightest grains were measured for cultivar Evropa 90. Stepwise multivariate analysis indicated that all three nonlinear regression estimated parameters (grain weight, rate and duration of grain filling were equally important in characterizing the grain filling curves of the cultivars studied, although sequence of their significance varied in different years, which is probably caused by different environmental conditions in three years of experiment.

Brdar Milka D.

2008-01-01

174

Growth and Yield of Maize as Influenced by Sowing Date and Poultry Manure Application  

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Full Text Available Two fields experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 at Evboneka in Edo State, Nigeria to determine optimum sowing date and poultry manure requirement of maize (Zea mays for the forest ultisol location. We examined the biomass production and yield, besides growth parameters under three sowing dates (April 7, May 7 and June 7 and four levels of poultry manure (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 tonnes per hectare (tha-1 in factorial arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant heights, leaf area index (LAI, days to 50% flowering and biomass were significantly affected by sowing date and poultry manure application. The plant height values ranged from 3.9 to 10.80 centimetre (cm at two weeks after sowing (WAS to 48.3 cm at six WAS, respectively for the three sowing dates and four levels of poultry manure combinations. Days to 50% flowering was increased when sowing was delayed and with increased in applied poultry level and it vary from 50 to 73 days after sowing. The corresponding value of biomass was 3.32 to 8.80 t ha-1 at final harvest. These parameters resulted in higher crop growth rate for April 7 sown plants treated with poultry manure giving higher grain yield and 1000-grain weight. The maximum grain yield of 5.77 t ha-1 and 1000-grain weight were obtained from April 7 sown plants treated with 5.0 t ha-1 of poultry manure indicating that the best sowing date and poultry level for growth and yield of maize in the rainforest ultisol.

Samson Uduzei REMISON

2009-06-01

175

Effects of cropping history and phosphorus source on yield and nitrogen fixation in sole and intercropped cowpeaâ??maize systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Symbiotic N2-fixation, N uptake efficiency, biomass- and crop production of cowpea and maize as affected by P source, sole- and intercropped, and introduction of break crops were studied on a farmerâ??s fields in semi-arid Tanzania. Cowpea fixed around 60% of its N from the atmosphere amounting to 70 kg N haâ??1 under sole and 36 kg N haâ??1 under intercropping as estimated by the 15N isotope dilution method around peak biomass production. The amount of N2-fixed was 30â??40% higher when P was applied as either TSP or MRP whereas cowpea yield were unaffected. Intercropped maize with 19,000 plant haâ??1 accumulated the same amount of N as 38,000 sole cropped maize plants although intercropping reduced the dry matter accumulation by 25%. The N uptake efficiency of the applied 15N labelled fertiliser was 26%, which equal a total pool of early available plant N of 158 kg N haâ??1. Under the N deficient conditions, P application did not increase the grain yield of maize. The LER indicate that sole cropping required 18% more area than intercropping in order to produce the same grain yield, and 35% more land when LER was based on N uptakes. Introduction of break crops in the maize systems, more than doubled accumulation of dry matter and N in the grain compared to continuous maize cropping. During maturation sole crop cowpea shedded leaves containing 41 kg N haâ??1. The current findings underline the importance of crop diversity in Sub Saharan Africa agriculture and emphasise the need for including all residues, including shedded leaves, in nutrient balance studies.

Vesterager, Jens M.; Nielsen, Niels E.

2008-01-01

176

A dynamic risk assessment model (FUMAgrain) of fumonisin synthesis by Fusarium verticillioides in maize grain in Italy  

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Fumonisin contamination of maize grain starts in the field. Forecasting Fusarium infection and fumonisin synthesis could allow operators in the field to control contamination during the growing season and to make the best agronomic decisions for high quality yields while respecting the limits imposed by the European Union. A research project to develop a decision support system for the control of field-phase fumonisin contamination began in Italy in 2003. This paper presents a preliminary ver...

Reyneri, Amedeo; Maiorano, Andrea; Sacco, Dario

2009-01-01

177

Actual and potential yield for rainfed and irrigated maize in China  

Science.gov (United States)

A crop yield model (YIELD), that uses climatic and environmental data to calculate yield and water consumption for a variety of major crops was applied specifically to maize (grain corn) in the region of China and Korea, by examining the parameters of potential and actual yield. A network of 241 stations provided the seasonal climatic input, which consisted of data averaged over approximately a 20 year period. Among the simulated results, highest yields under full irrigation (first growing season) occurred in the Yangtze River area, northward to Korea, Kweichou and Szechwan Provinces, and northcentral China, whereas least yield was found for the western interior. High yields exceeded 12,000 kg/ha per harvest. Under rainfed conditions, only the Yangtze River region retained its predominance. In order to achieve optimum crop yields, about 800 mm of irrigation water was needed in northcentral China, contrasted with none required in the south and east of China. Making certain dietary assumptions, the calculated grain corn production could potentially support between 700 and 400 million people, depending on the irrigation strategies adopted. If corn were used as feed stock for beef, only between 100 and 60 million persons could be supported. A sensitivity analysis was applied to determine the degree of error introduced by faulty, uncertain, or missing environmental input data for the stations utilized in this study.

Terjung, W. H.; Ji, H.-Y.; Hayes, J. T.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Todhunter, P. E.

1984-06-01

178

Use of Compost Manure Enriched with High Quality Organic Residues to Improve Growth and Yield of Maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field trial was conducted to test whether composed manure with tithonia or lantana would improve growth and yield of maize. A field trial consisting of five compost types and inorganic N fertilizer was carried out in a site low N using maize (Zea mays Var. Hybrid 513) as a test crop. The compost and fertilizer were applied at an equivalent rate of 100 kg N ha-1. Above-ground maize biomass was taken at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after crop emergence, dried and N content determined. Amongst the compost, the highest dry matter accumulation N uptake and grain yield were observed in FYM composted with tithonia at 1:1 ratio. At all stages of crop growth, inorganic fertilizer treatment gave the highest dry matter and N uptake. Based on the growth and N uptake in the fertilizer treatment it was concluded that the N release in all the compost was lower than the crop demand

2002-11-11

179

Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean  

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This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams) were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive a...

Sedghi, Mohammad; Amanpour-balaneji, Bahman

2010-01-01

180

Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids  

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The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha). There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except f...

Karoline Guedes Araújo; Severino Delmar Junqueira Villela; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Patrícia Monteiro Costa; Leonardo de Oliveira Fernandes; Wagner Pessanha Tamy; Vinícius Raimundi Andrade

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal  

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Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E was highly significant and genotypes (G and genotype x environment interaction (GEI were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

Jiban Shrestha

2013-06-01

182

Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economy of Production of Broilers Fed Maize-Grit and Brewers Dried Grain Replacing Maize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 28-day feeding trial involving ninety-six (96 four weeks old broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of total replacement of maize with different combination ratios of maize grit and Brewers Dried Grain (BDG on the performance, carcass characteristics and economy of finisher broilers. Four experimental diets were formulated by substituting maize with maize grit and BDG in the ratio of T1 (0%; T2 (3:1-45 + 15; T3 (1:1-30 + 30 and T4 (1:3-15 + 45 respectively. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment diets. Each experimental unit of 24 birds was replicated twice giving 12 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Body weight and weight gain per feed intake through higher at high cost with the control diet improved in cheaper diets formulated with maize grit and BDG. There was no consistency in the carcass characteristics of the groups particularly among the internal organs showing that dietary maize grit ad BDG could not pose any discernible nutritional problems that might manifest in the carcass of the broilers. Cheaper feed formulated with maize grit and BDG gave the higher gross margins especially diet 4.

G.A. Anyanwu

2008-01-01

183

Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

2010-06-01

184

Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from ...

Passoth Volkmar; Eriksson Anna; Sandgren Mats; Ståhlberg Jerry; Piens Kathleen; Schnürer Johan

2009-01-01

185

Growth and yield performance of maize (zea mays L.) as affected by planting methods and NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two year research was conducted to find out the best combination of sowing geometry and levels of N, P and K fertilizers for maize hybrid 32-W-86. Four N-P-K levels viz., 0-0-0, 200-100-100, 250-125-125 and 300-150-150 kg ha-1 were tested in combination with 3 planting geometries viz., flat sowing in 75 cm spaced rows, ridge sowing on 75 cm spaced ridges and bed sowing (120 cm wide beds separated by 30 cm furrows) in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. During both years, treatment with 250-125-125 kg ha/sup -1/ NPK and 75 cm apart ridge sowing was found to be superior as it showed significantly higher grain yield (10.02 to 10.54 t ha/sup -1/), number of cobs per plant (1.80 to 1.87), number of grains per cob (359.33 to 378.67), 1000-grain weight (306.46 to 320.62 g), biological yield (24.01 to 24.36 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (41.76 to 43.51 %). Contrastingly, 0-0-0 NPK kg ha/sup -1/ fertilizer treatment in combination with all 3 planting geometries remained at lowest position with respect to grain yield. Grain yield showed significant positive relationship with number of cobs per plant, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and harvest index of maize. (author)

2013-02-01

186

Simultaneous Selection for Fodder and Grain Yield in Sorghum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 31 selection indices were constructed on five characters in 33 diversed genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.. High heretability couple with high genetic advance expected in the next generation and association of characters were the basis for choosing of the characters for discriminant function analysis. Green fodder yield and grain yield have to be simultaneously improved through selection. Amongst the single character selection indices, grains/panicle offered maximum genetic worth (11.51. In general, inclusion of every character in the function, exerted a progressive relative efficiency over straight selection. The highest relative efficiency over straight selection on grain yield alone was realized while grain yield/plant (x1, fodder cutting maturity (x2, green fodder yield/plant (x3, digestible dry matter/plant (x4 and grains/panicle (x5 were concurrently integrated in the function.

B. K. Biswas

2001-01-01

187

Magnitude of Variability for Yield and Yield Associated Traits in Maize Hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the maize hybrids for yield and yield associated traits. Results indicated that hybrids were significantly different from one another for all the characters. Among the twelve hybrids, the maximum days to 50 % silking (62.50), days to 50 % pollen shedding (62.50) were recorded in hybrid 3043, while the lowest mid-silking days of 54 and mid-pollen shedding days of 55 were recorded in Pop 9815. The highest values of plant and ear height were recorded in hybri...

Muhammad Younas; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Ghulam Hayder

2002-01-01

188

Yield and quality of silage of maize hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this research was to identify the potential of maize hybrids for the production of silage. Hybrids 1671B, 2B433, 20A78, SHS4070, BX1280 and DKB390 were tested in a randomized block design with three replications. The hybrids yields were evaluated (average plant height, height of ear [...] insertion, number of broken and lodged plants/ha, leaf:stem and ear:plant ratio and production of of DM, CP and TDN/ha). There was no difference between hybrids for the variables studied, except for the height of ear insertion. With respect to chemical characteristics, N-NH3/NT organic acids, and pH, there was also no difference between cultivars and hybrid silages are rated as of very good quality.

Araújo, Karoline Guedes; Villela, Severino Delmar Junqueira; Leonel, Fernando de Paula; Costa, Patrícia Monteiro; Fernandes, Leonardo de Oliveira; Tamy, Wagner Pessanha; Andrade, Vinícius Raimundi.

189

Effects of Variety and Fertilizers on Number of Grains/Cob of Maize in Asaba Area of Delta State  

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Full Text Available This study carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June, 2010 to evaluate the effects of variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on number of grain/cob of maize. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three different maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15 cm and evaluated for number of grains/cob. The result obtained indicated that hybrid variety, 9022-13, which had 5090, was superior. Also, plants that received inorganic fertilizer were outstanding in number of grains/cob with values of 441.5 in 2008 and 506.0 in 2009 followed by the plants received poultry manure (444.0 in 2008 and 468.0 in 2009. Based on the rates of application of manure/inorganic fertilizer, plants that received 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were outstanding in numbers of grains/cob of maize with values of 532.8 in 2008 and 570.8 in 2009. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid variety 9022-13 should be grown in Asaba area. (ii NPK 20: 10:10 mineral fertilizers should be applied at the rate of 450kgha-1 to enhance maize yield.

Enujeke E. C.

2013-04-01

190

The origin of the naked grains of maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The most critical step in maize domestication (Zea mays ssp. mays) was the liberation of the kernel from the hardened, protective casing that envelops the kernel in the maize progenitor, teosinte1. This evolutionary step exposed the kernel on the surface of the ear such that it could be readily utilized as a food source by humans. Here, we show that this key event in maize domestication is controlled by a single gene (teosinte glume architecture; tga1) belonging to the SBP-domain family2 of t...

Wang, Huai; Nussbaum-wagler, Tina; Li, Bailin; Zhao, Qiong; Vigouroux, Yves; Faller, Marianna; Bomblies-yant, Kirsten; Lukens, Lewis; Doebley, John

2005-01-01

191

Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new crops are grown. In recent years, leaf diseases have caused production problems over several seasons. Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play a role but have not yet been clearly verified as major diseases in Scandinavia.

Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

2012-01-01

192

Variability of pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. originating from maize and wheat grains  

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Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti), originating from maize kernels (61) and wheat grains (32), were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest...

2009-01-01

193

Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti), originating from maize kernels (61) and wheat grains (32), were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest...

2009-01-01

194

Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible factors influencing the concentration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contai [...] ned below 50 µg selenium/kg DM and can thus be classified as deficient from an animal and human nutritional point of view. Maize grain in South Africa is therefore a poor source of Se for animals and humans. The geographical distribution of Se values of maize grain is consistent with that of previous studies on the Se status of herbivores in South Africa, suggesting that plants growing in most of the maize-producing areas of the country contain low concentrations of Se. However, these findings contradict those of the soil Se status in the country as reported by the Agricultural Research Council's Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, which states that the eastern part of the maize-producing areas of the country tends to have adequate to high soil Se levels and the western areas to have low levels. These contradictory results can be explained to a large extent by the varying soil pH throughout the country. Soil pH plays a primary role in the availability of selenium to plants. Although the eastern parts of the country tend to have high Se concentration in the soil, it is not available to the maize plant owing to a low soil pH, while in the western parts of the country, where soil pH may be suitable for Se uptake by plants, there seems to be an inadequate concentration of available Se in the soil.

C., Courtman; J.B.J., van Ryssen; A., Oelofse.

195

An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Zemun Polje (Serbia), during the summer of 2009. Average c...

2012-01-01

196

IMPACT OF OZONE ON GRAIN SORGHUM YIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Grain sorghum(sorghum vulgare Pers.) is an important animal feed crop, and it is sometimes planted as a substitute for field corn. Although sorghum is grown in areas of the central and southern U.S. where potentially damaging concentrations of 03 exist, no data are available rega...

197

Transportation and distribution of 14C-assimilate from functional leaves in the development of grains of maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on distribution of 14C-assimilates from functional leaves in grains of maize at filling stage was carried out. The results showed that distribution of 14C-photosynthetic products in grains of each row of ear were similar while in grains of different position within the same row were different. The amount of 14C-photosynthetic products in the ear was in order of middle grains>bottom grains>top grains. It was also found that 14C-photosynthetic products between the grains next to each other were significant different. The distribution pattern of 14C-photosynthetic products in grains of maize is also discussed

1993-12-01

198

Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations  

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In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

2007-01-01

199

Correlation of yield and heterosis of maize hybrids and their parental lines with genetic distance based on SSR markers  

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Full Text Available The yield, grain yield heterosis and genetic distance based on SSR markers were analyzed in eight maize hybrids and their parental lines. The mean grain yield of all F1 hybrids was 11.37 tha-1. The F1 hybrid from the crosses between L4xL6 gave the highest grain yield of 12.12 tha-1. For the mid parent heterosis (MPH grain yields of the F1 hybrids, the data showed the average value of 164.25%, and ranged from 136.72% (L4xL6 to 218.07% (L8xL2, and for better parent heterosis (BPH from 100.70% (H4 to 212.60% (H2, averaged 137.36%. The average genetic distance among parental inbred lines of analyzed hybrids was 0.58 with a range from 0.55 to 0.61. The GD showed a positive correlation with the grain yield of the F1 hybrids (0.22, as well as with MPH and BPH, with the values of 0.12 and 0.45, respectively.

Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana

2012-01-01

200

Grain Yield Potential of Garden Peas (Pisum sativum L. Germplasm  

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Full Text Available Grain yield potential in relation to other important agronomic characters of 1 1 vegetable pea (P. sativum L. germplasm was tested during rabi 1999-2000. Germplasm PS-02 ranked first by producing maximum yield of 3167 kg ha-1, while germplasm PS-10 with 3056 kg ha-1 ranked second. Minimum yield of 91 1 kg ha-1 was obtained by PS-07, followed by PS-11 with 1389 kg ha-1 Average grain yield of group I was 45% higher than the average yield of group II. The average values of grain yield decreased in descending order from 2756 to 1513 kg ha-1 in group I and group II, respectively. Similarly the average values of plant height, branches per plant, dry matter yield and pods per plant decreased in descending order i.e. 1 37 to 89 cm, 2.5 to 2.2, 8490 to 3759 kg ha-1 and 1 1 to 7 in group I and group II, respectively and showed positive relationship with grain yield. The average values of pod length and harvest index increased in descending order i.e. 4.2 to 4.9 cm and 31.7 to 43.9 % in group I and group II, respectively. The relationship of days to maturity, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight with grain yield was not very well established. The association of harvest index with dry matter yield was significantly negative.

Mir Hatam

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA  

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Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

Henry De-Graft Acquah

2012-10-01

202

Pattern in interaction in the maize yield trial  

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Full Text Available In making decisions on the development of varieties and the identification of certain growing regions, the effects of genotype (G and genotype by environment (GxE are very important. Although the main genotype effect and the interaction effect should be partitioned, there is still a need for their integration in the yield, as both simultaneously affect a ranking of the particular genotype within a certain environment. The AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction analysis, as a hybrid model, provides appropriate partitioning. The AMMI2 model, capturing 98.4% of the treatment sum of squares, was used, and 12 observed environments were classified into three target environments. Hence, out of 15 commercial maize hybrids, used in the trial, the hybrids ZP-677, ZP-570 and ZP-732 were selected as carriers of maximum yields in three target environments. In this way, it was shown that even in a relatively small region a narrow adaptation of genotypes can be exploited.

Babi? Vojka B.

2011-01-01

203

Grain-size-yield stress relationship: Analysis and computation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The seminal contributions of Julia Weertman to the understanding of the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials will be briefly outlined. A constitutive equation predicting the effect of grain size on the yield stress of metals, based on the model proposed by M.A. Meyers and E. Ashworth, is discussed and extended to the nanocrystalline regime. At large grain sizes, it has the Hall-Petch form, and in the nanocrystalline domain the slope gradually decreases until it asymptotically approaches the flow stress of the grain boundaries. The material is envisaged as a composite, comprised of the grain interior, with flow stress {sigma}{sub fB}, and grain boundary work-hardened layer, with flow stress {sigma}{sub fGB}. Three principal factors contribute to the grain-boundary hardening: (1) the grain boundaries act as barriers to plastic flow; (2) the grain boundaries act as dislocation sources; and (3) elastic anisotropy causes additional stresses in grain-boundary surroundings. The predictions of this model are compared with experimental measurements over the mono, micro, and nanocrystalline domains. Computational predictions are made of plastic flow as a function of grain size incorporating elastic and plastic anisotropy as well as differences of dislocation accumulation rate in grain boundary regions and grain interiors. This is the first plasticity calculation that accounts for grain size effects in a physically-based manner. 58 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Meyers, M.A.; Benson, D.J.; Fu, H.H.

1999-07-01

204

Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfed smallholder agriculture in semi-arid areas of southern Africa is subject to numerous constraints. These include low rainfall with high spatial and temporal variability, and significant loss of soil water through evaporation. An experiment was established at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to determine the effect of mulching and minimum tillage on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and soil water content. The experiment was run for two years at two sites: clay (Matopos Research Station fields) and sand (Lucydale fields) soils, in a 7 × 3 factorial combination of mulch rates (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 t ha -1) and tillage methods (planting basins, ripper tine and conventional plough). Each treatment was replicated three times at each site in a split plot design. Maize residue was applied as mulch before tillage operations. Two maize varieties, a hybrid (SC 403) and an open pollinated variety (ZM 421), were planted. Maize yield and soil water content (0-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were measured under each treatment. On both soil types, neither mulching nor tillage method had a significant effect on maize grain yield. Tillage methods significantly influenced stover production with planting basins giving the highest stover yield (1.1 t ha -1) on sandy soil and conventional ploughing giving 3.6 t ha -1 on clay soil during the first season. The three tillage methods had no significant effect on seasonal soil water content, although planting basins collected more rainwater during the first half of the cropping period. Mulching improved soil water content in both soil types with maximum benefits observed at 4 t ha -1 of mulch. We conclude that, in the short term, minimum tillage on its own, or in combination with mulching, performs as well as the farmers’ traditional practices of overall ploughing.

Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve; Walker, Sue; Hove, Lewis

205

Methane yield through anaerobic digestion for various maize varieties in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methane potential of nine varieties of fresh maize harvested at three different times and of maize silage was experimentally determined in batch assays. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 213.94-313.63, 195.88-334.81 mL/g VS from several fresh and silage maize in three stages, respectively. The average specific methane yield of wax ripeness stage for fresh maize and full ripeness stage for silage maize were higher than that of other stages, respectively. The high-oil varieties of fresh maize and silage varieties of ensiling maize could produce more methane than general varieties in the same ripeness stage. Methane yield of ensiled materials was higher than fresh material. The methane yields of fresh and silage maize in full ripeness stage were ranged 5656-7956 and 4633-8915 m(3)/ha, respectively. The corresponding maximum of methane yield came from fresh HO5580 and silage CAU No. 4. PMID:22704906

Gao, Ruifang; Yuan, Xufeng; Zhu, Wanbin; Wang, Xiaofen; Chen, Shaojiang; Cheng, Xu; Cui, Zongjun

2012-08-01

206

Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize and sorghum grain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release a-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibil [...] ity of sorghum and maize grain was measured after 6 and 12 hours of fermentation with or without exogenous a-amylase in powder form or dispersed in a matrix system for slow release by a diffusional mechanism. Tablets were used as the drug release matrix system, and were formulated with barium sulphate and ethylcellulose as the core of the final tablet. Treatments consisted of incubation of sorghum or maize grains with four doses of enzyme, using a-amylase in powder or in the press-coated tablet (16 treatments). The results showed that with a higher dose of exogenous enzyme, the digestibility of the grains was improved. Sorghum and maize digestion with tablets were improved compared with a-amylase in powder form. Releasing a-amylase from matrix tablets represents a potential technology to improve grain digestion in ruminants.

M., Crosby; G.D., Mendoza; I., Bonola; F.X., Plata; H., Sandoval; L.M., Melgoza.

207

Relationship Between Rapid Canopy Closure and Grain Yield in Wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to determine the relationship between rapid canopy closure and grain yield in wheat and to identify the traits that affect rapid canopy closure, a research was conducted using 5 wheat cultivars (Atrak, Tajan, Zagros, Golestan and Viniak). A field experiment with randomized complete blocks was carried out at the Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, in 2003-2004. Rapid canopy closure had significant effect on grain yield, cultivars with faster canopy closure...

Mir-mahmoodi, T.; Soleimanzadeh, H.

2009-01-01

208

Simultaneous Selection for Fodder and Grain Yield in Sorghum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 31 selection indices were constructed on five characters in 33 diversed genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). High heretability couple with high genetic advance expected in the next generation and association of characters were the basis for choosing of the characters for discriminant function analysis. Green fodder yield and grain yield have to be simultaneously improved through selection. Amongst the single character selection indices, grains/panicle offered maximum g...

Biswas, B. K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; El Taj, F.; Alam, M. S.; Amin, M. R.

2001-01-01

209

Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

2012-05-01

210

Factor analysis for yield contributing traits in maize (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected on 17 traits from 144 inbred lines derived using 4 different base populations of unknown pedigree weresubjected to factor analysis. Sixteen factors were extracted using principal component analysis as extraction method. Out of16, only 5 factors had eigen value greater than one and these factors alone accounted for 78.3% of total variance. Theloadings of each variable onto each factor was analysed from the rotated factor matrix obtained through varimax rotation.First factor accounted for 22.93% of the total variation and showed significant associations of traits related to durationnamely days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, anthesis silking interval and days to maturity. Second factor with19.22% of total variation had higher loadings of plant height and ear height which are the important growth traits in maize.Factor 3 with a contribution of 17.91% to total variation was found to be significantly associated with the important yieldtraits viz. cob yield/plant, grain yield/plant and ear girth. Factor 4 (9.99% variance and factor 5 (8.33% variance wereloaded mainly with hundred seed weight and grain setting length respectively.

B. Bharathiveeramani and M. Prakash

2012-12-01

211

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE GRAIN CULTIVARS FOR BROILER CHICKENS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine nutrients digestibility and energy utilization of nine maize cultivars (Opoka, Boruta, Nysa, Smok, Pioneer PR39H64, Monada, Rustika Eurostar, Pionier G12, Arobase in broiler chickens. Cultivars differed in a content of CP and EE. In vivo digestibility was measured by a standard method on ninety 42 days old broilers. CP digestibility was calculated using the ?-amino nitrogen method. Furthermore, digestible energy (DE and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN as well as nitrogen balance and retention were determined. Maize grain nutritive value and energy utilization in broiler chickens depended on the cultivars. The cultivars characterized by higher content of CP and EE had higher digestibility coeffi cient of these nutrients. The cultivar did not infl uence nitrogen balance and retention. It is recommended to take into a consideration the maize grain cultivars and their chemical composition when a broiler diet is being composed.

JAN Barteczko

2008-07-01

212

Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

Paji? Zorica

2008-01-01

213

Determination of Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum Cultivars Grown as Second Crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 second crop season in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Block with three Replications. In the research, were used 24 grain sorghum cultivars to determine high yielding cultivars. The grain yields of the grain sorghum cultivars varied between 3383.8-8248.0 kg ha-1 in the research. In all the observed characters, statistically significant differences were determined among cu...

Ismail Gul; Veysel Saruhan

2005-01-01

214

Improving sustainable intensification of cereal-grain legume cropping systems in the savannahs of West Africa: Quantifying residual effects of legumes on maize, enhancing P mobilization by legumes and studying long-term Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved cereal-grain-legume systems, allowing farmers to use their land productively on a continuous basis, are being rapidly developed and adopted by small-scale farmers in the West African Moist Savannah. This paper summarizes work on several issues related to the improvement of productivity and sustainability of these intensified systems. A first study looked at the sustainability of several legume-maize cropping systems in a 5-year field trial at Sekou, Benin. Fairly low maize yields were found in continuous maize cropping systems (maize/maize), poor response to N fertilizer beyond 45 kg N ha-1, and no evidence that P and K were limiting crop yield. Over the last 5 years of the trial, maize/Mucuna relay cropping gave consistently a 2000 kg ha-1 yield increase relative to maize/maize cropping, and most of this yield gain was preserved even when Mucuna residues were removed from the plots when planting the next year's maize crop. Some yield gain, although far less than with maize/Mucuna, was observed in the maize/pigeon pea system. The maize/cowpea system offered no maize yield gain over maize/maize cropping. In a second study, enhanced isotopic methods to determine the plant available P allowed us to test the hypothesis that certain legume accessions can mobilize sparingly-available P. In one out of the 3 West-African Moist Savannah soils studied, we found that cowpea could access sparingly soluble soil P that is unavailable to maize. This mobilization of P was only observed when P deficiency occurred. These results confirm the P efficiency of some legume genotypes, which may lead to benefits of improved P availability by the incorporation of legumes in rotation systems. A third study, involving a 16-year continuous-cropping field experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria, provided information on long-term changes in soil organic matter carbon (SOC) contents in savannah soils with sandy top soil. In the control treatments with continuous maize and cowpea cropping without trees, SOC levels dropped from the initial 15.4 Mg C ha-1 to 7.3-8.0 Mg C ha-1 in 16 years (SOC content in 1700 Mg ha-1 equivalent soil mass). In the two continuously cropped alley cropping systems (Leucaena and Senna), the SOC levels dropped to levels between 10.7 and 13.2 Mg C ha-1. The 13C natural abundance technique yielded useful information to test the ROTHC- 26.3 SOC model in sub-humid tropical conditions under a complex pattern of cropping systems. (author)

2006-12-01

215

Diallelic analysis for lysine and oil contents in maize grains Análise dialélica para conteúdos de lisina e óleo em grãos de milho  

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Six S5 lines of maize, with differences for lysine and oil contents in grains, were used to carry out a complete series of diallelic crosses. The resulting 15 hybrids were grown in a field at two nitrogen levels (10 and 130 kg N ha-1). The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were obtained by using the method 4, model I of Griffing for grain yield, and grain lysine and oil contents. Significant (p < 0.001) interaction was observed between GCA and N levels for g...

Leonardo Oliveira Medici; Salete Aparecida Gaziola; Vanderlei Aparecido Varisi; José Antonio Carmezini de Paula; Renato Rodrigues Ferreira; Ricardo Antunes Azevedo

2009-01-01

216

Unidirectional and Alternate Pathway Impacts of Yield Components on Grain Yield of Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)  

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Correlation and path analysis conducted in ten genotypes of Guar revealed that grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with branches and pods per plant. Association between plant height, 100 grain weight and grain yield was also positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis showed that pods per plant had maximum positive direct effect on grain yield. It was followed by 100 grain weight and branches per plant. Plant height had negative direct effect on grain yield. Po...

Syed Arif Hussain Shah; Muhammad Iqbal Saleem; Muhammad Arshad Hussain; Tauqeer Ahmad

2000-01-01

217

Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

2011-08-01

218

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA  

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Full Text Available The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4%  over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55% and barley grains (3.46, 14 days, 13 days and 55.24% in terms of mycelium growth vigor, colonization time, spawn running time of the substrate and yield  of the oyster mushroom. Hot water treatment and steaming of substrate significantly reduced substrate contamination and improved mushroom yield as compared to the untreated control. Mushrooms grown on steamed substrates had significantly higher yield (BE: 69.4% than those grown on substrates treated with hot water (BE: 53.3%.

Jongman M, Khare KB* and Khonga EB

2013-09-01

219

Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

2012-01-01

220

Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and Some Yield Components in Pea (Pisum sativum L.  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the general and specific ability, the heterosis, heterobeltiosis for grain yield and some yield components in pea as a good source of plant protein. Grain yield and its inheritance were studied in four pea cultivar and three winter pea genotypes by crossing them in line x tester fashion. The General Combining Ability (GCA and Specific Combining Ability (SCA effects were highly significant, indicating the presence of both additive and non-additive type of gene action. The ratio of additive variance to dominance variance indicated the predominant role of non-additive gene action for all traits. Heterosis was determined as the superiority over the mid-parent (HMP and also over the better parent (HBP. Hybrids generally showed a better yielding than their parental genotypes. Grain yield showed highly significant heterosis: 83.2% heterosis over mid-parent and 66.8% heterosis over better-parent, respectively. An estimate of heritability (narrow sense was low due to the major role of environmental factors in expression of grain yield and yield components in pea. Thus, delay selection was suggested for breeding of stable yielding lines. Correlation studies showed that the grain yield was significant positive correlated with plant height, pod number, seeds of pod and pod yield. The highest direct effect was exhibited by pod yield, indirect effects, especially through the pod number in the parents and hybrids.

Ercan Ceyhanand Mehmet Ali Avci

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Yields and accumulations of N and P in farmer-managed intercrops of maize-pigeonpea in semi-arid Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food in Sub-Saharan Africa but low soil fertility, limited resources and droughts keep yields low. Cultivation of maize intercropped with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is common in some areas of eastern and southern Africa. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate dry matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) accumulation in different plant components of maize-pigeonpea intercropping systems and (2) to report the effects of the intercrops on soil fertility. Maize-pigeonpea intercrops were compared to sole maize grown using farmers' practices. Intercropping maize and pigeonpea increased (P 0.11). Nitrate and ammonium levels in soil were still not affected by the treatments after the soils were incubated in anaerobic conditions for 8 days at 37 degrees C (P > 0.11). However, pigeonpea added up to 60 kg of N ha(-1) to the system and accumulated up to 6 kg of P ha(-1) and only 25% of this N and P were exported in the grain. In conclusion, beside the added grain yield of pigeonpea in the intercropped systems, pigeonpea increased the recirculation of dry matter, N and P, which may have a long-term effect on soil fertility. Furthermore, the stems from pigeonpea contributed to household fuel wood consumption. The intercropped system thus had multiple benefits that gave significant increase in combined yield per unit area without additional labour requirements. The main requirement in order to up-scale the maize-pigeonpea intercropping approach is sufficient supply of high-quality pigeonpea seeds.

Myaka, Fidelis M.; Sakala, Webster D.

2006-01-01

222

Análise econômica da produtividade de grãos de milho consorciado com forrageiras dos gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum em sistema plantio direto / Economic analysis of grain yield of maize intercropped with forage plants of the genera Brachiaria and Panicum in no-tillage system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) é uma alternativa de recuperação e renovação de pastagens degradadas, contudo, é importante mostrar sua viabilidade econômica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho [...] com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na ILP, em sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2009/2010, em Selvíria-MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com as forrageiras Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e cv. Mombaça. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de cultivo não reduziram a produtividade de grãos em relação ao milho cultivado sem consórcio, e o consórcio mais recomendado é o milho cultivado com B. ruziziensis, principalmente em semeadura simultânea, pois além de ter sido um dos mais produtivos, o preço dessa semente é o mais acessível, vindo alcançar maior Índice de Lucratividade que os demais tratamentos. Em geral, os cultivos simultâneos foram os mais produtivos, vindo a apresentar maior Receita Bruta, Custo Operacional Total (devido à aplicação do herbicida Sanson), menor Lucro Operacional (com exceção do MBS) e maior Índice de Lucratividade. Abstract in english The integrated crop-livestock (ILP) is an alternative recovery and renewal of degraded pastures; however, it is important to show its economic viability. The objective of this research was to analyse the yields and economic outcomes of modalities of growing corn with fodder of the genera Brachiaria [...] and Panicum in the ILP under no-tillage. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2009/2010 in Selvíria - MS, Brazil, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four repetitions and the treatments consisted of eight methods of cultivation of maize intercropped with Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania, Panicum maximum jacq cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst.) Stapf cv. MG-5, or Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard, sown simultaneously or at side dressing nitrogen fertilization, besides single grown corn. The operating cost analysis was based on prices of inputs and operations, and gross revenue in the average selling price of corn in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The cropping systems didn't reduce the grain yield for maize comparatively to single grown, and the consotium more recommended is corn with B. ruziziensis, especially in simultaneously sowing, because besides being one of the most productive, the price of this seed is the most affordable, obtaining larger Profitability Index than the other treatments. In general, the simultaneous crops were the most productive, having a higher Gross Income, Total Operating Cost (due to herbicide application Sanson), lower Operating Profit (excluding MBS) and higher Profitability Index.

Cássia Maria de Paula, Garcia; Marcelo, Andreotti; Maria Aparecida Anselmo, Tarsitano; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto, Teixeira Filho; Ana Elisa da Silva, Lima; Salatiér, Buzetti.

223

Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes  

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This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeabi...

Brou Kouakou; Gbogouri Albarin; Ocho Anin Louise; Dede Theodore, Djeni N.; Kone Youssouf; Gnakri Dago

2008-01-01

224

Effect of Seeding Density on the Fodder Yield and Quality of Two Maize Varieties  

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Two varieties of maize viz., Neelum and Akbar were compared at seed rates of 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 in Faisalabad conditions. Varieties showed non-significant differences for all parameters studied except dry matter yield. Cultivar Akbar gave significantly more DM yield (7.18 t ha-1) than Neelum (6.09 t ha-1). Seeding densities showed significant effects on growth and yield parameters. Plant height, green fodder yield, dry matter yield and crude fibre pe...

1999-01-01

225

Effects of farmers' practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in central Benin  

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Four on-farm experiments in central Benin examined whether land-use succession and fertilizer treatments for prior cotton would sustain subsequent maize crop yields and achieve balanced plant nutrition. Treatments consisted of three prior land use successions, i.e. before planting maize (egusi melon-cotton-cotton-maize, cotton-maize-cotton-maize and cassava-maize-cotton-maize) including for each, four replications of three fertilizer treatments: recommended practice [150 kg ha -1 of 14-23-14 ...

2013-01-01

226

Rendimiento y calidad de elote en poblaciones nativas de maíz de Tehuacán, Puebla / Yield and quality of tender maize from native maize populations of Tehuacán, Puebla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el estado de Puebla, la región más importante en producción de maíz (Zea mays L.) para elote es Tehuacán. Las variedades usadas son principalmente poblaciones nativas, de las cuales se desconoce su potencial para la producción de elote y la calidad del mismo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue [...] evaluar agronómicamente un conjunto de poblaciones nativas de maíz colectadas en Tehuacán, para determinar su variación en rendimiento y calidad de elote. En 2009 se evaluaron 100 variedades en tres localidades bajo condiciones de riego, de las cuales 95 fueron colectadas en el área de Tehuacán. Las cinco restantes fueron dos variedades mejoradas y tres testigos raciales de Bolita, Celaya y Pepitilla. Se midieron 20 variables de planta y elote. Los resultados del análisis de varianza combinado mostraron en todas las variables evaluadas, excepto en una, diferencias altamente significativas (P ? 0.01) entre variedades, lo que indica la presencia de diversidad para tales características entre los maíces nativos estudiados. En rendimiento de elote, un grupo de 16 poblaciones nativas resultó sobresaliente (P ? 0.05). La variedad local TEH77 obtuvo el mayor número de características deseables para rendimiento y calidad de elote: rendimiento promedio de 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11.3 °Brix, 13.7 cm de longitud de mazorca, 5.5 cm de ancho de mazorca y 30.7 granos por hilera. Esta variedad superó al mejor híbrido comercial 'AS900' en 52, 23, 30, 33 y 47 % en rendimiento (kg·ha-1), contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix), longitud y diámetro de mazorca (cm), número de hileras y granos por hilera, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the state of Puebla, Tehuacán is the most important region in the production of tender maize (Zea mays L.) sold on the cob. The varieties used are mainly native populations, whose potential for production and quality are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate agronomically a set of native [...] maize populations collected in Tehuacán to determine their variation in tender maize yield and quality. In 2009, 100 irrigated varieties were evaluated in three locations; of these 95 were collected in the Tehuacán area. The remaining five were two improved varieties and three control races: Bolita, Celaya and Pepitilla. Twenty variables were measured on plant and ear. The results of the combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ? 0.01) among varieties, except one, indicating presence of diversity for the characteristics measured among the native maize under study. In tender maize yield, the group of 16 native populations was outstanding (P ? 0.05). The local variety TEH77 had the highest number of desirable traits for yield and quality of tender maize ears: average yield 9,576 kg·ha-1, 11,3 °Brix, 13.7 cm ear length, 5.5 cm ear width and 39.7 grains per row. This variety surpassed the best commercial hybrid 'AS900' by 52, 23, 30, 33 and 47 % in yield kg·ha-1, total soluble solids content (°Brix), ear length and diameter (cm), number of rows and grains per row, respectively.

Ortiz-Torres, Enrique; López, Pedro Antonio; Gil-Muñoz, Abel; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Juan de Dios; López-Sánchez, Higinio; Taboada-Gaytán, Oswaldo R.; Hernández-Guzmán, J. Arahón; Valadez-Ramírez, Mario.

227

The physiological processes determining grain yield potential in winter wheat  

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Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) is the most important crop grown extensively in the UK. There is a gap between yield production and world demand for wheat. So, there is a need to fill this gap. The overall objective of the present study is to investigate the physiological determinants of grain yield potential in winter wheat grown in UK conditions using doubled-haploid lines derived from a cross between winter wheat varieties Rialto and Spark. These varieties are known from previous work...

2007-01-01

228

Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

2013-01-01

229

Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The maize area in northern Europe has increased dramatically during the last 20 years, in Denmark from 19,000 ha in 1990 to 172,000 ha in 2010. Knowledge about nitrogen (N) leaching from maize under temperate coastal climate conditions is sparse. In 2009 an N leaching study was started in a field trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize, each previous long-term treatment with soil tillage and cover crop was sub-divided into two, one with perennial ryegrass as cover crop and one without cover crop. The maize was sown in 2009 and 2010 and fertilized with 140 kg N ha-1. The objectives were to determine the effects on leaching of i) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 â?? 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn due to strong competition from the maize crop. The experiment shows that it is difficult for the perennial ryegrass variety used as cover crop to survive until harvest of grain maize and to reduce leaching substantially.

Hansen, Elly Møller

230

Interactive Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium Nutrition on the
Growth and Yield of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactive effect of varying levels of phosphorus viz. 75, 100 and 125 kg/ha with that of potassium viz. 50, 75 and 100 kg ha -1 on the growth and yield of hybrid maize "Shahensha" was studied at the agronomic research area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. The results revealed that the highest grain yield of 6.02 t/ha and thousand grain weight 405.2 g respectively were obtained from the plot fertilized at the rate of 125-75 PK kg/ha against the lowe...

Mahboob Akhtar; Shakeel Ahmad; Saleem Mohsin; Tariq Mahmood

1999-01-01

231

Isolation of high-quality RNA from grains of different maize varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of gene expression in maize varieties represents a powerful tool aiming to increase vitamin A precursors. However, the isolation of RNA from different maize varieties is challenging because these varieties show different levels of polysaccharides, and most methods available for RNA isolation are inappropriate for grain samples. The polysaccharides co-purify and co-precipitate with RNA during isolation, resulting in low-quality RNA, compromising the use of RNA in subsequent applications. Thus, a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based method was adapted in this study and compared with six methods for RNA isolation, including commercial reagents and RNA and DNA isolation kits, in order to identify the most appropriate for maize grains from different varieties. Most of the methods evaluated were considered inadequate due to limitations in terms of purity and/or quantity of the isolated RNA, which affected the efficiency of subsequent RT-qPCR analysis, resulting in nonamplification of ?-carotene hydroxylase gene (HYD3) or high deviation among replicates. However, the CTAB modified method allowed the study to obtain intact RNA, with high quality and quantity, from 25 maize varieties. Furthermore, this RNA was successfully used to evaluate the expression of HYD3 gene by real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and thus represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost strategy. PMID:24400636

Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Buss, Julieti Huch; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Nora, Leonardo; E Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Margis, Rogério; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2014-10-01

232

Effect of Sowing Methods and Seed Rates on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Variety Pak-81  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results revealed that sowing method greatly affected the number of fertile tillers, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index value whereas grain spike-1 and 1000-grain weight were non significant. Among the method pora method supersede broadcast method. Similarly seed rates also highly significantly affected the grain yield and yield components except 1000- grain weight. Seed rate of 175 kg ha-1 produced grain yield of 5325. 13 kg ha-1 and proved to be the most economical seed rate. Though the interaction of methods and seed rates on number of fertile tillers and biological yield were highly significant, all other parameters were non significantly affected

Hayatullah Khan

2000-01-01

233

PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2 INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUNDNUT INTERCROPPING (1:2 AND IT HAD HIGHEST YIELD FOLLOWIED BY SOLE GROUNDNUT. THE MAIZE EQUIVALENT YIELD WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING (1:2 AND IT HAD HIGHEST YIELD FOLLOWED MAIZE WITH GROUND NUT (1:2, MAIZE WITH GROUND NUT (2:4 AND MAIZE WITH LSOYBEAN (2:4 INTERCROPPING. THUS LIKE GROUNDNUT CAN BE GROUWN AS INTERCROPS WITH MAIZE TO GET HIGHER MONETARY RETURNS.

M K MANDAL

2014-03-01

234

The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and soluble proteins among 28 maize po...

Dragi?evi? Vesna; Kova?evi? Dragan; Sredojevi? Slobodanka; Dumanovi? Zoran; Mladenovi?-Drini? Snežana

2010-01-01

235

Produtividade de milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde / Yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de espécies antecessoras ao milho, capazes de fornecer nitrogênio pela fixação simbiótica ou reciclagem de nutrientes, é importante para a manutenção da produtividade. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a produtividade do milho cultivado em sucessão à adubação verde. O delineamento experim [...] ental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: milho cultivado sobre a palhada de aveia preta, aveia preta + nabo forrageiro, aveia preta + tremoço branco, tremoço branco, crambe, vegetação espontânea e vegetação espontânea + adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, para a produtividade de grãos. O milho cultivado com a utilização de palhada de aveia preta + tremoço branco foi o mais produtivo (10.817 kg ha-1), apresentando rendimento superior e diferindo do milho cultivado sobre palhada de aveia preta, crambe e vegetação espontânea. O uso de tremoço branco, aveia preta + tremoço branco e aveia preta + nabo forrageiro é uma alternativa viável para se obter maior rendimento de grãos de milho, dispensando a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. Abstract in english The use of previous crops which have the capacity of supplying nitrogen to maize by symbiotic fixation or nutrient recycling is important to yield maintenance. This study aimed at evaluating the yield of maize grown in succession to green fertilization. A completely randomized blocks design was used [...] with four replications and the following treatments: maize grown on black oat, black oat + oilseed radish, black oat + white lupin, white lupin, crambe, spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) and spontaneous vegetation (fallow ground) + topdressing nitrogen fertilization. Concerning grain yield, significant differences were observed among treatments. The maize grown on black oat + white lupin straw reached the highest yield (10,817 kg ha-1), resulting in a higher income and differing from the one grown on black oat and crambe straw and spontaneous vegetation. The use of white lupin, black oat + white lupin and black oat + oilseed radish showed to be a viable alternative for a higher grain yield, making the topdressing nitrogen fertilization unnecessary.

Lázaro, Rafael de Lima; Costa, Antonio Carlos Torres da; Silva, Keoma de Freitas da; Sarto, Marcos Vinicius Mansano; Duarte Júnior, José Barbosa.

236

Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using {sup 14}C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h.

Starratt, A.N.; Bond, E.J. (Research Centre, London, Ontario (Canada))

237

Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

1988-01-01

238

Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient ? for maize grains (Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

2013-06-01

239

Relationship Between Grain Filling Rate, Grain Filling Duration, Yield Components and Other Physiological Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.  

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Full Text Available Relationship between grain filling rate , grain filling duration, yield components and other physiological traits of rice was investigated in 93 genotypes of rice at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht, Iran during the growing season of 2001-2002. The experiment was performed without any statistical design. Panicles of main stem were tagged and taken at 3- day intervals during the grain filling period. A cubic polynomial model was used to fit the grain dry weight data (mean of R2= 0.98 for all genotypes and the grain filling rate and duration estimated for the genotypes. Traits related to sink capacity such as grain weight, grain size and grain number per panicle correlated with grain filling rate but source -capacity- related traits except chlorophyll content of flag leaf and secondary leaf did not correlate with grain filling rate. Stepwise regression showed that final grain weight, grain filling duration and flag leaf angle contributed to grain filling rate, however, path analysis showed that only final grain weight and grain filling duration had the greatest effect on grain filling rate. The results of stepwise regression irrespective of final grain weight showed that chlorophyll content of flag leaf, grain width, grain filling duration and grain length contributed to grain filling rate. Path analysis results showed that the final grain weight had the greatest direct positive effect on grain filling rate, while grain filling duration had negative effect on grain filling rate.

M. Alahgholipour

2007-01-01

240

EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a “balanced” fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

Eche N. Mary

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Relationship Between Rapid Canopy Closure and Grain Yield in Wheat  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the relationship between rapid canopy closure and grain yield in wheat and to identify the traits that affect rapid canopy closure, a research was conducted using 5 wheat cultivars (Atrak, Tajan, Zagros, Golestan and Viniak. A field experiment with randomized complete blocks was carried out at the Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, in 2003-2004. Rapid canopy closure had significant effect on grain yield, cultivars with faster canopy closure produced comparatively more grain yield per unit area. Leaf area index and seedling dry weight at the beginning of the exponential growth phase; relative leaf area development rate and relative growth rate during the exponential phase and the average of individual leaf area and leaf area ratio were detected as the effective traits in rapid canopy closure. It was concluded that the RCC is an appropriate way especially in the environment where growing season is limited and there is little scope for lengthening the growing season in order to increase dry matter production and yield.

T. Mir-Mahmoodi

2009-01-01

242

Correlations of yield and grain yield components of winter wheat varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mean positive correlation (r = 0,47** between grain yield and number of plants per m² and strong correlation between grain yield and number of spikes per m² were established (r = 0,55**. Weak correlation was established between grain yield and productive tillering (r = 0,24**. Strong positive correlation (r = 0,51** is between the number of spikes per m² and productive tillering, as well as between the number of plants per m² and number of spikes per m² (r = 0,68**. Very weak negative correlation (r = -0,12* is between productive tillering and the number of plants per m². Regression equations of grain yield and other investigated traits, on the level of significance 5% and 1%, have linear form. By increasing one plant per m², the number of spikes for one per m², productive tillering for one, grain yield will be increased for 0,006 t/ha, 0,005 t/ha and 1,174 t/ha on the average. The other regression equations between the number of spikes per m², number of plants per m² and productive tillering have linear form. By increasing one plant per m² and productive tillering for one, the increase of number of spikes per m² is 1,087 and 312,21 on the average. By increasing the number of plants per m², productive tillering is reduced for 47,59 on the average.

Proti? Rade

2009-01-01

243

Effect of Seeding Density on the Fodder Yield and Quality of Two Maize Varieties  

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Full Text Available Two varieties of maize viz., Neelum and Akbar were compared at seed rates of 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 in Faisalabad conditions. Varieties showed non-significant differences for all parameters studied except dry matter yield. Cultivar Akbar gave significantly more DM yield (7.18 t ha-1 than Neelum (6.09 t ha-1. Seeding densities showed significant effects on growth and yield parameters. Plant height, green fodder yield, dry matter yield and crude fibre percentage was increased with increasing seed density, whereas, the increase in crude fibre percentage could not reach to a significant level. While, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, crude protein percentage, total ash percentage and ether extractable fat percentage decreased significantly with increased seed rate. The cultivar Akbar and seed rate of 150kg ha-1 seems to be the best for producing higher fodder yield of maize in Faisalabad conditions.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

244

Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea intercropped with maize in northen Guinea savanna zone of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on four different tillage systems at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana. The experiment was laid in a split-plot design with four replications. The main factor was tillage systems comprising conventional (Con), bullock plough (BP), hand hoe (HH) and zero tillage (ZT). The sub-factor was cropping systems (CRPSYT) which consisted of sole maize, sole cowpea, maize/cowpea inter-row cropping system, and bare fallow in 2000. The last named was replaced by maize/cowpea intra-row cropping system in 2001. The results showed that Con and BP, which produced over 10 cm plough depth, significantly reduced soil bulk density that favoured significant (PI). The LERs ranged from 1.43 to 1.79 in 2000, and from 1.23 to 1.24 in 2001 for Con and ZT, respectively. These indicate 33 and 52 percent mean increases in productivity of cowpea and maize, respectively, over their pure stands across the 2 years. However, grain yields of both crops from the inter- and intra-row cropping systems were not different. (au)

2006-01-01

245

Maize Yield Response in a Long-term Rotation and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Northern Ghana  

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To sustain crop production, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, sorghum and cassava were compared for their potential in crop rotation or as an intercropping partner to maize over an eleven-year period in Northern Ghana. The trial in each year consisted of 12 treatments arranged in an RCBD with five replicates. There was a gradual decline in maize yield for groundnut-maize, soybean-maize and cassava-maize as compared to a rapid decline in the other rotation combinations over the years. The best combi...

Agyare, W. A.; Clottey, V. A.; Mercer-quarshie, H.; Kombiok, J. M.

2006-01-01

246

FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563). It is characterized by high yield and grain quali [...] ty.

Antônio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Luciano Carlos da, Maia; José Antônio Gonzalez da, Silva; Maraisa, Crestani; Rafael, Nornberg; Irineu, Hartwig; Giovani, Benin.

247

YIELD OF MAIZE-BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA INTERCROPPING AFFECTED BY FERTILIZER LOCATION AND APPLICATION OF HERBICIDE  

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Full Text Available The maize-brachiaria brizantha intercropping (Zea mays-Brachiaria brizantha is the technology ofgreatest interest in crop-livestock integration. In order to study this intercropping system, different base fertilizationstrategies were evaluated (intra and inter-row of maize and also the use of suboptimal doses of herbicide to control theBrachiaria growth in soil with improved fertility. Growth and yield of maize were not affected neither by intercroppingwith Brachiaria, even without chemical control of the grass, nor by the location of the fertilizer. On the other hand,the growth of signal grass was lower when intercropped and presented lower growth within the maize row comparedto plants cultivated inter-rows. The herbicide delayed Brachiaria growth. The greatest growth of inter-row Brachiariacompared to that of intra-rows was attributed to the lower pressure exerted by maize and to the inter-row fertilization. Theresults allow to recommend (to chemically recovered soil, the base fertilization of maize-Brachiaria intercropping at theproportion 33.3-33.3-33.3% or 25-50-25% at planting furrows and only side-fertilization for Brachiaria, for integratedcrop-livestock, rather than the current recommendation of 100% of the fertilizer in the row of corn (00-100-00.

RAMON COSTA ALVARENGA

2011-12-01

248

Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains  

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Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

Sonja Tan?i?

2009-01-01

249

Assessment of genetic parameters of degradability in maize grains due to indentation scores Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos da degradabilidade de grãos de milho diferindo em escore de identação  

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Maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with dent grains present higher starch and dry matter ruminal degradability than those with flint grains. This study aimed to assess genetic parameters of degradability in maize grains of different textures and to verify whether there is an association between grain indentation score and ruminal dry matter (RDM) degradability. The evaluated progenies were obtained from the cross between the varieties Cristal (flint) and Cunha (dent), previously selected for grain...

Livia Maria Chamma Davide; Magno Antônio Patto Ramalho; Ulisses José de Figueiredo; João Cândido de Souza

2011-01-01

250

Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

Mihailovi? Vojislav M.

2004-01-01

251

SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Ia?i contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

Gh. Lixandru

2005-10-01

252

Interactions among Bt maize, entomopathogens, and rootworm species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the field: effects on survival, yield, and root injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 yr field study was conducted to determine how a blend of entomopathogens interacted with Bt maize to affect mortality of Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), root injury to maize (Zea maize L.) and yield. The blend of entomopathogens included two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, and one entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Bt maize (event DAS59122-7, which produces Bt toxin Cry34/35Ab1) decreased root injury and survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) but did not affect yield. During year 1 of the study, when rootworm abundance was high, entomopathogens in combination with Bt maize led to a significant reduction in root injury. In year 2 of the study, when rootworm abundance was lower, entomopathogens significantly decreased injury to non-Bt maize roots, but had no effect on Bt maize roots. Yield was significantly increased by the addition of entomopathogens to the soil. Entomopathogens did not decrease survival of corn rootworm species. The results suggest that soil-borne entomopathogens can complement Bt maize by protecting roots from feeding injury from corn rootworm when pest abundance is high, and can decrease root injury to non-Bt maize when rootworm abundance is low. In addition, this study also showed that the addition of entomopathogens to soil contributed to an overall increase in yield. PMID:23786047

Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Clifton, Eric H; Dunbar, Mike W; Jackson, Mark A; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-04-01

253

YIELD VARIABILITY OF MAIZE HYBRIDS IN RELATION TO THE DOSE AND KIND OF HERBICIDE APPLIED  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the years 2004-2006 a field experiment was conducted at the Maize Breeding Station in Kobierzyce (50o99’ N; 16o95’ E) on changeability of selected maize hybrid yields in relation to the dose and kind of herbicide applied. The experiment was established according to split plot method in four replications. The first factor in the experiment was herbicides Mustang 306 SE, Callisto 100 SC, Maister OD introduced in a basic dose and in a doubled one. Within the frames of each first factor tr...

2009-01-01

254

Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (aw) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 16 degrees C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly ...

1987-01-01

255

Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

Kinloch, Robert A.

1983-01-01

256

Effect of Farmers` Management Practices on Soil Properties and Maize Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variation in soil fertility and crop yield in farmers` fields is a factor responsible for the low farm productivity and adoption of agronomic recommendations. A study was conducted to characterize the soil fertility management zones using participatory rural appraisal, conventional survey methods and maize yield. Farmers identified the soil types using colour, texture and productivity. The red soils (Rhodic ferralsols) were rated to be less fertile than darker Humic acrisols and...

Tabu, I. M.; Obura, R. K.; Bationo, A.; Nakhone, L.

2005-01-01

257

An assessment of nutritional quality of hybryd maize grain based on chemical composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of grain of 20 maize hybrids, from different maturity groups, to define their nutritional quality from the point of main grain constituents: starch, total proteins, soluble proteins, oil, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, and soluble phenolics, as well as mass of 1.000 grains. A set of 20 ZP hybrids, FAO 400-800, were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD at Zemun Polje (Serbia, during the summer of 2009. Average content of proteins, oil and starch of analyzed maize hybrids was 10.5%, 4.7% and 80.8%, respectively. Hybrids from FAO maturity group 600 had highest grain mass (in average 419.5 g. Genetic variability in seed phytate content was observed, with values ranging from 2.64 to 3.75, averaged 3.44 g kg-1. Inorganic phosphorus (Pi concentrations were between 0.120 µ g g-1 (ZP 805 to 0.415 µ g g-1 (ZP 588ex, averaged 0.24 µ g g-1. Content of soluble proteins varied from 54.33 to 78.74 mg g-1. The high positive correlation was observed between total proteins and oil content in hybrids, as well as between starch and phenolics content. Phytate content was positively correlated with proteins, but this correlation was not significant, while the correlation between phytate and mass of 1,000 grains was positive and significant. A negative correlation occurred between phytate and starch. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

Stevanovi? Milan

2012-01-01

258

ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.  

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Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002. Six (five foreign and one inland cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process, Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978 and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966. According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2di=0.010 and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2di =0.160. Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2di =0.034 was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

Tihomir ?upi?

2003-06-01

259

Effect of Bt maize and soil insecticides on yield, injury, and rootworm survival: implications for resistance management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the effects on Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an insecticidal seed treatment (Poncho 1250, (AI)/clothianidin) and a granular insecticide (Aztec 2.1G, (AI)/tebupirimphos and cyfluthrin) alone and in combination with maize producing the insectidical toxin Cry3Bb1 derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Yields for Bt maize plots were significantly greater than for non-Bt maize; however, insecticides did not significantly affect yield. Insecticides significantly decreased root injury in non-Bt maize plots, but there were no significant differences in root injury between Bt maize with or without either insecticide. Maize producing the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 and the soil-applied insecticide Aztec significantly decreased survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), while only Bt maize significantly decreased survival of the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence). For both species, Bt maize and each of the insecticides delayed emergence. In the absence of density-dependent mortality, Bt maize imposed 71 and 80% reduction in survival on the western corn rootworm and the northern corn rootworm, respectively. The data from this study do not support combining insecticide with Bt maize because the addition of insecticide did not increase yield or reduce root injury for Bt maize, and the level of rootworm mortality achieved with conventional insecticide was likely too low to delay the evolution of Bt resistance. In addition, delays in emergence from Bt maize combined with insecticides could promote assortative mating among Bt-selected individuals, which may hasten resistance evolution. PMID:24224233

Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Meinke, Lance J; Gray, Michael E; Estes, Ronald E; Gassmann, Aaron J

2013-10-01

260

Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition  

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Full Text Available With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY and susceptibilityindex (S were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY was significantly positivelycorrelated with number of leaves, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of primary branches per panicle,number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, number of chaffs per panicle and boot leaf breadthwhen evaluated under controlled irrigation condition. But none of the above traits had significant positive correlation withSPY in upland condition. In the path analysis, it was found out that number of productive tillers per plant has a high positivedirect effect and most of other traits showed negligible or low direct effect in lowland condition, but in upland conditionnone of the factors are having high direct effects towards SPY. From the S and RY, it was found that the local land racesand drought tolerant varieties MDU 5, TKM11 etc., performed well under upland condition

Ananda Priya A

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

Nurjaya

2013-03-01

262

Effect of time of sowing and system Brachiaria brizantha intercropped with maize on yield components and soil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4; sown in two seasons and two seeding systems in space between two rows, and to evaluate the effect of intercropping on maize yield, as well as evaluating the physical properties of the soil after the consortium. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2010, the Municipality of Quatro Pontes/PR. The experimental design was randomized blocks as a factorial 2x2, and an additional treatment that was corn cultivation single, with four replications. The treatments consisted two intercropping systems: corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in the row, and corn intercropped with Brachiaria brizantha in space between two rows, and two times of sowing Brachiaria brizantha: simultaneously corn, and twenty-five days after sowing corn. The seed was planted mechanically in no-tillage system, with spacing between the lines of 0,70 m. The ears were harvested by hand and in the laboratory were evaluated: yield components and productivity. Brachiaria brizantha- MG-4 was sown and harvested manually. We evaluated the production of fresh and dry mass and yield components. For soil analyzes the soil was sampled at 0-0.10 and 0,10-0,20 m. Were determined the total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. The results demonstrated that the production components of Brachiaria brizantha were lower when it was sown twenty-five days after sowing corn, and between sowing systems when Brachiaria brizantha was sown in line. There was no reduction in grain yield of maize intercropped with Brachiaria system independent and sowing date. The consortium of pasture with corn increased the total porosity, and reduced soil bulk density.

Edleusa Pereira Seidel

2014-02-01

263

The long-term effects of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system in Southern Malawi, on gliricidia and maize yields, and soil properties  

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A gliricidia¿maize (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)¿Zea mays L.) simultaneous intercropping agroforestry system has shown to be a suitable option for soil fertility improvement and yield increase in highly populated areas of sub Saharan Africa where landholding sizes are very small and inorganic fertilizer use is very low. An 11 year old field experiment, gliricidia¿maize simultaneous intercropping, with and without a small application of inorganic fertilizer was studied to increase our understa...

2006-01-01

264

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF LEAF DISEASES AND KERNEL ROT IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the control of maize gray leafspot and maize white spot and its implications on the grain yield and kernel rot, and also to establish the relationshipbetween grain yield and disease severity. Twelve commercial single cross hybrids were evaluated in a randomizedblock design with three replications. Five evaluations of disease severity were performed using a visual symptomsscale, ranging from 1 (highly resistant to 9 (highly susceptible. Fungicide application was effective in the control ofmaize leaf diseases, and the reduced incidence of kernel rot provided on average 12% increased grain yield comparedto the control treatment. Maize gray leaf spot and maize white spot reduced maize grain yield, and this reduction wasgreater when diseases occurred earlier. Maize gray leaf spot caused higher decrease in grain yield than white spot.

ANDRÉ HUMBERTO BRITO

2012-04-01

265

Pattern in interaction in the maize yield trial  

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In making decisions on the development of varieties and the identification of certain growing regions, the effects of genotype (G) and genotype by environment (GxE) are very important. Although the main genotype effect and the interaction effect should be partitioned, there is still a need for their integration in the yield, as both simultaneously affect a ranking of the particular genotype within a certain environment. The AMMI (Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction) anal...

2011-01-01

266

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Nutritional Quality of Maize Cultivars (Zea mays and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Grains  

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Full Text Available To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of maize and sorghum grains, packs were exposed to doses of 0 and 2 kGy in a 60 Co package irradiator. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperatures. Proximate composition, minerals content, minerals bio-availability, tannins content, phytic acid content, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility were evaluated. The results indicated that gamma irradiation caused no effect on proximate composition, minerals content and minerals bioavailability. For protein fractions, in both maize cultivars no significant differences were observed in all fractions, except in prolamins and glutelins of Maize 75. While for sorghum significant increase in globulins, prolamins and glutelins was observed. While, gamma irradiation reduced the phytic acid and tannins contents significantly. The in vitro protein digestibility of maize cultivars was increased significantly, while the digestibility of sorghum was reduced.

B. Hassan Amro

2009-01-01

267

Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations / Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos, representa um desafio para o melhoramento. Estudou-se a qualidade nutricional em dez populações brasileiras de milho. As p [...] opulações foram avaliadas em três ambientes. Os experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de espigas e as concentrações de proteína, óleo, serina, ácido glutâmico, alanina, leucina, tirosina e fenilalanina. Análises de variância por experimento e conjunta foram realizadas. Há variação entre populações para a maioria dos caracteres estudados. Há efeito de ambiente para a maioria dos caracteres, mas não da interação genótipo-ambiente, permitindo a seleção para a média dos ambientes. Existe uma associação positiva entre o teor de proteína e o da maioria dos aminoácidos quando considerados com base na matéria seca e não há associação entre a qualidade nutricional e o rendimento. Portanto, é possível o desenvolvimento de cultivares superiores para ambos os caracteres. Abstract in english Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize po [...] pulations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

Andréa, Mittelmann; José Branco de, Miranda Filho; Luciano Lourenço, Nass; Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de, Lima; Claudete, Hara-Klein; Ricardo Machado da, Silva.

268

Comparison of yield damage of tropical maize hybrids caused by anthracnose stalk rot  

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The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction in yield caused by Colletotrichum graminicola in resistant and susceptible maize hybrids inoculated at different stages of development. Two trials were conducted in different environmental conditions in a randomized block design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial scheme and three replications. Treatments consisted of two hybrids (H8664, resistant and H8621, susceptible) inoculated at three growing stages (8-leaf, 12-leaf an...

Matiello, Rodrigo R.; Lopes, Maria Teresa G.; Brunelli, Ka?tia R.; Camargo, Luis Eduardo A.

2013-01-01

269

Effects of Sulphur and Nitrogen on the Yield and Seed Quality of Maize (cv. Barnali)  

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The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from November 2000 to May 2001 to find the effect of sulphur and nitrogen on the yield and seed quality of maize (cv. Barnali). The study included three levels of Sulphur, viz., 0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 and four levels of Nitrogen, viz., 0, 60, 100 and 120 kg ha-1. Gypsum and urea were used as the sources of Sulphur and Nitrogen...

Muhammad Morshed Alam; Md. Nazrul Islam; Shah Md. Munirur Rahman; Md. Halaluddin; Md. Moynul Hoque

2003-01-01

270

Effect of sodium and nitrogen on yield function of irrigated maize in Southern Portugal  

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Salinization and nitrate leaching are two of the leading threats to the environment of the European Mediterranean regions. Inefficient use of water and fertilizers has led to a nitrate increase in the aquifers and reduction in crop yields caused by salts. In this study, a triple emitter source irrigation system delivers water, salt (Na+), and fertilizer (N) applications to maize (Zea mays L.). The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of saline water and nitrogen applicat...

Ramos, Tiago; Gonc?alves, M. C.; Castanheira, N. L.; Martins, J. C.; Santos, F. L.; Fernandes, M. L.

2009-01-01

271

Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination  

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Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

Massimo Blandino

272

Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination  

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Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

Amedeo Reyneri

2011-02-01

273

Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p < 0.001) and a higher pH range (0.79 vs. 0.94; p = 0.003). In this study, grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. PMID:23826742

De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

2014-06-01

274

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Maize Yield Water Constraints under Climate Change in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent “hot-spots” in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity.

Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

275

Variable sensitivity of US maize yield to high temperatures across developmental stages  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensitivity of maize to high temperatures has been widely demonstrated. Furthermore, field work has indicated that reproductive development stages are particularly sensitive to stress, but this relationship has not been quantified across a wide geographic region. Here, the relationship between maize yield and temperature variations is examined as a function of developmental stage. US state-level data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service provide dates for six growing stages: planting, silking, doughing, dented, mature, and harvested. Temperatures that correspond to each developmental stage are then inferred from a network of weather station observations interpolated to the county level, and a multiple linear regression technique is employed to estimate the sensitivity of county yield outcomes to variations in growing-degree days and an analogous measure of high temperatures referred to as killing-degree days. Uncertainties in the transition times between county-level growth stages are accounted for. Results indicate that the silking and dented stages are generally the most sensitive to killing degree days, with silking the most sensitive stage in the US South and dented the most sensitive in the US North. These variable patterns of sensitivity aid in interpreting which weather events are of greatest significance to maize yields and provide some insight into how shifts in planting time or changes in developmental timing would influence the risks associated with exposure to high temperatures.

Butler, E. E.; Huybers, P. J.

2013-12-01

276

Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize  

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Full Text Available The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area. The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

S. Nezarat

2009-01-01

277

Genetic Variability and Heritability for Grain Yield and Other Characters in Lentil  

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Full Text Available Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for grain yield and six other characters in lentil. Experimental material included five lentil cultivars and 26 lentil lines grown during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Maximum variability was recorded for biological yield; grain yield and seed yield plant ha-1 . Maximum heritability was found for seed weight and days to 50% flowering.

B. Tuba Bicer

2004-01-01

278

The effect of a high selection intensity on the change of maize yield components' additive variance  

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A set of 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 Co and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize population was studied in this paper. After line selection and seed multiplication in 2000, the trials were carried out in 2001-2002. at Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design. After three cycles of recurrent selection we observed a significant decrease of homozygous progenies' means of root and stalk lodged plants percent, plant and ear height, but also of row number per ear. The means of grain number per ear and 1000 gra...

Deleti? Nebojša; Stojkovi? Slaviša; ?uri? Vladan; Gudži? Slaviša; Biberdži? Milan

2005-01-01

279

Genotype variations in grain yield of spring barley depending on sowing density  

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A three-year study was carried out for grain yield in five cultivars of the spring brewer's barley at the Small Grains Research Center of in Kragujevac from 1996 to 1998. The effect of three sowing densities on the number of spikes, grain number per spike and grain yield was studied for each cultivars. Research results have shown that the cultivars displayed a highly significant effect on the grain number per spike and grain yield. It has also been noticed that, in the course of ...

2006-01-01

280

Influence of Precursor Crops on Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers Response of Maize at Bako, Western Oromiya, Ethiopia  

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The present research was conducted with the objective to determine the right precursor crop with integrated nutrient management is an approach to soil fertility management and play a significant influence on sustainable production of maize (Zea mays). Precursor crops showed significant effect on yield and yield components of maize. Higher grain yield of maize was observed from Niger seed precursor crop. All inorganic and organic nutrients gave better yield of maize on Nig...

Tolera Abera; Daba Feyissa; Hasan Yusuf; Georgis, Tesfaye G.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

2008-02-15

282

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.  

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Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

Kamaluddin

2007-03-01

283

Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) parents (n = 11) and their F1 (n = 55) and F2 (n = 55) offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD), GFD for growing degree days (GDD), 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of varianc [...] e for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low). The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT) as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

Kamaluddin; Singh, Rishi M.; Prasad, Lal C.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Joshi, Arun K..

284

Rendimiento de las generaciones F1 y F2 de híbridos trilineales de maíz en los valles altos de México / Grain yield of the F1 and F2 generations of three-way maize hybrids in the high valleys of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México se usa 25% de semilla mejorada de maíz y 75% de semillas criollas ó variedades mejoradas acriolladas (generaciones avanzadas de híbridos). El precio de la semilla híbrida F1, es el más alto del mundo, esto limita un mayor uso, por lo que se emplea semilla obtenida de la propia parcela de h [...] íbridos, dado que en los Valles Altos los híbridos que se siembran en mayor superficie son H-50 y H-48, en este trabajo se estableció como objetivo definir la productividad de las generaciones F1 y F2 de los híbridos H-48, H-50, H-153, H-50 AE y H-47 AE, los cuales se evaluaron en el ciclo primavera-verano 2007 en dos experimentos; en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) de la UNAM y en el Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del INIFAP. El análisis estadístico combinado detectó para rendimiento diferencias altamente significativas para localidades, genotipos, generaciones F1 F2, así como para la interacción genotipos x generaciones F1 F2. La media de rendimiento fue 8 560 kg ha-¹ y el coeficiente de variación fue 18.8%. En CEVAMEX la media de rendimiento fue 10 053 kg ha-¹ diferente estadísticamente a la FESC donde la media fue 7 069 kg ha ¹. La generación F1 en promedio rindió 9 985 kg ha-¹ que representó 139.9% con respecto a la generación F2 que produjo 7 137 kg ha-¹. Los resultados obtenidos ratifican que no es conveniente el uso de semilla de la generación F2, por el decremento en productividad ya que la diferencia en rendimiento justifica la adquisición de semilla nueva cada ciclo. Abstract in english In Mexico, 25% of improved maize seed and 75% of native seed or improved native varieties (advanced generations of hybrids) are used. The price of the F1 hybrid seed is the highest in the world, limiting its greater use, for which reason farmers use seeds from their own plots of hybrid seeds. In the [...] high valleys of Mexico, the maize hybrids most planted are the H-50 and H-48. The purpose of this study was to determine the productivity of the F1 and F2 generations of the hybrids H-48, H-50, H-153 H-50 AE and H-47 AE. They were evaluated during the 2007 Spring-Summer season in two experiments carried out at the Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán (FESC) of the UNAM and the experimental station Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) of the INIFAP. With respect to yield, the combined statistical analysis detected highly significant differences for localities, genotypes and F1 F2 generations, as well as for the interaction genotypes x F1 F2 generations. Mean yield was 8 560 kg ha-¹ and the coefficient of variation was 18.8%. The mean yield obtained at the CEVAMEX was 10 053 kg ha¹. This was statistically different from that recorded in the FESC where a mean of 7 069 kg ha-¹ was logged. The F1 generation yielded 9 985 kg ha-¹ on average, which represented 139.9% with respect to the F2 generation that produced 7 137 kg ha¹. The results indicate that the use of F2 generation seeds is not convenient due to a decrease in productivity, and that the difference in yield justifies acquiring new seeds every season.

Espinosa-Calderón, A; Tadeo-Robledo, M; Arteaga-Escamilla, I; Turrent-Fernández, A; Sierra-Macías, M; Gómez-Montiel, N; Palafox-Caballero, A; Valdivia-Bernal, R; Trejo-Pastor, V; Canales-Islas, E.

285

GENETIC ADVANCE IN GRAIN YIELD QUANTITATIVE TRAITS AND GRAIN QUALITY OF SOYBEAN OS-LINES I. MATURITY GROUP  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the genetic advance in soybean grain yield and grain quality of 29 promising lines in comparison to four standard cultivars within I. maturity group during the three-year period (1998-2000 at Osijek. Phenotypic variability, wide-sense heritability, genetic gain and relative genetic gain from selection were calculated for grain yield, protein and oil content in grain. The obtained results of biometrical analysis indicated on achieved advance in soybean breeding on grain yield and grain quality in the frame of the Soybean Breeding Program at the Institute. Results of this research indicate the values of promising lines and also will be able to use for further genetic improvement of soybean cultivars.

Aleksandra Sudari?

2001-12-01

286

An Approach for Identifying of Fusarium Infected Maize Grains by Spectral Analysis in the Visible and Near Infrared Region, SIMCA Models, Parametric and Neural Classifiers  

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An approach for identifying of Fusarium infected single maize grains based on diffuse reflectance in visible and near infrared region is proposed in the paper. Spectral characteristics were collected in the range 400-2500 nm in steps of 2 nm. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) is used for data processing. Maize grains classification is based on SIMCA classifier and Probabilistic neural network (PNN). Recognition accuracy which is achieved for both classes of grains is respecti...

Tsvetelina Draganova; Plamen Daskalov; Rusin Tsonev

2010-01-01

287

Biochemical constraints that determine protein quality and grain yield in cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most cereal grain proteins are nutritionally poor because of the high proportion of prolamin, which is deficient in lysine. Improved protein quality mutants in maize, barley and sorghum have a lower proportion of prolamin and a higher albumin content. Protein accumulation in high-lysine mutants of maize and sorghum is more rapid during the early stages of grain development than in normal grains. Higher protein concentration during early grain development in high-lysine mutants was associated with increased levels of soluble amino nitrogen, glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate-oxaloacetate amino transferase activity. Regulatory control of mRNA synthesis for prolamin is important in determining protein quality. Post-translational modification of proteins may account for the loss of protein lysine during later stages of maturity. Starch synthesis studies indicate a decreased rate of starch accumulation during the later stages of grain development in high-lysine maize. Regulatory controls on starch synthesis in high-lysine mutants are discussed. (author)

1978-09-08

288

Determination of Yield and Yield Components and Relationship among the Components of Grain Sorghum Cultivars Grown as Main Crop  

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This research was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 main crop season in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Block with three replications. In the research, were used 24 grain Sorghum cultivars to determine high yielding cultivars. The grain yields of the grain sorghum cultivars varied between 3589.9-9634.8 kg ha-1 in the research. In all the observed characters, statistically significant differences were determined among cult...

Ismail Gul; Veysel Saruhan; Mehmet Basbag

2005-01-01

289

Combining ability analysis for yield and yield components in bold grained rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Assam  

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Combining ability analysis for grain yield and its components was carried out in eight parental diallel crosses of bold grained rice excluding reciprocals. The general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parents Ranjit followed by Matonga and Monohar Sali contributed significantly to high GCA effect towards high grain yield...

Chakraborty, R.; Supriyo Chakraborty; Dutta, B. K.; Paul, S. B.

2009-01-01

290

Efficacy of Different Herbicides on the Yield and Yield Components of Maize  

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The research work was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of various weed control measures in maize hybrid P-3203. The treatments were pre-emergence application of dual gold (S-metolachlor) at 1.92, primextra (atrazine + metolachlor) at 2.25, treflan (trifluralin) at 1.5, stomp (pendimethalin) at 0.75 and jinong (atrazine) at 0.90 kg a.i. ha-1 and post-emergence application of 2,4-D at 0.80 and banvel (dicamba) at 0.84 kg a.i. ha-1. The treatments increased plant ...

Muhammad Azim Khan; Khan Bahadar Marwat; Naeem Khan; Ijaz Ahmad Khan

2003-01-01

291

High-yield maize with large net energy yield and small global warming intensity  

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Addressing concerns about future food supply and climate change requires management practices that maximize productivity per unit of arable land while reducing negative environmental impact. On-farm data were evaluated to assess energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of irrigated maize in Nebraska that received large nitrogen (N) fertilizer (183 kg of N?ha?1) and irrigation water inputs (272 mm or 2,720 m3 ha?1). Although energy inputs (30 GJ?ha?1) were larger than those ...

Grassini, Patricio; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

292

Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

2012-01-01

293

Dehydrodimers of Ferulic Acid in Maize Grain Pericarp and Aleurone: Resistance Factors to Fusarium graminearum.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The relationship between the primary cell wall phenolic acids, dehydrodimers of ferulic acid, and maize grain resistance to Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of gibberella ear rot, was investigated. Concentrations of dehydrodimers of ferulic acid were determined in the pericarp and aleurone tissues of five inbreds and two hybrids of varying susceptibility and in a segregating population from a cross between a resistant and susceptible inbred. Significant negative correlations were found between disease severity and diferulic acid content. Even stronger correlations were observed between diferulic acid and the fungal steroid ergosterol, which is an indicator of fungal biomass in infected plant tissue. These results were consistent over two consecutive field seasons, which differed significantly for temperature and rainfall during pollination, the most susceptible stage of ear development. No correlation was found between the levels of these phenolics and deoxynivalenol levels. This is the first report of in vivo evidence that the dehydrodimers of ferulic acid content in pericarp and aleurone tissues may play a role in genotypic resistance of maize to gibberella ear rot. PMID:18943058

Bily, A C; Reid, L M; Taylor, J H; Johnston, D; Malouin, C; Burt, A J; Bakan, B; Regnault-Roger, C; Pauls, K P; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

2003-06-01

294

Influence of Relative Humidity and Temperature on the Changes in Grain Moisture in Stored Soybean and Maize  

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Full Text Available These investigations aimed to determine influence of the changes in relative humidity and temperature in storage facilities on the moisture in grain of stored soybean and maize. Soybean (“Podravka 95” variety and maize (“OSSK 644” hybrid were stored during 34 days at the temperatures of 0oC and 20oC, and relative humidity of 55%, 73%, 80% and 98%. At the temperature of 0oC and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased, 2.4% and 1.9%, while at the relative humidity of 80% and 98% it increased, 0.2% and 0.6% aft er 34 days storage. At the temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 55% and 73%, moisture in soybean grain decreased 4.0% and 0.7%, while at the relative humidity of 80% and 98% it increased 0.8% and 2.3%, as following. During 34 days storage at 0°C and relative humidity of 55%, moisture in maize grain decreased 0.2%, while at the relative humidity of 73%, 80% and 98% it increased 0.4%, 1% and 1.5%. At the temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 55%, moisture in maize grain decreased 1.5% and at the relative humidity of 73%, 80% and 98% increased, 0.2%, 0.9% and 1.7%. Such investigations enable additional insights into the rate of changes in grain, and the influence on the grain viability in changed storage conditions.

Mirna Volenik

2007-09-01

295

Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Results Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber) and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Conclusion Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

Lorenz, Aaron J; Anex, Rob P; Isci, Asli; Coors, James G; de Leon, Natalia; Weimer, Paul J

2009-01-01

296

Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security  

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Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

2012-12-01

297

Efficiency of Traditional Maize Storage and Control Methods in Rural Grain Granaries: a Case Study from Senegal  

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Full Text Available Maize storage and pest control method as practiced in traditional clay granaries in the Kédougou region in eastern Senegal were evaluated under rural conditions during two successive years. Three storage modes, i.e. maize cobs, winnowed and non-winnowed maize grains, were tested in seven granaries where the insecticidal plants Hyptis spicigera or H. suaveolens were either incorporated in the store structure or deposited as layers intermittently with maize. At the beginning of the storage period, all granaries were artificially infested with 7 pairs Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais. No damage, losses or live insects were observed during 7 months of storage when maize cobs were placed between layers of H. spicigera. Compared with the control, incorporation of insecticidal plants within the granary bottom had no significant effect on the damage and loss level irrespective of the storage mode. Non-winnowed maize always suffered less damage and losses than the winnowed variant. In all granaries depredation, insect abundance and moisture content were highest toward the end of storage period between June and July.

Gueye, MT.

2013-01-01

298

Determining Possible Relationships between Yield and Yield-Related Components in Forage Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Correlation and Path Analyses  

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This study was carried out to determine the optimum plant density and nitrogen rate in maize (Zea mays L.) under the ecological conditions of the Southern Marmara Region. For this purpose, maize was grown at different plant densities and was fertilized with different rates of nitrogen during 2006 and 2007. The dry forage yield, plant height, first ear height, stem diameter, leaf number plant-1, ear number plant-1, leaf ratio, stem ratio, ear ratio, ear diameter, leaf area index, and light int...

Carpici, Emine Budakli; Celik, Necmettin

2010-01-01

299

Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium B.P. maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico  

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Questions that still surround the origin and early dispersals of maize (Zea mays L.) result in large part from the absence of information on its early history from the Balsas River Valley of tropical southwestern Mexico, where its wild ancestor is native. We report starch grain and phytolith data from the Xihuatoxtla shelter, located in the Central Balsas Valley, that indicate that maize was present by 8,700 calendrical years ago (cal. B.P.). Phytolith data also indicate an early preceramic p...

Piperno, Dolores R.; Ranere, Anthony J.; Holst, Irene; Iriarte, Jose; Dickau, Ruth

2009-01-01

300

Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Ecotypes  

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The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India) to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels) and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain len...

Sanghera, Gulzar Singh; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Parray, Ghulam A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Temperature Variations within Wooden and Metal Grain Silos in the Tropics during Storage of Maize (Zea Mays)  

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The study was carried out on the comparative analysis of temperature variation within wooden and metal grain silos under a typical tropical weather condition in Nigeria. Temperature variations within and outside the silos were monitored for 130days (July to November) during storage of maize. Results showed that the grain temperature at the centre of the silos ranged between 24.0-32.7°C and 23.8-35.0°C for wooden and metal silos respectively. Also, at the silo walls, grain temperatures range...

2005-01-01

302

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

1995-04-24

303

Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure irrespective of topsoil removal, compared to NPK + urea which was only effective without topsoil removal. Therefore, poultry manure was a better soil ameliorant than NPK + urea after topsoil removal. (author)

2006-01-01

304

Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol  

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Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 ? 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

Peter A. EKUNWE

2011-11-01

305

Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

2006-12-01

306

Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

1996-06-01

307

Potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole grain sorghum and maize lager brewing and bioethanol production through grain genetic modification and phytase treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brewing and bioethanol production with raw grain and exogenous enzymes produces wort with satisfactory hot water extract (HWE). However, the free amino nitrogen (FAN) and mineral content can be too low, owing to low protein digestibility (PD) and phytate–mineral chelation, respectively. This study evaluated the potential for improvement in yeast nutrition in raw whole sorghum and maize brewing and bioethanol production by genetic modification (GM) of sorghum to improve PD and reduce phytate...

2012-01-01

308

Evaluation of Corn Hybrids for Grain Yield in D.I.Khan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The performance of six corn hybrids i.e. C-922, C-7878, C-7777, C-7877, P-3163 and R-4208 was evaluated for grain yield. The Pioneer hybrid P-3163 produced the highest plant height cob length (16.05 cm and 1000-grains weight. The corn hybrid C-7777 produced the highest plant stand and grain yield (7.25 t ha-1 while the number of cob per plant (0.945 and number of grains per cob (518.1 were maximum in C-7877. The corn hybrid R-4208 proved to be inferior variety regarding the yield and yield components.

Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

309

STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wiand S2GxY indicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

Aleksandra Sudari?

2001-06-01

310

Effect of Seed Inoculation and Different Nitrogen Levels on the Grain Yield of Mungbean  

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Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of mungbean was studied at Agronomic Research Station, Farooqabad during the year 2000 and 2001. Results showed that various yield components like No. of pods plant -1, No. of grain pods -1, 1000 grain weight, biological and grain yield were affected significantly by seed inoculation and fertilizer application. Seed inoculation + 50-50-0 NPK kg ha -1, exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential (955 kg ha -1 of mungbean grains.

Asrar Mahboob

2002-01-01

311

Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield Heterose em cruzamentos entre populações de milho: peso de espigas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations) and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations): GO-D (DENTADO), GO- F (FLINT), GO-A (...

Ricardo Machado da Silva; José Branco de Miranda Filho

2003-01-01

312

Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield  

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Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

Seerp Tamminga

2010-01-01

313

Influence of Integrated Nutrients on Growth, Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrated nutrients effect on growth, yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) during spring, 2009, at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The ex-periment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications with following treat-ments: T1 (control), T2(recommended NPK @ 200-120-125 kg ha-1), T3 [single spray of multinutrient (a solution mixture of micronutrients i.e; Zn = 2%, Fe = 1%...

Ayten Saracoglu; Kemal Tolga Saracoglu; Belkis Aylu; Vural Fidan

2011-01-01

314

Growth and Yield of Maize as Influenced by Sowing Date and Poultry Manure Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two field’s experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 at Evboneka in Edo State, Nigeria to determine optimum sowing date and poultry manure requirement of maize (Zea mays) for the forest ultisol location. We examined the biomass production and yield, besides growth parameters under three sowing dates (April 7, May 7 and June 7) and four levels of poultry manure (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 tonnes per hectare (tha-1)) in factorial arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design with three...

Law-ogbomo, Kolawole Edomwonyi; Remison, Samson Uduzei

2009-01-01

315

Yield of Silage Maize as Affected by Compaction Treatments at the Planting Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, effects of the different soil compaction treatments and tire-soil contact pressures on soil and plant properties and dry matter yield of second crop silage maize were investigated. Soil compaction was applied in the forms of the following treatments; Compaction on Furrow Surface (CFS), Compaction on Furrow Bottom (CFB), Compaction on Inter Rows (CIR) and non-compaction as a Control (C). The tire-soil contact pressures were selected as 0.025, 0.051 and 0.076 MPa control t...

Ebubekir Altuntas; Faruk Taser, O.; Kara, O.

2008-01-01

316

Sensitivity of southern African maize yields to the definition of sowing dekad in a changing climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most African countries struggle with food production and food security. These issues are expected to be even more severe in the face of climate change. Our study examines the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture with a view to propose adaptation options, especially in hard hit regions. We use a crop model to evaluate the impact of various sowing decisions on the water satisfaction index (WSI) and thus the yield of maize crop. The crop model is run for 176 stations over southern Afr...

Crespo, Olivier; Hachigonta, Sepo; Tadross, Mark

2011-01-01

317

Manuring Effect on the Potential Grain Yield of Wheat in the Light of The Holy Quran  

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Full Text Available Combined application of chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure increased the ears m -2 and grains per ear than alone application of organic or inorganic fertilizer to wheat variety Ghaznavi under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan however both parameters i.e. ears per emerged seedling and grains per ear remained lower than the predicted yield in Ayah No. 261 of Surah Al-Baqrah of The Holy Quran. This variety produced the grain yield of 5.5 t ha -1 when fertilized with 20 t ha -1 FYM + 138 kg P2O5 t ha -1. Unfortunately this grain yield is far below than the grain yield (Y=axb predicted in The Holy Quran which comes about 70 t ha -1. Therefore, it is suggested for the agricultural intellectuals to evolve varieties and agronomic techniques to achieve the grain yield predicted in The Holy Quran.

Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

2001-01-01

318

Determination of Some Yield Characters of Grain Corn in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted in Van, located in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, in 2000 and 2001 year to determine some yield characters of grain corn cultivars. In the experiment eleven (C-955, DK-626, Antbey, LG-60, Flash, LG-55, TTM-8119, Vero, TTM-813, Ant-90 and Akp nar corn cultivars were used and experimental design was Randomized Complete Block. Corn cultivars had the lowest 711.2 kg da-1 and the highest 1062.5 kg da-1 grain yield. DK-626 (1062.5 kg da-1, LG-55 (1027.4 kg da-1 and C-955 (1005.4 kg da-1 cultivars produced the highest grain yield had better performance while TTM-8119 and Vero cultivars having the lowest grain yield. Grain yield of corn cultivars in van were found sufficient compare to other region of Turkey. So, Van region can be a new corn grain production area in future.

Bilal Keskin

2005-01-01

319

Genome-wide transcript analysis of maize hybrids: allelic additive gene expression and yield heterosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, has been widely exploited in plant breeding for many decades, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we applied genome-wide transcript profiling to gain a global picture of the ways in which a large proportion of genes are expressed in the immature ear tissues of a series of 16 maize hybrids that vary in their degree of heterosis. Key observations include: (1) the proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with hybrid yield and heterosis; (2) the proportion of genes that exhibit a bias towards the expression level of the paternal parent is negatively correlated with hybrid yield and heterosis; and (3) there is no correlation between the over- or under-expression of specific genes in maize hybrids with either yield or heterosis. The relationship of the expression patterns with hybrid performance is substantiated by analysis of a genetically improved modern hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3394) versus a less improved older hybrid (Pioneer hybrid 3306) grown at different levels of plant density stress. The proportion of allelic additively expressed genes is positively associated with the modern high yielding hybrid, heterosis and high yielding environments, whereas the converse is true for the paternally biased gene expression. The dynamic changes of gene expression in hybrids responding to genotype and environment may result from differential regulation of the two parental alleles. Our findings suggest that differential allele regulation may play an important role in hybrid yield or heterosis, and provide a new insight to the molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms of heterosis. PMID:16868764

Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Yang, Xiaofeng; Crasta, Oswald; Zinselmeier, Christopher; Smith, Oscar S; Bowen, Ben

2006-09-01

320

Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Bacillus subtilis e adubação nitrogenada na produtividade do milho Effect of Bacillus subtilis inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on maize yield  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inoculação com Bacillus subtilis e adubação nitrogenada sobre o desenvolvimento e a produtividade do milho. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área experimental, no Centro de Treinamento do EMATER, em Teresina, PI. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso sob arranjo fatorial de 5 x 2, sendo cinco doses de N (0, 40, 80, 120 e 160 kg N ha-1 e dois tratamentos microbiológicos (com e sem inoculação. No tratamento com inoculação foi utilizado um produto formulado contendo Bacillus subtilis, estirpe PRBS-1. O plantio foi realizado em parcela experimental de 3,2 m x 5,0 m e as coletas dos dados foram realizadas aos 50 e 76 dias após a emergência para a avaliação do desenvolvimento e produtividade de grãos, respectivamente. Houve efeito significativo para inoculação e doses de N sobre todas as variáveis avaliadas, exceto para a altura das plantas. Houve aumento significativo para o acúmulo de N na parte aérea e a leitura de clorofila com a inoculação de Bacillus subtilis. As maiores produtividades de grãos foram encontradas com a utilização de doses iguais ou superiores a 120 kg ha-1 de N com o uso da inoculação. A inoculação das sementes com Bacillus subtilis, associada à adubação nitrogenada, melhorou o desenvolvimento e aumentou a produtividade de grãos do milho. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtilis inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on maize growth and yield. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area at the Training Center of EMATER, in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The treatments were disposed in a completely randomized block design in factorial scheme of 5 x 2, with five N doses (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha-1 and two microbiological treatments (with and without inoculation. In the inoculated treatment, a product formulated with Bacillus subtilis, strain PRBS-1, was used. The sowing was carried out in an experimental plot of 3.2 m x 5.0 m and the data collection was made 50 and 76 days after plants emergence for the growth and yield evaluation, respectively. Significant effects were observed for inoculation and N doses in all variables, except for plant height. A significant increase for N accumulation in the shoot and chlorophyll reading was observed with the Bacillus subtilis inoculation. The highest grain yields were found with use of N doses in rates equal or over 120 kg ha-1 and with the use of inoculation. Seed inoculation with Bacillus subtilis, associated with N fertilization, improved growth and increased maize yield.

Ademir S. F. de Araújo

2011-12-01

322

Assessment of Some Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Maize, Rice and Millet Grains and Their Weaning Mushes  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess some chemical and nutritional properties of maize, rice and millet grains and their derivate mushes. Results showed on one hand that the density of studied cereal grains was very near to the one of the Chinese chive. But their capacities of hydration and inflation were very low in comparison to these of the same grains. Rice grains has a low capacity of hydration and a low index of hydration compared to maize and millet grains. With respect to their permeability and toughness, the studied cereal grains could be ranked as follow: rice > corn > thousand. Mushes flours also showed very low moisture content, high starch and carbohydrates contents, poor levels in lipids and proteins. They contain some essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in variable concentrations. Contents in phytic acid were also variable. In consequence, the energy density of these flours appeared very high but it was lower than the one of the existing complement flours of Cote d`Ivoire markets.

Brou Kouakou

2008-01-01

323

Ridge regression technique to determine the environmental influences on tef (Eragrostis tef) grain yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tef grain yield is dependent on a number of component characters such as plant height and panicle length. These characters and consequently yield are governed by a large number of factors including environmental factors. The objective of this paper was to determine the environmental influences on tef grain yield. The effects of eleven environmental variables on tef yield were studied using least squares and ridge regression analyses. The results revealed that the least squares estimates of re...

Debusho, Legesse Kassa

2008-01-01

324

Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

2010-02-01

325

Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras  

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Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

MENDOZA, Carlos O.

2013-06-01

326

Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

1982-02-01

327

The yield gap of global grain production: A spatial analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global grain production has increased dramatically during the past 50 years, mainly as a consequence of intensified land management and introduction of new technologies. For the future, a strong increase in grain demand is expected, which may be fulfilled by further agricultural intensification rather than expansion of agricultural area. Little is known, however, about the global potential for intensification and its constraints. In the presented study, we analyze to what extent the available...

2010-01-01

328

Path Analysis for Rice Grain Yield and Related Traits in Tow Planting Patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Rasht Rice Research Institute, in 2001 to study trait relationships and to determine the direct and indirect effects of different characteristics on grain yield of rice (Orgza sativa L.. A 9x2 factorial experiment in complete randomized block design with 3 replications was used. The two factors were 9 cultivars, namely: Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Binam, Sepeedroud, Nemat, Khazar, Taichung, Chanto, and Usen, and 2 planting patterns (15x15 cm and 30x30 cm. Significant differences were detected among cultivars, between planting patterns, and their interaction effects. The direct effect of the number of panicles/m2 on grain yield was positive and significant in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Heading date had a positive and significant direct effect on the number of panicles/m2 in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Only in 30x30 cm planting pattern, a positive correlation was found between biomass at heading date and the number of panicles/m2. Grain weight per plant had a direct and positive effect on panicle weight in the 3 cases studied. Also, in all the cases studied, flag leaf area had positive direct effects on grain weight per plant. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period increased in 30x30 cm planting pattern. Native cultivars demonstrated longer latent period. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period showed positive direct effects on grain yield in both plantings. According to the results obtained, an increase in the number of panicles/m2, rate of grain filling, and effective grain filling period would enhance grain yield. Selection for heading date, grain yield per plant, and flag leaf area would also indirectly increase grain yield.

M. Esfahani

2005-04-01

329

Global and grain-specific accumulation of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases in transgenic maize (Zea mays).  

Science.gov (United States)

In planta expression of cell wall degrading enzymes is a promising approach for developing optimized biomass feedstocks that enable low-cost cellulosic biofuels production. Transgenic plants could serve as either an enzyme source for the hydrolysis of pretreated biomass or as the primary biomass feedstock in an autohydrolysis process. In this study, two xylanase genes, Bacillus sp. NG-27 bsx and Clostridium stercorarium xynB, were expressed in maize (Zea mays) under the control of two different promoters. Severe phenotypic effects were associated with xylanase accumulation in maize, including stunted plants and sterile grains. Global expression of these xylanases from the rice ubiquitin 3 promoter (rubi3) resulted in enzyme accumulation of approximately 0.01 mg enzyme per gram dry weight, or approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein (TSP). Grain-specific expression of these enzymes from the rice glutelin 4 promoter (GluB-4) resulted in higher-level accumulation of active enzyme, with BSX and XynB accumulating up to 4.0% TSP and 16.4% TSP, respectively, in shriveled grains from selected T0 plants. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the GluB-4 promoter for biotechnological applications. The phenotypic effects of xylanase expression in maize presented here demonstrate the difficulties of hemicellulase expression in an important crop for cellulosic biofuels production. Potential alternate approaches to achieve xylanase accumulation in planta without the accompanying negative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:21689368

Gray, Benjamin N; Bougri, Oleg; Carlson, Alvar R; Meissner, Judy; Pan, Shihao; Parker, Matthew H; Zhang, Dongcheng; Samoylov, Vladimir; Ekborg, Nathan A; Michael Raab, R

2011-12-01

330

A Study of Relationship between Grain Yield and Yield Component in Common Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   This research was conducted in order to determine the relationship between grain yield and yield components, using 30 common bean varieties in a randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural filed faculty of Agriculture,Tehran university In this study 18 traits were assessed on 10 random plants from each plot. The result showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of trait under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. Also results showed that the grain yield had a positive and significant genotypic correlation with number of seed/pod, pod weight, number of pod/plant, biological yield, days to flowering and maturity. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the maximum variation in grain yield could be attributed to the number pod/plant, number seed/plant, 100 seed weight and pod length. The results of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to number seed/plant and the lowest direct effect, which was related to number pod/plant. Factor analysis resulted in three factors that accounted for 78/7% of total variation. The first factor accounted for 38.39% of total variation and was designated as yield and yield component factor. This factor is comprised of pod weight, biological yield, grain yield and number of pod/plant traits.

F. Khyalparast

2008-01-01

331

Evaluation of S1 Maize (Zea mays L. Families for Green Fodder Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the best one hundred S1 families for green fodder yield and other plant traits to select superior families for further inter-crossing. The S1 families were found different for green fodder yield per plant and number of leaves per plant. The values of coefficients of variation were found to be high for green fodder weight per plant (18.34%. These results indicate that there was more variability among S1 lines for green fodder weight per plant. Green fodder weight was positively and highly significantly correlated with number of leaves per plant and plant height. However, it is concluded from the results that green fodder weight can be used as selection criteria while selecting superior S1 maize families.

Syed Sadaqat Mehdi

1999-01-01

332

EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION OF WHOLE CROP MAIZE VERSUS MAIZE STOVER SILAGES WITH COMMERCIAL CONCENTRA TES ON MILK YIELD AND ITS COMPOSITION IN SAHIW AL COWS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to compare the effects of feeding value of silages from whole crop maize (WCM and maize Stover (MS on dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield and its composition in lactating Sahiwal cows. Eight cows nearly of the same age, weight and lactation stage were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. A and B, Two rations viz I and II were randomly allotted to these groups. Both the rations were based on 60% test materials (WCM or MS silage added with 40% concentrates. Each ration was offered ad libitum twice daily. The experiment lasted for 20 days, allowing 10 days of adaptation period. The data were statistically analyzed using completely randomized design. Non significant differences were observed between both the groups of cows fed WCM or MS silage for DMI, milk yield and its components such as fat and solid-not-fat, total solids, crude protein and casein contents, Based on the findings of this study. it was concluded that the overall response of the experimental cows to the silages from MS and WCM was similar. Therefore, it was suggested that on the commercial scale. for feeding dairy animals during drought season, conversion of the maize stover into silage should be encouraged rather than whole crop maize.

A. U. Rahman. A. Khan. M. Amjed and N. Ahmad

2003-07-01

333

Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil / Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuv [...] a de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State [...] was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling). Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.

Homero, Bergamaschi; Timothy Robert, Wheeler; Andrew Juan, Challinor; Flávia, Comiran; Bruna Maria Machado, Heckler.

334

Interrelationship between grain yield and physiological parameters of winter wheat nitrogen nutrition efficiency  

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Full Text Available This paper deals with interrelationship between grain yield and some physiological parameters of wheat plant nitrogen nutrition efficiency as well as interrelationships between these parameters and some yield related traits (biological yield, grain harvest index. The aim of such investigation is to affirm possibilities of using physiological parameters of wheat plant nitrogen nutrition efficiency as criterions in breeding on its grain yield. The investigation, conducted as three years field trials, included 30 wheat cultivars and perspective lines. There were studied: nitrogen content in the above - ground part of plant at anthesis, in grain, in straw and total nitrogen content at maturity, nitrogen harvest index, nitrogen reutilization, post - anthesis nitrogen accumulation and physiological efficiency of nitrogen. The positive and statistically high significant relationships between nitrogen content in the above - ground part of plant at anthesis, in grain and in straw, total nitrogen content at maturity, nitrogen reutilization and post - anthesis accumulation as physiological parameters and grain yield were registered in investigated material. Most of listed parameters, important by grain yield aspect, can be studied easily and measured before wheat vegetative period ends. The investigated parameters can be recommended as criterions for selecting of parental pairs and evaluating progeny in breeding of wheat on grain yield, considering to their determined interrelationships and their measurability.

Nikoli? Olivera

2011-01-01

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EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA  

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Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea ferti...

Mary, Eche N.; Oyema, Iwuafor E. N.; Yo Ila, Amapu I.; Victoria, Bruns M.

2013-01-01

336

Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage  

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Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

A. Borghese

2010-02-01

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Influence of Iron and AM Inoculation on Metabolically Active Iron, Chlorophyll Content and Yield of Hybrid Maize in Calcareous Soil  

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Iron deficiencies are commonly seen in calcareous soils which often reduce the yield of the crops. Iron application in conjunction with Arbuscular mycorrhizae may help to increase the metabolically active iron content in the plants and hence the yields. The objective of this experiment was to study the influence of iron and arbuscular mycorrhizae inoculation on metabolically active iron, chlorophyll content and yield of hybrid maize in calcareous soil. Hence, field experiment was conducted at...

Mohamed Amanullah, M.; Archana, J.; Manoharan, S.; Subramanian, K. S.

2012-01-01

338

Temperatura do ar, rendimento de grãos de milho e caracterização fenológica associada à soma calórica Air temperature, maize yield and phenological characterization associated to heat units  

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Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar o efeito da temperatura média do ar no rendimento de grãos e de prever a época de ocorrência dos estádios fenológicos da cultura de milho em função da soma calórica, foi conduzido um experimento de campo utilizando três híbridos, com diferentes exigências térmicas, em três diferentes épocas de semeadura. Para estimativa do rendimento de grãos foram determinados seus diferentes componentes, onde se observou um decréscimo do rendimento com aumento da temperatura em função das épocas de semeadura utilizadas. A fenologia foi associada ao número relativo de graus-dia, onde se observou uma relação linear. Há uma temperatura média do ar correspondente ao máximo rendimento de grãos, e os estádios fenológicos da cultura podem ser previstos através do conhecimento prévio da série histórica de temperatura da localidade e da soma calórica requerida para o ponto de maturidade fisiológica.With the purpose of evaluating the effect of the mean daily air temperature on grain yield and to predict the occurrence of the maize crop phenological phases as function of heat units, a field experiment was carried out using three hybrids with different heat unit requirements and three sowing dates. To estimate grain productivity, different yield components were determinated. Crop phenology was associated to the relative degree-days, for which a linear relation was observed. There is a mean air temperature corresponding to maximum grain yield, and the crop phenological phases can be predicted knowing the local historical temperature series and the thermic index for physiological maturity.

João Luiz Gadioli

2000-09-01

339

Quantitative and Qulitative Characteristics of Grain Yield Sorghum as Affected by Nitrogen and Plant Density  

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Full Text Available The effect of N levels and planting densities on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain yield in grain sorghum (cv. Kimia was studied in summer 1998 at Kushkak Agricultural Research Station, Shiraz University. The experiment was a spilt plot with 4 replications in which 4 levels of planting densities (7.7, 10, 15.4, 20 seeds m-2 were applied as main plots and 4 levels of N (0, 40, 80, 120 Kg N ha-1 as subplots. N application rates up to 120 kg N ha-1 increased grain yield (7240 kg ha-1, but due to increased planting density (5336 kg ha-1 the highest yield obtained from 15 seeds m-2. Interaction of N and planting density was also significant. Application of 80 kg N ha-1 and highest planting density produced 8702 kg ha-1 of grain. Different grain yields in different levels of N and planting densities were due to increased number of grains per basic branches of panicle and increased number of panicle per m-2. The trend of variation of crop growth rates (CGR was similar to the trend of grain yield. Nitrogen application increased grain protein contents but planting density had no significant effect on grain protein. Phenolic compounds (tannins decreased with increasing N application and with decreasing planting density. A negative correlation was observed between increased N content and increased phenolic compounds.

A.H. Jalali

2001-10-01

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Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L. Ecotypes  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain length:breadth (L:B ratio and panicle density. High heritability accompanied by high to moderate genetic advance for panicle density, days to 50% flowering, plant height, grain number indicated the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters. Grain yield was found to be positively and significantly correlated with number of tiller per plant, panicle density m-2 and number of grain per panicle at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating the importance of these characters for yield improvement in this material. The results of genotypic path analysis revealed that panicle density had the highest positive direct effect followed by plant height and days to flower. The overall results indicated that selection favouring higher panicle density, test weight and panicle weight and medium plant height with a reasonable balance for moderate grain number would help to achieve higher grain yield in this population of red rice ecotypes.

Ghulam A. PARRAY

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 Gene in Soybean Increases Grain Yield  

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Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrin...

Preuss, Sasha B.; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P.; Tripodi, Federico A.; Screen, Steven E.; Anil, Veena S.; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A.; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S.; Bell, Erin

2012-01-01

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Grain Yield and Morphological Characters of Spring Safflower Genotypes: Evaluation Relationship Using Correlation and Path Analysis  

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Correlation among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of safflower were investigated. In this survey, 30 spring safflower genotypes were tested via the randomized complete block experiment design for two years of 2005 and 2006. The phenotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficient were estimated in both years. Grain yield was significantly correlated with some characters, like the plant height (r = 0.563** and r = 0....

Ali Reza Ahmadzadeh; Eslam Majedi; Behroz Darbani; Ahmad Rzban Hagegat; Mohamad Reza Dadashe

2008-01-01

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Comparative evaluation of modified neem leaf, neem leaf and woodash extracts on soil fertility improvement, growth and yields of maize (Zea mays L. and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Sole and Intercrop  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out at Akure (7oN, 5o101E in the rainforest zone of Nigeria in 2006 and 2007 to determine the effectiveness of neem leaf, woodash and modified neem leaf extracts as fertilizer sources in improving soil fertility, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus sole and intercrop. There were six treatments namely, poultry manure, neem leaf extract (sole, woodash extract, modified neem leaf (neem leaf + woodash, NPK 15-15-15 and a control (no fertilizer nor extract, replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB. The extracts (neem leaf, wood ash and modified neem leaf were applied at 1200 litres per hectare each, NPK 15-15-15 at 300 kg/ha and p