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Sample records for maize grain yield

  1. SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS OF LIMING WITH CARBOCALK ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELDS

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    Manda Antunović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine subsequent effects of carbocalk liming on soil characteristic, maize yield components and grain yield. For this study the field expe-riment (Sopje, Virovitica-Podravina County was established on an acidic planosol (pH(KCl=3.42 amended once in 2000 with increasing rates of air-dried carbocalk (0, 15, 30, 45 and 601 ha'1. Even though liming in 2000 increased maize grain yield in 2013 growing season as compared to the control, the highest maize grain yield of 5.42 t ha-1 was achived with liming at 30 t ha-1 carbocalk, whereas the lowest maize grain yield (4.39 t ha'1 of limed treatments was at 601 ha'1 carbocalk. The highest decrease of soil acidity in 2013 for 3.41 pH units as compared to the control, was at 60 t ha'1 carbocalk in 2000. Increasing carbocalk doses in 2000 had a subsequent effect on increase of P and decrease of K availability in 2013.

  2. DISTRIBUITION AND POPULATION OF PLANTS AND MAIZE GRAIN YIELD

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    DURVAL DOURADO NETO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the effect of plant population (30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 plants ha-1, under two width rows (0.40 and 0.80 m, on the grain yield of three maize genotypes with open (AG 1051, semi-erect (AG 7575 and erect (DKB 911 leaf architecture, a field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil between November 20th, 2000 and April 10th, 2001. According to the results: a in high population (90,000 plants ha-1, the reduction of width row (from 0.80 m to 0.40 m increases grain yield on the open-leaf-architecture genotype, and b, until 60,000 plants ha-1, regardless of genotype, the grain yield is crescent with an increase in plant population. With the plant population increasing from 60,000 to 90,000 plants ha-1, the grain yield: a increases in the erect-leaf-architecture genotype, b stabilizes on the semi-erect-leaf-architecture genotype, c stabilizes under reduced spacing (0.40 m, and decreases under spacing of 0.80 m in the open-leaf-architecture genotype.

  3. Effects of deficit irrigation on grain yield and ear characteristics of maize

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    Kresović Branka J.; Gajić Boško A.; Tapanarova Angelina Đ.; Pejić Borivoj; Tomić Zorica P.; Vujović Dragan S.; Životić Ljubomir B.

    2015-01-01

    In the Vojvodina region, drought is an important factor limiting grain yield in maize. The aims of this research were to compare irrigation scheduling in maize (cv. ZP SC 684), and to evaluate grain yield and ear characteristics. A 3-year field experiment was carried out in the Vojvodina region, a northern part of the Republic of Serbia (384 mm of rainfall in the maize-growing period). Maize was subjected to four irrigation levels (rainfed - I0 and supply a...

  4. Effects of deficit irrigation on grain yield and ear characteristics of maize

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    Kresović Branka J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Vojvodina region, drought is an important factor limiting grain yield in maize. The aims of this research were to compare irrigation scheduling in maize (cv. ZP SC 684, and to evaluate grain yield and ear characteristics. A 3-year field experiment was carried out in the Vojvodina region, a northern part of the Republic of Serbia (384 mm of rainfall in the maize-growing period. Maize was subjected to four irrigation levels (rainfed - I0 and supply at 80-85% - I1, 70-75% - I2 and 60-65% - I3 of field capacity. The results indicated a large yearly variability, mainly due to a rainfall event at the flowering, fertilization and grain filling stages. A significant irrigation effect was observed for all the variables under study, with significant differences between the three irrigation treatments. The grain yield ranged between 8.73 and 16.33 t ha-1. The highest grain yield of maize (average of 15.08 t ha-1 was in the I1 treatment, while the non-irrigated (I0 treatment had the lowest yield (average of 10.20 t ha-1, a 35% grain yield reduction. With the decrease of irrigation water, the grain yield of maize decreased. The most distinctive impact the irrigation had on maize yield was during the warm and very dry growth period of the year of 2008. Maize in the Vojvodina region can be cultivated with acceptable yields while saving irrigation water and maximizing resource-use efficiency.

  5. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

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    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with

  6. Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components

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    Živanović Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was used as a female parent.

  7. Weed Competition and its Effects on Pwani Hybrid 1 Maize Grain Yields in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed competition is a serious constraint to maize production in coastal Kenya. A trial to asses the effects of weed competition on performance of maize was planted at Regional Research Centre-Mtwapa and Msabaha Research Sub-centre-Malindi in 1992. Pwani hybrid 1 maize was used in the trials. Weeding was done at weekly intervals from germination up to the sixth week in an additive weed removal system and plots maintained weed free afterwards. A weedy and a weed free plot were used as checks. Data on plant counts plant heights, weed biomass, weed identification and maize grain yield at 15 % MC were all recorded. There was a significant difference between weed and weedy free plots for grain yield, plant height and weed biomass for both sites. A 53% maize grain yield reduction due to weed competition was recorded. A 3% grain yield reduction equivalent to 1.03 bags for every week's delay in weeding after the first to weeks was realised for both sites. There was a corresponding grain yield loss as delay in weeding increased

  8. Grain Yield and Quality of Semiflint Maize Hybrids at Two Sowing Dates

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    Damir Fabijanac

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid selection has an important infl uence on specifi c end-use of maize (Zea mays L. grain. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the grain yield and quality of four recently released (1999-2002 maize hybrids compared to a check hybrid Bc 462 released in 1982. All hybrids were of semifl int type, that belong to the various maturity groups (FAO 200-400. Hybrids were grown over two years at the optimum (around 1 May and delayed (about two weeks later sowing dates. Grain yields were signifi cantly higher in the growing season of 2004 averaging 7247 kg ha-1 compared to 6114 kg ha-1 in 2003. Larger grain yields in 2004 were primarily associated with the heavier 1000-kernel weights. Grain protein and oil contents did not vary across two years and averaged 112 and 43.4 g kg-1, respectively. Hybrids signifi cantly diff ered in grain yield, yield components and grain quality traits. A new, longer-maturity hybrid Zlatko produced the largest grain yields, which were by 22 % higher than those of the lowest yielding Tvrtko 303, a shorter-season hybrid. Sowing date did not aff ect grain yield and protein content in any of the tested hybrids, but all hybrids tended to have slightly, yet signifi cantly lower oil content with delayed sowing date. A full-season check hybrid Bc 462 had signifi cantly higher grain protein and oil content than all recently released hybrids, which did not diff er among themselves for those quality traits. However, Bc 462 produced signifi cantly smaller protein, oil and starch yield per hectare than Zlatko because of lower grain yields for the former. Positive correlation existed between grain protein and oil content among tested hybrids, whereas these quality traits negatively correlated with grain yield and starch content. Th us, end-users that require high grain quality maize may need to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with protein and oil content.

  9. Recurrent Selection for Maydis Leaf Blight Resistance and Grain Yield Improvement in Maize

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    S. Salim Shah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L., caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. and Miyake, is one of the major factors limiting maize production in the plain areas of Pakistan, particularly in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP. The objectives of this study were to estimate selection differential, expected and observed response to selection and heritability for maydis leaf blight resistance and grain yield and to determine progress from selection in a maize population. Two cycles of S1 recurrent selection were conducted in broad based maize population, Sarhad White (SW. One hundred S1 lines were compared with their respective original population (C0 as a check. The experimental material was evaluated under artificial epiphytotics during 2003 and 2004, at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Selection differentials, expected responses and heritability estimates were determined from the replicated S1 lines performance of the first cycle. The observed progress was estimated from the replicated S1 lines of the second cycle that were generated after recombination of selected S1 lines of the first cycle. Highly significant variations between the cycles were observed for MLB and grain yield. Moderate and high heritability estimates, desirable selection differentials and close correspondence of expected and observed response were manifested for MLB and grain yield. The positive percent deviation of inoculated from uninoculated trials in both cycles (C1 = 71% and C2 = 41% for leaf blight indicated successful development of blight disease after artificial inoculation, while the negative percent deviation of inoculated form uninoculated trials (C1 = -21 and C2 = -6% for grain yield indicated the impact of blight disease on grain yield. Blight disease was significantly reduced from 2.9 to 2.3, whereas, grain yield was significantly increased from 2041 kg ha-1 cycle-1 to 2527 kg ha-1 cycle-1 or 19% cycle-1. This yield improvement in SW was probably the result of concomitant reduction in the blight disease severity by -26%. These findings suggested that S1 recurrent selection was quite effective in improving disease resistance and grain yield. Nevertheless, some additional cycles of selection may be required to further improving grain yield and resistance level to maydis leaf blight in SW maize population.

  10. TILLERING AND PROLIFICACyAS STABILIZING TRAITS TO MAIZE GRAIN yIELD AT DIFFERENT DENSITIES

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    LUÍS SANGOI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that increase the number of ears produced per plant can minimize losses in maize grain yield caused by low plant populations. This study was carried out aiming to evaluate if tillering and prolificacy are effective traits to stabilize maize grain yield at different plant populations. The trial was set in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, during the growing season of 2007/08. Four plant densities (2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 pl m-2 and three maize hybrids (P30F53 - tillering; AG9020 - prolific; AS1570, scarce tillering and low prolificacy were tested. The leaf area index of hybrids at flowering increased linearly from 2.6 to 6.9 with the increase in plant population. Grain yield ranged from 10,750 to 13,740 kg ha-1 and increased quadratically with the increment in plant population. P30F53 was more productive than AG9020 at the density of 5.0 pl m-2. There was no difference on hybrids grain yield at the other plant populations. The higher tillering ability of P30F53 and prolificacy of AG9020 did not provide them yield advantages, in comparison to AS1570, when maize was grown at the lowest plant population. The regular distribution of pluvial precipitation and the favorable soil and management conditions attenuated yield losses caused by low plant populations, reducingthe importance of tillering and prolificacy as productivity stabilizing traits at sub-optimal stands.

  11. Sowing date effects on grain yield components for different maize genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoot dry weight of maize (Zea mays L.) depends on the amount of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the crop (IPAR). The present work was conducted to analyze the variation in shoot dry weight production and its partitioning to reproductive sinks when seasonal changes of temperature and solar radiation occur during the growing cycle of the crop. Four commercial hybrids were grown at 8 plants m-2 on four sowing dates (20 Aug., 20 Sept., 20 Oct., and 20 Nov.) at Rojas (34 degrees 08'S, 60 degrees 59' W), Argentina, on a silty clay loam soil (Typic Argiudoll) during 1990-1991 and 1991-1992, with no water or nutrient restrictions. Shoot dry weight at physiological maturity was associated with the amount of IPAR, with radiation use efficiency before silking (4.14 g MJ-1) higher than after silking (2.45 g MJ-1). Grain yield was correlated with shoot dry weight at physiological maturity, resulting in a stable (0.46 +/- 0.02) harvest index. Shoot dry weight at silking showed a significant relationship with final grain number (r2 = 0.52, n = 32) as well as with grain yield (r2 = 0.55, n = 32). Ear dry weight at silking was associated with grain yield particularly for prolific hybrids (r2 = 0.64, n = 16). Provided postsilking conditions do not limit assimilate supply to the grains, shoot dry weight at silking could be considered a good grain yield predictor. In temperate regions, maize potential productivity seems to be more limited by the amount of solar radiation available around silking (determinant of grain set) than during grain filling (determinant of grain weight). Early and intermediate sowings tend to best utilize solar radiation for grain production

  12. Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

  13. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

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    Boinovi? Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  14. Genetic Mechanisms of Leaf Characteristics and Grain Yield in Maize under Normal and Moisture Stress Conditions

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    Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight inbred lines of maize were evaluated to determine the genetic mechanisms of leaf characteristics in maize inbred lines under different environments. The experimental material was planted under normal as well as water stress conditions. Data on yield and leaf characteristics revealed highly significant differences among inbred lines under both plantings. Graphical analysis revealed that additive gene action for soluble sugar content remained unchanged under water stress while over-dominance type of gene action for protein content, osmotic potential, stomata size and grain yield per plant under normal condition also remained unchanged under water stress whereas additive type of gene action for stomatal frequency under normal changed to over-dominance type of gene action under water stress.

  15. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

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    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  16. The Effects of Weeding Regimes and Maize Planting Density on Quantity of Management and Grain Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of four weeding regimes: weed free, herbicide use, two times hand cultivation at week three and eight after emergency and any two planting densities: Low planting density of 10 plants per m2, high planting density of 21 plants per m2 were evaluated on maize H511. A 4x2 factorial blocked design was used. Thinning done at 112 DAP interaction effect was not significant; weeding regime was significant while planting density was highly significant. Herbicide use regime had highest mean dry matter yield of thinnings of 13.82 t/ha. High planting density showed the highest mean dry matter yield of thinning of 15.2 t/ha while low planting density showed the lowest of 8.7 t/ha. The treatment interaction on stover dry matter was not significant, while planting density and weeding regimes were significant. Two times hand cultivation gave the highest stover dry matter forage yield of 19.4 t/ha while weedy regime gave the least yield of 10.2t/ha. Low planting density which gave 11.1 t/ha. Hand cultivation-2 times had the highest grain dry matter yield of 5.03t/ha, while weedy regime had the least of 1.93t/ha. Low planting density had the highest grain dry matter yield of 4.9t/ha, while high planting density had the least yield of 2.4t/ha

  17. Genetics of ear traits and grain yield in quality protein maize (Zea mays L.

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    V.K. Agrawal*, R.M. Singh, J.P. Shahi and R.K. Agrawal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Haymans component analysis was employed to ascertain the gene actions conditioning the ear related traits viz., ear length, ear diameter, kernel rows per ear, kernels per row and grain yield per plant in quality protein maize. Eight yellow seeded quality protein maize (QPM inbred lines were crossed in diallel mating design, including reciprocals. The inbreds and their 56 crosses were evaluated in randomized block design with 3 replications across the three environments. Significant differences among genotypes observed for all the traits over the environments. Influence of epistasis found for all the traits in one or more seasons except ear length. Ear length exhibited importance of additive gene effects across the seasons. Over-dominance showed in all the characters. The range of narrow sense heritability was low over the environments for most of the traits i.e. for ear length (15.1-19.3%, ear diameter (12.1-17.7%, kernels per row (23.6-30.5% and grain yield per plant (13.6-19.5% whereas kernel rows per ear exhibited moderate narrow sense heritability ranging from 44.3-66.5% over the environments. In general, narrow sense heritability estimates were higher in rabi environment as compared to kharif environment

  18. Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources on The Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

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    M. Ayub

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different NP sources viz., urea + single super phosphate (SSP, Ammonium nitrate (AN + SSP, ammonium sulphate (AS + SSP, Urea + Triple super phosphate (TSP, AN + TSP and AS + TSP on the growth and grain yield of maize was studied in the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 1997. A quadruplicated experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design measuring a net plot size of 3m x 8m. The combination of ammonium sulphate and single super phosphate produced significantly higher plant height, leaf area plant-1 and grain yield (5.41 t ha-1 than all other combinations. The increased yield was mainly associated with higher 1000-grain weight. Number of cobs plant-1 and number of grain rows cob-1 were statistically sigmilar in all combinations of NP sources. The combination of AS + SSP sems to be the most suitable one for obtaining higher grain yield of maize in Faisalabad conditions.

  19. Effects of Intercropping forage Legumes and Maize Grain and Forage Yield in the Upper Midland Zone 1 and 4 (UM1 and 4) of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercropping forage legumes and cereal crops could assist smallholder farmers to increase the quantity and quality of livestock feeds per unit land particularly during dry season. Two studies were carried out in the upper midland zone (UM1) at Kisii (UM4) at Kitale to asses the effects of intercropping forage legumes and maize on maize grain yield and quantity of livestock feeds. In the first study, five annual/biannual legumes comprising of three- grain type and two herbaceous forage legumes were intercropped with maize at Kisii and Kitale. The second study involved three perennial forage legumes. Results of two cropping seasons at Kitale and three seasons in Kisii are reported.. Intercropping of grain type legume with maize had no significant effects on maize grain yield and stover DM yield at both sites.However, the herbaceous forage legumes (Dolichos lablab cv. Rongai and Macuma pururiens) significantly reduced maize grain yield compared to maize top dressed with 60 kg N ha-1 although maize stover and legume DM yields were not significantly affected. Total forage yields (maize stover + legume herbage) were significantly increased in forage legume intercrops (P -1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause some reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed significantly reduced maize grain yield. Decreases in maize green yield were associated with legume herbage yields above 3 t ha-1. The results demonstrate that increased quantity and quality of dairy cattle feed may be achieved by intercropping forage legumes and maize although it may cause reduction in maize yield. Practical implications of this technology in terms of economic evaluation are discussed

  20. Effect of sowing date on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production for maize

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    Zlatko Svečnjak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High moisture ear and grain production of maize (Zea mays L. hasadvantages in comparison with dry grain production because longer maturity hybrids might be grown and there are no grain drying costs. A two year study was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture experimental field Maksimir to evaluate the effect of delayed sowing dates on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production when compared to optimum sowing date. Maize hybrids belonging to the maturity groups FAO 200 (PR39K38 and 300 (PR38P05 were sown at optimum (early May and two delayed sowing dates (middle May and early June and grown under intensive cropping system.When compared to optimum sowing date, grain and ear yield significantly decreased with delayed sowing dates despite the fact that grown hybrids reached physiological maturity before the first autumn frosts. These yield reductions at delayed sowing dates were mainly associated with fewer grains per ear, and partly due to lighter 1000-grain weights. Both hybrids resulted in similar ear yield; however, a longer maturity hybrid (PR38P05 had larger grain yields than a shorter-maturity hybrid (PR39K38 because the latter hadsignificantly smaller shelling index (82,1 % than the former one (87,0 %. Sowing date and growing conditions showed no significant effect on grain protein and oil contents. Hybrids also had similar grain protein content, whereas PR38P05 had absolutely small, but significantly higher grain oil content than PR39K38. Thus, delayed sowing of the maize hybrids of FAO 200 - 300 maturity groups might occur into early June with no effect on grain quality, but with significant yield losses when compared to optimum sowing date.

  1. EFFECT OF GRAY LEAF SPOT ON SECOND-SEASON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD IN SÃO PAULO STATE

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    GISÈLE MARIA FANTIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot is an important maize disease in São Paulo State. Due to its relevance, the effect of this disease on maize grain yield was studied during the 2004 to 2008 autumn-winter seasons. Experiments were carried out to evaluate corn cultivars, comprising 44 to 60 simple and triple hybrids, being 19 trials in 2004, 15 in 2005, 16 in 2006, 16 in 2007 and 15 in 2008. The evaluations of disease severity were done at the kernel dough stage, ascribing notes 1 to 9 (for 0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and more than 75% affected leaf area, respectively. Significant negative correlation between gray leaf spot severity and grain yield was detected in 16 of the 35 trials where the disease occurred. In order to quantify the effect of gray leaf spot on yield of these 16 trials, attempting to minimize the dispersion caused by differences of yield potential, cultivars tolerance to the disease and other factors, cultivars were grouped into categories of disease intensity based on the Scott-Knott test at 5%, and means for severity and yield were calculated for each category. The adjustment of linear equations to these data allowed to estimate the yield reduction as a function of disease severity, for the intervals studied in each trial, that was on average 238 kg ha-1 (4% with note 2, 634 kg ha-1 (11% with note 3, 1006 kg ha-1 (17% with note 4 and 1574 kg ha-1 with note 5, in relation to the groups with greatest gray leaf spot resistance which showed mean note 1.4 and mean grain yield 5655 kg ha-1. These results indicate that even with low disease severity a significant maize yield loss can be observed, demonstrating the importance of the use of genetic resistance in the control of gray leaf spot and to reduce losses in maize grain yield.

  2. Effects of shading on spike differentiation and grain yield formation of summer maize in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J.; Jin, Libin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on tassel and ear development and yield formation of three summer maize hybrids Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking stage (R1) to physiological maturity stage (R6) (treatment S1), from the sixth extended leaf stage (V6) to R1 (treatment S2) and from seeding to R6 (treatment S3). Shading had no significant effect on the time from seeding to shoot emergence (VE); however, subsequent growth and development were delayed with shading beyond this point. The differentiation time of both tassel and ear delayed, and female spike (tassel) floret differentiation, sexual organ formation time, and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) were lengthened. After shading, the total number of floret, silk, and fertilization floret reduced significantly; the number of abortive seeds increased, and the total setting percentage among different treatments showed that CK>S2>S1>S3; and the total setting percentages in S1, S2, and S3 of ZD958 were 44, 72, and 15 % respectively. The total floret number of tassel primordium differentiation, fertility rate, and seed setting rate of florets in S3 treatment was the minimum; kernels per ear decreased seriously and single ear setting percentage was only 16 %; although floret degeneration number of S2 during ear differentiation stages increased and floret fertility rate reduced than that of CK, fertilization flower seed production increased and abortive seed decreased after canceling shading. Aborted kernel of S1 increased and kernel dry weight reduced, resulting in a significant decrease of kernel number per ear and kernel weight, and the grain abortive rate of 40-62 %. In conclusion, shading changed the growth and development process and caused infertility of tassel and ear; tassel branches decreased, reducing pollen vitality and silks differentiation cut down; and grain dry matter accumulation and setting percentage decreased, causing yield reduction. Grain yield and biomass reduced 66, 36, and 93 % compared to the control by shading treatments of S1, S2, and S3, respectively.

  3. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

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    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  4. Physiological responses related to increased grain yield under drought in the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemali, Krishna S; Bonin, Christopher; Dohleman, Frank G; Stephens, Mike; Reeves, William R; Nelson, Donald E; Castiglioni, Paolo; Whitsel, Joy E; Sammons, Bernard; Silady, Rebecca A; Anstrom, Donald; Sharp, Robert E; Patharkar, Osric R; Clay, David; Coffin, Marie; Nemeth, Margaret A; Leibman, Mark E; Luethy, Michael; Lawson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays?L.) is highly susceptible to drought stress. This work focused on whole-plant physiological mechanisms by which a biotechnology-derived maize event expressing bacterial cold shock protein B (CspB), MON 87460, increased grain yield under drought. Plants of MON 87460 and a conventional control (hereafter 'control') were tested in the field under well-watered (WW) and water-limited (WL) treatments imposed during mid-vegetative to mid-reproductive stages during 2009-2011. Across years, average grain yield increased by 6% in MON 87460 compared with control under WL conditions. This was associated with higher soil water content at 0.5?m depth during the treatment phase, increased ear growth, decreased leaf area, leaf dry weight and sap flow rate during silking, increased kernel number and harvest index in MON 87460 than the control. No consistent differences were observed under WW conditions. This indicates that MON 87460 acclimated better under WL conditions than the control by lowering leaf growth which decreased water use during silking, thereby eliciting lower stress under WL conditions. These physiological responses in MON 87460 under WL conditions resulted in increased ear growth during silking, which subsequently increased the kernel number, harvest index and grain yield compared to the control. PMID:25210866

  5. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SPAD INDEX DETERMINED BY CHLROPHYLL METER WITH NITROGEN CONTENT IN LEAVES AND GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMUNDO NONATO CARVALHO ROCHA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD index for early assessing nitrogen content on maize leaves and to proportionate subsidies for recommending nitrogen fertilization. The assay was carried out with three simple maize hybrids (DKA333B, P32R21 and AG9010 and six forms of nitrogen application during crop cycle, totaling 120 kg ha-1: 100% at sowing stage (S; 40% at S and 60% at 4th leaf stage; 40% at S and 60% at 8th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 4th leaf stage; 20% at S and 80% at 8th leaf stage and 20% at S, 40% at 4th leaf stage and 40% at 8th leaf stage. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with four replications in split-plot design, being maize hybrids the plot and portioning of nitrogen fertilization the split. Determinations of the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index, evaluated with the chlorophyll meter, leaf nitrogen content, and grain yield were done. The chlorophyll meter readings were efficient to provide early diagnose of nitrogen content at the fourth tally expanded leaf of maize cultivars AG9010 (super-early cycle and P32R21 (early cycle. Concerning the hybrid DKB333B (normal cycle there was no correlation between chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD index and nitrogen content on the fourth fully expanded leaf.

  6. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of grain -protein, -starch and -oil among the years was from 9.61 to 11.84%, from 68.51% to 70.93% and from 3.50% to 4.17%, respectively. The C2 separated by the higher grain protein contents (10.93% from the remaining three genotypes (average 9.96%. The genotype effects on starch and oil contents were from 69.83% (C4 to 70.58% (C1 and from 3.56% (C3 to 4.09% (C1, respectively.

  7. Stability of yield and yield components in maize hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Čvarković Radomir; Branković Gordana; Čalić Irena; Delić Nenad; Živanović Tomislav; Šurlan-Momirović Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Two-year grain yield and 1000-grains mass data of 24 maize hybrids of FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600, 700 were analyzed. Investigations were performed at the two environments in two years. Nonparametric methods of the Kubinger and the van der Laan-de Kroon showed genotype x environment interaction for both investigated features, and method of Hildebrand showed interaction for 1000-grains mass. Maize hybrids stability was estimated with stability parameters: Si(1)- the mean of the absolute ...

  8. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizers on summer maize grain yield, field ammonia volatilization, and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wang, Kong-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment with colophony-coated fertilizer (CRF) and sulfur-coated fertilizer (SCF) showed that under the same application rates of N, P and K, applying CRF and SCF increased the summer maize grain yield by 13.15% and 14.15%, respectively, compared to the application of common compound fertilizer CCF. When the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 25%, the yield increment was 9.69% and 10.04%, respectively; and when the applied amount of CRF and SCF was decreased by 50%, the yield had less difference with that under CCF application. The field ammonia volatilization rate in treatments CRF and SCF increased slowly, with a peak appeared 7 days later than that in treatment CCF, and the total amount of ammonia volatilization in treatments CRF and SCF was ranged from 0.78 kg N x hm(-2) to 4.43 kg N x hm(-2), with a decrement of 51.34%-91.34% compared to that in treatment CCF. The fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency of CRF and SCF were also significantly higher than those of CCF. PMID:20136000

  9. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of combining abilities of potential parents. In view of this, the objective of this paper was to study combining abilities and determine the mode of inheritance and gene effects for the main agronomi...

  10. Nitrogen deficiency-induced leaf senescence in seedlings of tropical maize cultivars as a tool to characterize grain-yielding capacity at low nitrogen supply in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte auf'm Erley, Gunda; Horst, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The selection process of nitrogen (N)-efficient cultivars during plant breeding can be simplified by a specification of secondary plant traits that are decisive for N efficiency (grain yield at low-N supply). N-efficient tropical maize cultivars were characterized by delayed leaf senescence during reproductive growth in field experiments in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The same cultivars were studied for leaf senescence under N deficiency in a short-term nutrient solution experiment. It was shown that...

  11. Effect of coated urea and non-coated urea on grain yield, N uptake and N distribution in different parts of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to regulate nitrogen metabolism with nitrogen application rate and to increase nitrogen use efficiency, an isotopic method was used to compare grain yield, biomass and nitrogen use efficiency of coated urea (CU) to those of non-coated urea (U) at the N application rates of 0, 100, 150 and 225 kg/hm2. Results showed that CU significantly increased maize N uptake from 15N fertilizer and aboveground biomass. The nitrogen use efficiency (15NUE) of CU was 13.3-21.4% greater than that of U. There was a significant different of fertilizer 15N uptake between CU and U in maize parts. And N uptake of CU treatment followed the order of seed > leaves > straws > cob > husk, while N uptake of U treatment was in the order of seed > straws > leaves > cob > husk. The N uptake of maize parts by both CU and U followed the same order when non-isotopic method was applied. No significant variations were observed among treatments in N uptake, Nitrogen Harvest Index and grain yield. The reason maybe that low soil temperatures (< 10 ℃) from the fourth week of October to next April reduced N uptake of winter wheat, therefore, residual NO3-N in cultivated soil layer was high after harvest. Thus, maize N uptake was more dependent on the shoot growth potential than fertilizer amount and types under high amount of available nitrogen. (authors)

  12. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Temesgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX. Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003–2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS and without subsoiling (ST were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV. Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season−1, the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season−1, the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha−1 and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m−3 followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season−1, T=178 mm-season−1, Y=1840 kg-ha−1, WPET=0.60 kg-m−3 and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season−1,T=158 mm-season−1, Y=1720 kg-ha−1, WPET=0.58 kg-m−3. However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

  13. Effects of Bean-Maize Intercropping,Phosphorus and Manure Additions on N2 fixation and Grain Yield of Phaseolus Vulgaris in the Central Kenya Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole bean and intercropped bean crops were studied for four seasons from 1996-1998. Addition of organic P at the recommended rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased bean standing biomass and grain yields during the first season. Cattle manure applied at the rate of 12 t ha-1 (25% moisture content), had a negative effect on bean yield during the first season, possibly due to short-term nutrient immobilisation induced by the high C:N ratio of manure. In subsequent seasons, manure additions resulted in higher grain yields compared to inorganic P. Intercropping bean with maize lowered grain yields by 10-100%. N2 fixed on beans on average from 55 to 69%. Intercropping thus provides a strategy for a better N resource use where the maize competes efficiently for available soil mineral N and the legume replenishes part of the extracted N via atmospheric N2 fixation. However, the amounts of N2 fixed appear not to be enough to replenish whole systems N in grain crops and so additional N2 are needed. Thus more attention needs to be given to manure management and its long-term impact on soil fertility

  14. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  15. YIELD OF ENERGY AND PROTEIN FROM GRAIN MAIZE HYBRIDS USING AGROTECHNICAL SYSTEM, OPTIMAL FOR THE CONDITIONS IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANYA DELIBALTOVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The yields of metabolizable energy for ducks and protein, so as the multiplication effect by different varieties of maize have been investigated. For the conditions in the Plovdiv region the hybrid PR35P12 had the highest yield of crude protein - 1368 kg/ha, and metabolizable energy AME- 171,5 GJ/ha and TME 181,3 GJ/ha. The highest multiplication effect (protein yield/crude protein applied by seed material showed hybrid PR35P12 - +403.3.

  16. Effect of winter maize-based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Mishra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Kanpur, India to study the effect of winter maize (Zea mays L. based intercropping systems on maize yield, associated weeds and economics under irrigated condition of central Uttar Pradesh. Thirteen maize-based cropping systems such as maize sole, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. sole, mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. & Cosson] sole, toria (Brassica campestris var. toria sole, pea (Pisum sativum L. sole, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. sole, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. mend. Fiori and Paol. sole, maize + potato (1:1,maize + mustard (1:1, maize + toria (1:2, maize + pea (1:2, maize + linseed (1:2 and maize + toria (1:2, were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Maize + potato system recorded higher yield attributes and grain yield of maize followed by maize + pea than sole stand of maize. potato was showed most compatible intercrop planted with winter maize as it gave higher maize-equivalent yield, land-equivalent ratio, productivity, monetary returns and lowered weed population, weed dry-biomass and highest weed-control efficiency under irrigated conditions of central Uttar Pradesh. Pea was the next best intercrop with winter maize.

  17. Economic effectiveness of irradiation with gamma rays on maize grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation of maize grains before sowing increses the yield and improves the quality of agricultural produce. The positive results consist in the net income from silage maize from 45 to 85 per ha and from the grain maize from 85 to 109,9 per ha; the level of raw protein from the silage maize with 11,30% and from the grain maize with 6 to 12%; the level of feed units from the silage maize with 5 to 13% and from grain maize with 6 to 12%. Such direct effect in the same time is a stimulating one and raises the effectiveness of the animal production due to the better feeding of animals

  18. Identification of QTLs for root characteristics in maize grown in hydroponics and analysis of their overlap with QTLs for grain yield in the field at two water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Landi, Pierangelo; Giuliani, Marcella Michela; Salvi, Silvio; Conti, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the overlap among quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in maize for seminal root traits measured in hydroponics with QTLs for grain yield under well-watered (GY-WW) and water-stressed (GY-WS) field conditions as well as for a drought tolerance index (DTI) computed as GY-WS/GY-WW. In hydroponics, 11, 7, 9, and 10 QTLs were identified for primary root length (R1L), primary root diameter (R1D), primary root weight (R1W), and for the weight of the adventitious seminal roots (R2W), respectively. In the field, 7, 8, and 9 QTLs were identified for GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, respectively. Despite the weak correlation of root traits in hydroponics with GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI, a noticeable overlap between the corresponding QTLs was observed. QTLs for R2W most frequently and consistently overlapped with QTLs for GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. At four QTL regions, an increase in R2W was positively associated with GY-WW, GY-WS, and/or DTI. A 10 cM interval on chromosome 1 between PGAMCTA205 and php20644 showed the strongest effect on R1L, R1D, R2W, GY-WW, GY-WS, and DTI. These results indicate the feasibility of using hydroponics in maize to identify QTL regions controlling root traits at an early growth stage and also influencing GY in the field. A comparative analysis of the QTL regions herein identified with those described in previous studies investigating root traits in different maize populations revealed a number of QTLs in common. PMID:11999844

  19. Crop management systems and maize grain yield under narrow row spacing Sistemas de manejo e produtividade de gros de milho sob espaamento entrelinhas reduzido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrcio Luiz Strieder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in row spacing provides a more uniform distribution among plants that can increase grain yield. The benefits of narrow row spacing can depend on the plant architecture and on the kind of crop management system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of narrow row spacing on the grain yield of maize hybrids growing under different management systems. Six experiments were carried out in Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the 2003/04 and 2004/05 growing seasons. Each experiment corresponded to a crop management system. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (0.8 and 0.4 m, two hybrids (Penta and Flash and two plant densities, which varied with the crop management system and growing season. Besides plant density, the crop management systems differed in the quantities of fertilizers applied at sowing, side-dress and use of irrigation. A complete randomized block design was used in each experiment, in a 2 2 2 treatment factorial scheme with four replications. The increases in grain yield with narrow row spacing were small, ranging from zero to 14%. They depended on the growing season and were manifested only with yields higher than 10 t ha-1, regardless of the hybrid. The number of grains per area was the component that best explained the response of grain to narrow row spacing, regardless of plant density, hybrid and crop management system. Narrow row spacing is a worth management strategy to enhance maize grain yield when high input cropping systems are used.A reduo do espaamento entrelinhas melhora a distribuio entre plantas na rea e pode incrementar a produtividade de gros. Os benefcios da reduo do espaamento entrelinhas podem depender da arquitetura de planta e do sistema de manejo empregado. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da reduo do espaamento entrelinhas na produtividade de gros de hbridos de milho cultivados em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Seis experimentos foram conduzidos a campo, em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos agrcolas 2004/05 e 2005/06. Cada experimento correspondeu a um sistema de manejo. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaamentos (0,8 e 0,4 m, dois hbridos (Penta e Flash e duas densidades de plantas, variveis com o sistema de manejo e anos agrcolas. Alm da densidade, os sistemas de manejo diferiram nas quantidades aplicadas de adubo na semeadura, em cobertura e na suplementao hdrica. Em cada experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 2 2, com quatro repeties. Os incrementos na produtividade de gros com reduo do espaamento foram de pequena magnitude, variando de 0 a 14%. Eles dependeram da estao de crescimento e se manifestaram apenas com produtividades superiores a 10 t ha-1, independente do hbrido. O nmero de gros por rea foi o componente que melhor explicou a resposta da produtividade com reduo do espaamento, independentemente de densidade, hbrido e sistema de manejo. A reduo do espaamento uma estratgia de manejo vlida para incrementar a produtividade de gros quando so adotados nveis de manejo muito altos.

  20. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  1. Effect of non-uniform sprinkler irrigation and plant density on simulated maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Salmerón Cortasa, Montserrat; Urrego Pereira, Yenny Fernanda; Cavero Campo, José; Isla Climente, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Typical field conditions under sprinkler irrigation include low irrigation uniformity and non-uniform plant density, which can affect the crop yield and the environmental impact of irrigation. The effect of the uniformity of sprinkler irrigation and plant density on the variability of maize grain yield under semi-arid conditions was evaluated, and the relevance of the spatial variability of these two variables on the simulation of maize grain yield was tested with the DSSAT-CERES-Maize model ...

  2. Influence of Seed Size on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Three Maize Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Ullah Chaudhry; M. Ikram Ullah

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed size on maize (Zea mays L.) performance. Among three genotypes under study the seed size categories and their interaction showed non significant effect on yield, yield components, photo biomass production and quality of maize under Faisalabad agro-meteorological conditions. All the parameters including germination, number of plants per plot, plant height, number of cobs per plant, number of rows per cob, number of grains p...

  3. Grain Yield and Yield Components of Quality Protein Maize Genotypes as Influenced by Irrigation and Plant Population in the Nigerian Savannah

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Sani; Abubakar, I. U.; A. M. Falaki; Mani, H.; M. M. Jaliya

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the yield and yield components of QPM genotypes to plant population under irrigated conditions in a semi arid ecology of Northern Nigeria. Field trials were conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Institute for Agricultural Research, Kadawa (11 39'N, 08 20'E) and 500 m above sea level) during dry seasons 2007, 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of (Zea mays L.) genotypes (TZE-W Pop X 1368, EV-DT W99 STR and DMR-ESRW), four plant population (33333, ...

  4. Effect of mucuna intercropped with maize on soil fertility and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field trials were used to evaluate the effect of mucuna (Mucuna utilis) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on soil fertility and maize yield. In Experiment I, mucuna seeds were sown at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) of maize. A basal application of 50 kg N/ha was administered. These treatments were compared with control (no fertilizer, no mucuna), sole application of 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In Experiment II, complementary application of 0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass, which was sown in the previous year, were administered to maize. The results showed that intercropping of maize with mucuna at planting (0 WAP) recorded averagely 46, 60 and 87 percent of the yields for maize that received 100, 50 and 0 kg N/ha alone, respectively. The maize yield increased as sowing date of mucuna was delayed. Undersowing of mucuna at 6 and 8 WAP with application of 50 kg N/ha resulted in 30 - 62 per cent higher yield than at 0 - 4 WAP, and was comparable (91 %) with application of 100 kg N/ha. It also had residual effect of average yield increase of 52 per cent over the latter. Soil analysis showed positive residual effect on soil fertility. Planting of mucuna under maize raised the organic C, exchangeable Ca and Mg by 81, 14 and 28 percent, respectively, when compared with the chemically fertilized soil. The soil N and P levels also showed 48 and 25 percent increase, respectively. Complementary application of 50 kg N/ha with incorporation of mucuna biomass increased plant height, biomass weight, and grain yield of maize by 18, 23 and 31 percent, respectively, compared with incorporation of mucuna alone. The former was equally effective as the complementary use of 100 kg N/ha. The results suggest that undersowing of mucuna in relay with maize could be a good practice for sustaining soil fertility in a cereal based cropping system. (au)

  5. Levels of nutrients and grain yield of maize intercropped with signalgrass (Brachiaria) in different arrangements of plants / Teores de nutrientes e produo de gros do milho consorciado com a Braquiaria em diferentes arranjos de plantas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A.M., FREITAS; D.V., VALADO SILVA; M.F., SOUZA; A.A., SILVA; D.T., SARAIVA; M.M., FREITAS; P.R., CECON; L.R., FERREIRA.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A competio entre o milho e a braquiaria pode inviabilizar economicamente o consrcio devido reduo na produo de gros do milho e de matria seca da forrageira. Na busca por definir arranjos de plantas que permitam tornar esse sistema mais eficiente, realizou-se esta pesquisa com o objetivo de [...] avaliar os efeitos da interferncia de densidades de braquiria (Urochloa brizantha) na nutrio e produo de gros do milho. Foram realizados dois experimentos de campo, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repeties. Os tratamentos foram arranjados de modo semelhante nos dois experimentos, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, sendo o primeiro fator a dose aplicada do herbicida Nicosulfuron (0 e 8 g ha-1) e o segundo as densidades de semeadura da forrageira (0, 2, 4 e 6 kg de sementes por hectare). A interferncia da braquiria reduziu os teores foliares de nitrognio, potssio e fsforo nas plantas de milho consorciadas com a forrageira. Maiores valores de produo de gros foram verificados com a reduo do espaamento e a aplicao da subdose recomendada do herbicida (8 g ha-1). Concluiu-se que, independentemente da densidade de semeadura de Urochloa brizantha, a reduo do espaamento entre linhas do milho, aliada aplicao da subdose do Nicosulfuron, causou efeito positivo por reduzir o crescimento inicial da forrageira, resultando em menor interferncia de Urochloa brizantha no acmulo de nutrientes pelas plantas de milho e na produtividade de gros da cultura. Abstract in english Competition between maize and signalgrass can economically cripple the intercropping by the reduced yield of maize and dry matter content of the forage. In seeking to define plant arrangements which make this system more efficient, this research was held with the objective of assessing the effects o [...] f interference of densities of signalgrass (Urochloa Brizantha) on nutrition and on maize grain yield. Two field experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were arranged similarly in both experiments, in a 2 x 4 factorial design, the first factor being the dose of Nicosulfuron herbicide applied (0 and 8 g ha-1) and the second factor being the forage seeding rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 kg of seeds per hectare). The interference of signalgrass reduced foliar nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content in maize plants intercropped with the forage. Higher values of grain yield were observed with the reduction of the spacing and the application of the recommended herbicide underdose (8 g ha-1). It was concluded that, regardless of the seeding density of U. Brizantha, reducing the maize seeding inter-rows spacing, combined with the application of an underdose of Nicosulfuron, caused a positive effect by reducing the initial forage growth, resulting in less interference of Urochloa brizantha on nutrient uptake by the maize plants and grain yield of the crop.

  6. Tillage, Residue, Fertilizer and Weed Management on Phenology and Yield of Spring Maize in Terai, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saugat Dahal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of developing crop management technologies that reduce the yield gap of maize (Zea mays L. in Nepal, a study was carried-out to determine whether the grain yield of maize could be manipulated through tillage, residue, and nutrient and weed management practices. The effect of tillage (conventional and no tillage, residue (residue retained and residue removed, fertilizer (recommended doses of fertilizer and farmers doses of fertilizer and weed management practices (herbicide use and manual weeding on phenology and grain yield of maize were investigated under maize-rice cropping system in Rampur, Nepal during 2013. The experimental results revealed that no tillage had significant effect on grain yield (6.64 Mg ha-1 and phenological parameters like days to silking, physiological maturity and seed fill duration. Similarly, residue retained treatment had significant effect on grain yield (7.02 Mg ha-1 and phenological parameters. Research dose of fertilizer had significant effect on phenological parameters and grain yield (8.42 Mg ha-1. However, weed management factor did not influence significantly on grain yield and phenological parameters. The grain yield increased in no tillage by 23.19% over conventional tillage, residue retained by 39.84% over residue removed, recommended doses of fertilizer by 132.60% over farmer dose of fertilizer. Thus, no tillage, residue retention, recommended doses of fertilizer and use of herbicide for weed management can be alternative technologies for sustainable higher grain yield.

  7. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  8. Green ear yield and grain yield of maize cultivars in competition with weeds Rendimentos de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas

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    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction in herbicide use is one of the greatest interests for modern agriculture and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including the adoption of cultivars that suppress weeds. The objective of this study was to verify if maize cultivars develop differently, in competition with weeds, to produce green ears and grain. Randomized complete block design was used, with split-plots and five replications. Cultivars DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 and Master, were evaluated in the plots, without weeding and two weedings (at 22 and 41 days after sowing in sub plots. Twenty-one species were identified in the experimental area, the most frequent being Gramineae (Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae species. There was no difference in the dry biomass above-ground part of the weeds in the plots of the evaluated cultivars. The cultivars behaved similarly in treatments with or without hoeing, except for plant height and ear height evaluations. Without hoeing, plant height increased in cultivar DKB 390, while plant height and ear height decreased in cultivar AG 7575. In the other cultivars, these traits did not change under weed control. The presence of weeds decreased the values of all traits employed to assess green corn yield, with the exception of the total number of green ears and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas é um dos maiores interesses da agricultura moderna e várias alternativas estão sendo investigadas com esse objetivo, dentre elas a adoção de cultivares que suprimam as plantas daninhas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se cultivares de milho, em competição com plantas daninhas, apresentam comportamento diferente para produzir espigas verdes e grãos. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, e cinco repetições. As cultivares DKB 390, DKB 466, DKB 350, AG 7000, AG 7575 e Master, semeadas nas parcelas, foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sem capina e duas capinas (aos 22 e 41 dias após a semeadura. Vinte e uma espécies foram identificadas na área experimental, sendo Gramíneas (Poáceas, Leguminosas (Fabáceas, Euforbiáceas e Convolvuláceas as famílias mais freqüentes. Não houve diferenças na biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas daninhas nas parcelas das cultivares avaliadas. O comportamento das cultivares foi coincidente nos tratamentos com e sem capina, exceto quando foram avaliadas as alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga. A cultivar DKB teve a altura da planta aumentada e a cultivar AG 7575 teve as Alturas da planta e de inserção da espiga reduzidas, sem a realização das capinas. Nas demais cultivares, essas características não foram alteradas com o controle de plantas daninhas. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu todas as características utilizadas para avaliação do rendimento de milho verde, à exceção do número total de espigas verdes, e também o rendimento de grãos. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento de espigas verdes nem quanto ao rendimento de grãos, exceto no peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, em que as cultivares DKB 390 e DKB 350 foram as mais produtivas.

  9. Effect of Plant Density and Nitrogen Rate on PAR Absorption and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dahmardeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol, The experimental farm in Southeast of Iran during 2007-08 to investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N rate and plant density of maize (Zea mays L. c.v. K.S.C 704. Split plot experimental treatments comprising three plant densities under title subplot included (P1 = 60,000 plants ha-1, P2 = 80,000 plants ha-1 and P3 = 100000 plants ha-1 and Four nitrogen rates (N1 = 200 kg ha-1, N2 = 250 kg ha-1, N3 = 300 kg ha-1 and N4 = 350 kg ha-1 were kept in main plots. Maize produced significantly as well as grain yield at high than at low density. Grain yield and Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR absorption increase with increasing N rate and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at N4 treatments. Grain yield and PAR absorption increase with increasing plant density and the highest amount of grain yield were obtained at P3 treatment. It is concluded that growing maize at high density with application of 350 kg h-1 N rate that could result in maximum Grain yield of maize and hence increase productivity of maize crop.

  10. Identification of QTL-s for drought tolerance in maize, II: Yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield is the primary trait of interest in maize breeding programs. Worldwide, drought is the most pervasive limitation to the achievement of yield potential in maize. Drought tolerance of maize has been considerably improved through conventional breeding. Traditional breeding methods have numerous limitations, so development of new molecular genetics techniques could help in elucidation of genetic basis of drought tolerance .In order to map QTLs underlying yield and yield components under drought 116 F3 families of DTP79xB73 cross were evaluated in the field trials. Phenotypic correlations calculated using Pearson’s coefficients were high and significant. QTL detection was performed using composite interval mapping option in WinQTL Cartographer v 2.5. Over all nine traits 45 QTLs were detected: five for grain yield per plant and 40 for eight yield components. These QTLs were distributed on all chromosomes except on chromosome 9. Percent of phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 27.46 to 95.85%. Different types of gene action were found for the QTLs identified for analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31068

  11. Biochar mitigation of allelopathy induced yield loss in continuous maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous maize yields are limited by the release of phytotoxic compounds as the previous years maize residue decomposes. We tested the hypothesis that soil biochar applications could help mitigate maize autotoxicity and the associated yield depression. Eighteen small field plots (23.7 m2) were es...

  12. DETECTION OF QTLS FOR VERTICAL ROOT PULLING RESISTANCE IN MAIZE AND OVERLAP WITH QTLS FOR ROOT TRAITS IN HYDROPONICS AND FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertical root pulling resistance (VRPR) is a trait used to estimate root strength in maize (Zea mays L.). Its measurement is laborious and destructive; hence, we examined the possibility of studying root strength without resorting to VRPR and whether conducting marker-assisted selection for VRPR wou...

  13. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Maize Grain Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xining; Fu, Zhiyuan; Lv, Panqing; Peng, Qian; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The grain filling rate is closely associated with final grain yield of maize during the period of maize grain filling. To identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA-dependent gene regulation networks of grain filling in maize, a deep-sequencing technique was used to research the dynamic expression patterns of miRNAs at four distinct developmental grain filling stages in Zhengdan 958, which is an elite hybrid and cultivated widely in China. The sequencing result showed that the expression amount of almost all miRNAs was changing with the development of the grain filling and formed in seven groups. After normalization, 77 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs were co-detected in these four samples. Eighty-one out of 162 targets of the conserved miRNAs belonged to transcriptional regulation (81, 50%), followed by oxidoreductase activity (18, 11%), signal transduction (16, 10%) and development (15, 9%). The result showed that miRNA 156, 393, 396 and 397, with their respective targets, might play key roles in the grain filling rate by regulating maize growth, development and environment stress response. The result also offered novel insights into the dynamic change of miRNAs during the developing process of maize kernels and assisted in the understanding of how miRNAs are functioning about the grain filling rate. PMID:25951054

  14. Efficiency of mineral fertilizers and mucuna on the improvement of the yield of maize in zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Zimbabwe farmers use sub-optimal amounts of fertilizers due to cash limitations and poor access to fertilizer markets, hence the need to integrate legumes like mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) into their cropping systems. In this study, the effect of P and N along with different mucuna management options was investigated on the yield and yield components of maize. The experimental design was a split - split- plot with two P rates (0 and 40 kg P ha/sup -1/) applied to a preceding mucuna crop, four mucuna management options 1) fallow (F), 2) mucuna ploughed in at flowering (MF), 3) all mucuna above ground biomass removed at maturity and only roots were ploughed in (MAR) and 4) mucuna pods removed and the residues ploughed in (MPR 3 and four N treatments (N0 = 0, N1 =40, N2 = 80 and N3 = 120 kg N ha/sup -1/ respectively) applied to a subsequent maize crop. The various crop parameters like grain yield, cob length, number of grains per cob, cob diameter, 1000 dry grain weight, stalk weight and harvest index of maize were determined. Phosphorous application improved mean maize grain yield from 2.29 t ha/sup -1/ to 2.34 t ha/sup -1/. The MF and N3 treatment combination resulted in the highest maize grain yield. The MF and MPR and N0 treatment combinations resulted in similar grain yields when compared with F and MAR management options and N3. Other parameters followed similar trends. The MF and MPR management options could, therefore, save 80 and 120 kg N ha/sup -1/for smallholder farmers without sacrificing yield. (author)

  15. The Effect of Liming and Fertilization on Yields of Maize and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kisić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different rates of hydrated lime and zeolite tuffs, as lime materials, mineral and organic fertilizers upon the yield of maize and winter wheat grain was studied in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol, near Karlovac, Central Croatia. The following crops were cultivated during the study period: 1999 and 2001 – maize, 1999/00 and 2001/02 – winter wheat. In the first investigation year, the highest yield of maize grain of 9.78 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of farmyard manure. In the following year, the highest yield of winter wheat grain of 5.85 t ha-1 was achieved with the combination of the higher mineral fertilizer rate and the higher rate of hydrated lime. In the third and fourth investigation years, the highest yields of maize grain (10.05 t ha-1 and wheat (5.48 t ha-1 were recorded for the combination of the higher rates of mineral fertilizers and hydrated lime. The foregoing allows the conclusion that mineral and organic fertilization combined with hydrated lime is the optimal solution for increasing the yields of test crops.

  16. Selection on uniformity and yield stability in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Tomislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, both the introduction of double-cross hybrids and use of single crosses have caused the increase in grain yield and significantly improved agricultural practice. Nowadays, the uniformity of crops is regarded as an advantage of modern agriculture, since the uniformity of products is crucial in global market. Thus, uniformity of crop maturation provides both planning and efficient mechanized harvest. F1 single-cross hybrids of maize, which is an allogamous species, not only exploit heterosis, but also impose homogeneity. Basically, the uniformity of hybrids has been regarded as their crucial advantage. There are two aspects of hybrid maize uniformity: (i genetic homogeneity and (ii genetic stability. Genetic homogeneity refers to presence of identical genotypes, whereas genetic stability refers to phenotypic uniformity (homeostasis in different environments. At present, yield performance of inbreds has not advanced as rapidly as performance of hybrids, especially in stressful environments. Focusing on inbred productivity combined with stability may be more appropriate strategy in the future. Poor farmers are not able to employ superior genotypes because they require considerable financial investment and farmers survive not due to high yield in good seasons, but due to enduring extreme ones. Breeding process may create genotypes in favorable seasons when genetic variance is maximal and environmental influence is minimal, which should be followed by breeding for different environments. The aim of such breeding are, most probably, genotypes intended for a specific set of conditions which, in fact, represents a convergence of two strategies of plant breeding. One should probably bear in mind the strategy of both yield improvement and survival of farmers in extreme conditions without decreasing yield of best genotypes, especially those adapted only to favorable conditions. Solution to this problem should be: financial (best possible loans, social (education, and technological (breeding improved genotypes and advanced agricultural production.

  17. Mycotoxins in maize grains grown in organic and conventional agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz de Galarreta, J.I.; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Ortiz-Barredo, A.; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Landa, A.; Revilla Temiño, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Maize is traditionally used for bakery in several countries, and autochthonous varieties are increasingly demanded particularly for organic agriculture, but one of the dangers of cereal consumption is mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are dangerous for health and might be present in any grain depending on genotypes and environments. In the present work we assess the natural levels of fumonisin and deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminations in nine diverse open-pollinated maize varieties grown in f...

  18. Effect of fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield and protein contents of autumn planted maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 to determine the effects of different fertilizer levels and plant densities on yield of autumn planted maize. Maize hybrid Pioneer 30-Y-87 was selected as test. The treatments comprised of six fertilizer levels (150-0, 150-15, 200-0, 200-15, 250-0 and 250-15 kg N-Zn ha/sup -1/) and three plant densities (57100, 71400 and 99900 plants ha/sup -1/). The highest plant height and grain yield was recorded from those maize plots which were fertilized at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the crop was sown at plant density of 99900 plants ha/sup -1/ against the significantly minimum plant height and grain yield where fertilizer was applied at 150 kg N ha/sup -1/and 0 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and crop was sown at plant density of 57100 plants ha/sup -1/. Increasing fertilizer levels and plant densities linearly increased plant height and grain yield. Application of Zinc accelerated tasseling and silking of maize crop, however the application of nitrogen had no significant effect on tasseling and silking. The fertilizer levels and plant densities also significantly affected protein contents of maize grain. Application of nitrogen at higher levels improved protein contents of grain however, opposite was true for protein contents of grains collected from the crop sown under higher plant densities. It was concluded that application of fertilizer at 250 kg N ha/sup -1/ and 15 kg Zn ha/sup -1/ and the sowing of crop at plant density of 99900 plants ha-/sup 1/ showed the best results. (author)

  19. Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

  20. Impact of Water and Potassium Management on Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigated at 25 and 50 per cent ASMD gave 21.53 and 17.10 per cent greater grain yield ha-1 than that irrigated at 75 per cent ASMD. Application of P2O5 @ 200, 150 and 100 kg ha-1 increased grain yield by 24.50, 20.31 and 13.64 per cent, respectively over control. In general, maize irrigated at 25 per cent ASMD gave significantly higher grain starch and oil content, than that irrigated of 75 per cent ASMD, but it significantly decreased grain protein content. Similarly application of K2O significantly increased grain starch and oil content. However, K2O application had non-significant effect on grain protein content in 1992 but caused significant increase in 1993.

  1. Grain abortion and yield stability under drought: a key role for growth processes in reproductive organs

    OpenAIRE

    Tardieu, Francois; Oury, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Yield maintenance under drought in maize (Zea mays) is associated to flowering synchrony which requires the rapid extension of styles and stigma (silks) to be accessible for pollen. Most analyses of the control of grain abortion in maize conclude that abortion is linked to a carbon shortage in ovaries, but they have been performed with a common protocol avoiding the impact of water deficit on silk growth. A series of recent works attempt to reconcile the developmental view that abortion is du...

  2. Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kyamuhangire; A.N. Kaaya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain usi...

  3. Treatment of cooked and storage maize grains with the insecticide 14C - malathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residues of the insecticide 14C-malathion was determined in cooked maize grains, after storage as raw maize up to 24 weeks under laboratory conditions. Results showed a higher concentration of 14C - malathion residues bound to the grains in cooked maize, as compared to previous experiments conducted with raw maize, where the highest concentration was found on the surface of the grains. (author)

  4. A genetic base of utilisation of maize grain as a valuable renewable raw material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenčenko Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. Many studies have shown that the kernel composition and starch structure of maize are highly influenced by genetic background of the maize. Maize grain consists of approximately 70% of starch, which makes it a very suitable feedstock for the bioethanol production. This study was conducted with aim to understand how different genetic background affects bioethanol yield and other fermentation properties of the selected maize genotypes in the process of maize grain- based bioethanol production. Twenty seven maize hybrids, including genotypes of standard chemical composition as well as specialty maize hybrids such as popping, waxy, white kernel and red kernel hybrids, developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, were investigated in this study. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w obtained for hybrid ZP 611k after 48 h of fermentation and the highest by genotype ZP 434 (8.96% w/w. A very significant positive correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation, as well as volumetric productivity (48h (r=0.67. Between bioethanol yield after 48h of fermentation and soft endosperm content in kernel of the investigated ZP maize hybrids a very significant positive correlation was assessed (r=0.66. Higher overall bioethanol yields have been obtained from genotypes containing higher starch and lower protein and lipid contents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31068

  5. Identifying driving climate factors of wheat and maize yields inter-annual variability in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Lecerf, Remi; Dentener, Frank J.

    2015-04-01

    A canonical powered Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) approach is here used to estimate the relationship between meteorological variables and crop (durum wheat and grain maize) yield time series over France. This method combines the advantages of both the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and the PLSR. The latter is mainly based on the extraction of a subset of latent variables (having the best predictive power) from the full set of predictors. The method is applied to detrended (by using a LOESS approach) time series of crop yields and monthly mean temperature, cumulated precipitation and global solar radiation during the growing seasons from 1990 to 2011. Results show that, overall, temperature has a substantial influence on winter wheat yields in south-western and eastern France, while rainfall plays an important role in the northern and southern parts of the country. Finally, radiation is more important over the southern part of France. Concerning grain maize, the inferred statistical models show relatively low skill over the northern part of France, where inter-annual yield variability is low. Overall, results show that temperature is the most important variable influencing grain maize yields over the southern and eastern parts of France, while rainfall is more important in the central and northern parts of the country. Finally, global radiation is the main meteorological factor over the westernmost part of France.

  6. Sensitivity of CERES-Maize yield simulation to the selected weather data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analysis of selected weather data runs after successful parametrization and validation of the CERES-Maize simulation model. Estimation of the potential yield has been carried out during the long term experiment (1980-1997) as well as the estimation of influence of meteorological parameters on the simulation results for the water-limited yield. 10 % under and over stimulation of global radiation and precipitation as well as increasing and decreasing temperature by 1 deg C on simulated potential and water-limited yield have been done. In most of the years, air temperature underestimation resulted in a higher simulated grain yield and overstimulation shown a lower yield for water limited level. Overestimation of precipitation during wet days in growing period of the maize leads to an increase of amount of water available for the plant and to increase the yield. Underestimation of global radiation by 10 % resulted in a decline in simulated grain yield from -8.8 to -9.9 %. The overestimation caused increase of the yield from 7.8 to 10 %. Overestimation by 10 % resulted in a slight underestimation of the yield in low yielding years and underestimation of global radiation by 10 % in overestimation of the yield. The effect was opposite in high yielding years

  7. Effect of different planting patterns on yield and it's components of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted at Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, district Sahiwal during spring and kharif 2001, to find out the best planting pattern for obtaining maximum grain yield of maize variety Sahiwal-2002. For the purpose five planting patterns Were studied in an experimental laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications having plot size of 5m x 6m, Maximum grain yield (5236 kg, ha-1) was obtained with P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) that was statistically at per with ridge sowing giving 4343 kg, ha-1 grain yield in spring season, Similarly maximum grain yield of 6287 kg, ha-1 was achieved with the same planting pattern in kharif -2001 followed by P2 (Ridge sowing with single row), which gave 5270 kg, ha-1 grain yield. Minimum lodging percentage was observed P1 (Flat sowing with earthing up) in both the seasons i.e. 14.36% and 7.27 % and maximum lodging was recorded in P5 (Bed sowing with two rows 75 cm apart), i.e. 88.56% and 25.85 % during spring and kharif seasons 2001 respectively. Keeping in view the results of both the season it is suggested that both the planting patterns (Flat sowing with earthing up and Ridge sowing with single row) are equally good, because ridge sowing cannot be ignored due 10 less seed requirements, no need of intercultural practices and less delta of water per irrigation is needed. (author)

  8. Impact of nitrogen and sulfur application on growth and yield of maize (zea mays L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications with net plot of 4.2 x 7.5 m to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur on growth, yield and quality of double cross hybrid (DCH) maize (Cargil-707). Application of fertilizers at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg of nitrogen and sulfur per hectare respectively greatly increased by dry weight per plant (DWP), plant grains number per ear (GNE) and grain weight per ear (GWE) over other treatments. Similarly, the highest grain yield of 8.59 tons per hectare was recorded from the plot fertilized at the rate of 150 kg N and 30 kg S per hectare, while maximum grain oil content (GOC) and grain protein contents (GPC) were recorded from plot fertilized at the rate of 150 + 30 and 150 + 20 kg N and S per hectare respectively. (author)

  9. Response of Grain Weight of Maize to Variety, Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Asaba Area of Delta State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June 2010 to evaluate the response of grain weight of maize to variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD replicated three times in a factional layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three maize varieties sown at 75cm x 15cm and evaluated for the grain weight. The results obtained indicated that hybrid variety which produced yield of 2.1 tha-1 in 2008 and 2.3 tha-1 in 2009 was superior. The results of interaction showed that variety, manure type and rates of application were significantly (p<0.05 different in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that (i Hybrid maize variety, 9022-13, which was outstanding in grain weight be grown in the study area. Alternatively, farmers who prefer open-pollinated varieties could grow BR9922-DMRSF2 or Agbor local variety for farmers who prefer local varieties in maize production. (ii Farmers who prefer mineral fertilizers for increased grain weight of maize should apply 450kgha-1 of NPK 20:10:10. (iii Farmers who practice organic agriculture in Asaba agro-ecological zone should apply 30tha-1 of poultry manure to enhance maize yield.

  10. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  11. Mulch Induced Eco-physiological Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Awal, M. A.; M.A.H. Khan

    2000-01-01

    Mulching effects of sawdust, ash, rice straw and water hyacinth on growth, dry matter partitioning, earliness, yield attributes and yield of maize were studied. All mulches except sawdust significantly influenced the SLA, CGR, NAR and DM partitioning, but with no apparent effect on RGR. Water hyacinth and rice straw mulches hastened the tasseling, silking and maturity time by 6, 8 and 8 days respectively and produced double the amount of biological and economic yield as compared to the contro...

  12. Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Joserlan N Moreira; Paulo Sérgio L Silva; Kathia MB Silva; Jeferson LD Dombroski; Renato S Castro

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3) were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020), in response to detasseling (with or without tassel). A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids defined as plots) and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ from each other on the ...

  13. Morphological and physiological changes during drought in critical periods and their effects on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of interest to find out the best way of increasing productivity of maize by water management as well as exposing grains to gamma rays to eliminate the effect of soil moisture stress. therefore this study was performed to investigate the mechanism of environmental stress on the morphology, physiology, yield and yield components of maize. three sets of experiments were performed to realize this target as follows: 1)effect of skipping an irrigation : two field experiments were conducted during 1980 and 1981 at the experimental farm of Ain shams university at Shoubra El-kheima, Kaluobia governorate to study the effect of skipping one irrigation at a certain stage of growth on maize plant. 2) effect of water deficit: two field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 at the experimental farm of Ain Shams university at Shubra El-kheima, Kalubia governorate to study the effect of soil moisture deficit on maize plant. 3) effect of salinity and gamma radiation: two pot experiments were performed in the greenhouse of agriculture department for soils and water research, atomic energy establishment, at Inshas in 1981 and 1982 growth seasons to study the effect of salinity and gamma rays on maize plant

  14. THE EFFECT OF INTERCROPS AND DIFFERENTIATED TILLAGE ON THE MAIZE YIELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Biskupski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the years 20082010 in the fields of the Experimental Station IUNG at Jelcz-Laskowice. Two-factorial experiments were laid out on the grey-brown podzolic soil formed out of loamy sand silt by the method of randomized subblocks in four replications. The experimental factors were intercrops (mustard and lupine and tillage system (traditional, simplified and zero. Winter wheat was the forecrop and maize the sequent plant. Leaf area index (LAI and mean tip angle (MTA were determined in the stage of early flowering with use of a LAI-2000 meter (LI-COR, USA in four replications. The research was carried out to find out which tillage system and intercrop would positively influence the yielding, selected indices of canopy architecture (height of plants, LAI, MTA and the amount of weeds in maize grown for grain. The yield of maize grain grown in simplified and zero tillage appeared to be lower than that obtained in traditional tillage. The highest LAI index of maize grown after both forecrops was found with traditional tillage, while the lowest with zero one. The highest maize plants were those in conventional tillage. The intercrop which appeared to have the most favourable effect on the height of maize was mustard. Reduced tillage systems increased total weed infestation in comparison to conventional tillage. Compensation of Echinochloa crus-galli, Geranium pusillum and Chenopodium album was noticed. The greatest number of weeds per unit area was found in the experiment after no-tillage system.

  15. CONSERVATION AND DETERMINATION OF THE VIABILITY OF MAIZE POLLEN GRAIN

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    CLARISSA ALVES FERREIRA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In maize breeding programs, factors related to receptivity length of stigma, longevity of pollen grain in the plant, differences in the period of blossoming among plants and conservations of the genetics resources are some aspects that reinforce the importance of pollen grains storage. In this research the influence of water tenor, period and storage environment were evaluated in regard to the viability and germination of maize pollen grains. The assays took place in laboratories of Analyses of Seed Molecular Biology of the seeds sector and in the experimental area of Agricultural Department of UFLA. In the pre-tests, different culture methods were verified to evaluate the in vitro germination as well the best time to collect the pollen grains. The germination pollen grains in different water tenors was also evaluated: 51,7%; 29,4%, 21,7%; 17,7%; 17%. In a second experiment the pollen grains with water tenors of 51,7%; 29,4%; 21,7% were stored in deep freezer (-86oC, fridge (4oC, and liquid nitrogen (-193oC for 14 and 30 days. After the storage, the germination and viability of pollen grains were evaluated in vitro in culture medium and through the tetrazoilium test, respectively. The viability of stored pollen grain for 14 days in different water tenors and storage places/environment was also tested in vivo through auto fecundation in plants of Le-57 inbred lines and GNZ 2004 hybrid, when both showed receptive style-stigmas. For the evaluation of germination and viability of pollen grains, a completely randomized design was used, in factorial scheme 2 (period of storage x 3 (water tenors of pollen grains x 3 (places storage, with four repetitions. In the pre-tests higher values of germination of pollen grains were observed in culture medium containing 10% sucrose; 0,03% boric acid; 0,15% calcium chloride (M2, and when the collection took place at 9 a.m. the viability of pollen grains was reduced substantially below 21,7% of water tenor indicating they dont tolerate the desiccation. For a better conservation during the storage, the pollen grains should be dried until 21,7% of water tenor and storage in liquid nitrogen.

  16. Estimation of weed dry biomass and grain yield as a function of growth and yield traits under allelopathic weed management in maize / Estimativa de biomassa seca de plantas daninhas e rendimento de gros como uma funo de caractersticas de crescimento e produo sob o manejo de plantas daninhas alelopticas na cultura do milho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., MAHMOOD; A., KHALIQ; M.Z., IHSAN; M., NAEEM; I., DAUR; A., MATLOOB; F.S., EL-NAKHLAWY.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As crescentes preocupaes sobre toxicidade e desenvolvimento de resistncia a herbicidas sintticos exigiram a busca por abordagens alternativas no manejo de plantas daninhas. Alelopatia obteve apoio e potencial suficientes para o manejo sustentvel de plantas daninhas. Extratos aquosos de seis esp [...] cies vegetais (girassol, arroz, amora, milho, colza ou couve-nabia e sorgo) em diferentes combinaes, isoladamente ou em mistura com 75% de reduo da dose de herbicidas, foram avaliados por dois anos consecutivos em condies de campo. Uma verificao de plantas daninhas e S-metolachlor com atrazina (pr-emergncia) e apenas atrazina (ps-emergncia) nas doses recomendadas foi includa para comparao. Dinmica de plantas daninhas, ndices de crescimento do milho e estimativa de rendimento foram realizados seguindo procedimentos padro. Todas as combinaes de extrato vegetal aquoso suprimiram crescimento e biomassa de ervas daninhas. Alm disso, o efeito supressor foi mais pronunciado quando extractos de plantas aquosas foram suplementados com doses reduzidas de herbicidas. A combinao de colza ou couve-nabia-girassol-sorgo suprimiu plantas daninhas em 74 - 80%, 78 - 70%, 65 - 68% durante os dois anos de estudo que foram semelhantes com S-metolachlor juntamente com meia dose de atrazina e uma dose completa apenas de atrazine. A taxa de crescimento da cultura e o acmulo de matria seca atingiram valores mximos de 32.68 e 1.502 g m-2 d-1 para a combinao de colza ou couve-nabia-girassol-sorgo em 60 e 75 dias aps a semeadura. Regresso de ajuste de curva para as caractersticas de crescimento e produo previu uma forte correlao positiva com o rendimento dos gros e uma correlao negativa para biomassa seca de plantas daninhas em manejo aleloptico de plantas daninhas na cultura de milho. Abstract in english Growing concerns about toxicity and development of resistance against synthetic herbicides have demanded looking for alternative weed management approaches. Allelopathy has gained sufficient support and potential for sustainable weed management. Aqueous extracts of six plant species (sunflower, rice [...] , mulberry, maize, brassica and sorghum) in different combinations alone or in mixture with 75% reduced dose of herbicides were evaluated for two consecutive years under field conditions. A weedy check and S-metolachlor with atrazine (pre emergence) and atrazine alone (post emergence) at recommended rates was included for comparison. Weed dynamics, maize growth indices and yield estimation were done by following standard procedures. All aqueous plant extract combinations suppressed weed growth and biomass. Moreover, the suppressive effect was more pronounced when aqueous plant extracts were supplemented with reduced doses of herbicides. Brassica-sunflower-sorghum combination suppressed weeds by 74-80, 78-70, 65-68% during both years of study that was similar with S-metolachlor along half dose of atrazine and full dose of atrazine alone. Crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation attained peak values of 32.68 and 1,502 g m-2 d-1 for brassica-sunflower-sorghum combination at 60 and 75 days after sowing. Curve fitting regression for growth and yield traits predicted strong positive correlation to grain yield and negative correlation to weed dry biomass under allelopathic weed management in maize crop.

  17. Estimation of maize yield by using a process-based model and remote sensing data in the Northeast China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengmei; Tang, Yanjing; Wang, Peijuan; Zhang, Jiahua

    Climate change significantly impact on agriculture in recent year, the accurate estimation of crop yield is of great importance for the food security. In this study, a process-based mechanism model was modified to estimate yield of C4 crop by modifying the carbon metabolic pathway in the photosynthesis sub-module of the RS-P-YEC (Remote-Sensing-Photosynthesis-Yield estimation for Crops) model. The yield was calculated by multiplying net primary productivity (NPP) and the harvest index (HI) derived from the ratio of grain to stalk yield. The modified RS-P-YEC model was used to simulate maize yield in the Northeast China Plain during the period 2002-2011. The 111 statistical data of maize yield from study area was used to validate the simulated results at county-level. The results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.827 (p maize planting zone in the Northeast China Plain was increasing with smaller coefficient of variation (CV). The spatial pattern of simulated maize yield was consistent with the actual distribution in the Northeast China Plain, with an increasing trend from the northeast to the southwest. Hence the results demonstrated that the modified process-based model coupled with remote sensing data was suitable for yield prediction of maize in the Northeast China Plain at the spatial scale.

  18. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zavaschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N, in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  19. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  20. Climate change and maize yield in southern Africa: what can farm management do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurinda, Jairos; van Wijk, Mark T; Mapfumo, Paul; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Supit, Iwan; Giller, Ken E

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that food insecurity will increase in southern Africa due to climate change. We quantified the response of maize yield to projected climate change and to three key management options - planting date, fertilizer use and cultivar choice - using the crop simulation model, agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM), at two contrasting sites in Zimbabwe. Three climate periods up to 2100 were selected to cover both near- and long-term climates. Future climate data under two radiative forcing scenarios were generated from five global circulation models. The temperature is projected to increase significantly in Zimbabwe by 2100 with no significant change in mean annual total rainfall. When planting before mid-December with a high fertilizer rate, the simulated average grain yield for all three maize cultivars declined by 13% for the periods 2010-2039 and 2040-2069 and by 20% for 2070-2099 compared with the baseline climate, under low radiative forcing. Larger declines in yield of up to 32% were predicted for 2070-2099 with high radiative forcing. Despite differences in annual rainfall, similar trends in yield changes were observed for the two sites studied, Hwedza and Makoni. The yield response to delay in planting was nonlinear. Fertilizer increased yield significantly under both baseline and future climates. The response of maize to mineral nitrogen decreased with progressing climate change, implying a decrease in the optimal fertilizer rate in the future. Our results suggest that in the near future, improved crop and soil fertility management will remain important for enhanced maize yield. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, none of the farm management options tested in the study can avoid large yield losses in southern Africa due to climate change. There is a need to transform the current cropping systems of southern Africa to offset the negative impacts of climate change. PMID:26251975

  1. Drying Maize Using Biomass-Heated Natural Convection Dryer Improves Grain Quality During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kyamuhangire

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was establish the effect of the biomass-heated natural convection dryer on insect damage, mould infection, aflatoxin contamination and the germination potential of maize grain during storage. Maize grains were dried using two methods; on bare ground simulating farmer practices and using the biomass dryer. The maize dried on bare ground took five days to dry to safe storage moisture content of 14% while that of the biomass dryer took only 6 h. Drying maize grain using the biomass dryer delayed insect infestation by three months and significantly (p?0.05 reduced mould and aflatoxin contamination during storage for 6 months. Maize dried using the biomass dryer was only infested with Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella while that dried on bare ground was infested by both the moth and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais implying that the biomass dryer controlled the most important storage insect pest of maize in Uganda. Drying maize using the biomass dryer had no effect on the germination potential of the grain. Thus, drying maize grain with the biomass dryer reduces drying time and greatly improves the quality of the grain during storage. However, the subsequent storage quality of the grain highly depends on the storage form (shelled or unshelled, time and environment.

  2. Impact of nitrogen rates on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of maize under varying environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth, yield and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of hybrid maize, in response to different nitrogen rates (150, 200, 250, 300, 350 kg ha/sub -1/ were analyzed for three different locations (Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal) in Punjab, Pakistan during 2004 and 2005. The results depicted a large yearly variations mainly attributed to more rainfall and incidence of solar radiation in 2005. Maize hybrids respond differently for all variable under study, at all sites except IPAR and radiation use efficiency 919 at different locations. Similar types of differences were noted in GGR and Final TOM. Increasing nitrogen rates had significant effects on CGR, final TOM and grain yield and RUE. The intercepted PAR, RUE/sub TDM/ and RUE/sub Gy/ were significantly affected by hybrid potential and nitrogen application rates. On an average RUE/sub TDM/ varied from 2.45 to 2.73 g MJ/sup -1/ at different locations, while RUE/sub Gy/ was recorded 1.12, 1.14 and 1.03 for Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal, respectively. Total dry matter and grain yield of different treatments was linearly related to IPAR at all location and the common regression (R/sup 2/) accounted for 94, 68, and 80 % for TDM and 64, 34, and 95% for grain yield at the Faisalabad, Sargodha and sahiwal, respectively. It was concluded that planting of hybrid Bemasal-202 with 300 kg N ha/sup -1/ is the best recommendation for semi-arid areas of Pakistan. (author)

  3. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  4. Foliar copper uptake by maize plants: effects on growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A slight increase in the levels of a certain nutrient can cause a significant increase in crop yield or can cause phytotoxicity symptoms. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of copper (Cu on the growth and yield of DG-501 maize. The experiment was carried out between December 2009 and April 2010 in conventional tillage. When plants were with six to eight leaves, Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600g ha-1 was applied to the leaves. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block with five replications. When 50% of the plants were in flowering, it was evaluated the plant height, culm diameter, height of the first ear insertion, leaf area, and chlorophyll content. At harvest, it was evaluated diameter and length of the ear, yield and thousand grain weight. There was a linear reduction in the plant height and in the height of the first ear insertion with increasing Cu doses. On the other hand, chlorophyll content, leaf area, diameter and length of ear, thousand grain weight and yield increased at doses up to 100g ha-1 Cu, however, decreased at higher doses. Therefore, foliar Cu application at doses higher than 100g ha-1 has toxic effect in maize plants with losses in growth and yield.

  5. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vranić; Mladen Knežević; Goran Perčulija; Krešimir Bošnjak; Josip Leto; Hrvoje Kutnjak; Martina Horg

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM) is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM) as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L.) (AH). The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM) digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP) concentration of AH...

  6. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the final grain dry weight, rate and duration of grain filling were important parameters in differentiating among cultivars grain filling curves. The yield was positively correlated with number of grains/m2, grain weight and grain filling rate, and negatively correlated with grain filling duration. Correlation between grain weight and rate of grain filling was positive. Grain filling duration was negatively correlated with grain filling rate and number of grains/m2. The highest yield on three year average had medium late Mironovska 808, by the highest grain weight and grain filling rate and optimal number of grains/2 and grain filling duration.

  7. COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KRUPAKAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability of some polygenic and quality traits was studied in a set of diallel crosses involving 10 maize inbreds (P1 to P10 to know the inheritance pattern of yield attributes. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant differences among themselves for all the traits in all environments. The ratio of gca /sca was less than unity there by indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of most of the characters studied. The parents P1 , P2 and P3 for grain yield, P5 and P8 for oil content, P6 , P8 and P9 for starch content and P7 , P8 and P10 for protein content were identified as most promising parents due to having good general combining ability. Among the crosses significant and desirable sca effects P3 P1 and P3 P2 for grain yield, P7 P4 and P5 P9 for oil content, P1 P3 and P9 P5 for starch content and P9 P6 & P8 P3 for protein content, respectively. Therefore, these crosses could be utilized for further selection of high yielding and quality progenies to achieve a quantum jump in maize improvement

  8. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kashta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 period, with the objective of estimating the associations between yield and yield-related traits and to identify direct effects of characters for durum wheat grain yield improvement. The experimental material consisted of 20 durum wheat genotypes, which are randomly taken from the germoplasm collection. Significant genotypic differences (P<0.01 were observed for all the traits studied, indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. Grain yield had strong positive correlations (P<0.01 with plant height, number of kernels spike-1, grain yield plant-1, biological yield and thousand-kernel weight. On the other hand, grain yield had strong negative correlation (p< 0.01 with days to heading, suggesting the usefulness of selecting early heading genotypes with long grain filling period in improving grain yield. The remaining traits recorded moderate to low phenotypic and genotypic estimates. The maximum positive direct effect on grain yield was exerted by biological yield (0.99 followed by days to maturity (0.89 and harvest index (0.73. While, maximum negative direct effects were exerted by days to heading (-0.81 and grain filling period (-0.68. Therefore, days to heading, biological yield and harvest index could be used as an indirect selection criterion for better grain yield. Thus, selecting early heading genotypes having high biological yield and harvest index could improve grain yield.

  9. Effect of detasseling on baby corn, green ear and grain yield of two maize hybrids Efeito do despendoamento sobre os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joserlan N Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were carried out in Mossoró, Brazil, to evaluate baby corn yield, green ear yield, and grain yield, respectively, of two corn hybrids (AG 1051 and BRS 2020, in response to detasseling (with or without tassel. A randomized split-plot block design (with hybrids defined as plots and ten replicates was used. The three experiments were planted on the same day and in neighboring areas. In the three experiments, the hybrids did not differ from each other on the dry matter mass and number of tassel branches. In E1 (baby corn production at 180 thousand plants ha-1, for both hybrids, the following effects were observed due to detasseling: a an increase in ear total number, in ear total weight, in marketable unhusked ears number and in marketable unhusked ears weight; b no change was observed in the number and weight of marketable husked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for weight of marketable husked ears, but the two hybrids did not differ in other traits utilized to evaluate baby corn yield. In E2 (green ear yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1, detasseling did not change the following traits in both hybrids: total number and weight of ears; number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and marketable husked ear weight. Detasseling reduced the number of marketable husked ears in cultivar AG 1051, but not in BRS 2020. The two hybrids did not differ in total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked ears. Hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 in regard to the total ears weight, marketable unhusked ears weight and number and weight of marketable husked ears. In E3 (grain yield at 50 thousand plants ha-1, detasseling did not affect grain yield (RG and hybrid AG 1051 was superior to BRS 2020 for grain yield.Três experimentos (E1, E2 e E3 foram realizados em Mossoró-RN com o objetivo de se avaliar, respectivamente, os rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de dois híbridos de milho (AG 1051 e BRS 2020, em resposta ao despendoamento (com e sem pendão. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas (cultivares nas parcelas e dez repetições. Os três experimentos foram plantados no mesmo dia e em áreas vizinhas. Os híbridos não diferiram, nos três experimentos, quanto à massa da matéria seca e quanto ao número de ramificações do pendão. Em E1 (produção de minimilho na densidade de 180 mil plantas ha-1, em ambos os híbridos, os seguintes efeitos foram observados devido ao despendoamento: um aumento no número e peso totais de espigas e no número e peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis; b nenhuma mudança foi observada no número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao híbrido BRS 2020 quanto ao peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis, mas os dois híbridos não diferiram quanto às outras características utilizadas para avaliar o rendimento de minimilho. Em E2 (produção de espigas verdes na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1, o despendoamento não alterou as seguintes características em ambos os híbridos: números e pesos totais de espigas e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis, e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O despendoamento reduziu o número de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis no híbrido AG 1051, mas não em BRS 2020. Os híbridos não diferiram quanto aos números total e de espigas verdes empalhadas comercializáveis. O híbrido AG 1051 foi superior ao BRS 2020 quanto aos pesos total e de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e quanto ao número e peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. Em E3 (produção de grãos na densidade de 50 mil plantas ha-1, o despendoamento não afetou o rendimento de grãos e o híbrido AG 1051 foi superior quanto ao RG.

  10. Mycotoxins in small grains and maize: old problems, new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J David

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews the challenges relating to chronic contamination of small grains and maize with deoxynivalenol and related compounds, fumonisin and the use of ensiled cereals in cool dairy areas. Uncertainties in the tolerable daily intakes for deoxynivalenol and fumonisin are discussed as they have the potential to affect current regulatory limits. In addition, climate change is resulting in more extreme rainfall and drought events which favour formation of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, respectively. The development and refinement of models for predicting mycotoxin accumulation from weather data will become an essential tool for managing these events. Such models are also important for providing timely food aid to developing countries, which experience increased occurrence of acute toxicities, especially in children. Chronic contamination of silage in some areas with some Penicillium toxins deserves more attention in terms of their economic effects and possible implications for the purity of milk. PMID:18286412

  11. The effects of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on the chemical composition of maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van?etovi? Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile hybrids often outyield their fertile counterparts, especially if pollinated by a genetically unrelated pollinator. The combined effect of cms and xenia is referred to as the Plus-hybrid effect. The objective of this study was to determine the individual, as well as, combining effect of cms and xenia on the maize grain chemical composition. The percent of oil, protein and starch in the grain was also observed. Two sterile hybrids, their fertile counterparts and five fertile pollinator-hybrids were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trial set up according to the split-plot experimental design was performed at Zemun Polje in 2008. The obtained results show that the effects of cms on the oil percent was not significant in the studied hybrid ZP 341, while it increased at the significance level of P = 0.1 in the second observed hybrid ZP 360. The effect of this factor on the protein and starch percent was also significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. Xenia effects on all three chemical parameters were significant (P = 0.01 in some hybrid combinations. The gained results indicate that the identification of a good combination of two hybrids, in which one would be a sterile female component, and the other a pollinator, would end up not only in the increased yield, but also in the improved maize grain quality.

  12. STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF WATER-YIELDING CAPACITY OF GRAIN OF LINES AND HYBRIDS OF MAIZE WITH ITS GESTATION Изучение динамики влагоотдачи зерном у линий и гибридов кукурузы при его созревании

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakov S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have considered water-yielding ca-pacity of maize grain in the dynamics of its gestation. The researches in this direction allowed to identify the lines and hybrids with quick-impact moisture and longer period of gestation

  13. Effect of Pakistan lignitic derived humic acids on the agriculture growth part II: studies on the effect of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein content of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of various minute concentrations of humic acids on the growth, yield and protein contents of maize were studied. The results revealed that the humic acid application in small doses produce higher grain yield, more protein content and better developed plants and roots compared to control. There was a positive correlation between the grain yield, protein contents and plant growth of maize to different levels of humic acid application. (author)

  14. [Extraction and use of pigments from maize grains (Zea mays L) as colorants in yogur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Moreno, Yolanda; Rubio Hernández, David; Díaz Velázquez, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the potential use of anthocyanins from maize grains as colorants in yogurt. Pigments were extracted from four native maize varieties (Arrocillo, Peruano, Purepecha and Cónico), which possess a high anthocyanin concentration in the pericarp. Pericarp and aleurone layer were mechanicallly removed from grain using a Strong-Scott barley pearled. Yields of pericarp and aleurone layer fraction (PALF) were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content in this fraction was determined by a conventional spectrophotometric method and the anthocyanin profile was obtained by HPLC. One mg of anthocyanin extracts from the PALF was added to 100 g of a commercial plain yogurt. Yogurt samples were kept under refrigerated conditions and color and pH were monitored every 5 days interval, during three weeks. The yields of PALF were 48.4%, 55.1%, 40.2%, and 40.0% for Arrocillo, Peruano, Cónico and Purepecha varieties, respectivelly. The highest total anthocyanin content (259.4 mg of anthocyanins/100 g sample) was observed in Peruano PALF. The color of yogurts dyed with each of the four extracts was different. Yogurts dyed with Peruano and Arrocillo extracts showed a more intense reddish tone than those dyed with Cónico and Purepecha. After 5 to 10 days under refrigerated storage, the color of all yogurt samples changed to a slight yellowish tone according to the Hue values, Nevertheless, these changes were not visually evident. PMID:16454056

  15. Use of Compost Manure Enriched with High Quality Organic Residues to Improve Growth and Yield of Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field trial was conducted to test whether composed manure with tithonia or lantana would improve growth and yield of maize. A field trial consisting of five compost types and inorganic N fertilizer was carried out in a site low N using maize (Zea mays Var. Hybrid 513) as a test crop. The compost and fertilizer were applied at an equivalent rate of 100 kg N ha-1. Above-ground maize biomass was taken at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after crop emergence, dried and N content determined. Amongst the compost, the highest dry matter accumulation N uptake and grain yield were observed in FYM composted with tithonia at 1:1 ratio. At all stages of crop growth, inorganic fertilizer treatment gave the highest dry matter and N uptake. Based on the growth and N uptake in the fertilizer treatment it was concluded that the N release in all the compost was lower than the crop demand

  16. Impact of direct sowing mulch-based cropping systems on soil carbon, soil erosion and maize yield

    OpenAIRE

    Scopel, Eric; FINDELING, Antoine; Chavez Guerra, Enrique; Corbeels, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We studied the impact of direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) on soil characteristics and maize production compared with conventional tillage management (CT) in the semi-arid region of western Mexico. Mulch treatments included 0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 Mg ha-1 of added surface crop residues. The study was carried out from 1994 to 1998 on a Dystric Cambisol soil in La Tinaja in the state of Jalisco. Water runoff, soil erosion, soil C changes, maize aboveground biomass and grain yield were...

  17. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de aveia preta (Avena strigosa como espécie de cobertura de solo no inverno causa imobilização do nitrogênio (N, que reduz o desenvolvimento da planta e o rendimento de grãos de milho cultivados em sucessão. Desta forma, o consórcio de aveia preta com espécies leguminosas como ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa e com brassicáceas, como nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, visa a aumentar a disponibilidade de N no sistema e o tempo de permanência de resíduos na superfície do solo. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul-RS, nas estações de crescimento 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. O primeiro experimento teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de três espécies de cobertura de solo no inverno, implantadas de forma isolada e consorciadas, sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, com e sem aplicação de N em cobertura. O segundo experimento, por sua vez, visava a determinar a proporção mais adequada de sementes de nabo forrageiro e de aveia preta em consórcio para maior benefício ao milho em sucessão, sob diferentes níveis de N em cobertura. No primeiro experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 150kg ha-1 de N no milho em cobertura, de uma testemunha sem aplicação deste nutriente e de sete sistemas com plantas de coberturas de solo no inverno. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de dois níveis de N (75 e 150kg ha-1 no milho, de uma testemunha sem aplicação de N em cobertura e de cinco sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno. Nos sistemas consorciados, independentemente da proporção de sementes utilizada, o nabo forrageiro contribuiu com a maior parte do rendimento total de matéria seca. O consórcio de ervilhaca comum ou de nabo forrageiro com aveia preta minimiza o efeito negativo desta espécie sobre o rendimento de grãos de milho em sucessão, especialmente em sistemas com menor disponibilidade de N e, mesmo sob alto nível de N, o rendimento de grãos de milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  18. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  19. Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Viruel; L. E, Erazz; L, Martnez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Sieriz.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumn, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

  20. Inoculation of maize with phosphate solubilizing bacteria: effect on plant growth and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Viruel; L. E, Erazz; L, Martnez Calsina; M. A, Ferrero; M. E, Lucca; F, Sieriz.

    Full Text Available Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) improve plant growth, yield and phosphorus content of several crops, and may be used as bioinoculant to enhance sustainable production. We evaluated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to PSB inoculation under controlled and field conditions in Tucumn, Argentin [...] a. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of seven previously isolated PSB on early development of plants. Seeds were treated with each bacterial strain, and seedlings were harvested 30 days after inoculation. All strains showed a positive effect on plant growth. A significant increment in plant height (45%), shoot dry weight (40%) was determined in plants treated with Pseudomonas tolaasii IEXb, while Pseudomonas koreensis SP28 has remarkably increased P content compared to the uninoculated control. IEXb strain was selected and evaluated under field conditions in combination with triple superphosphate (TSP) as P fertilizer. The presence of IEXb strain stimulated seedling emergence (8%), shoot length (19%), grain yield (44%), 1000-grain weight (18%), total dry biomass (32%) and P content (56%) of maize plants. In general, P. tolaasii IEXb inoculation was more efficient as bioinoculant without P fertilizer than with TSP. These results provide baseline information for future studies of P. tolaasii IEXb as bioinoculant to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture.

  1. Grain yield and kernel crude protein content increases of maize hybrids with late nitrogen side-dressing Rendimento e teor de proteína bruta nos grãos de híbridos de milho com adubação nitrogenada de cobertura tardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes incorporated into current maize hybrids suggest the occurrence of modifications in the nitrogen uptake dynamics, improving plant ability to uptake N during grain filling. This may justify late N side-dressing whenever environmental constraints prevent adequate nitrogen supply during crops vegetative development. This study evaluates effects of nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking on grain yield and kernel crude protein contents of commercial maize hybrids. Two experiments were set up in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons. In 2001/2002, treatments were composed of two hybrids (Agroceres 303 and Pioneer 32R21, three nitrogen rates applied during maize vegetative development (30, 80 and 130 kg ha-1 and three nitrogen rates applied at silking (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1. In 2002/2003, four hybrids (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 and Syngenta Penta and four nitrogen rates side-dressed at booting (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1 were assessed. There were significant increments in grain yield and kernel crude protein content with nitrogen fertilization at booting and silking. Grain yield response to late N side-dressing differed among cultivars. The impact of nitrogen fertilization at silking was higher at the smallest rate of N during the plant vegetative development. Enhancements in grain yield with late N side-dressing resulted from increases in grain weight. Modern hybrids can uptake nitrogen during silking, contradicting the hypothesis that late N side-dressing is not efficient to improve maize grain yield.Alterações morfo-fisiológicas introduzidas nos híbridos modernos de milho sugerem mudanças na dinâmica de absorção do nitrogênio, aumentando a habilidade da planta de absorvê-lo durante o enchimento de grãos. Isto pode justificar a utilização de coberturas nitrogenadas tardias sempre que restrições climáticas impedirem o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. Este estudo foi conduzido objetivando avaliar os efeitos da fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento no rendimento e teor de proteína nos grãos de híbridos de milho. Dois experimentos foram instalados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, nos anos agrícolas de 2001/2002 e 2002/2003. Em 2001/2002, os tratamentos foram compostos por dois híbridos (Agroceres 303 e Pioneer 32R21, três doses de N aplicadas durante o desenvolvimento vegetativo (30, 80 e 130 kg ha-1 e três doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50 e 100 kg ha-1. Em 2002/2003, quatro híbridos (Agroceres 303, Pioneer 32R21, Dekalb 215 e Syngenta Penta e quatro doses de N aplicadas no espigamento (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 foram testadas. A fertilização nitrogenada no emborrachamento e espigamento promoveu incrementos significativos no rendimento e teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. A resposta do rendimento de grãos à cobertura nitrogenada tardia diferiu entre as cultivares. O impacto da fertilização nitrogenada no espigamento foi maior quando se aplicou baixas doses de N na fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo. Os aumentos no rendimento de grãos obtidos com coberturas tardias deveram-se principalmente ao maior peso de grãos. Os híbridos contemporâneos são capazes de absorver N depois do espigamento, contradizendo a hipótese de que coberturas nitrogenadas tardias não são eficientes para aumentar o rendimento de grãos do milho.

  2. The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of water deficit stress at different growth stages and N fertilizer levels on morphological traits, yield and yield components of maize cv. Single Cross 704, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The main plot included irrigation at four levels (irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages and optimum irrigation) and the sub-plot was N fertilizer at three levels (75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha). The results of analysis of variance showed that water-deficit stress and N fertilizer level significantly affected leaf area index at silking stage, ear length, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Stem diameter, ear diameter and harvest index were only affected by irrigation treatments and the interaction between irrigation and N level did not significantly affect the studied traits. Means comparison indicated that ear diameter under optimum irrigation was higher than that under the treatments of irrigation stop at 8-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages by 29.9, 19.1 and 33.5%, respectively; and ear length was higher than them by 38.1, 28.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Moreover, the highest grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were obtained under optimum irrigation treatment, and irrigation stop at 10-leaf, tasselling and grain-filling stages decreased grain yield by 52.8, 66.4 and 44.9%, respectively; and it decreased grain number/ear by 45.9, 59.3 and 30.1%, respectively. In addition, optimum irrigation treatment with mean 1000-grain weight of 289.2 g was significantly superior over other irrigation stop treatments by 27.6-42.8% and produced the highest leaf area index at silking stage (4.1). Means comparison of traits at different N levels indicated that N level of 225 kg/ha produced the highest ear length (17.82 cm), grain number per ear (401.9), 1000-grain weight (258.8 g), leaf area index at silking stage (4.05) and grain yield (768.5 g/m/sup 2/) which were significantly higher than them under N level of 75 kg/ha. According to the results, the treatment of optimum irrigation with minimum N level of 150 kg/ha is recommended for realizing high maize yield in Gonabad, Iran. (author)

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  4. Heterosis expression in crosses between maize populations: ear yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ricardo Machado da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of heterosis has been exploited extensively in maize (Zea mays L. breeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic potential of ten maize populations for ear yield following the diallel mating scheme. Six parental populations were obtained through phenotypic selection of open-pollinated ears in Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, (GO populations and four parental populations were synthesized in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (GN populations: GO-D (DENTADO, GO- F (FLINT, GO-A (AMARELO, GO-B (BRANCO, GO-L (LONGO, GO-G (GROSSO, GN-01, GN-02, GN-03 and GN-04. Experiments were carried out in three environments: Anhembi (SP and Rio Verde (GO in 1998/99 (normal season crop and Piracicaba (SP in 1999 (off-season crop. All experiments were in completely randomized blocks with six replications. Analysis of variance grouped over environments showed high significance for heterosis and its components, although mid-parent heterosis and average heterosis were of low expression. The interaction treatments x environments was not significant. Total mid-parent heterosis effects ranged from de -4.3% to 17.3% with an average heterosis of 3.37%. Population with the highest yield (7.4 t ha-1 and with the highest effect of population (v i = 0.746 was GN-03, while the highest yielding cross was GO-B x GN-03 with 7,567 t ha-1. The highest specific heterosis effect (s ii' = 0.547 was observed in the cross GO-B x GN-03.

  5. Solar radiation interception of various planting space patterns of maize and its relation to yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research was carried out to study solar radiation interception and its relation to yield of maize in various plant spacing patterns at high elevation. The goal of this research was to contribute the development of crop science, especially the plant ecophysiology. A field experiment was executed from March to August 1998 at Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology, Sukarami, West Sumatra. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment data was analyzed by ANOVA and path analysis. The results of experiment indicated that the percentage of solar radiation interception gave high contribution to the dry grain yield for Pioneer-7 cultivar, and the solar radiation interception was depend on LAI and leaf angle

  6. Crop Rotation and N Input Effects on Soil Fertility, Maize Mineral Nutrition, Yield, and Seed Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield of maize (Zea mays L.) rotated annually with soybean (Glycine max merr.) is better than its yield in monoculture. To determine how maize would respond to rotations that includes wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under different levels of N input, we evaluated N fer...

  7. Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels and methods of application on ear characters and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006 and 2007 in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having three replications. Four plant populations (4.5, 6, 7.5 and 9 plants m/sup -2/), three nitrogen levels (80, 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/) and three nitrogen application methods (full dose at emergence, half each at emergence and knee height, one third each at emergence, knee height and pre-tasseling stages) were included in the experiments. Plant populations (PP) were kept in the main plot, while combinations of nitrogen levels (N) and nitrogen application methods were kept in the sub-plots. Maize variety Azam was sown with the help of a planter in a plot size of 3 x 3 m/sup 2/ with row to row distance of 75 cm. Grain and biological yields increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -2/ to 7.5 plants m/sup -2/ but further increase in PP did not significantly enhance grain and biological yields of maize. Likewise, increase in N level significantly improved grain and biological yields of maize up to 120 kg ha/sup-1/. Similarly, N application in three splits performed better than sole or two splits in terms of biological yield production in maize. HI consistently increased with increase in PP from 4.5 plants m/sup -/2 to 9 plants m/sup -/2. Ear characters were not affected by PP except grain weight which was higher at PP of 7.5 plants m/sup -2/. In similar fashion, N level significantly affected only grains row/sup -1/ and grain ear/sup -1/. Both grains row-1 and grain ear/sup -1/ increased with increase in N level from 80 to 160 kg ha/sup -1/ but the N level of 120 and 160 kg ha/sup -1/ were statistically at par with each other. It is concluded that higher yield and better ear characters were obtained at PP of 7.5 plant m-2 with N application at the rate of 20 kg ha/sup -1/. (author)

  8. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful post-harvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (...

  9. A comparison of controlled self-pollination and open pollination results based on maize grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sulewska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. grain endosperm is triploid (3n, of which 2n come from the male (transferred by pollen and only 1n from the female plant, thus a major impact of the male form can be expected on grain quality parameters. A good example of this relationship is the phenomenon of xenia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pollen on grain quality. The field experiment was conducted in 2011; seeds were harvested from eight cultivars: Bosman, Blask, Tur, Kozak, Bielik, Smok, SMH 220 and Kresowiak, derived from free pollination and controlled self-pollination of maize. Analyses of nutrient contents and starch content in the grain were conducted in the laboratory. In addition, 1000 grain weight and the hectoliter weight of all grain samples were recorded. The results confirmed differences in grain quality of maize hybrids obtained by self-pollination and by open pollination. Grain of maize plants obtained by open-pollination was characterised by higher contents of N-free extract and starch, and lower protein content. Undertaking further studies on this subject may indicate specific recommendations for agricultural practice, such as mixtures of hybrids with good combining abilities, which will contribute to improved grain quality without additional costs.

  10. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    OpenAIRE

    Piens Kathleen; Ståhlberg Jerry; Sandgren Mats; Eriksson Anna; Passoth Volkmar; Schnürer Johan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared...

  11. Response of soil CO2 emission and summer maize yield to plant density and straw mulching in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanru; Liu, Xinhui; Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Lang, Kun; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Demand for food security and the current global warming situation make high and strict demands on the North China Plain for both food production and the inhibition of agricultural carbon emissions. To explore the most effective way to decrease soil CO2 emissions and maintain high grain yield, studies were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 summer maize growing seasons to assess the effects of wheat straw mulching on the soil CO2 emissions and grain yield of summer maize by adding 0 and 0.6 kg m(-2) to fields with plant densities of 100,000, 75,000, and 55,000 plants ha(-1). The study indicated that straw mulching had some positive effects on summer maize grain yield by improving the 1000-kernel weight. Meanwhile, straw mulching effectively controlled the soil respiration rate and cumulative CO2 emission flux, particularly in fields planted at a density of 75,000 plants ha(-1), which achieved maximum grain yield and minimum carbon emission per unit yield. In addition, soil microbial biomass and microbial activity were significantly higher in mulching treatments than in nonmulching treatments. Consequently, summer maize with straw mulching at 75,000 plants ha(-1) is an environmentally friendly option in the North China Plain. PMID:25147835

  12. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Application on Growth and Yield of Maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize variety Hicorn-984 was studied at agronomic research area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the year 2005. The trial was laid out according to randomised complete block design in triplicate and plot size was 3m*6m. There were six treatments comprising of various levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer in different combinations and a control. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer differed significantly from control as well as from their sole application. Comparison of treatments showed that inorganic fertilizer application at the rate of 70-50-35 kg NPK/ha along with 5 t/hapoultry manure showed maximum plant growth parameters such as leaf area (1537 cm2), plant height (195 cm), number of grains per cob (452) and thousand grain weight (234 g) which were at par with T5 (70 -50-35 kg NPK/ha along with 8 t/ha FYM) but significantly higher than the treatments where organic manures and inorganic fertilizers were applied separately. Maximum grain yield (5.7 t/ha) and cost-benefit ratio (1.7) were achieved in the treatment T6 (NPK at 70-50-35 kg/ha along with 5 t/hapoultry manure) while, minimum grain yield (2.3 t/ha) and cost benefit ratios (1.1) were recorded in control. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer results in increase in yield and profitability to farmer as compared to their sole application. (author)

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of grain maize production: An analysis of factors causing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Lieselot; Van Linden, Veerle; De Meester, Steven; Vandecasteele, Bart; Muylle, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Nemecek, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-05-15

    To meet the growing demand, high yielding, but environmentally sustainable agricultural plant production systems are desired. Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess the environmental impact of these agricultural systems. However, the impact results are very diverse due to management decisions or local natural conditions. The impact of grain maize is often generalized and an average is taken. Therefore, we studied variation in production systems. Four types of drivers for variability are distinguished: policy, farm management, year-to-year weather variation and innovation. For each driver, scenarios are elaborated using ReCiPe and CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment) to assess the environmental footprint. Policy limits fertilisation levels in a soil-specific way. The resource consumption is lower for non-sandy soils than for sandy soils, but entails however more eutrophication. Farm management seems to have less influence on the environmental impact when considering the CEENE only. But farm management choices such as fertiliser type have a large effect on emission-related problems (e.g. eutrophication and acidification). In contrast, year-to-year weather variation results in large differences in the environmental footprint. The difference in impact results between favourable and poor environmental conditions amounts to 19% and 17% in terms of resources and emissions respectively, and irrigation clearly is an unfavourable environmental process. The best environmental performance is obtained by innovation as plant breeding results in a steadily increasing yield over 25years. Finally, a comparison is made between grain maize production in Flanders and a generically applied dataset, based on Swiss practices. These very different results endorse the importance of using local data to conduct LCA of plant production systems. The results of this study show decision makers and farmers how they can improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems, and LCA practitioners are alerted to challenges due to variation. PMID:26938318

  14. Genome-wide association study and pathway level analysis of tocochromanol levels in maize grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocochromanols, are the major lipid-soluble antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. Given that individual tocochromanols differ in their degree of vitamin E activity, variation for tocochromanol composition and content in grain from among divers...

  15. [Effect of the prolamins in maize (Zea mays L.) grain on tortilla texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F C; Salinas, M Y; Vázquez, C M G; Velázquez, C G A; Aguilar, G N

    2007-09-01

    The prolamins (zeins) are the main storage proteins in the maize grain. There are limited investigations related to their participation on tortilla texture. For determining their effect, normal (6) and Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (6) genotypes were used. The chemical variables comprised prolamins, amylose and starch in whole grain and endosperm. Viscosity of the raw endosperm flour was determined as well as the tortilla texture, expressed in terms of tension force and elongation. Prolamin content in the normal maizes was 64 % higher than that in the QPMs. It was not observed any relationship between prolamin content and flour viscosity. The prolamin content was not related with tortilla hardness, measured as the tension force to rupture the tortilla, but a negative correlation was observed with tortilla elongation. The tortillas with the best texture characteristics were from H-161 nomal maize and H-143 QPM maize, both genotypes showed the smallest grain in its respective gruop. According to the results obtained in the present work, a high prolamin content in maize grain could be affecting tortilla elongation. PMID:18271409

  16. Influence of Precipitation on Maize Yield in the Eastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chengyi Huang; Sjoerd Willem Duiker; Liangji Deng; Conggang Fang; Weizhong Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Most General Circulation Models predict more infrequent but larger precipitation events in the eastern United States combined with a warmer climate. This could have a negative effect on maize production. To understand the sensitivity of maize production to future changes in precipitation, we analyzed growing season precipitation and average state maize yields in the eastern United States for the period 1963–2011. Growing season precipitation did not show a strong trend during this period. How...

  17. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  18. The Effects of Rate and Placement of Boma Manure on Maize Yield in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six session study on the response of maize to boma manure was conducted on farmer's field in Wamuyu, Machakos District in the Eastern province of Kenya to; a) determine the yield response of maize to application of boma manure in the 0-100 t ha-1 range, b)evaluate the benefits of banding of boma manure as compared with broadcasting, c)determine the residual response to boma manure application; d)compare the response of boma manure with that of inorganic fertiliser. The soil on the experimental site was a well drained ,dark red, loamy sand with an average of 16.64 mg kg-1 extractable P and 0.065 % total N in the 0-1 cm depth. Maize grain yield and total dry matter markedly increased with increasing rates of boma manure while placement method and interaction between placement and rate of application effect. A combined analysis indicated that there was no significant increase in grain yield above the rate of 40 t ha -1 of manure. Using inorganic fertiliser at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 + 20 kg P ha-1 was found to be the best option in terms of economic benefits. The residual effects of the manure were, however, still very evident in the last season, indicating that more benefits would have been obtained from manure over a number of succeeding seasons, especially from the high rates (60-100 t ha-1)

  19. THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry De-Graft Acquah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change tends to have negative effects on crop yield through its influence on crop production. Understanding the relationship between climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of crop yield will facilitate development of appropriate policies to cope with climate change. This paper examines the effects of climatic variables and crop area on the mean and variance of maize yield in Ghana. The Just and Pope stochastic production function using the Cobb-Douglas functional form was employed. The results show that average maize yield is positively related to crop area and negatively related to rainfall and temperature. Furthermore, increase in crop area and temperature will enlarge maize yield variability while rainfall increase will decrease the variability in maize yield.

  20. Diallel analyze of yield and progress of the severity of leaf diseases in maize hybrids in two population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ventura Faria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven commercial maize hybrids (AS1575, 2B688, Penta, GNZ2004, AG8021, Sprint e P30F53 were intercrossed in a complete diallel, excluded reciprocal, obtaining 21 crosses. The 28 treatments were evaluated in two environments characterized by different densities (62,500 and 90,000 plants ha-1, with the aim of selecting the most promising parents for generating base population to obtain lines. Two experiments were carried out in Guarapuava-PR, at randomized block design with three replications. We estimated the general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities for yield and disease severity assessed by the area under the common rust (Puccinia sorghi progress curve (AURPC and the area under the leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis progress curve (AULPC. The effects of GCA and SCA were significant for grain yield and diseases severity in both densities, revealing the importance of both additive and non-additive effects. There GCA x densities interaction was significant only for grain yield. Crossings P30F53 x AG8021 and P30F53 x Penta had negative estimates of SCA for AURPC and AULPC on the environments average. Hybrids GNZ 2004 and P30F53 stood out showing positive GCA for grain yield and negative for AURPC and AULPC in both densities and therefore are recommended for generating base populations for obtaining lines adapted for both densities, conventional and denser plantings, given the current trends in management of maize.

  1. Micronutrient and functional compounds biofortification of maize grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos E; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Rombaldi, César Valmor

    2015-01-01

    Maize, in addition to being the main staple food in many countries, is used in the production of hundreds of products. It is rich in compounds with potential benefits to health, such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and minerals that act as cofactors for antioxidant enzymes. Many of these compounds have been neglected thus far in the scientific literature. Nevertheless, deficiencies in the precursors of vitamin A and some minerals, such as iron and zinc, in maize, in association with the great genetic variability in its cultivars and our genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic knowledge of this species make targeted biofortification strategies for maize promising. This review discusses the potential of the main microconstituents found in maize with a focus on studies aimed at biofortification. PMID:24915397

  2. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoth, Volkmar; Eriksson, Anna; Sandgren, Mats; Sthlberg, Jerry; Piens, Kathleen; Schnrer, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry) stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production. PMID:19695089

  3. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  4. UNDERSTANDING PLANT DENSITY EFFECTS ON MAIZE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: AN IMPORTANT ISSUE TO MAXIMIZE GRAIN YIELD A COMPREENSÃO DOS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO MILHO É IMPORTANTE PARA MAXIMIZAR O RENDIMENTO DE GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the agronomic grass species that is most sensitive to variations in plant density. For each production system, there is a population that maximizes grain yield. This article presents an overview of the factors that affect optimum plant population, emphasizingthe effects of dense stands on ear development and discussing important changes in plant traits that have contributed to increase the tolerance of modern hybrids to high plant densities. Population for maize maximum economic grain yield varies from 30,000 to over 90,000pl.ha-1, depending on water availability, soil fertility, maturity rating, planting date and row spacing. When the number of individuals per area is increased beyond the optimum plant density, there is a series of consequences that are detrimental to ear ontogeny and result in barrenness. First, ear differentiation is delayed in relation to tassel differentiation. Later-initiated earshoots have a reduced growth rate, resulting in fewer spikelet primordia transformed into functional florets by the time of flowering. Functional florets extrude silks slowly, decreasing the number of fertilized spikelets due to the lack of synchrony between anthesis and silking. Limitations in carbon and nitrogen supply to the ear stimulate young kernel abortion immediately after fertilization. Availability of earlier hybrids, with shorter plant height, lower leaf number, upright leaves, smaller tassels and better synchrony between male and female flowering time has enhanced the ability of maize to face high plant populations without showing excessive barrenness. Improved endurance in high stands has allowed maize to intercept and use solar radiation more efficiently, contributing to the remarkable increase in grain yield potential experienced by this crop.O milho é a gramínea mais sensível a variações na densidade de plantas. Para cada sistema de produção, existe uma população que maximiza o rendimento de grãos. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre os principais fatores que afetam a densidade ótima, enfatiza o efeito de densidades elevadas no desenvolvimento das espigas e discute as características de planta que contribuíram para aumentar a tolerância dos híbridos modernos de milho a populações elevadas. A população ideal para maximizar o rendimento de grãos de milho varia de 30.000 a 90.000pl.ha-1, dependendo da disponibilidade hídrica, fertilidade do solo, ciclo da cultivar, época de semeadura e espaçamento entre linhas. Quando o número de indivíduos por área é superior à densidade ótima, há uma série de conseqüências negativas para a formação da espiga que podem levar a esterilidade. Primeiramente, a diferenciação da espiga é retardada em relação à diferenciação do pendão. Espigas diferenciadas tardiamente apresentam uma taxa reduzida de crescimento, transformando poucos primórdios de espiguetas em floretes funcionais durante a floração. Os floretes funcionais apresentam uma exteriorização dos estigmas mais lenta, diminuindo o número de espiguetas que serão fertilizadas devido à falta de coincidência entre antese e espigamento. Limitações no suprimento de carbono e nitrogênio às espigas estimulam o aborto de grãos incipientes logo após a fertilização. O lançamento de híbridos mais precoces, de porte reduzido, menor número de folhas, folhas mais eretas, tamanho reduzido do pendão e melhor sincronia entre o desenvolvimento das inflorescências masculina e feminina aumentou a habilidade da planta de suportar populações elevadas sem apresentar níveis expressivos de esterilidade. A maior adaptação do milho ao adensamento permitiu-lhe interceptar e utilizar a radiação solar mais eficientemente, contribuindo para o notável incremento no rendimento potencial de grãos dessa cultura.

  5. Predicting maize yield in Zimbabwe using dry dekads derived from remotely sensed Vegetation Condition Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Farai; Murwira, Amon; Murwira, Karin S.; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a key crop contributing to food security in Southern Africa yet accurate estimates of maize yield prior to harvesting are scarce. Timely and accurate estimates of maize production are essential for ensuring food security by enabling actionable mitigation strategies and policies for prevention of food shortages. In this study, we regressed the number of dry dekads derived from VCI against official ground-based maize yield estimates to generate simple linear regression models for predicting maize yield throughout Zimbabwe over four seasons (2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13). The VCI was computed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series dataset from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor for the period 1998-2013. A significant negative linear relationship between number of dry dekads and maize yield was observed in each season. The variation in yield explained by the models ranged from 75% to 90%. The models were evaluated with official ground-based yield data that was not used to generate the models. There is a close match between the predicted yield and the official yield statistics with an error of 33%. The observed consistency in the negative relationship between number of dry dekads and ground-based estimates of maize yield as well as the high explanatory power of the regression models suggest that VCI-derived dry dekads could be used to predict maize yield before the end of the season thereby making it possible to plan strategies for dealing with food deficits or surpluses on time.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of different Rhizobium sp. for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Khalid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades, it has been demonstrated that rhizobia can associate with roots of non-legumes also without forming true nodules, and can promote their growth by using one or more of the direct or indirect mechanisms of actions. This work examines the growth and yield responses of maize to inoculation with different species of rhizobia, isolated from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris M. and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. in pots and fields. Twenty isolates of rhizobia were isolated from root nodules each of mung bean, lentil and chickpea and were screened under axenic conditions. On the basis of their promising performance under axenic conditions, nine most efficient isolates (three from each legume host were selected, characterized and further evaluated for their growth promoting activities by conducting pot and field experiments. Results of pot experiment revealed that maximum increase in grain yield, 1000 grain weight, N, P and K uptake (up to 47.89, 54.52, 73.46, 84.66 and 59.19% by CRI28, respectively, over un-inoculated control was produced by the isolate of Mesorhizobium ciceri. Whereas, maximum improvement in rest of the parameters was caused by the isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli (i.e. fresh biomass, straw yield and root length up to 36.30% by A18, 25.46% by S6 and 81.89% by A18, respectively over un-inoculated control. Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates came out to be the least effective among the species tested. Similarly, all the selected isolates improved the growth and yield attributing parameters in fields as well but with varying capacity compared with un-inoculated control. The selected isolates of Mesorhizobium ciceri and Rhizobium phaseoli again remained superior compared to the isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum under field conditions. The results of this study imply that rhizobium species had potential to promote growth and yield of maize but this technology should be employed after appropriate site specific investigations of particular rhizobial specie with respect to specific non-leguminous crop variety to get maximum benefit in terms of better growth and yield.

  7. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  8. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (I Three Year Yield Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    Full Text Available A three-year (2004-2006 field trial was carried out to compare two agricultural land management systems, in the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Conventional tillage and No-tillage (hereafter indicated as CT and NT, respectively were compared for maize treated with three levels of nitrogen. The soil was a fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haplustalf, that had been under processing tomato in the previous year. Experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, with the management system as the main factor and nitrogen fertilization (0, 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 as the secondary factor. Cumulative 3-yr yields of grain and total biomass of NT maize plants were 8% lower than those obtained under CT management, but not significantly different. No N starter was distributed in the first conversion year, causing 17% less grain yield in the NT plots compared with the CT plots. The N fertilizing with 250 and 300 kg N ha-1 year-1 determined statistically equal grain yields, demonstrating the waste of the extra 50 kg N at the N2 rate. Overall, the results for the three years indicate that on an Ultic Haplustalf conversion from a ploughed regime to mature NT conditions could be achieved over a relatively short period.

  9. Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Allan D. C. Chilimba; Young, Scott D.; Black, Colin R; Rogerson, Katie B.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Lammel, Joachim; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diets but the risk of suboptimal intake increases where food choices are narrow. Here we show that suboptimal dietary intake (i.e. 20–30 mg Se person21 d21) is widespread in Malawi, based on a spatial integration of Se concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) grain and soil surveys for 88 field sites, representing 10 primary soil types and .75% of the national land area. The median maize grain Se concentration was 0.019 mg kg21 (range 0.005–0.533), a mea...

  10. Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of maize in loess plateau of northwest china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Experimental Station in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, in northwestern China from 2010 to 2011 with four treatments and six replicates in a randomized complete block design to determine appropriate dripper discharge and irrigation frequency for maize (Zea mays, L.) irrigated by drip irrigated system. Dripper discharge was applied to maize 1L/h of dripper discharge, 2 days irrigation frequency and 100% of evaporation from a class a pan (T1), 2, 3 and 4 L/h corresponding to 4, 6 and 8 days irrigation frequency, and deficit irrigation water levels was 90%, 80% and 70% of evaporation (T2, T3 and T4), respectively. The results indicated that longest root, root activity, plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields values were highest in T1 in both years. The highest grain yield was obtained of 8.78 and 8.84 t ha-1 under T1 in both years, and the minimum yield was obtained with 8.15 and 7.78 t ha-1 under T4 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) was 3.247 and 3.283 kg m-3 in both years under T4. Despite the reduction of growth and grain yield in T3, the dripper discharge was 3L/h, 6 days irrigation frequency and 80% of evaporation was still high and acceptable for maize production and irrigation water use efficiency in Loess Plateau of Northwest China. (author)

  11. Association of Duration and Rate of Grain Filling with Grain Yield in Temperate Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain filling is a crucial factor that determines grain yield in crops since it is the final process directly associated with crops' yield performance. Grain filling process can be characterized by the interaction of rate and duration of grain filling. This study was conducted, using 16 temperate japonica rice genotypes, with aims to (1) seek variations in grain filling duration and rate on area basis, (2) compare the contribution of grain filling duration and rate to grain yield, and (3) examine the influence of temperature and solar radiation for effective grain filling on grain yield in relation to grain filling duration and rate

  12. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  13. Effect of tillage fertilizer treatments on maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of deep and shallow tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed that the emergence count m-2, maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha/sup -1/) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg ha/sup -1/ produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha/sup -1/) and was significantly lower than the fodder yield (17278.7 kg ha/sup -1/) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant. (author)

  14. High grain quality accessions within a maize drought tolerant core collection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dragana, Ignjatovic-Micic; Marija, Kostadinovic; Sofija, Bozinovic; Violeta, Andjelkovic; Jelena, Vancetovic.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are an important source of genes for improving commercial germplasm. Today, drought tolerance and grain quality are major challenges in maize cultivation due to climatic changes and population growth. The Maize Research Institute genebank has a drought tolerant collecti [...] on, which includes 13 landraces (from the former Yugoslavia) and 12 introduced populations (from different countries). These accessions were analyzed for protein, oil, starch and tryptophan contents, in order to identify drought tolerant accessions with high grain quality. Also, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis with specific primers for opaque2 recessive allele (o2) was carried out. All analyzed accessions showed high levels of protein. Oil content ranged from 3.75 % to 5.40 % and starch content from 67.5 % to 71.30 %. Average protein content was not different (p

  15. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GRAIN SPAWNS AND SUBSTRATE STERILIZATION METHODS ON YIELD OF OYSTER MUSHROOM IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongman M, Khare KB* and Khonga EB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different grain spawns and two substrate sterilization methods on the spawn quality and yield of a hybrid of Pleurotus ostreatus x P. florida (Po x Pf was studied on maize cobs supplemented with 20% wheat bran and 2% gram flour in a low technological mushroom house at Botswana College of Agriculture, Sebele. Sorghum grains proved to be better mycelium carriers (5.25, 7 days, 12 days and 75.4% over wheat (2.45, 17 days, 16 days and 53.55% and barley grains (3.46, 14 days, 13 days and 55.24% in terms of mycelium growth vigor, colonization time, spawn running time of the substrate and yield of the oyster mushroom. Hot water treatment and steaming of substrate significantly reduced substrate contamination and improved mushroom yield as compared to the untreated control. Mushrooms grown on steamed substrates had significantly higher yield (BE: 69.4% than those grown on substrates treated with hot water (BE: 53.3%.

  17. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  18. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design was...... used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased...... shoot-P concentration and shoot growth of maize at early stages. No-tillage resulted in higher shoot-P concentration but lower shoot weight than conventional tillage. Greater shoot-P uptake was related to a rapid intraradical development of mycorrhizae (previous crop of maize) or rapid connection to a...

  19. Improving sustainable intensification of cereal-grain legume cropping systems in the savannahs of West Africa: Quantifying residual effects of legumes on maize, enhancing P mobilization by legumes and studying long-term Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved cereal-grain-legume systems, allowing farmers to use their land productively on a continuous basis, are being rapidly developed and adopted by small-scale farmers in the West African Moist Savannah. This paper summarizes work on several issues related to the improvement of productivity and sustainability of these intensified systems. A first study looked at the sustainability of several legume-maize cropping systems in a 5-year field trial at Sekou, Benin. Fairly low maize yields were found in continuous maize cropping systems (maize/maize), poor response to N fertilizer beyond 45 kg N ha-1, and no evidence that P and K were limiting crop yield. Over the last 5 years of the trial, maize/Mucuna relay cropping gave consistently a 2000 kg ha-1 yield increase relative to maize/maize cropping, and most of this yield gain was preserved even when Mucuna residues were removed from the plots when planting the next year's maize crop. Some yield gain, although far less than with maize/Mucuna, was observed in the maize/pigeon pea system. The maize/cowpea system offered no maize yield gain over maize/maize cropping. In a second study, enhanced isotopic methods to determine the plant available P allowed us to test the hypothesis that certain legume accessions can mobilize sparingly-available P. In one out of the 3 West-African Moist Savannah soils studied, we found that cowpea could access sparingly soluble soil P that is unavailable to maize. This mobilization of P was only observed when P deficiency occurred. These results confirm the P efficiency of some legume genotypes, which may lead to benefits of improved P availability by the incorporation of legumes in rotation systems. A third study, involving a 16-year continuous-cropping field experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria, provided information on long-term changes in soil organic matter carbon (SOC) contents in savannah soils with sandy top soil. In the control treatments with continuous maize and cowpea cropping without trees, SOC levels dropped from the initial 15.4 Mg C ha-1 to 7.3-8.0 Mg C ha-1 in 16 years (SOC content in 1700 Mg ha-1 equivalent soil mass). In the two continuously cropped alley cropping systems (Leucaena and Senna), the SOC levels dropped to levels between 10.7 and 13.2 Mg C ha-1. The 13C natural abundance technique yielded useful information to test the ROTHC- 26.3 SOC model in sub-humid tropical conditions under a complex pattern of cropping systems. (author)

  20. Closing the yield gap could reduce projected greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of maize production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenling; Yue, Shanchao; Wang, Guiliang; Meng, Qingfeng; Wu, Liang; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Shiqing; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2013-08-01

    Although the goal of doubling food demand while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental damage has become widely accepted, the dominant agricultural paradigm still considers high yields and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity to be in conflict with one another. Here, we achieved an increase in maize yield of 70% in on-farm experiments by closing the yield gap and evaluated the trade-off between grain yield, nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and GHG emissions. Based on two groups of N application experiments in six locations for 16 on-farm site-years, an integrated soil-crop system (HY) approach achieved 93% of the yield potential and averaged 14.8 Mg ha(-1) maize grain yield at 15.5% moisture. This is 70% higher than current crop (CC) management. More importantly, the optimal N rate for the HY system was 250 kg N ha(-1) , which is only 38% more N fertilizer input than that applied in the CC system. Both the N2 O emission intensity and GHG intensity increased exponentially as the N application rate increased, and the response curve for the CC system was always higher than that for the HY system. Although the N application rate increased by 38%, N2 O emission intensity and the GHG intensity of the HY system were reduced by 12% and 19%, respectively. These on-farm observations indicate that closing the yield gap alongside efficient N management should therefore be prominent among a portfolio of strategies to meet food demand while reducing GHG intensity at the same time. PMID:23553871

  1. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  2. Chemical Composition of Lignitic Humic Acid and Evaluating its Positive impacts on Nutrient Uptake, Growth and Yield of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignite derived humic acid (HA, obtained from Thar coal mines were extracted by 0.5 N KOH; characterized and used to evaluate its impact on maize yield and soil health. Having highest HA recovery (20% black coal derived HA were applied in different level [(@ no HA (HA0, 25 (HA1 and 50 (HA2 mg kg-1 soil] in conjoint with different nitrogen (N levels [no N application (N0 (150 (N1 and 300 (N2 mg kg-1]. Results showed that plant fresh biomass increased by 23% and 44% with application of HA at HA1 and HA2 respectively, about 23% increase was observed in dry plant biomass at both the HA levels. Cob weight and grain weight increased significantly (29% and 40% with HA at 25 and 50 mg kg -1 respectively vis as vis control (no HA applied, with N at 150 and 300 mg kg-1 the increase was 51% and 103%. The grain weight increased by 12% and 41% with HA1 and HA2 whereas, 31 % and 43 % with N application (N1 and N2 over the control. The HA application increased plant N contents by 20% and 26 %, P by 14% and 20% and K by 15% and 10% in HA1 and in HA2, respectively. Nutrient uptake also enhanced with both N and HA application. From the results it can be concluded that HA application along with N help improved growth, yield and nutrient uptake by maize.

  3. Effects of Animal Manure Incorporation Methods and its Integration with Chemical Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Khorramabad, Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghalavand

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to use organic fertilizers and decrease chemical fertilizers consumption to reach sustainable agriculture. Thus, to study the effects of manure incorporation methods, and integrated effects of poultry manure with chemical fertilizers on the grain yield and yield components of maize, an experiment was conducted in 2004 at the Agricultural Research Farm of Lorestan Weather Department, 30 kms northeast of Khorramabad. The treatments were arranged in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of incorporation of fertilizer with soil by furrower or disk. The subplots included T0: control (no consumption of fertilizer and poultry manure; T1: 200, 100, and 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively; T2: 80% of T1+ 4 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T3: 60% of T1+ 8 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T4: 40% of T1+ 12 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; T5: 20% of T1+ 16 ton ha-1 of poultry manure; and T6: 20 ton ha-1 of poultry manure. The results showed that incorporation of fertilizer by furrower, compared with disk, led to significant increase in plant height, 1000 seed weight and grain and biological yields. However, there were not significant differences in the number of seed per ear and harvest index between the two fertilizer incorporation methods. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increase of the treats mentioned except for the harvest index. The interaction effects were not significant for any traits. T5 treatment produced the highest grain yield, and was significantly different from T0, T1, T3 and T6 treatments. The differences between T1 (chemical nutrition system and T6 (organic nutrition system were not significant either. Effectiveness of integrated poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on maize yield components was higher than either poultry manure or chemical fertilizer. The results of this experiment indicated that incorporation of 16 ton poultry manure + 40, 20 and 20 kg ha-1 N, P and K with furrower might be appropriate for maize prodution under conditions similar to this experiment.

  4. Onset of grain filling is associated with a change in properties of linker histone variants in maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajka, R.; Finnie, Christine; Grasser, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    In maize kernel development, the onset of grain-filling represents a major developmental switch that correlates with a massive reprogramming of gene expression. We have isolated chromosomal linker histones from developing maize kernels before (11 days after pollination, dap) and after (16 dap) in...

  5. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vancetovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue maize (Zea mays L. is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1, total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01, with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study and Pathway-Level Analysis of Tocochromanol Levels in Maize Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Alexander E.; Gore, Michael A.; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Mesberg, Alex; Lin, Haining; Tiede, Tyler; Chen, Charles; Buell, C. Robin; Buckler, Edward S.; Rocheford, Torbert; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocochromanols, are the major lipid-soluble antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. Given that individual tocochromanols differ in their degree of vitamin E activity, variation for tocochromanol composition and content in grain from among diverse maize inbred lines has important nutritional and health implications for enhancing the vitamin E and antioxidant contents of maize-derived foods through plant breeding. Toward this end, we conducted a genome-wide association study of six tocochromanol compounds and 14 of their sums, ratios, and proportions with a 281 maize inbred association panel that was genotyped for 591,822 SNP markers. In addition to providing further insight into the association between ZmVTE4 (γ-tocopherol methyltransferase) haplotypes and α-tocopherol content, we also detected a novel association between ZmVTE1 (tocopherol cyclase) and tocotrienol composition. In a pathway-level analysis, we assessed the genetic contribution of 60 a priori candidate genes encoding the core tocochromanol pathway (VTE genes) and reactions for pathways supplying the isoprenoid tail and aromatic head group of tocochromanols. This analysis identified two additional genes, ZmHGGT1 (homogentisate geranylgeranyltransferase) and one prephenate dehydratase parolog (of four in the genome) that also modestly contribute to tocotrienol variation in the panel. Collectively, our results provide the most favorable ZmVTE4 haplotype and suggest three new gene targets for increasing vitamin E and antioxidant levels through marker-assisted selection. PMID:23733887

  7. Crescimento e produtividade de milho em funo da cultura antecessora / Maize growth and yield according to the previous crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila de, Oliveira; Adriano Stephan, Nascente; Joo, Kluthcouski; Toms de Aquino, Portes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas de cobertura, no sistema plantio direto, pode proporcionar melhores condies para o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, com reflexos positivos na produtividade de gros. Mediante a tcnica de anlise de crescimento, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar o desempenho agronmic [...] o de milho cultivado sobre palhada de feijo comum, Brachiaria brizantha e milheto. O Experimento foi conduzido em solo de Cerrado, em Santo Antnio de Gois (GO). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com trs tratamentos (palhadas de cobertura) e cinco repeties. A velocidade de decomposio da palhada de feijo comum foi maior que a de B. brizantha e milheto. Os maiores valores de acmulo de matria seca das folhas, colmos, espigas e total, bem como do ndice de rea foliar e produtividade de gros de milho, foram obtidos quando o cultivo ocorreu sobre palhada de feijo comum. Abstract in english The use of cover crops in the no-tillage system can provide better conditions for the development of maize plants, with positive effects on grain yield. By using the growth analysis technique, this study aimed at characterizing the agronomic performance of maize on common bean, Brachiaria brizantha [...] and millet straw. The experiment was carried out in a Brazilian Savannah soil, in Santo Antnio de Gois, Gois State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three treatments (cover crops) and five replications. The common bean straw decomposition rate was higher than the B. Brizantha and millet ones. The highest values for the dry matter accumulation of leaves, stems, cobs and total, as well as leaf area index and maize grain yield, were observed when cultivated on common bean straw.

  8. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Justin M.; Betzelberger, Amy M.; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Although it has long been known that ground-level ozone (O3) damages crops and reduces yield, there has never been an estimate of the total loss attributed to ambient O3 for field-grown maize and soybean in the United States. Knowing the loss caused by this pollutant would be useful for projecting food supply and setting regulatory standards for pollutant emissions. Here we show that ambient O3 has reduced maize and soybean yields in rain-fed fields by ∼10% and 5%, respectively, based on hist...

  9. Grain and tortilla quality in landraces and improved maize grown in the highlands of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Carrillo, Gricelda; García-Lara, Silverio; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Bergvinson, David J; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    The maize produced in the highlands of Mexico (>2,400 masl) is generally not accepted by the flour and masa and tortilla industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain quality and tortilla properties of maize landraces commonly grown in the highlands of Mexico and compare them with improved germplasm (hybrids). Germplasm analysis included 11 landraces, 32 white hybrids, and six yellow hybrids. Grain quality was analyzed for a range of physical and chemical factors, as well as for alkaline cooking quality. Landrace grains tended to be heterogeneous in terms of size, hardness and color. All landraces had soft-intermediate grains with an average flotation index (FI) of 61%. In contrast, hybrid grains were homogenous in size and color, and harder than landrace grains, with a FI of 38%. Protein, free sugars, oil and phenolic content in landraces were higher than in the hybrids. Significant correlations were found between phenolic content and tortilla color (r= -0.60; ptortilla industry, while all the hybrids evaluated fulfilled the requirements of this industry. PMID:21611770

  10. EFFECT OF FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES AND MAIZE YIELD UNDER LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS CROPPING IN NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eche N. Mary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous intensive cropping has adversely affected soil quality and crop yield thereby threatening the sustainability of intensified maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. A field study was carried out at Zaria under a long-term maize trial established in 1997, to evaluate the effect of soil fertility amendments on plant parasitic nematodes and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were made of urea fertilizer, animal manure, Centrosema pascuorum, Vigna unguiculata and applied to make 45 and 90 kg N ha-1.used as either sole or mixed fertilizer treatments. Results obtained showed that incidences of plant parasitic nematode infection were significantly reduced between 3.4- 80% in soil by the mixed application of urea fertilizer and animal manure compared to sole urea application at 90 kg N ha-1. With the application of 45 kg N urea + 45 kg N animal manure (7.5tons ha-1 cow dung or 1.5tons ha-1 poultry litter, maize yield was not significantly different from yields obtained at 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer application, suggesting that manure improved the soil quality, reduced use of urea fertilizer and attained statistically similar yield level with 90 kg N sole urea fertilizer to be seen as a better soil fertility management strategy. Principal component analysis indicated that plant parasitic nematode genera Pratylenchus and Aphelenchoides sp. influenced grain yield negatively, but their dominance in the soil was identified as one of the yield-reducing factors. To maximize maize productivity in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, adoption of a balanced fertilization that combines urea fertilizer with animal manure to restore or maintain optimal crop yield for long term soil productivity is recommended.

  11. The change of genetic and phenotypic variability of yield components after recurrent selection of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deletić Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 C0 and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize populations. After line selection and seed multiplication in the first year of the study, the trials were set during two years in Kruševac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design with three replications. Additive and phenotypic variances of yield components were calculated, as well as the estimation of genetic variability narrowing by multivariate cluster analysis. The differences in additive and phenotypic variances between the cycles were significant for ear length only and highly significant for grain row number per ear and for percent of root and stalk lodged plants. It means, a significant narrowing of additive and phenotypic variance occurred only for those three traits, and the other traits did not change their variability by selection in a significant manner. However, according to cluster analysis, distances among genotypes and groups in the zero selection cycle were approximately double than in the third one, but group definition was better in the third selection cycle. It can suggest indirectly to a total variability narrowing after three cycles of recurrent selection.

  12. PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K MANDAL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2 INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUNDNUT INTERCROPPING (1:2 AND IT HAD HIGHEST YIELD FOLLOWIED BY SOLE GROUNDNUT. THE MAIZE EQUIVALENT YIELD WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING (1:2 AND IT HAD HIGHEST YIELD FOLLOWED MAIZE WITH GROUND NUT (1:2, MAIZE WITH GROUND NUT (2:4 AND MAIZE WITH LSOYBEAN (2:4 INTERCROPPING. THUS LIKE GROUNDNUT CAN BE GROUWN AS INTERCROPS WITH MAIZE TO GET HIGHER MONETARY RETURNS.

  13. GROWTH AND MASS SPECTROMETRY PROFILE OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA PIGMENT GROWN IN MAIZE GRAIN EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Sagarika Devi; Hemanth AK. Kumar; Geetha Ramachandran; Chandrasekarenthiran Subramanian; Perumal Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes found in a variety of habitats as ubiquitous agents of decay. Alternaria spp. produces about sixty different secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, growth and production of pigment from Alternaria alternata was studied in maize grain extract at pH 4-9. The reddish brown pigment was extracted, estimated and partially purified by fractionation. Through mass spectrometry, major constituents of pigment from Alternaria alternata such as Tenua...

  14. Adapting Towards Climate Change: A Bioeconomic Analysis of Winterwheat and Grain Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, N; Finger, R.; Klein, T; Calanca, P.; Walter, A

    2012-01-01

    Climate change (CC) will alter the environmental conditions for crop growth. In order to minimize negative CC impacts on cropping systems, farmers will have to adapt their management schemes. In this paper we analyzed CC impacts and adaptation in winterwheat and grain maize production using a bio-economic modeling approach in two study regions of the Swiss Plateau, which differed in their climate and soil types. Considered adaptation options reflected the adjustment of farmers’ management de...

  15. Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Itala Paula de C. Almeida; Paulo Sérgio L. e Silva; Maria Z. Negreiros; Zenaide Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 and DKB 747) were evaluated in the yield of baby corn, green ears and dry grains. Two experiments...

  16. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed HU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS. The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought.

  17. Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

  18. Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B; Roberts, Michael J; Schlenker, Wolfram; Braun, Noah; Little, Bertis B; Rejesus, Roderick M; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-05-01

    A key question for climate change adaptation is whether existing cropping systems can become less sensitive to climate variations. We use a field-level data set on maize and soybean yields in the central United States for 1995 through 2012 to examine changes in drought sensitivity. Although yields have increased in absolute value under all levels of stress for both crops, the sensitivity of maize yields to drought stress associated with high vapor pressure deficits has increased. The greater sensitivity has occurred despite cultivar improvements and increased carbon dioxide and reflects the agronomic trend toward higher sowing densities. The results suggest that agronomic changes tend to translate improved drought tolerance of plants to higher average yields but not to decreasing drought sensitivity of yields at the field scale. PMID:24786079

  19. Climate Change Impact Uncertainties for Maize in Panama: Farm Information, Climate Projections, and Yield Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Cecil, L. Dewayne; Horton, Radley M.; Gordon, Roman; McCollum, Raymond (Brown, Douglas); Brown, Douglas; Killough, Brian; Goldberg, Richard; Greeley, Adam P.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a pilot project to characterize and bound multi-disciplinary uncertainties around the assessment of maize (Zea mays) production impacts using the CERES-Maize crop model in a climate-sensitive region with a variety of farming systems (Panama). Segunda coa (autumn) maize yield in Panama currently suffers occasionally from high water stress at the end of the growing season, however under future climate conditions warmer temperatures accelerate crop maturation and elevated CO (sub 2) concentrations improve water retention. This combination reduces end-of-season water stresses and eventually leads to small mean yield gains according to median projections, although accelerated maturation reduces yields in seasons with low water stresses. Calibrations of cultivar traits, soil profile, and fertilizer amounts are most important for representing baseline yields, however sensitivity to all management factors is reduced in an assessment of future yield changes (most dramatically for fertilizers), suggesting that yield changes may be more generalizable than absolute yields. Uncertainty around General Circulation Model (GCM)s' projected changes in rainfall gain in importance throughout the century, with yield changes strongly correlated with growing season rainfall totals. Climate changes are expected to be obscured by the large inter-annual variations in Panamanian climate that will continue to be the dominant influence on seasonal maize yield into the coming decades. The relatively high (A2) and low (B1) emissions scenarios show little difference in their impact on future maize yields until the end of the century. Uncertainties related to the sensitivity of CERES-Maize to carbon dioxide concentrations have a substantial influence on projected changes, and remain a significant obstacle to climate change impacts assessment. Finally, an investigation into the potential of simple statistical yield emulators based upon key climate variables characterizes the important uncertainties behind the selection of climate change metrics and their performance against more complex process-based crop model simulations, revealing a danger in relying only on long-term mean quantities for crop impact assessment.

  20. Leaf type and grain yield in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailovi? Vojislav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year trial (2000-2002 was aimed to investigate the grain yield of nine pea genotypes with different leaf type. One (Akatsievydnaya forma had acacia (Aftl, four (NS-junior, Moravac, Javor and Amino normal (AfTl and four (Jezero, 4(1993, CD and Primeroy afila (afTl leaf type. Average plant height (PH, first pod height (FPH, internode number (IN, pod number per plant (PNP, grain number per plant (GNP, plant mass (PM, grain yield per plant (GYP and per area unit (GYA, harvest index (HI and thousand grains weight (TGW were studied. There existed significant differences in all yield components, both between the different leaf type groups and between the genotypes of the same group. The AfTl cultivars had the greatest values for PH (75.2 cm, FPH (43.5 cm, IN (18.9, PNP (8.7, GNP (34.2, PM (15.89 g and GYP (6.97 g. The afTl genotypes had the greatest HI (0.56, GYA (2980 t/ha and TGW (255 g. As for the cultivars, NS-junior was characterized by the greatest values of PH (120.4 cm, FPH (68,6 cm. IN (22.2, PNP (11.3, GNP (42.5 and PM (17.95 g. Javor had the greatest GYP (8.56 g, while the greatest HI was determined in genotype 4(1993(0,60. The greatest GYA was in Primeroy (4298 kg/ha and the greatest TGW was measured in Moravac (301 g.

  1. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

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    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheat – maize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7.1 kg/t sewage sludge applied in the previous year at a rate of 65 t/ha and only 3.7 kg/t at 195 t/ha. At a rate of 100 kg N/ha mineral fertilizer resulted in an yield increase of 4.9 kg grains/1 kg N. Maize yield in the third year after sewage sludge application increased by 11 kg grains/ton at a rate of 65 t/ha and only by 3.8 kg/t at 195 t/ha. Ammonium nitrate alone increased yield maize by 10.6 kg grains for 1 kg N. Plant utilization of N from sewage sludge during 3 years was of 17.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha sewage sludge and only 6.5 % at rate of 195 t/ha. 6 The sewage sludge has increased soil pH by 0.2 units 3 years after the application of 65 t/ha, due to high amounts of Ca present in it. The content of accessible phosphates from soil fertilized by 65 t/ha sewage sludge increased significantly, existing the danger of soil overphosphatizing, with negative consequences on the plant nutrition. The total content of of Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn from soil had easily increased on plots amended by 60-90 t/ha sewage sludge, doubled or tripled in case of Zn and remained unchanged in case of Cd. 8 Soil contamination by pathogenic germs remains low, Salmonella was absent, existing only the contamination with eggs of intestinal worms. 9 Sewage sludge between 30-60 t/ha had residual effect for at least 3 years. Periodical soil analyses on Zn and PAL content are indispensable, in order not exceed the allowable maximum limits. Our data have showed that the rate of sewage sjudge on chernozem must not exceed 400 kg P/ha.

  2. Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime

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    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

  3. Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region

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    T. Kahraman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirda?, Lleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, K?z?ltan95, Ayd?n 93 and Alt?n 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

  4. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zavaschi; Letícia de Abreu Faria; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Carlos Antonio da Costa Nascimento; Thiago Augusto de Moura; Diego Wyllyam do Vale; Fernanda Latanze Mendes; Marcos Yassuo Kamogawa

    2014-01-01

    A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlândia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea trea...

  5. Maize yield response to a phosphorus-solubilizing microbial inoculant in field trials

    OpenAIRE

    LEGGETT, M.; NEWLANDS, N. K.; Greenshields, D.; West, L; INMAN, S.; KOIVUNEN, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from multi-year, multi-site field trial experiments measuring maize yield response to inoculation with the phosphorus-solubilizing fungus, Penicillium bilaiae Chalabuda are presented. The main objective was to evaluate representative data on crop response to the inoculant across a broad set of different soil, agronomic management and climate conditions. A statistical analysis of crop yield response and its variability was conducted to guide further implementation of a stratified tria...

  6. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  7. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  8. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Bass, Adrian M; Nelson, Paul N; Bird, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10tha(-1) biochar (B)+F; 3) 25tha(-1) compost (Com)+F; 4) 2.5tha(-1) B+25tha(-1) Com mixed on site+F; and 5) 25tha(-1) co-composted biochar-compost (COMBI)+F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the ?(15)N and ?(13)C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N2O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar-compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems. PMID:26590867

  9. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

  10. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Justin M; Betzelberger, Amy M; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-17

    Numerous controlled experiments find that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) damage crops and reduce yield. There have been no estimates of the actual yield losses in the field in the United States from [O3], even though such estimates would be valuable for projections of future food production and for cost-benefit analyses of reducing ground-level [O3]. Regression analysis of historical yield, climate, and [O3] data for the United States were used to determine the loss of production due to O3 for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) from 1980 to 2011, showing that over that period production of rain-fed fields of soybean and maize were reduced by roughly 5% and 10%, respectively, costing approximately $9 billion annually. Maize, thought to be inherently resistant to O3, was at least as sensitive as soybean to O3 damage. Overcoming this yield loss with improved emission controls or more tolerant germplasm could substantially increase world food and feed supply at a time when a global yield jump is urgently needed. PMID:26578785

  11. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual maize yields in Shandong, Henan, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia increased by 98.4, 90.4, 98.7, and 121.5 kg hm-2 yr-1 over the past 30 years, respectively. Correspondingly, the maize yields affected by technological advancement increased by 113.7, 97.9, 111.5, and 124.8 kg hm-2 yr-1, respectively. On the contrary, maize yields reduced markedly under climate change, with an average reduction of -9.0 kg hm-2 yr-1. Our findings highlight that agronomic technological advancement has contributed dominantly to maize yield increases in China in the past three decades.

  12. Variable rate fertilization for maize and its effects based on the site-specific soil fertility and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experiments of variable rate fertilization (VRF) for maize were carried out using a self-developed VRF system. In the studies, prescriptions of VRF were made for maize according to the nutrient levels in soil and the theory of yield goal. The results of this study have shown that VRF increased...

  13. Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Priya A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY and susceptibilityindex (S were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY was significantly positivelycorrelated with number of leaves, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of primary branches per panicle,number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, number of chaffs per panicle and boot leaf breadthwhen evaluated under controlled irrigation condition. But none of the above traits had significant positive correlation withSPY in upland condition. In the path analysis, it was found out that number of productive tillers per plant has a high positivedirect effect and most of other traits showed negligible or low direct effect in lowland condition, but in upland conditionnone of the factors are having high direct effects towards SPY. From the S and RY, it was found that the local land racesand drought tolerant varieties MDU 5, TKM11 etc., performed well under upland condition

  14. Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield

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    Nurjaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

  15. MAIZE YIELD AND ITS STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN ROMANIAN DANUBE PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru COCIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed crop management systems need to be optimized to provide more resilient options in order to cope with projected climatic scenarios which are forecasting a decrease in mean precipitation and more frequent extreme drought periods in the Eastern Romanian Danube Plain. This research, carried out in the period of 2011-2014, had as main purpose the determination of influence of tillage practices and residue management on rainfall use efficiency, maize yield and its stability, in order to evaluate the advantages of conservation agriculture (CA in the time of stabilization of direct seeding effects, in comparison with traditional chisel tillage. The maize grain yields are presented for each crop management practices, as follows: (1 chisel tillage, retained crop residues being chopped and incorporated (ciz; (2 zero tillage, retained crop residue chopped and kept on the field in short flat condition (rvt; (3 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in short root-anchored condition (1/2rva, and (4 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in tall root-anchored condition (1/1rva. In 2012, a year with prolonged drought during vegetative growth, yield differences between zero tillage with short root-anchored residue retention (1/2rva and chisel tillage with residue incorporation (ciz were positive, up to 840 kg ha-1. In average over 2011-2014, conservation agriculture (CA practices had a yield advantage over traditional chisel tillage practice. Zero tillage with residue retention used rainfall more efficiently so suggesting that it is a more resilient agronomic system than traditional (conventional practices involving chisel tillage with residue incorporation.

  16. Effect of Polyacryl Sewage Sludge, Municipal Compost And Cow Manure on Soil Properties and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zamani Babgohari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The management and application of organic wastes in agricultural lands decreases environmental risks and increases utilization of these matters. The objective of this research was to investigate and compare the effect of polyacryl factory sewage sludge (PSS, municipal compost (MC and cow manure (CM on soil properties and on yield and growth of maize (single cross 704, Zea mays L.. The treatments were control (without any organic waste and application of PSS, MC, and CM at two rates (15 and 45 t ha-1. This research was done in the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology (Lavark-Najafabad. The experimental design was a randomized, complete block with three replications. Treatments were incorporated into the soil before the maize planting (on 23 June 2008 and soil sampling was performed after 132 days (Simultaneously with maize harvesting. Application of the organic wastes resulted in significant increase soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and significantly decreased bulk density. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was decreased by application of PSS. Application of 15 and 45 t ha-1 of PSS reduced Ks more than 14% and 42%, respectively, compared with control; however, the reduction was significant only in the plots which received 45 t ha-1 of PSS compared with control. The results of plant yield and growth showed that leaf area index (LAI, plant length, biological yield, 1000 seed weight and seed yield increase due to the application of organic wastes.

  17. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2015-11-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  18. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Romn A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  19. COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A KRUPAKAR; BINOD KUMAR; S. Marker [Rentz

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability of some polygenic and quality traits was studied in a set of diallel crosses involving 10 maize inbreds (P1 to P10) to know the inheritance pattern of yield attributes. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant differences among themselves for all the traits in all environments. The ratio of gca /sca was less than unity there by indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of most of the characters studied. The parents P1 , ...

  20. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Öztürk, Isik; Wang, Meng; Chen, F.

    2016-01-01

    , drought risk and irrigation requirement on rain-fed maize yield in specific maize growth phases. The maize growing season was divided into four growth phases comprising seeding, vegetative, flowering and maturity based on observations of phenological data from 1981 to 2010. The dual crop coefficient was...... seeding and vegetative phases, reducing water deficit over the period, whereas decreasing effective rainfall over time in the flowering and maturity phases enhanced water deficit. An increase in days with drought stress was concentrated in western NFR, with larger volumes of irrigation needed to......Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors...

  1. Variable sensitivity of US maize yield to high temperatures across developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E. E.; Huybers, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of maize to high temperatures has been widely demonstrated. Furthermore, field work has indicated that reproductive development stages are particularly sensitive to stress, but this relationship has not been quantified across a wide geographic region. Here, the relationship between maize yield and temperature variations is examined as a function of developmental stage. US state-level data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service provide dates for six growing stages: planting, silking, doughing, dented, mature, and harvested. Temperatures that correspond to each developmental stage are then inferred from a network of weather station observations interpolated to the county level, and a multiple linear regression technique is employed to estimate the sensitivity of county yield outcomes to variations in growing-degree days and an analogous measure of high temperatures referred to as killing-degree days. Uncertainties in the transition times between county-level growth stages are accounted for. Results indicate that the silking and dented stages are generally the most sensitive to killing degree days, with silking the most sensitive stage in the US South and dented the most sensitive in the US North. These variable patterns of sensitivity aid in interpreting which weather events are of greatest significance to maize yields and provide some insight into how shifts in planting time or changes in developmental timing would influence the risks associated with exposure to high temperatures.

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity. PMID:24878747

  3. Optimizing the Yield of Maize Cropping Systems Using Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Rajesh Kanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green revolution motivated many researchers to carry out forecasting study in the agricultural cropping systems to yield maximum profitability. The profitability can be improved by optimizing unpredictable variables, involved in the cropping systems. Thus a need arises to forecast the unpredictable variables. In this study, the unpredictable variables have been successfully forecasted for cropping productivity using Ant Colony Algorithm. Rainfall, temperature and irrigation are the major variables considered for maize cropping systems in this research. The details of the rainfall, temperature and irrigation have been collected for eight years and twelve months and given as input to the Minitab software to generate the mathematical equation. This mathematical equation has been used as the objective function equation for ant colony algorithm. Thus the ant colony algorithm can generate the best optimal yielding period for maize crop cultivation and also it can be used to forecast the optimal combination of variables that can yield best productivity. This model has helped farmers to make efficient resource allocation decisions with the aim of forecasting productivity and profitability of maize cropping systems.

  4. Screening Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Improving Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Yield of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nezarat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of field grown maize were evaluated in three experiments. In these experiments six bacterial strains include P. putida strain R-168, P. fluorescens strain R-93, P. fluorescens DSM 50090, P. putida DSM291, A. lipoferum DSM 1691 and A. brasilense DSM 1690 were used. Results of first study showed seed inoculation significantly enhanced seed germination and seedling vigour of maize. In second experiment, leaf and shoot dry weight and also leaf surface area significantly were increased by bacterial inoculation in both sterile and non-sterile soil. The results showed that inoculation with bacterial treatments had a more stimulating effect on growth and development of plants in nonsterile than sterile soil. In the third experiment, Inoculation of maize seeds with all bacterial strains significantly increased plant height, 100 seed weight, number of seed per ear and leaf area. The results also showed significant increase in ear and shoot dry weight of maize.

  5. Relationship between grain yield and quality in rice germplasms grown across different growing areas

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Quan; Chen, Wenfu; Xu, Zhengjin

    2015-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are two major foci of rice breeding. In this study, Chinese regional rice test data provide us the unique opportunity to analyze the relationship between yield and quality in rice, because China has an unusually wide range of rice cultivars. We analyzed the relationships between grain yield, yield components, and grain quality of 300 rice germplasms. Japonica was superior in both yield and quality compared with indica. A high setting rate improved the head rice ra...

  6. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy. PMID:24851925

  7. Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

    2014-06-01

    The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. PMID:23826742

  8. The effect of a high selection intensity on the change of maize yield components' additive variance

    OpenAIRE

    Deleti? Neboja; Stojkovi? Slavia; ?uri? Vladan; Gudi? Slavia; Biberdi? Milan

    2005-01-01

    A set of 31 SSD lines from ZP-Syn-1 Co and 37 from ZP-Syn-1 C3 maize population was studied in this paper. After line selection and seed multiplication in 2000, the trials were carried out in 2001-2002. at Krusevac and Zemun Polje, in RCB design. After three cycles of recurrent selection we observed a significant decrease of homozygous progenies' means of root and stalk lodged plants percent, plant and ear height, but also of row number per ear. The means of grain number per ear ...

  9. An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

  10. Deficit hídrico e produtividade na cultura do milho Water deficit and yield in maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto do deficit hídrico, no rendimento de grãos de milho, e a eficácia da irrigação em todo ciclo e, especificamente, no florescimento. Os dados foram obtidos em dez anos de experimentação, durante os quais doses variáveis de irrigação foram aplicadas por um sistema de aspersão, localizado no centro da área experimental. Foram calculados balanços hídricos, tendo como variáveis a água precipitada (chuva e irrigação e a evapotranspiração máxima do milho. Foram ajustados modelos de regressão para 27 condições hídricas, relacionando-se rendimento de grãos com deficit hídrico e razão evapotranspiração real sobre evapotranspiração máxima (ETr/ETm. A maior redução na produção ocorre em conseqüência do deficit hídrico na polinização, formação do zigoto e desenvolvimento inicial do grão, numa relação quadrática. Nesse período, a razão ETr/ETm explica quase 80% das variações na produção de grãos, que se estabiliza acima de uma razão de 0,7. A irrigação aumenta e estabiliza a produção do milho; doses de rega de aproximadamente 60% daquela necessária para elevar a umidade do solo à capacidade de campo aumentam a eficiência de uso da irrigação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of water deficit on maize grain yield, as well as the irrigation effectiveness, considering all the crop cycle and, specifically, the flowering period. Data were collected during ten years in several experiments, in which variable doses of irrigation were applied by an aspersion system located in the center of the experimental area. Water balances were calculated, and the precipitated water (rainfall and irrigation and the maximum evapotranspiration of the maize were considered as inputs. Models of regression for 27 water conditions were adjusted, relating grain yield to water deficit and actual evapotranspiration to maximum evapotranspiration ratio (ETr/ETm. The highest reduction on grain production occurred in consequence of the water deficit during pollination, zygote formation and initial development of the grain, with a quadratic relation. For this period, the ratio ETr/ETm explains almost 80% of the variations in grain yields, stabilizing over a ratio of 0.7. The irrigation increases and stabilizes the maize production; doses of irrigation of approximately 60% of that necessary to rise soil moisture up to field capacity increase the efficiency of use of the irrigation.

  11. Optimizing nitrogen and harvest time to maximize the maize fodder yield in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate nutrient management and harvesting date are the main and quickest means for increasing maize production. A field experiment with three nitrogen fertilization rates (N = 50; N = 100; N = 150 (kg ha/sup 1/) and three harvest dates (H/sub 1/ = 50, H/sub 2/ = 60 and H/sub 3/ = 70 DAS) was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to predict the response of maize (Zea mays L.) fodder yield and its quality attributes to optimal nitrogen input rates and harvest dates. The results showed that increase in nitrogen fertilizer input resulted in significant (P 0.05) increase in yield and quality traits. Yield attributes as plant height (179.40 cm), stem diameter (3.59 cm), leaf area plant (3755 cm/sup 2/ ), dry matter (33.44%), dry matter yield (17.68 t ha ) and green fodder yield (71.32 t ha ) were significantly increased with nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha . Among nitrogen input rates, 150 kg N ha level was also responsible for highest crude fat (3.09%), crude protein (11.48%) and crude fiber (34.21%) except ash contents (10.17%) compared to other nitrogen treatments. Twenty days delayed for harvest proved to be best for increasing growth and quality characters of maize plants. The interaction between nitrogen rates and harvest dates was found to be highly significant except for plant height, dry matter percentage and crude protein. Nitrogen input of 150 kg N ha/sup -1/ with 70 DAS harvest date (N/sub 3/ at H/sub 3/) significantly improved the stem diameter (5.11 cm), leaf area plant (4108 cm ), dry matter yield (21.35 t ha ), green fodder yield (83.87 t ha ) and crude fiber (37.21%) while crude fat (2.47%) and ash (9.17%) contents were decreased. In conclusion, on the basis of growth and quality parameters, the nitrogen application at 150 kg N ha and harvesting time (70 DAS) was the suitable option to attain highest maize fodder yield. (author)

  12. Genetic Variability and Heritability for Grain Yield and Other Characters in Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tuba Bicer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for grain yield and six other characters in lentil. Experimental material included five lentil cultivars and 26 lentil lines grown during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Maximum variability was recorded for biological yield; grain yield and seed yield plant ha-1 . Maximum heritability was found for seed weight and days to 50% flowering.

  13. Genetic Variability and Heritability for Grain Yield and Other Characters in Lentil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Tuba Bicer; Dogan Sakar

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variability and heritability were estimated for grain yield and six other characters in lentil. Experimental material included five lentil cultivars and 26 lentil lines grown during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Maximum variability was recorded for biological yield; grain yield and seed yield plant ha-1 . Maximum heritability was found for seed weight and days to 50% flowering.

  14. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetzke, G J; Bonnett, D G; Reynolds, M P

    2016-04-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned-awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38-7.93 t ha(-1)) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned-awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (-5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains ('screenings') to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced screenings. PMID:26976817

  15. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  16. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  17. Trends and Variability of Rice, Maize, and Wheat Yields in South Asian Countries: A Challenge for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Prasad Poudel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last six decades, the yield and production of rice, maize, and wheat grew remarkably in South Asian region. As these cereals are staple foods, the growth and fluctuation of yields greatly impacts on food security. This study aims to examine the growth patterns and variability of rice, wheat, and maize yields in South Asian countries namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Utilizing the yield data during 1961-2010, we applied the linear and quadratic regressions for yield trends and variability analyses. Quadratic model was fitted well in all data sets except wheat yield in Pakistan. A clear indication of slowing growth rates was observed for wheat yield in Bangladesh and India, as well as a significant increase in maize yield variability was realized in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lank. The factors influencing for slowing yield growth rates are considered as comparative disadvantage of wheat to Boro rice in case of Bangladesh, whereas depletion of soil nutrient contents in the rice-wheat production areas and negative impact of climate change in India. The slowing yield growths exerted a challenge for food security in Bangladesh and India. Thus, policy implementations are urgent to improve the wheat yield growth and maize yield stabilization in the concerning countries.

  18. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  19. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain yield.

  20. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  1. Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast areas of degraded soils exist in southwestern Nigeria due to topsoil removal by soil erosion and gravel/stone mining operators. The restoration of such soils has become imperative to sustain food production in most rural communities. Therefore, a factorial field experiment was designed in 2003 and 2004 with the factors being slope positions (upper and lower slopes), topsoil removal (0, 15 and 25 cm depths) and nutrient amendments (0, 10 t ha-1 poultry manure and 60:30:30 N: P2O5: K2O as NPK + urea). This was complemented with a laboratory study to determine the effects of soil water, gravel concentration and gravel size on soil strength. Maize was planted. Soil strength was measured with a self-recoding penetrometer at soil depth interval of 2.5 cm up to 50 cm depth. Soil bulk density, water content, maize root and shoot biomass and grain yield were measured. In the laboratory, soil strength decreased from 483-314 kPa as water content increased from 0.05-0.62 cm3 cm-3 while it increased from 294-469 kPa as gravel concentration increased from 100-500 g kg-1. Soil strength was affected more by water content and gravel concentration than gravel size. Under various moist conditions in the field, soil strength increased with soil depth from 1177-5000 kPa at the upper slope and from 526-5000 kPa at the lower slope. Thus, the lower slope had significantly lower soil strength than the upper slope. Soil strength increased with increasing soil depth removal and was significantly reduced by poultry manure. For the 2 years of study, high grain yields were sustained with poultry manure/no topsoil removal (1784-3571 kg ha-1) and NPK + urea/no topsoil removal (2371-2600 kPa) at the lower slope. However, soil at the upper slope was more resistant to degradation as 16-67% loss in yield was observed compared to 65-75% for lower slope when no nutrients were applied. Nonetheless, both the upper and lower slope positions were productive with the application of poultry manure irrespective of topsoil removal, compared to NPK + urea which was only effective without topsoil removal. Therefore, poultry manure was a better soil ameliorant than NPK + urea after topsoil removal. (author)

  2. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F1 and F2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F1 and segregation in F2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F1, suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F1 was observed. In the F2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F2, a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  3. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programs in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of surgarbeet with water stress imposed (i.e. irrigation omitted) during ripening stage saved nearly 22% water, yet with not significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Trakya Region the European part of Turkey, and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower (i.e. yield versus water consumption) revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stages influences yield the least with 40% savings of irrigation water supply compared with traditional practices in the region. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiment aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during flowering and yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly, wheat gives good yield response depending on weather conditions if irrigated at booting, heading and milking stages. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of a wheat crop. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; Faria, Carla Bertechini; de Castro, Fausto Fernandes; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases. PMID:26198227

  5. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Agnes Lumi Abe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  6. GROWTH AND MASS SPECTROMETRY PROFILE OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA PIGMENT GROWN IN MAIZE GRAIN EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria species are common saprophytes found in a variety of habitats as ubiquitous agents of decay. Alternaria spp. produces about sixty different secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, growth and production of pigment from Alternaria alternata was studied in maize grain extract at pH 4-9. The reddish brown pigment was extracted, estimated and partially purified by fractionation. Through mass spectrometry, major constituents of pigment from Alternaria alternata such as Tenuazoic acid (m/z 198, Stemphyperylenol (m/z 253, Alterperylenol (m/z 351, Alternariol (m/z 259.200, Altenuene (m/z 292, Alternarienoic acid (m/z 279.35 and Alternariol 5 methyl ether (m/z 273.20 were identified. The bio-prospecting of these secondary metabolites in industrial applications is also discussed.

  7. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd; Dai, T; Jing, Q; Cao, W

    2010-01-01

    impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22...

  8. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos gros de milho orgnico foi estudado. Os gros de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balano de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26C. As concentraes de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As anlises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram tambm realizados no primeiro e trigsimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, dcimo quinto e trigsimo dia de estocagem no foram encontrados diferenas significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos prognie indicaram que no quinto dia o nmero de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibio dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposio em atmosferas de CO2.

  9. Response of promiscuous soybean to rhizobial inoculation and fertilization treatments and their effects on subsequent maize yields in degraded 'Terre de Barre' in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor adoption of green manures and agroforestry systems for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production in the moist savannah of West Africa, and the low contribution of the traditional grain legumes such as groundnuts, cowpea and common bean have prompted the search for alternative socio-economic solutions for the smallholders such as the development the N2 fixation of promiscuous soybean to increase food production and improve soil fertility status, in particular in the degraded lands. Twenty one and fifteen farmers' fields were selected in 2001 and 2002 respectively and again in 2002 and 2003 for the trials. Each farmer's field represented one replication. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess symbiotic N2 fixation of the IITA promiscuous soybean variety TGX 1448 2E and its response to inoculation and fertilization. In both years 2001 and 2002, the application of 20 kg N did not affect nodulation, biomass production and N accumulation of soybean uninoculated in 2001, or inoculated in 2002. However, inoculation produced the highest nodule number and nodule weight in 2002. The highest values of biomass production and N accumulation were found with soybean that received poultry manure in 2001 and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea in 2002. The highest biomass and N accumulation in 2001 was 1600 kg ha-1 and 41 kg N ha-1 with soybean amended with poultry manure. Shoot N production in 2002 averaged only 25 kg N ha-1, while the average N accumulation in soybean seed was 64 kg N ha-1. The best percentage of N derived from atmosphere (54%) amounting only 13 kg N ha-1 was obtained with soybean fertilized with 20 kg N ha-1 and inoculated treatment. These values are too low indicating that soybean cultivated in the study area is far from satisfying its N requirements through N fixation. The N balance calculated on the basis of the amount of N fixed removed in the grain is negative (-48 kg N ha-1). In the season 2002, it was observed that maize yields in the plots previously cropped to soybean did not show any significant difference from the plots previously cropped to maize. Significant increase occurred only when plots were previously grown to soybean and fertilized with poultry manure being 5124 and 2311 kg DM ha-1 for maize shoot and grain respectively. Total N yield in shoots was significantly higher in plots previously cropped to soybean than those of maize. The contribution of soybean to maize yield was not significantly different from the contribution of maize-to-maize in 2003. Soybean development in West Africa is a promising technology that has multiple benefits. However substantial inputs and important investments are required to remove severe soil constraints affecting its growth and grain yield potential before these benefits can be fully achieved. (author)

  10. Effects of different organic materials on forage yield and quality of silage maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NAZLI, Recep İrfan; KUŞVURAN, Alpaslan; İNAL, İlker; DEMİRBAŞ, Ahmet; TANSI, Veyis

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted at the experimental area of the Field Crops Department of Çukurova University (37°01'N, 35°18'E) in the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons to determine the effects of sole or combined applications of 3 organic materials (poultry litter, cattle manure, and leonardite) with supplemental inorganic fertilizer on the forage yield and quality of silage maize. The field trial was arranged in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications. Poultry litter (PL) and...

  11. Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Nematode Densities and Maize Yield

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a yard waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and forage yield of maize (Zea mays) were determined over three seasons in two sites in north Florida. In each test, the experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replications and three treatments: 269 mt/ha of a yard waste compost C:N ratio = 35:1 to 46:1) applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Of the nematodes found in ...

  12. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Munthali, Maggie G.; Gachene, Charles K. K.; Gudeta W. Sileshi; Nancy K. Karanja

    2014-01-01

    Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remai...

  13. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  14. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  15. Effects of Variety and Fertilizers on Number of Grains/Cob of Maize in Asaba Area of Delta State

    OpenAIRE

    Enujeke E. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus from March 2008 to June, 2010 to evaluate the effects of variety, organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on number of grain/cob of maize. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times in a factorial layout. Four different rates of poultry manure, cattle dung and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer were applied to three different maize varieties sown at 75c...

  16. Study of nickel and chrome influnce on lipid content and lipase activity in the germinating maize grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Filonik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heavy metals – nickel and chromium – on the indices of lipid metabolism in seeds of the maize hybrid Blith 160 MV at the germination was studied. The reduction of the total lipid content and phospholipids, but increase of lipases activity, sterols and free fatty acids in the germinating grains under the toxicant action were revealed. Changes in the lipids content and lipases activity in the germinating maize seeds may be used as markers of the heavy metals influence on plants.

  17. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wiand S2GxY indicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  18. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.; Mtenga, L. A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Madsen, J.; Mushi, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... carcass weight (151 kg). The proportion of internal fat to empty body weight (2.7%) in steers fed on HFMO was higher (P<0.05) than those from other diets. Nevertheless, all carcasses showed relatively high fat cover (1.1–1.6 cm). It is concluded that agro-processing by products are good feed resources for...... finishing TSZ cattle in feedlots with formulations based on molasses being superior over those based on maize meal, and hominy feed being superior over rice polishing. A combination of molasses and hominy feed (HFMO) could be used successfully as an alternative to maize meal in finishing TSZ cattle in...

  19. Manuring Effect on the Potential Grain Yield of Wheat in the Light of The Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined application of chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure increased the ears m -2 and grains per ear than alone application of organic or inorganic fertilizer to wheat variety Ghaznavi under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I.Khan, NWFP, Pakistan however both parameters i.e. ears per emerged seedling and grains per ear remained lower than the predicted yield in Ayah No. 261 of Surah Al-Baqrah of The Holy Quran. This variety produced the grain yield of 5.5 t ha -1 when fertilized with 20 t ha -1 FYM + 138 kg P2O5 t ha -1. Unfortunately this grain yield is far below than the grain yield (Y=axb predicted in The Holy Quran which comes about 70 t ha -1. Therefore, it is suggested for the agricultural intellectuals to evolve varieties and agronomic techniques to achieve the grain yield predicted in The Holy Quran.

  20. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (20702099 compared to a 19611990 baseline on a maizedry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  1. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  2. Effects of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of grain corn (cv. Maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarang E. et al.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests were done to evaluate the effect of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Maxima corn. The experiment was set up as factorial in a randomized complete block design and conducted at an Agricultural Research farm in Shiraz, during 2010. The first factor was concentrations of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer (0%, 50% and 100% of the recommended amount (1 liter of biological fertilizer for 30 Kg of grain. The second factor was the following chemical fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (control, 200 Kg.ha-1 along with 150 Kg.ha-1 and 400 Kg.ha-1 Urea along with 300 Kg.ha-1 ammonium phosphate. Results indicated that applications of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer had a significant effect on traits of root dry weight, number of grains per row, number of seeds per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain and biological yield, and harvest index. The highest values for these traits were obtained from the application of 100% Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and the maximum amount of chemical fertilizer. Chemical fertilizer significantly affected traits of root dry weight, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index. Bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer interaction had a significant effect on root dry weight at all sampling stages, biological yield and 1000-grain weight. The highest evaluation for biological yield was obtained from the application of 100% bio-fertilizer and the combination of 400 Kg.ha-1 urea with 300 kg.ha-1 ammonium phosphate. It seems the application of bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer had a strong effect on productivity and it serves to reduce environmental pollution.

  3. A comparison of cellulosic fuel yields and separated soil-surface CO2 fluxes in maize and prairie biofuel cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Virginia A.

    It has been suggested that strategic incorporation of perennial vegetation into agricultural landscapes could provide ecosystem services while maintaining agricultural productivity. To evaluate potential use of prairie as a Midwestern cellulosic feedstock, we investigated theoretical cellulosic fuel yields, as well as soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions of prairie-based biofuel systems as compared to maize-based systems on fertile soils in Boone County, IA, USA. Investigated systems were: a maize-soybean rotation grown for grain only, continuous maize grown for grain and stover both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and a 31-species reconstructed prairie grown with and without spring nitrogen fertilization for fall-harvested biomass. From 2009-2013, the highest producing system was N-fertilized prairie, averaging 10.4 Mg ha -1 yr-1 above-ground biomass with average harvest removals of 7.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The unfertilized prairie produced 7.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1, averaging harvests of 5.3 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Lowest cellulosic biomass harvests were realized from continuous maize systems, averaging 3.5 Mg ha -1 yr-1 when grown with, and 3.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1 when grown without a winter rye cover crop, respectively. Un-fertilized prairie biomass and maize stover had equivalent dietary conversion ratios at 330 g ethanol kg-1 dry biomass, but N-fertilized prairie was lower at 315. Over four years prairie systems averaged 1287 L cellulosic ethanol ha-1 yr-1 more than maize systems, with fertilization increasing prairie ethanol production by 865 L ha-1 yr-1. Harvested biomass accounted for >90% of ethanol yield variation. A major hurdle in carbon cycling studies is the separation of the soil-surface CO2 flux into its respective components. From 2012-2013 we used a shading method to separate soil-surface CO2 resulting from oxidation of soil organic matter and CO2 derived from live-root activity in three systems: unfertilized prairie, N-fertilized prairie, and continuous maize. Contrary to our hypothesis, total growing-season root CO2 flux was not proportional to end-of-season root biomass of cropping systems; unfertilized prairie contained nearly twice the root biomass of N-fertilized prairie, but the two systems' total root CO2 fluxes were not significantly different in either year. We found that the total growing-season flux of both root- and organic matter-derived CO 2 was higher in the prairie systems compared to the maize system. However, on a percentage basis, the prairies' soil-surface CO2 flux from May-September averaged 29% root-derived while from mid-June through September the maize averaged 22% root-derived. The percentage of the total CO2 flux that was root-derived in a given system varied from year to year, indicating there is no set relationship for a given cropping system.

  4. How model and input uncertainty impact maize yield simulations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter; Wang, Enli

    2015-02-01

    Crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in studies on food security and global change. Various uncertainties however exist, not only in the model design and model parameters, but also and maybe even more important in soil, climate and management input data. We analyze the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM and the global scale crop model LPJmL with different climate and soil conditions under different agricultural management in the low-input maize-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. We test the models’ response to different levels of input information from little to detailed information on soil, climate (1961-2000) and agricultural management and compare the models’ ability to represent the observed spatial (between locations) and temporal variability (between years) in crop yields. We found that the resolution of different soil, climate and management information influences the simulated crop yields in both models. However, the difference between models is larger than between input data and larger between simulations with different climate and management information than between simulations with different soil information. The observed spatial variability can be represented well from both models even with little information on soils and management but APSIM simulates a higher variation between single locations than LPJmL. The agreement of simulated and observed temporal variability is lower due to non-climatic factors e.g. investment in agricultural research and development between 1987 and 1991 in Burkina Faso which resulted in a doubling of maize yields. The findings of our study highlight the importance of scale and model choice and show that the most detailed input data does not necessarily improve model performance.

  5. Micromechanisms of grain-boundary recovery upon annealing after deformation. II. Recovery of yield strength in fine-grained materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model is developed which allows describing various of yield strength in fine-grained polycrystalline metals under low temperature post-deformation annealing. The model is based on earlier elaborated concepts of the theory of nonequilibrium grain boundaries. It is shown that on annealing before the onset of recrystallization the recovery of a fine-grained material yield strength is associated with a decrease of internal stress field induced by defects which are introduced by preliminary deformation. The expressions are obtained which permit the description of the dependence of yield strength on annealing time and temperature as well as on diffusion and thermodynamic parameters of materials. A comparison is made with experimental data on recovery of mechanical properties in fine-grained aluminium and stainless steel 316L

  6. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  7. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  8. Relationship of morphological traits and grain yield in recombinant inbred wheat lines grown under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationship among yield and different yield related traits in 16 wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILS) / varieties were determined by correlation and path coefficient analysis under moisture stress conditions using randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, tillers m-2 and number of grains spike-1. Negative correlation of grain yield was observed with plant height, spike length, peduncle length, peduncle extrusion, sheath length and 1000-grain weight. So far the relationship between different parameters is concerned, 55.55 % genotypic and 57.77 % phenotypic correlations were positive while the remaining were negative. Path analysis indicated that peduncle length had the highest direct effect on grain yield followed by tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length and days to maturity whereas peduncle extrusion, sheath length, 1000 grain weight and plant height had negative direct effect on the same parameter. The characters such as days to maturity, tillers m-2 and grains spike-1 having positive direct effect along with positive genotypic correlation on grain yield are considered to be suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding genotypes. (author)

  9. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  10. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O3 and H2O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. - Highlights: ► Revised parameterisation of the LRTAP stomatal conductance model for wheat. ► More appropriate value for the diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour. ► Functions describing the influence of phenology and soil moisture on stomatal flux. ► New flux-effect relationships for wheat grain yield, grain mass and protein yield. - Improved parameterizations of ozone stomatal conductance model for wheat and new ozone flux-effect relationships for risk assessments.

  11. Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda Priya A; John Joel A

    2009-01-01

    With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY) and susceptibilityindex (S) were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY) was significantly positivelycorrelat...

  12. Mutational improvement of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for plant architecture and grain yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon pea is an important grain legume in India, grown mainly under marginal and high risk conditions but with poor yield. Improved productivity is expected from changing the plant architecture via mutation induction. An experiment was started using gamma rays. A wide variability of characters affecting grain yield was created. Selected mutants are under evaluation. (author)

  13. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-06-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961-2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains.

  14. Path Analysis for Rice Grain Yield and Related Traits in Tow Planting Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esfahani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at Rasht Rice Research Institute, in 2001 to study trait relationships and to determine the direct and indirect effects of different characteristics on grain yield of rice (Orgza sativa L.. A 9x2 factorial experiment in complete randomized block design with 3 replications was used. The two factors were 9 cultivars, namely: Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Binam, Sepeedroud, Nemat, Khazar, Taichung, Chanto, and Usen, and 2 planting patterns (15x15 cm and 30x30 cm. Significant differences were detected among cultivars, between planting patterns, and their interaction effects. The direct effect of the number of panicles/m2 on grain yield was positive and significant in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Heading date had a positive and significant direct effect on the number of panicles/m2 in both planting patterns and their combined analysis. Only in 30x30 cm planting pattern, a positive correlation was found between biomass at heading date and the number of panicles/m2. Grain weight per plant had a direct and positive effect on panicle weight in the 3 cases studied. Also, in all the cases studied, flag leaf area had positive direct effects on grain weight per plant. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period increased in 30x30 cm planting pattern. Native cultivars demonstrated longer latent period. Grain filling rate and effective grain filling period showed positive direct effects on grain yield in both plantings. According to the results obtained, an increase in the number of panicles/m2, rate of grain filling, and effective grain filling period would enhance grain yield. Selection for heading date, grain yield per plant, and flag leaf area would also indirectly increase grain yield.

  15. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  16. Cross-Continental Comparisons of Grain Yields Under Climate Change: Potential for Agricultural Adaptation to Offset Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Twine, T. E.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Girvetz, E. H.; Chhetri, N.; McCarthy, H. R.; Xu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in the timing and magnitude of warming and changes in precipitation patterns will have differential effects on the yields of staple grains under climate change. Modeling these changes accurately at the regional scale is important to prioritize adaptation measures to continue to provide food for a growing global population. We used climate projections from five IPCC AR4 CMIP3 climate models (BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, IPSL-CM4v1, CCSR-MIROC3.2-medres, and NCAR-CCSM3) and three emissions scenarios (B1, A1b, and A2) to obtain a robust estimate of future climate possibilities. Key modeled hydroclimatic variables impacting yield were compared with 20th century observational data to assess the model's representation of the mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual to decadal variability for four sites located in Iowa, USA; Punjab, India; Free State, South Africa; and the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. We used the process-based model Agro-IBIS to project climate change impacts to annual yield and growing season net primary productivity of maize (USA and India) and winter wheat (South Africa and Australia) in these regions. Changes in productivity at each of the four sites are related to current climate variability and projected changes, taking into account model performance and limiting factors for growth in the different regions. Relative changes in maize/wheat yields in the four regions between three periods (the late 20th and mid- and late-21st century) can be attributed to progressively changing local climate conditions and linked to large-scale circulation changes. For example, India is projected to experience the greatest warming along with a decrease in mean precipitation, which might substantially decrease yields, while under some scenarios of warming and increased mean precipitation, Iowa is predicted to experience yield increases. In addition to mean changes, frequency and magnitude of high- and low-yield years are assessed for the three periods and related to changes in the variability of local climate conditions in the four regions. We also modeled various adaptation strategies, such as changing planting date, irrigation practices, and cultivar, and found different optimal strategies in each region. Such information can be used to direct agricultural research and extension efforts to continue high levels of grain production under climate change.

  17. Consorciao milho e feijo caup para produo de espigas verdes e gros verdes Intercropping maize with cowpea for green ears and green grain production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Srgio L. Silva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de espigas verdes de cultivares de milho (Centralmex, AG-401 e C-701 e o rendimento de feijo verde de cultivares de caup (Pitiba, Caic e CNCx 658-15E em monocultivos e em consorciao. O rendimento de espigas verdes (gros com 70% a 80% de umidade foi avaliado pelo peso de espigas comercializveis, empalhadas (EE ou despalhadas (ED. O rendimento de feijo (gros com 60 a 80% de umidade foi avaliado pelos rendimentos de vagens (RV e de gros verdes (RG. O estudo foi realizado em Mossor (RN, entre abril e julho/1990. Trs monocultivos de milho, trs monocultivos de caup e 3 x 3 consrcios foram avaliados no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repeties. As populaes de plantas de milho e caup, por hectare, foram 50.000 e 40.000 nos monocultivos, e 25.000 e 20.000 nos consrcios, respectivamente. No existiu interao cultivares de milho x cultivares de caup para as caractersticas avaliadas. A consorciao reduziu em 50% EE e ED. A reduo em RV e RG com a consorciao foi de 55%. O ndice Uso Eficiente da Terra (UET, calculado com EE e RV, foi maior com a cultivar Pitiba do que com as outras cultivares de caup. No existiram diferenas entre cultivares de caup quando UET foi calculado com ED e RG. No existiram diferenas entre cultivares de milho quando o UET foi calculado com EE e RV ou ED e RG.The objective was to evaluate the green ears yield of maize cultivars (Centralmex, AG-401 and C-701 and the green bean yield, of cowpea cultivars (Pitiba, Caic and CNCx 658-15E, using monocropping and intercropping systems. The green ears yield (grains with 70% - 80% humidity was evaluated by weight of marketable green ears, both with husk (EH and without husk (EW. The green bean yield (grains with 60% - 80% humidity was evaluated by green pods yield (PY and green grains yield (GY. The study was carried out at Mossor, Brazil, between April and July, 1990. Three maize monocroppings, three cowpea monocroppings and 3 x 3 intercroppings were arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The maize and cowpea plant populations, per hectare, were 50,000 and 40,000 with monocropping, and 25,000 and 20,000, with alternate-row intercropping, respectively. The maize cultivars x cowpea cultivars interaction was not significant for the traits evaluated. The intercropping systems reduced 50% EH and EW. The reduction of PY and GY by intercropping was 55%. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER calculated from EH and PY was greater when intercropping was made with Pitiba cultivar than with other cowpea cultivars. There were no differences among cowpea cultivars when LER was obtained from EW and GY. Maize cultivars did not differ as LER calculated from EH and PY or EW and GY.

  18. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  19. Effect of solar radiation and temperature on grain number definition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of solar radiation and temperature regime between emergence and silking on the crop development rate and the number of grain per growing rate unit of the crop, and the relationships of such parameters with the grain yield of corn hybrids. The experiments were carried out in the years 1994/95 to 1996/97, using the commercial hybrids C-901, XL-560, and XL-678 in 1994/95 and the hybrids C-901, XL-212, and XL-370 in the remaining years. The treatments consisted of sowing dates from September to December, in 1994/95, and from August to December, in 1995/96 and 1996/97. High dry matter accumulation was observed when there was high incidence of solar radiation during the period between emergence and flowering. However, as the mean air temperature exerts effect on the duration of that period, the growth rate during such period was more associated to temperature than to solar radiation. The effect of the temperature was inversely proportional to the number of grains per unit of growing rate in this period, possibly due to the longer time for solar radiation interception. As a result of the association between temperature and radiation, the photothermal coefficient was positively associated with the grain yield. (author)

  20. Global and grain-specific accumulation of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases in transgenic maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin N; Bougri, Oleg; Carlson, Alvar R; Meissner, Judy; Pan, Shihao; Parker, Matthew H; Zhang, Dongcheng; Samoylov, Vladimir; Ekborg, Nathan A; Michael Raab, R

    2011-12-01

    In planta expression of cell wall degrading enzymes is a promising approach for developing optimized biomass feedstocks that enable low-cost cellulosic biofuels production. Transgenic plants could serve as either an enzyme source for the hydrolysis of pretreated biomass or as the primary biomass feedstock in an autohydrolysis process. In this study, two xylanase genes, Bacillus sp. NG-27 bsx and Clostridium stercorarium xynB, were expressed in maize (Zea mays) under the control of two different promoters. Severe phenotypic effects were associated with xylanase accumulation in maize, including stunted plants and sterile grains. Global expression of these xylanases from the rice ubiquitin 3 promoter (rubi3) resulted in enzyme accumulation of approximately 0.01 mg enzyme per gram dry weight, or approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein (TSP). Grain-specific expression of these enzymes from the rice glutelin 4 promoter (GluB-4) resulted in higher-level accumulation of active enzyme, with BSX and XynB accumulating up to 4.0% TSP and 16.4% TSP, respectively, in shriveled grains from selected T0 plants. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the GluB-4 promoter for biotechnological applications. The phenotypic effects of xylanase expression in maize presented here demonstrate the difficulties of hemicellulase expression in an important crop for cellulosic biofuels production. Potential alternate approaches to achieve xylanase accumulation in planta without the accompanying negative phenotypes are discussed. PMID:21689368

  1. Effect of pre-sowing gamma irradiation and microelement seed treatment on maize yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to study the joint application of gamma irradiation and microelement treatment. The microelement treatment consisted in soaking the seeds for 24 hours in combined solution of H3BO3, CuSO4, ZnSO4, MnSO4 (0.01% each). The yield and growth of plants have not been affected considerably by the sequence of irradiation and microelement treatment. From the experimental data it can be concluded that under the testing conditions, in the majority of the cases, the fresh weight and growth of the young plants of the MvSC 530 maize hybrid, changed positively on the influence of treatment with gamma irradiation prior to sowing (1000 rad) and microelement solution. However, an enhanced depression in weight and length was caused by the treatment with 7000 rad. (author)

  2. PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM DURING KHARIF SEASON UNDER RED AND LATERITIC TRACT OF WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, M.K.; Banerjee, M; Banerjee, H.; A ALIPATRA; G C MALIK

    2014-01-01

    A FIELD EXPERIMENT WAS CARRIED OUT DURING KHARIF SEASON OF 2010 AND 2011 AT SRINIKETAN RESEARCH FARM, VISVA BHARTI, WEST BENGAL. THE GRAIN YILED AND STOVER YIELD OF MAIZE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN CASE OF PURE STAND OF MAIZE THAN EITHER OF ITS INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS WITH LEGUMES, WHILE THE COB YILED WAS HIGHEST IN THE MAIZE WITH SOYBEAN (1:2) INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND IT WAS STATISTICALLY AT PAR WITH THE YIELD OBTAINED IN SOLE MAIZE. THE GRAIN YIELD OF LEGUMES WAS HIGHEST IN MAIZE WITH GROUN...

  3. Genotypic Variation in Dry Weight and Nitrogen Concentration of Wheat Plant Parts; Relations to Grain Yield and Grain Protein Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafeez Malik; Allan Andersson; Ramune Kuktaite; Muhammad Yaqub Mujahid; Bismillah Khan; Eva Johansson

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating genotypic variability in nitrogen (N) concentration and dry weight of wheat plant parts and their relation with grain yield and protein concentration. Sixteen Nordic and three Pakistani wheat genotypes were grown in controlled climate chambers. Plant parts such as shoot, roots and grains were collected after harvesting, weighed and N concentration was determined. The results showed a large genetic variation for dry weight and N concentration in the various p...

  4. QTL identification of grain protein concentration and its genetic correlation with starch concentration and grain weight using two populations in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuling Li; Yanzhao Wang; Mengguan Wei; Xuehui Li; Jiafeng Fu

    2009-04-01

    Protein is one of the three main storage chemical components in maize grains, and is negatively correlated with starch concentration (SC). Our objective was to analyse the influence of genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for protein concentration (PC) and to reveal the molecular genetic associations between PC and both SC and grain weight (GWP). Two hundred and eighty-four (Pop1) and 265 (Pop2) F2:3 families were developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred GY220 and two normal maize inbreds 8984 and 8622 respectively, and were genotyped with 185 and 173 pairs of SSR markers. PC, SC and GWP were evaluated under two environments. Composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiple interval mapping (MIM) methods were used to detect single-trait QTL for PC, and multiple-trait QTL for PC with both SC and GWP. No common QTL were shared between the two populations for their four and one PC QTL. Common QTL with opposite signs of effects for PC and SC/GWP were detected on three marker intervals at bins 6.07–6.08, 8.03 and 8.03–8.04. Multiple-traits QTL mapping showed that tightly-linked QTL, pleiotropic QTL and QTL having effects with opposite directions for PC and SC/GWP were all observed in Pop1, while all QTL reflected opposite effects in Pop2.

  5. Growth, Grain Yield and Components of Three Durum Wheat Genotypes with Different Plant Densities in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ehsanzadeh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, not much information exists on growth and productivity of durum wheat in Iran and Isfahan. In order to evaluate growth, grain yield, and attributes in three durum wheat genotypes, Osta/Gata, Dipper-6, and PI40100, with five planting densities of 200, 275, 350, 425 and 500 seeds/m2, a four-replicate RCBD field study with a spilt-plot layout was carried out in winter 2000 to spring 2001 at Lavark Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Genotypes were the main-plots and planting densities, the sub-plots. Each plot contained six rows, spaced 25cm apart, each 6m in length. While Osta/Gata produced a greater spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight and grain yield, PI40100 indicated a greater height, leaf area index (LAI and biological yield, and Dipper-6 produced a larger number of grains per spike and harvest index, compared to the other two genotypes. Increasing plant density led to an increase in LAI, spikes/m2, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index but a decrease in grains/spike and 1000-grain weight. Grain yield was positively correlated with spikes/m2, grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, despite negative correlations with LAI and plant height. It may be concluded that with environmental conditions such as those encountered in Isfahan in 2000-2001, Osta/Gata can be planted at approximately 425 seeds/m2, if an acceptable grain yield is to be achieved.

  6. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological...

  7. Effect of irradiation of wheat grains with fast neutrons on the grain yield and other characteristics of the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fast neutrons from a 252Cf source in the fluence range 105–108 n/cm2 on the Egyptian wheat cultivar (Sakha 92) were studied. The experiment was conducted for three successive seasons (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011) to study the effect of the irradiation on the plant growth, grain yield, and physiological changes of three generations of plants produced by irradiated moisturized grains. A low fast-neutron fluence 2×106 n/cm2 increased the yield throughout the three mutagenic generations considerably. It also increased concentrations of the total chlorophyll, sugars, and crude protein. These changes improve the quantity and quality of the grain. Also, a study of the effect of salinity of the irrigation water on the characteristics of the third-generation grains produced by neutron-irradiated grains was performed. With increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the irrigation water in the range 0.5–1.5%, concentrations of osmoprotectants, namely, reducing sugars and proline amino acids, increased. The concentration of Na+ in the grains increased in parallel with the salinity of the irrigation water regardless of irradiation, while the concentrations of Ca2+ and K+ decreased. - Highlights: • Irradiation of wheat grains with neutrons (low fluence ∼102 n/cm2) considerably increases the grain yield throughout three subsequent generations. • The irradiation also remarkably increases total chlorophyll concentration in the higher plant, which results in higher concentrations of sugars and crude protein. • The irradiation also increases salt tolerance of the plants

  8. Stimulation by Hyphopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus flavus was grown on maize and rice extract agars and on irradiated viable cracked maize and rice grains, either in pure culture or in dual culture with wild strains of either Hyphopichia burtonii or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus and its growth and interactions with the other microorganisms were studied at three water activities (a/sub w/) (0.98, 0.95, and 0.90) and two temperatures (25 and 160C). Both H. burtonii and B. amyloliquefaciens markedly stimulated growth and aflotoxin production by A. flavus on cracked maize, especially at 250C and 0.95 and 0.98 a/sub w/. No aflatoxin was detected in pure cultures of A. flavus on cracked rice after 12 days of incubation at 250C, but some was produced by mixed cultures at 160C and 0.98 a/sub w/. The morphological interactions among A. flavus, H. burtonii, and B. amyloliquefaciens were also examined on maize and rice extract agars under similar controlled conditions

  9. Selection for Silage Yield and Composition Did Not Affect Genomic Diversity Within the Wisconsin Quality Synthetic Maize Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J.; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Silva, Renato Rodrigues; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage is forage of high quality and yield, and represents the second most important use of maize in the United States. The Wisconsin Quality Synthetic (WQS) maize population has undergone five cycles of recurrent selection for silage yield and composition, resulting in a genetically improved population. The application of high-density molecular markers allows breeders and geneticists to identify important loci through association analysis and selection mapping, as well as to monitor changes in the distribution of genetic diversity across the genome. The objectives of this study were to identify loci controlling variation for maize silage traits through association analysis and the assessment of selection signatures and to describe changes in the genomic distribution of gene diversity through selection and genetic drift in the WQS recurrent selection program. We failed to find any significant marker-trait associations using the historical phenotypic data from WQS breeding trials combined with 17,719 high-quality, informative single nucleotide polymorphisms. Likewise, no strong genomic signatures were left by selection on silage yield and quality in the WQS despite genetic gain for these traits. These results could be due to the genetic complexity underlying these traits, or the role of selection on standing genetic variation. Variation in loss of diversity through drift was observed across the genome. Some large regions experienced much greater loss in diversity than what is expected, suggesting limited recombination combined with small populations in recurrent selection programs could easily lead to fixation of large swaths of the genome. PMID:25645532

  10. GRAIN AND OIL YIELD OF SINGLE-CROSS AND THREE-WAY CROSS OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Mijić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower breeding program at the Agricultural Institute Osijek is aimed at creating hybrids with high genetic potential for grain and oil yield and with improved agronomical traits. Achieved grain and oil yields of 30 new (single-cross and three-way cross OS hybrids in comparison with standard hybrids (Apolon and Šokac, during 2006 and 2007 at location Osijek (Croatia are presented in this paper. The experiments were set up in randomized complete block design (RCBD and analyzed traits were grain and oil yield. The highest grain yield (for both years of the research was achieved with hybrids OS-H-271 S and OS-H-35 T (above 5 t ha-1, and oil yield with hybrids OS-H-35 T, OS-H-K3 T and OS-H-271 S (above 2 t ha-1. On the average, three-way cross hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to single-cross hybrids. Experimental hybrids achieved higher grain and oil yield compared to registered OS sunflower hybrids, indicating a genetic advance in domestic sunflower hybrids breeding.

  11. Contribution of Cereal-Legume association to the yield and grain quality of cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the mixed cereal-legume cultivation in different planting patterns was undertaken for two consecutive years. The aim was to investigate the contribution of the association of legumes towards yield and grain quality of cereal crops. The data indicated that the association of legumes in different planting pattern with sorghum affected the yield and grain quality of sorghum. During both the years of study, the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern significantly increased the grain yield of sorghum, as compered with single rows (60 cm apart) and triple row strips (30/120 cm). The grain yield of sorghum decreased when sorghum was associated with mungbean or guar, but the additional harvest of intercrops increased the total productivity. The difference in grain yield between the treatment means of interaction was non-significant. Moreover, in the first year of study, protein content of sorghum grain was not significantly affected by the planting pattern, but in the second year of study, double and triple row strips planting pattern significantly increased the grain protein content (respectively, 9.41% and 9.345%) of sorghum, as compared with single row planting pattern (protein content of 9.19%). Sorghum grain protein content of 9.51 and 9.49% produced in association with mungbean was significantly more than the grain protein content of sorghum alone or sorghum grown in the association with guar during 1999 and 2000, respectively. Increase in grain protein content of sorghum, when associated with mungbean, was attributed to the N transfer from companion mungbean to sorghum. It may be concluded from the results obtained that sorghum + mungbean association in the double row strips (30/90 cm) planting pattern can efficiently utilize the available resources to improve the grain quality and overall production of sorghum-based cropping system. (author)

  12. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha?1 reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha?1 and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha?1 (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha?1. With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha?1, Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21. PMID:26565992

  13. HETEROSIS STUDIES OF AROMATIC LINES FOR YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonya Nayak. P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen crosses developed from four aromatic lines and four non scented testers were evaluated for various yield and grain quality traits to assess the heterosis of the crosses and to identify best combinations. The estimates of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis were variable among the crosses. Heterosis in desirable direction was recorded for important yield and quality attributes viz., Number of Panicles Plant-1(69.57, Panicle Length (20.82, Number of Filled Grains Panicle-1(30.14, 250 Grain Weight (23.12, Grain Yield plant-1 (89.25,Water Uptake (14.89, Alkali spreading value (45.32 and Protein (19.95. Some of these heterotic crosses have turned out to be best specific crosses and exhibited desirable per se. Among the heterotic crosses RNR 2354/BM-71(Number of panicles per plant, Panicle length, Ranbir Basmati/MTU-1010 (250 Grain weight, Protien, RNR2354/Sye632003 (Number of filled grains per panicle, Pusa 1121/MTU1010 (Grain yield, Yamini/MTU1081 (Water uptake and Yamini/Sye632003( Alkali spreading value were found to be superior, expressing heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis in desirable direction. The results of the present study indicated the potential of these parental lines in the improvement of grain quality of rice hybrids.

  14. Yield and grain quality of spring barley as affected by biomass formation at early growth stages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, J.; Klem, Karel; Svobodová, I.; Míša, P.; Neudert, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2014), s. 221-227. ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI111A133 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * above-ground biomass * tillering * grain yield formation * grain protein content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2014

  15. Effects of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of grain corn (cv. Maxima)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarang E. et al.

    2013-01-01

    Tests were done to evaluate the effect of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Maxima corn. The experiment was set up as factorial in a randomized complete block design and conducted at an Agricultural Research farm in Shiraz, during 2010. The first factor was concentrations of Nitroxin bio-fertilizer (0%, 50% and 100%) of the recommended amount (1 liter of biological fertilizer for 30 Kg of grain). The second factor was the following chemical fert...

  16. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Rossi Silva; Giovani Benin; Juliano Luiz de Almeida; Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca; Claudemir Zucareli

    2014-01-01

    Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115) were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and Ju...

  17. Genotype by environment interaction for grain yield and carbon isotope discrimination of barley in Mediterranean Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) has been found to be either positively or negatively related to grain yield of small grain cereals when grown in contrasting environments. In order to clarify a possible association between grain yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Δ of mature kernels, five 6-rowed and five 2-rowed barley cultivars were evaluated in 22 rainfed environments of northern Mediterranean Spain. Analyses of variance suggested that the genotypic Δ values were more consistent across environments than the genotypic yields. Genotype-environment (GxE) interaction for grain yield was further explored by fitting an AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) model. The first 2 multiplicative axes were found significant. The AMMI2 model provided more accurate estimates of genotypic yields within environments than the conventional unadjusted means across replicates. AMMI2 estimates were used for input into cluster analysis, grouping environments that ranked genotypic yields similarly. Three major groups were obtained, with average yields of 2.42 t/ha (cluster I), 3.06 t/ha (cluster II), and 5.16 t/ha (cluster III). The genotypic ranking for Δ did not vary substantially across clusters, but it changed for grain yield. The average genotypic yields in the low-yielding cluster I ranked opposite to those in the high-yielding cluster III, suggesting the existence of a crossover point at an intermediate yield level. The association between grain yield and Δ for genotypic means within clusters was variable. In cluster I, yield and Δ tended to be negatively related, whereas they were positively related in clusters II and III. Genotypes with lower D, i.e. with higher transpiration efficiency, performed better in low-yielding environments (mostly those grouped in cluster I). On the contrary, a high genotypic Δ was of advantage in medium (cluster II) and high-yielding environments (cluster III). This observation supports the assumption that drought tolerance and high yield potential under non-limiting growing conditions may be antagonistic concepts in barley. Genotypic means for kernel number per m2 and Δ were consistently and positively related within clusters, suggesting that a constitutively high Δ may have been driven by a large genotypic reproductive sink. The convenience of using Δ as a selection criterion in areas exhibiting a considerable GxE interaction for grain yield is discussed. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Australia

  18. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Prashant; Swamy, B. P. Mallikarjuna; Dixit, Shalabh; Trinidad, Jennylyn; Sta Cruz, Ma Teresa; Maturan, Paul C.; Amante, Modesto; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM) to estimate the significance of pleiotropy effects. Results indicated towards possible linkages between the drought grain yield QTLs with co-locating flowering and/or plant height QTLs. Linkages of days to flowering and plant height were eliminated through a marker-assisted breeding approach. Drought grain yield QTLs also showed interaction effects with flowering QTLs. Drought responsiveness of the flowering locus on chromosome 3 (qDTY3.2) has been revealed through allelic analysis. Considering linkage and interaction effects associated with drought QTLs, a comprehensive marker-assisted breeding strategy was followed to develop rice genotypes with improved grain yield under drought stress. PMID:27018583

  19. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  20. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qi-Hua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L. production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effect worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  1. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liu, Qi-Hua; Wu, Xiu; Li, Tian; Ma, Jia-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Biao.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effec [...] t worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT) after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  2. Comparison of cellulosic ethanol yields from midwestern maize and reconstructed tallgrass prairie systems managed for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequate fertilization over years both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and the 31-spe...

  3. Sowing Date and Genotype Effects on Barley Growth and Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?Ahmad Sobati

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth and grain yield of irrigated barley cultivars (Valfajr, Binam and Raihaneh was investigated at 4 sowing dates (6, 22 Oct. and 14, 20 Nov. in Karaj region. The effect of sowing date, genotype and their interaction on grain yield were statistically significant. Early and late sowing enhanced cold damage. However, the damage was more in late sowings. It was estimated that the optimum sowing date would be about 50 days (600 GDD prior to freeze-up and maximum cold damage would occur when sowing was delayed until some 22 days (230 GDD before freeze-up but any more delay in sowing would cause less damage. Highest grain yield was obtained from Raihaneh at 22 Oct. sowing. Binam showed good yield stability and relatively high yield, especially in unfavorable sowing dates. In the relatively favorable sowing dates (6 and 22 Oct., grain weight showed positive correlation with linear grain filling rate, storage and translocation of reserves. LAI, LAR, RGR, CGR and LAD of each cultivar were higher in the second sowing date compared to the first one. The ratio of post anthesis growth to maximum TDM showed a high correlation with the harvest index. Raihaneh was the highest cultivar in resistance to lodging, harvest index, storage and retranslocation of assimilates, and linear grain filling rate. It is suggested that at favorable sowing dates, Valfajr and Binam had source limitation or disturbed translocation and Raihaneh had sink limitation.

  4. Initial austenite grain size effect on the structure and yield strength of martensite-quenched steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the structure of martensite of the structural 45KhNMFA-steel and N23G3-alloy depending on the initial austentic grain size are presented. Combination of the plate and lath-like martensite crystals in the form of a block which is characteristic of the large-grain state remains in the fine-grain state as well. The size of such martensite crystallites is compatible with the size of the austenite grain,provided it is not more than 20 microns. If the size of the austenite grains exceeds this value, the size of the martensite crystallites is constant (about 20 microns). The yield point of the hardened(low-temper) steel changes with variation in austenite grain size similarly to change in martensite crystallites size

  5. Genetic diversity and selection in the maize starch pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Whitt, Sherry R.; Wilson, Larissa M.; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S; Buckler, Edward S.

    2002-01-01

    Maize is both phenotypically and genetically diverse. Sequence studies generally confirm the extensive genetic variability in modern maize is consistent with a lack of selection. For more than 6,000 years, Native Americans and modern breeders have exploited the tremendous genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) to create the highest yielding grain crop in the world. Nonetheless, some loci have relatively low levels of genetic variation, particularly loci that have been the target of a...

  6. Relationship Between Grain Yield and Some Agronomic Characters in Durum Wheat under Cold Dryland Conditions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sadeghzadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The main breeding objective in drylands was drought resistance and used criterion was grain yield in the stress condition. Traits that were correlated with the grain yield may be useful for indirect selection. Negative significant correlation was obtained only between days to heading and thousand kernel weight in facultative types. In the spring types of durum wheat, days to maturity, grain filling period, plant height and days to heading were the most important traits for increasing grain yield, respectively. In the facultative types, days to maturity, plant height, grain filling period and days to heading were important but in winter types only numbers of days to maturity had positive significant correlation with grain yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed a strong direct effect of days to maturity on grain yield. However, higher DM with higher DH may interact with hot and dry weather during critical reproductive stage thus reduce grain yield of durum wheat under cold dryland condition.

  7. Combining ability for grain yield and other related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Yadav and Anil Sirohi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability for grain yield and other related characters was studied in 36 F1s along with 15 parents (12 lines and three testers which were evaluated in a completely Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications during rabi 2005-06.The results indicated that among various lines, line HD 2687 was identified as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield per plant, whereas, Line UP 2338 appeared as a good general combiner for the characters, plant height, tillers per plant, spikelets per ear, spike length, grains per ear and 1000-grain weight. Line 35th IBWSN-4 for days to maturity and harvest index; Line 35th IBWSN-14 for days to maturity, grains per ear and grain yield per plant; 10th HTWYT-47 for days to heading, days to maturity, tillers per plant and grains per ear; 11th HRWYT-7 for the characters spike length, 1000- grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant and 4th IAT-49 for tillers per plant, plant height and harvest index were identified as good general combiners. Lines 20th SAWSN-18, CPAN 3004 and RD 1008 were identified as good general combiners for days to heading, tillers per plant and biological yield per plant, respectively. Tester PBW 373 emerged as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading and biological yield per plant, whereas, Tester PBW 502 appeared as a good general combiner for the tillers per plant. Out of 36 cross combinations, nine crosses viz. UP 2338/ PBW 502, 4th IAT-49 / PBW 502,11th HRWYT-16/ PBW 343,10th HTWYT-47/ PBW 343, RD 1008/ PBW 373 , 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502, 20th SAWSN-18/ PBW 343, 35th IBWSN-4/ PBW 502 and CPAN 3004/ PBW 373 emerged with significant positive sca effects for grain yield per plant. The parents involved in these crosses are average x average general combiners and or poor x average combiners except in cross 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502 (3.14, which involved good x average general combiners. Desirable specific combining ability of the crosses involving such parents seems to be mainly due to complementation of the genes. Thus these crosses can be exploited for grain yield per plant by using biparental mating system

  8. Genetic Association between Grain Yield of Bread Wheat and Carbon Isotope Discrimination under Drought in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of the wheat plant to discriminate against the carbon-13 isotope during photosynthesis, in favor of the lighter carbon-12 isotope, has been found to correlate with grain yield in many studies. This hypothesis was tested under four contrasting environments in Morocco during 2003-2006 using three sets of elite wheat genotypes. Significant positive correlations were found between carbon isotope discrimination (CID, Δ13C or Δ) and grain yield, and were higher under more water stressed environments at Douyet and Jemaa Sahim, indicating that high Δ is associated with high yield under drought stress. Selection based on yield appeared to have indirectly acted on Δ as well, since the correlation was significant and remained relatively unchanged across years of selection. This indicates a possible genetic linkage between yield and Δ. Also, transgressive segregation occurred for most agronomic and physiological traits, including Δ, offering a potential genetic variation for selection. At the molecular level, CID was found to be linked to a molecular marker at the gwm095 region of chromosome 2A, and to a thousand kernel weight marker at the gwm071 region, distant by 20-30 cent Morgan (cM). A poor QTL associated with grain yield was detected at chromosome 5A, similar to the one detected at CIMMYT in Obregon (Mexico) and northern Australia. From these results, it can be concluded that CID may be used as a new selection criterion to enhance wheat grain yield potential under drought in Morocco. (author)

  9. Effect of 15n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of 15N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha-1 of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch 15N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha-1, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha-1, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  10. Trapped by nature: provincial grain yields in Spain in the mid 18th century

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Caballero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates original yields for five grains in thirty-three provinces of Spain in the mid-18(th) century. We observe a strong heterogeneity between the provinces with yields being considerably higher in the north of the country than in the south-east. Although average yields in Spain were below those in other countries of north-western Europe, the provinces in the north achieved yields not far behind the most advanced agricultural regions of the world. The heterogeneity of yields acr...

  11. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  12. GRAIN AND OIL YIELD INVESTIGATED SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE GROWING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In four-year field experiments (2001-2004 conducted in Western Slavonia (Nova Gradiška influence of weather conditions (year and sunflower hybrids on grain and oil yield was investigated. In the experiments five sunflower hybrids (PR63A90, Alzan, Aleksandra, Opera and Pixel were investigated. Obtained results have indicated that weather conditions, hybrid and their interaction have significant influence on grain and oil yield. The highest grain and oil yield per hectare were obtained in the year with 65 mm precipitation in July, 48 mm in August and relative air humidity during the sunflower vegetation below 70%. High oil content in seed was obtained in the year with sufficient soil moisture during the oil synthesis, higher mean air daily temperature (21.70C in the stage of intensive oil sythesis, and lower (14.10C in the stage of slower oil synthesis. Significantly the highest grain (3901 kg/ha and oil (1688 kg/ha yield were obtained in 2003 year, while the highest oil content (54.94% in d. m. was obtained in 2001 year. According to grain and oil yield, the most productive hybrids were: PR63A90 and Aleksandra whereas the highest oil content in seed (51.56% in d. m. had Opera hybrid.

  13. Regulation of OsmiR156h through Alternative Polyadenylation Improves Grain Yield in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Liu, Binmei; Wu, Kun; Ye, Yafeng; Huang, Shixia; Wang, Shuansuo; Wang, Yi; Han, Ruixi; Liu, Qian; Fu, Xiangdong; Wu, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    Substantial increases in grain yield of cereal crops are required to feed a growing human population. Here we show that a natural variant of SEMIDWARF AND HIGH-TILLERING (SDT) increases harvest index and grain productivity in rice. Gain-of-function sdt mutation has a shortened polyadenylation tail on the OsmiR156h microRNA precursor, which cause the up-regulation of OsmiR156h. The plants carrying the semidominant sdt allele exhibit reduced plant height, enhanced lodging resistance, increased tiller numbers per plant, and resulting in an increased grain yield. We also show that combining the sdt allele with the OsSPL14WFP allele can be effective in simultaneously improving tillering capacity and panicle branching, thereby leading to higher harvest index and grain yield. Most importantly, pyramiding of the sdt allele and the green revolution gene sd1 enhances grain yield by about 20% in hybrid rice breeding. Our results suggest that the manipulation of the polyadenylation status of OsmiR156 represents a novel strategy for improving the yield potential of rice over what is currently achievable. PMID:25954944

  14. Genetic Dissection of QTL Associated with Grain Yield in Diverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. breeding programs strive to increase grain yield; however, the progress is hampered due to its quantitative inheritance, low heritability, and confounding environmental effects. In the present study, a winter wheat population of 159 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was evaluated in six trials under rainfed, terminal drought, and fully-irrigated conditions, over four years. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL mapping was conducted for grain yield main effect (GY and the genotype environment interaction (GEI effect. A total of 17 QTL were associated with GY and 13 QTL associated with GEI, and nine QTL were mapped in the flanking chromosomal regions for both GY and GEI. One major QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2, explaining up to 22% of grain yield, was identified in all six trials. Besides the additive effect of QTL associated with GY, interactions among QTL (QTL QTL interaction, QTL environment, and QTL QTL environment were also observed. When combining the interaction effects, QTL Q.Gy.ui-1B.2 along with other QTL explained up to 52% of the variation in grain yield over the six trials. This study suggests that QTL mapping of complex traits such as grain yield should include interaction effects of QTL and environments in marker-assisted selection.

  15. Genetic variability and association of yield attributing traits with grain yield in upland rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jambhulkar Nitiprasad Namdeorao; Bose Lotan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the genetic variability and correlation between yield and other yield attributing characters of rice genotypes in upland ecology. The experiment was conducted with twenty two upland genotypes grown during Wet season under direct seeded condition in a randomized block design. Analysis of variance shows significance in all the traits indicating the presence of considerable amount of genetic variation among the genotypes. The...

  16. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  17. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samia, Berraies; Mohamed, Salah Gharbi; Salah, Rezgui; Amor, Yahyaoui.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB), caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schrot.), is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. [...] durum [Desf.] Husn.) particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  18. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26803502

  19. Yield and quality of canola grains due to nitrogen and sulfur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fbio Teixeira Lucas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canola (Brassica napus, L. cultivation was encouraged for grain and oil production at the 80s, and it is also considered a good option for crop rotation. The nitrogen is one of the most required nutrients by the plant to increase its production, while sulfur is essential to provide seed quality. Thus, the objective of this study was, at Cerrado region, evaluate the effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization at yield and contents of oil and crude protein in the grains. We also sought relate to grain yield the S content in the soil and concentrations of N and S in the diagnosis leaf. The experiment was conducted in Uberaba County, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in an Oxisol, utilizing the Hyola 401 hybrid. The treatments consisted in a factorial scheme 5 x 4 (five N rates: 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg ha-1 and; four S rates: 0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 in a randomized blocks design, with four replicates. The nitrogen and sulfur fertilization increased canola grain yield, without significantly alter contents of oil and crude protein. Rates higher than to 140 kg ha-1 of N and 15 kg ha-1 of S provided grain yield above 1100 kg ha-1. Plots with yield higher than to 1000 kg ha-1 presented foliar concentration of N above 52 g kg-1. The highest S content was observed at the 0.15-0.30 m layer, proving the sulfate anion mobility. The lowest grain yield were observed when the S content in the soil at this layer were less than 4 mg dm-3. The N concentrations in the diagnostic leaf and S-SO4 -2 content in the 0.15-0.30 m layer correlated positively with crop yield.

  20. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  1. Grain Yield and Morphological Characters of Spring Safflower Genotypes: Evaluation Relationship Using Correlation and Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation among yield components and their direct and indirect influence on grain yield of safflower were investigated. In this survey, 30 spring safflower genotypes were tested via the randomized complete block experiment design for two years of 2005 and 2006. The phenotypic correlations among the traits and their path coefficient were estimated in both years. Grain yield was significantly correlated with some characters, like the plant height (r = 0.563** and r = 0.536**, hectoliter weight (r = 0.574** and r = 0.577** and biological yield (r = 0.980** and r = 0.977** in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight had the highest positive direct effects on grain yield in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Therefore, improvement of the grain yield will immensely be efficient via plant height, hectoliter weight and 100-seed weight based selection.

  2. Grain yield losses in wheat by Russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia (mordvilko)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wheat cultivars were sown at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to evaluate their response to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Significant variability was observed among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and yield losses. Cultivar V-2707 was the least infested with the aphid (6.3 aphids/tiller) giving maximum grain yield (4638 kg/ha), with cultivar V-2047 the second best with 6.43 aphids/ tiller infestation and grain yield of 4206 kg/ha. Commercial cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Punjab-96) were heavily infested with 14.4 and 12.6 aphids/tiller, respectively, and yielded 2245 and 2490 kg/ha harvest, respectively. Aphid population increased up to the fourth week of March and then declined. Aphid infestation resulted in 3.96 to 7.36% yield loss. The cultivar V-2707 was later released for general cultivation, under the name of Punjab-1. (author)

  3. Parental Drought and Defoliation Effect on Yield, Grains Biochemical Aspects and Drought Performance of Sorghum Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, A. H.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113. Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive stage of Giza 15 and Hybrid 113 cultivars caused a two fold increase in length of lateral branch and panicles number. However, grain yield and total panicles weight were significantly reduced in all cultivars due to this stress. Application of drought with defoliation in the vegetative stage reduced shoot and straw weights, and grain yield in sorghum in comparison with drought stress only. Protein-N and polysaccharides content were decreased in parent grains in response to water stress.The stress intensity index (SII of progeny from drought- subjected parents was about 30-fold greater than SII of progeny from control parents. Further, SII of progeny from parents exposed to drought stress in the reproductive stage was higher than the SII of progeny from parents subjected to drought stress in the vegetative stage . A strong negative correlation appeared between the stress intensity index of the progeny and polysaccharides content of parent grains. Based on our research parental defoliation did not improve the drought resistance of sorghum progeny.

  4. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to plant breeders in making decisions regarding the development and evaluation of new cultivars. (author)

  5. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize......) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping, but the...

  6. Genetic analysis of seed morphological traits and its correlations with Grain yield in common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Dalla Corte; Vania Moda-Cirino; Carlos Alberto Arrabal Arias; Jos Francisco Ferraz de Toledo; Deonisio Destro

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the genetic control of seed morphological traits and its correlations with grain yield in common bean. Three crossings among bean cultivars with different growth habit and seed characteristics were analyzed. F1 progenies gave origin to F2, RC1P1F1 and RC1P2F1 generations. Random samples of seeds from F2 generations and parents, F1 and backcrossings were sown during the season 2003/2004. Plant grain yield and seed morphological traits were determined by a sample of 150 p...

  7. Effect of incorporation of 32P labelled green manure (Sesbania aculeata) on the yield ans P uptake by maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of applied inorganic P and 32P labelled Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) as green manure on the yield and P utilization by maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of two long term experiments was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Significant increase in the drymatter yield and total P uptake was obtained with increasing level of applied sesbania and P fertilizer. The relationship between total P uptake and total P added as organic plus inorganic fertilizer was significant. The Sesbania application significantly increased per cent P derived from added plant material by the maize crop. It also enhanced P uptake and its utilization from fertilizer source. The addition of Sesbania in the absence and presence of inorganic P fertilizer improved P use efficiency. The direct beneficial effect of added organic P was significant only in its application on soils with lower level of residual P. The utilization of P by maize after addition of sesbania varied from 5 to 9 per cent. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin Wang; Fa Cui; Jinping Wang; Li Jun; Anming Ding; Chunhua Zhao; Xingfeng Li; Deshun Feng; Jurong Gao; Honggang Wang

    2012-12-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  9. Canopy warming caused photosynthetic acclimation and reduced seed yield in maize grown at ambient and elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Drag, David W; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-11-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and attendant increases in growing season temperature are expected to be the most important global change factors impacting production agriculture. Although maize is the most highly produced crop worldwide, few studies have evaluated the interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and temperature on its photosynthetic physiology, agronomic traits or biomass, and seed yield under open field conditions. This study investigates the effects of rising [CO2 ] and warmer temperature, independently and in combination, on maize grown in the field throughout a full growing season. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was used to target atmospheric [CO2 ] to 200 μmol mol(-1) above ambient [CO2 ] and infrared heaters to target a plant canopy increase of 3.5 °C, with actual season mean heating of ~2.7 °C, mimicking conditions predicted by the second half of this century. Photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, leaf water potential components, and developmental measurements were collected throughout the season, and biomass and yield were measured at the end of the growing season. As predicted for a C4 plant, elevated [CO2 ] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Canopy warming caused a large shift in aboveground allocation by stimulating season-long vegetative biomass and decreasing reproductive biomass accumulation at both CO2 concentrations, resulting in decreased harvest index. Warming caused a reduction in photosynthesis due to down-regulation of photosynthetic biochemical parameters and the decrease in the electron transport rate. The reduction in seed yield with warming was driven by reduced photosynthetic capacity and by a shift in aboveground carbon allocation away from reproduction. This field study portends that future warming will reduce yield in maize, and this will not be mitigated by higher atmospheric [CO2 ] unless appropriate adaptation traits can be introduced into future cultivars. PMID:26119211

  10. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ► We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ► The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ► Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ► Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical composition. ► Silage quality parameters may be used as criteria for indirect selection of MFY.

  11. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing strategies to collect and use cellulo sic biomass for bio energy production is important because those materials are not used as human food sources. This study compared corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies on a 50 ha Clarion- Nicol let-Webster soil Association site near Emmetsburg, Iowa, USA. Surface soil samples (0 to 15 cm) were analyzed after each harvest to monitor soil organic carbon (Soc), ph, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) changes. Grain yields in 2008, before the stover harvest treatments were imposed, averaged 11.4 Mg ha-1. In 2009, 2010, and 2011 grain yields averaged 10.1, 9.7, and 9.5 Mg ha-1, respectively. Although grain yields after stover harvest strategies imposed were lower than in 2008, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Four-year average stover collection rates ranged 1.0 to 5.2 Mg ha-1 which was 12 to 60% of the above-ground biomass. Soc showed a slight decrease during the study, but the change was not related to any specific stover harvest treatment. Instead, we attribute the Soc decline to the tillage intensity and lower than expected crop yields. Overall, these results are consistent with other Midwestern USA studies that indicate corn stover should not be harvested if average grain yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1

  12. Strategy of specification of management areas: rice grain yield as related to soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flvio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known nowadays that soil variability can influence crop yields. Therefore, to determine specific areas of soil management, we studied the Pearson and spatial correlations of rice grain yield with organic matter content and pH of an Oxisol (Typic Acrustox under no- tillage, in the 2009/10 growing season, in Selvria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the Brazilian Cerrado (longitude 5124' 21'' W, latitude 2020' 56'' S. The upland rice cultivar IAC 202 was used as test plant. A geostatistical grid was installed for soil and plant data collection, with 120 sampling points in an area of 3.0 ha with a homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. The properties rice grain yield and organic matter content, pH and potential acidity and aluminum content were analyzed in the 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers. Spatially, two specific areas of agricultural land management were discriminated, differing in the value of organic matter and rice grain yield, respectively with fertilization at variable rates in the second zone, a substantial increase in agricultural productivity can be obtained. The organic matter content was confirmed as a good indicator of soil quality, when spatially correlated with rice grain yield.

  13. A model of a successful utilization of a high genetic potential of maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Milovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a system, defined as a ZP system, implying corresponding relationship among research, seed production and seed marketing, is that each segment within the system has its tasks and responsibilities, as well as, a clear interest. This system was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, almost half a century ago. The crucial characteristic is that this system encompasses obtained results of scientific accomplishments (patent - a released hybrid, optimal utilisation of the environmental conditions, facilities for seed drying, processing and packing, staff and transport capacities. The ZP system provides the economic interest of all participants in studies and the maize seed production. The fundamental base of the quality seed production within the ZP system is a multidisciplinary programme on maize breeding, as well as, 535 released hybrids with standard and specific traits. According to regulations in foreign countries, approximately 100 ZP maize hybrids have been released abroad. Agroecological conditions in Serbia are favorable for the development of the best genotypes and the production of basic and certified maize seed. There 10 processing plants that apply recent technologies in the maize seed processing procedure. Several generations of experts have been trained and gained experience within the maize seed production. Three seed testing laboratories have been accredited by the International Seed Testing Association. According to regulations in Serbia, monitoring of seed production under field conditions, and further on, during the processing practice is done only by designate authorities. This study presents one of successful systems of the seed production organization applicable in countries with similar conditions.

  14. Use of a crop climate modeling system to evaluate climate change adaptation practices: maize yield in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N. J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.; Thornton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is dominated by small-scale farmers and is heavily depend on growing season precipitation. Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic- induced warming including the Indian Ocean sea surface significantly influences precipitation in East Africa. East Africa is a useful region to assess impacts of future climate because of its large rainfall gradient, large percentage of its area being sub-humid or semi-arid, complex climatology and topography, varied soils, and because the population is particularly vulnerable to shifts in climate. Agronomic adaptation practices most commonly being considered include include a shift to short season, drought resistant maize varieties, better management practices especially fertilizer use, and irrigation. The effectiveness of these practices with climate change had not previously been tested. We used the WorldClim data set to represent current climate and compared the current and future climate scenarios of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs) including a wetter (CCSM) and drier (HadCM3) GCM downscaled to 6 km resolution. The climate data was then used in the process-based CERES maize crop model to simulate the current period (representing 1960- 1990) and change in future maize production (from 2000 to 2050s). The effectiveness of agronomic practices, including short duration maize variety, fertilizer use and irrigation, to reduce projected future yield losses due to climate change were simulated. The GCMs project an increase in maximum temperature during growing season ranging from 1.5 to 3°C. Changes in precipitation were dependent on the GCM, with high variability across different topographies land cover types and elevations. Projected warmer temperatures in the future scenarios accelerated plant development and led to a reduction in growing season length and yields even where moisture was sufficient Maize yield changes in 2050 relative to the historical period were highly varied, in excess of +/- 500 kg/ha in many areas. The simulated yield changes in the future were both spatially explicit and dependent on the GCM used. The effectiveness of agronomic practices was highly varied across the region depending on soil type, agro-ecological zone and projected climate change. The results have critical implications for agronomic research and policy. The study challenges using a ';one size fits all' approach in the identification of potential adaptation strategies. The goal is to use models to target local, optimized solutions as part of the broader need for impact assessments at coarser scales.

  15. Maize Production and Marketing in Trans Nzoia District Under a Liberalised Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers have for along time been known to reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no systematic study had been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate loss of stem borers in maize production in most transitional maize zone in western Kenya, a major maize-production zone, an experiment was superimposed on six farmers' field each in the six sites in western Kenya. One plot was treated with bulldock, an insecticide and the other was the control. Direct measurement and comparison of the grain yields in the plots indicated that in all sites, the control plots had 10-15% yield increase over the non-treated plots. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 8000.00 or about 10 bags per hectare, an equivalent of annul maize grain requirements for five adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers

  16. INTEGRATION OF CROP-LIVESTOCK-BIOGAS AND THE EFFECT OF DRIED SLUDGE MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE ON ULTISOL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyo Soelaeman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Tamanbogo Experimental Farm consists of 3 activities, namely 1. To evaluate the kind and amount of feed consumed by 20 heads of cattle and the amount of manure produced, 2. To evaluate the amount of biogas, sludge and slurry produced by digester, and 3. To study the application of manure, dried sludge manure, and NPK fertilization on the growth and yield of hybrid maize of Pioneer 27 (P27. The research results showed that the total weight of feed consumed in the rainy season and in the dry season has already achieved to the recommendation of 10% of the body weight of cattle. The average production of manure and urine were 11.25 kg head-1 day-1 with the biogas production of 3 m3 day-1 was sufficient for cooking and lighting for 5 members of family daily. The by-product of biogas production was 8 kg day-1 of sludge and 127 L day-1 of slurry. The grain yield of P27 with application of dried sludge accompanied with 50 % of NPK fertilizer recommendation dose gave the highest yield of P27 (4.45 t ha-1 with a profit Rp. 3,466,000 ha-1 and B/C of 1.5

  17. Qualidade de gros de milho armazenados em diferentes temperaturas / Quality of maize grains stored at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo T., Paraginski; Bruno A., Rockenbach; Rodrigo F. dos, Santos; Moacir C., Elias; Maurcio de, Oliveira.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura de armazenamento um dos principais fatores que interferem na qualidade de armazenamento e, considerando a pequena quantidade de trabalhos realizados com gros de milho, este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade de gros de milho armazenados nas temperaturas de 5, 15, 25 e 35 C, dura [...] nte 12 meses. Foram realizadas anlises de classificao dos gros, teor de gua, peso de mil gros, percentual de germinao, condutividade eltrica e teor de lipdios no incio, aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses de armazenamento; a anlise de perfil de cidos graxos foi realizada no incio e ao final dos 12 meses. Os gros foram classificados como Tipo 1 at os 6 meses de armazenamento porm aps este perodo ocorreu uma reduo drstica na qualidade sendo enquadrados como abaixo do padro na temperatura de 25 C. Os resultados de teor de gua, peso de mil gros, germinao, condutividade eltrica e perfil de cidos graxos indicaram que as maiores alteraes foram observadas nos gros armazenados nas temperaturas mais elevadas principalmente a 25 e 35 C indicando que o tempo de armazenamento seguro dos gros nessas condies menor quando comparado ao armazenamento em temperaturas mais baixas. Abstract in english The storage temperature is one of the main factors that affect the quality of storage, and considering the fact that limited studies have been conducted with maize, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of maize grains stored at 5, 15, 25 and 35 C for 12 months. Analysis for classification of gr [...] ain, moisture content, thousand grain weight, germination percentage, electrical conductivity and lipid content at the beginning, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage, and analysis of fatty acid profile were performed at the beginning and at the end of 12 months. The grains were classified as Type 1 until 6 months of storage, but after this period there was a drastic reduction in quality, being framed with below standard temperature of 25 C. The results of water content, thousand grain weight, germination, electrical conductivity, and fatty acid profile indicated that major changes were observed in grain storage at higher temperatures, especially at 25 and 35 C, indicating that the safe time for storage of grains under these conditions is less compared to storage at lower temperatures.

  18. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  19. Production, decomposition of residues and yield of maize and soybeans grown on cover crops / Produo, decomposio de resduos e rendimento de milho e soja cultivados sobre coberturas de solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos Luiz Rodrigues, Torres; Marcos Gervasio, Pereira; Dilson Jos, Rodrigues Junior; Arcngelo, Loss.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os resduos das plantas de cobertura e das culturas comerciais deixados sobre a superfcie do solo podem influenciar a decomposio, ciclagem de nutrientes e a produtividade das culturas subsequentes. Neste estudo objetivouse avaliar a produo de fitomassa seca (FS), taxa de decomposio dos [...] resduos e o rendimento de milho e soja, cultivados sobre diferentes coberturas de solo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados no esquema em faixas, com quatro coberturas: braquiria, crotalria, milheto e pousio no perodo outono/inverno, com milho e soja em sucesso na primavera/vero. Avaliou-se FS, a decomposio atravs das sacolas de decomposio e o rendimento de milho e soja. Milheto e crotalria foram s coberturas que apresentaram maior produo de fitomassa seca no perodo outono/inverno; a produo de fitomassa seca de milho e soja no foi influenciada pelas coberturas de solo avaliadas; a taxa de decomposio dos resduos vegetais de milho e soja lenta no perodo seco e acelerada no chuvoso; o rendimento do milho foi superior quando cultivado sobre crotalria e braquiria nos anos avaliados, enquanto que para soja no ocorreram diferenas sobre qualquer cobertura avaliada; Milho e soja apresentam rendimentos de gros superiores mdia regional quando cultivados sobre as diferentes coberturas do solo. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The residues of cover plants and crops left on the soil surface can influence decomposition, nutrient cycling and follow crop yield. The objective was to evaluate the production of dry biomass (BD), of residues decomposition rate and yield of maize and soybean grown on different soil covers [...] . The experimental design was a randomized block scheme banded, with four covers: Brachiaria, sun hemp, pearl millet and fallow period in autumn/winter, with maize and soybean crop in the spring/summer. We evaluated BD, decomposition through bags of decomposition and yield of maize and soybeans. Pearl millet and sunhemp were the covers which produced more of BD in the fall/winter period. the rate of decomposition of plant residues in maize and soybeans is slow in the dry period and accelerated in the rainy period; maize yield was higher when grown on sunhemp and brachiaria in the years evaluated, while for soybeans there were no differences on any measured coverage; maize and soybeans have grain yields higher than the regional average when grown on different soil covers.

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  1. Modeling Biomass Allocation and Grain Yield in Bread and Durum Wheat under Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry matter (DM) partitioning into stems, leaves, and seed of two wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) genotypes (A and D, respectively) in response to multiple abiotic stresses were quantified and their impact on kernel weight (KW, mg kernel**-1) and grain yield (GY, Mg ha**-1) was evaluated in a ...

  2. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  3. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  4. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg-1. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: → Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. → Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. → The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  5. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

  6. Impact of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth and yield of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar and Muhammad Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are supportive in the transformation of soil phosphorus (P and are thus an important component of the soil P cycle. These are effective in releasing P both from inorganic and organic pools of total soil P through their respective solubilizing and mineralizing abilities. To evaluate this, five promising strains of PGPR [PS-01 (Burkholderai sp., PS-12 (Bacillus sp., PS-32 (Pseudomonas sp., PS-41 (Flavobacterium sp. and PS-51 (Pseudomonas sp.] capable of solubilization of both organic and inorganic phosphorus as investigated under in vitro conditions were evaluated in a pot trial for their rhizosphere phosphatase activity and mineralization potential of organic P in soil, plant growth and yield at different farmyard manure (FYM levels i.e. 0, 8 and 16 Mg ha-1. These bacterial strains were also monitored for other attributes like chitinase activities and root colonization ability in addition to phosphatase activity, auxin production and ACC-deaminase activity. In response to inoculation with these selected rhizobacteria, significant increases in plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and grain yield were observed which were up to 16, 11, 42, 29 and 33%, respectively, over uninoculated control in the presence of FYM at 16 Mg ha-1. Similarly, there were significant increases in the rhizosphere phosphatase activity, mineralization of organic P and soil available P which were 189, 185 and 62% higher than uninoculated control in the presence of FYM, respectively. The study demonstrated that the use of PGPR having multifaceted beneficial traits would be highly effective for improving growth and yield of crops.

  7. Using Ancient Traits to Convert Soil Health into Crop Yield: Impact of Selection on Maize Root and Rhizosphere Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer E; Bowles, Timothy M; Gaudin, Amélie C M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of domestication and modern breeding on aboveground traits in maize (Zea mays) has been well-characterized, but the impact on root systems and the rhizosphere remain unclear. The transition from wild ecosystems to modern agriculture has focused on selecting traits that yielded the largest aboveground production with increasing levels of crop management and nutrient inputs. Root morphology, anatomy, and ecophysiological processes may have been affected by the substantial environmental and genetic shifts associated with this transition. As a result, root and rhizosphere traits that allow more efficient foraging and uptake in lower synthetic input environments might have been lost. The development of modern maize has led to a shift in microbiome community composition, but questions remain as to the dynamics and drivers of this change during maize evolution and its implications for resource acquisition and agroecosystem functioning under different management practices. Better understanding of how domestication and breeding affected root and rhizosphere microbial traits could inform breeding strategies, facilitate the sourcing of favorable alleles, and open new frontiers to improve resource use efficiency through greater integration of root development and ecophysiology with agroecosystem functioning. PMID:27066028

  8. Using Ancient Traits to Convert Soil Health into Crop Yield: Impact of Selection on Maize Root and Rhizosphere Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer E.; Bowles, Timothy M.; Gaudin, Amélie C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of domestication and modern breeding on aboveground traits in maize (Zea mays) has been well-characterized, but the impact on root systems and the rhizosphere remain unclear. The transition from wild ecosystems to modern agriculture has focused on selecting traits that yielded the largest aboveground production with increasing levels of crop management and nutrient inputs. Root morphology, anatomy, and ecophysiological processes may have been affected by the substantial environmental and genetic shifts associated with this transition. As a result, root and rhizosphere traits that allow more efficient foraging and uptake in lower synthetic input environments might have been lost. The development of modern maize has led to a shift in microbiome community composition, but questions remain as to the dynamics and drivers of this change during maize evolution and its implications for resource acquisition and agroecosystem functioning under different management practices. Better understanding of how domestication and breeding affected root and rhizosphere microbial traits could inform breeding strategies, facilitate the sourcing of favorable alleles, and open new frontiers to improve resource use efficiency through greater integration of root development and ecophysiology with agroecosystem functioning. PMID:27066028

  9. Best Management of Irrigation Fertilization to Sustain Environment and High yield of Maize in the Arid land in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameh Ali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Assiut is a county in the middle of Egypt,located 600 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. Water and fertilization management experimental trails were conducted to search for the best water consumption of Maize beside the best rate and type of nitrogen fertilization to reduce nitrate pollution and reduce fertilizer and save energy. Three irrigation regimes ( 25, 50, and 75% of soil moisture depletion of the available water, SMD) were used to irrigate Corn (Maize : Zea mays L. ) variety Tri hybrid cross. Three nitrogen fertilizer sources (Urea 46.5% N; Ammonium nitrate 33.5%N and slow release nitrogen 40%N) were applied at three rates of 90; 120 and 150 kg/ Feddan (4200m2 about one Acre). The results suggested that the best management is to use the slow release fertilizer at rate of 150 kg N/ Feddan (4200m2 ) with 50% SMD the highest Maize yield with good quality and reducing the environmental hazardous. Key words: Slow release fertilizer, Nitrogen leaching; Irrigation management. Environmental protection.

  10. Economic Analysis of Maize Stalk Borer Control in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem borers significantly reduce maize grain yields in Kenya. However, no farm level systematic study has been carried out to determine the economic loss due to the pest. In order to estimate the loss of stem borers in maize production, experiments were carried out with the objectives of: estimating the economic value of maize losses due to stem borers; estimating the functional relationship between maize yield losses and stem borer damage estimators; and also obtain farmer perceptions on maize stem borers. The trials were superimposed on farmers' fields with one plot measuring 100M2 treated with Bulldock pesticide and the other one not. The experiment covered all the 7 maize agro-climatic zones in Kenya. Direct measurement of the Grain yields in the plots indicated that the average percentage yield loss was between, 3.5% - 15.7% in all sites. The yield loss translates to an average loss of Ksh. 6 billion or about 6 million bugs/90 kg , an equivalent of annual maize grain requirements for 3 million adult persons. This therefore calls for concerted efforts to control stem borers in order to meet household and national food security and income generation

  11. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability. PMID:27173225

  12. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    . Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play a...

  13. Performance of Intercropping of Maize with Groundnut in Saline Area under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shalim Uddin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intercropping of groundnut with maize in saline area under rainfed condition was studied. The highest groundnut seed yield and maize grain yield were obtained from their respective sole crop. The highest groundnut equivalent yield of maize (2485 kg ha‾1 obtained from T4. The highest land equivalent ratio (1.37 and groundnut yield was reduced from 18.4 to 41.46% depending on treatment. Grain yield of maize reduced from 26.67 to 54.28% depending on treatment. The highest marginal rate of return (779.15% was obtained from T5= groundnut (30×15 cm2 + maize (200×25 cm2.

  14. EFFECT OF COMPOST FROM BY-PRODUCT OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY ON CROP YIELD AND MICROELEMENT CONTENT IN MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Radziemska; Zbigniew Mazur

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of compost from fish waste with mineral and manure fertilization on the yield and chemical composition of the overground parts of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment comprised two series: I – composts at a dose of 1 g of compost per pot, and II – composts with 0.5 g of urea. The treatments were conducted on the following types of composts: compost 1: fish waste (80% d.m.), sawdust (20% d.m.); compost 2: fish waste (80% d.m.), straw (20% d....

  15. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  16. The Influence of Forage Combination Maize Grain – Fodder Beet on Feeding Behaviour Duration for Intensively Farmed Coypu (Nutria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the behaviour of one species, with interest in animal husbandry science represent a compulsory necessityfor the development and improvement of the breeding and exploiting technology for this species. The studies oncoypus behaviour are applied in the development of knowledge regarding ethology, coypu breeding technology,animal welfare and, at the moment, this present great importance for animal protection. The biological materialstudied was consisted of adult coypus, belonging to the variety Golden Standard. The supervised indices were:feeding behaviour duration if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet according to gender and time slot, theduration of one feeding sequence according to forage consumed, gender and time slot and the number of feedingsequences according to forage consumed, gender and time slot. For realising the purposed aim, each coypu wasmonitorized (video, individually, 24 hours a day. The duration of feeding behaviour when coypus are fed with maizegrain and fodder beet was 4921.63±472.64 seconds for males (5.69% of the behaviour al manifestations, and forcoypu females, the duration of feeding behaviour was 5450.00±297.94 seconds (6.30% of the behaviour almanifestations. The most intense manifestations of the feeding behaviour occurred in the time slot 08:00-14:00, andthe lowest intensity of the feeding behaviour manifestations occurred in the time slot 02:00-08:00. The average totalnumber of males feeding sequences if coypus are fed with maize grain and fodder beet was 51.63 ± 5.54 sequencesand the average total number of females feeding sequences was 56.38 ± 2.48 sequences.

  17. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m−2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  18. Effects of Hydro-Priming Duration on Seedling Vigour and Grain Yield of Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (Talash, COS16 and Khomain were divided into four sub-samples, one of which was kept as control (non-primed, P1 and three other samples were soaked in distilled water at 20oC for 7 (P2, 14 (P3 and 21 (P4 hours and then dried back to initial moisture content. In the laboratory, the lowest mean germination time and the highest germination percentage and seedling dry weight were achieved with P2, which was not significantly different from P3. Mean time of seed germination for Khomain was significantly higher than that for Talash and COS16. In the field, 1000 grain weight of Khomain was significantly higher than that of other cultivars, but mean grains/plant, grains/m2, grain yield/plant and grain yield/m2 of COS16 and Talash were significantly higher than those of Khomain. Therefore, grains/plant was the most important yield component affecting grain yield of pinto bean cultivars. Hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours resulted in lower mean emergence time and higher seedling emergence percentage, grains/m2 and grain yield/m2, compared with P1 and P4. Grains/plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant were not significantly affected by hydro-priming. However, hydro-priming for 7 and 14 hours improved grain yield per unit area indirectly through enhancing seedling establishment and grains/m2. Extended priming duration negatively affected laboratory and field performance of pinto bean cultivars.

  19. Heterosis in crosses among white grain maize populations with high quality protein Heterose em cruzamentos entre populaes de milho de gros brancos com alta qualidade protica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrcio Costa Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate heterosis and its components in 16 white grain maize populations presenting high quality protein. These populations were divided according to grain type in order to establish different heterosis groups. The crosses were carried out according to a partial diallel cross design among flint and dent populations. Seven agronomic traits were evaluated in three environments while four leaf diseases and incidence of corn stunt were evaluated in one. Least square procedure was applied to the normal equation X'Xbeta = X'Y, to estimate the model effects and their respective sum of squares. Among the heterosis components, in diallel analysis, significance for average heterosis in grain yield, number of days to female flowering and to all evaluated diseases was detected. Specific heterosis was significant for days to female flowering and resistance to Puccinia polysora. Results concerned to grain yield trait indicate that populations with superior performance in dent group, no matter what flint population group is used in crosses, tend to generate superior intervarietal hybrids. In decreasing order of preference, the dent type populations CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 and ZQP/B 101 and the flint type CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 and ZQP/B 102 are recommended to form composites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a heterose e seus componentes em 16 populaes de milho de gros brancos, de alta qualidade protica. Estas populaes foram divididas de acordo com o tipo de gro, para estabelecer grupos heterticos diferentes. Os cruzamentos foram realizados entre populaes dentadas e duras, seguindo o esquema diallico parcial. Sete caracteres agronmicos foram avaliados em trs locais, e quatro doenas foliares e a incidncia de enfezamento, em um. O procedimento de quadrados mnimos foi aplicado equao normal X'Xbeta = X'Y, para estimar os efeitos do modelo e suas respectivas somas de quadrados. Entre os componentes de heterose, na anlise diallica, detectou-se significncia para heterose mdia em dias para o florescimento feminino e resistncia a Puccinia polysora. As populaes com performance superior no grupo dentado, independentemente da populao dura usada no cruzamento, tendem a gerar hbridos intervarietais de produtividade superior. Na formao de compostos, so recomendadas as populaes CMS 476, ZQP/B 103 e ZQP/B 101, do tipo dentado, e CMS 461, CMS 460, ZQP/B 104 e ZQP/B 102, do tipo duro, nesta ordem.

  20. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchao; Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Hao, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs) experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1), and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE) higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and light saturation points (LSP) were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd) was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China. PMID:24848097

  1. Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) originating from Central and South Europe were grown from June to September 1994 for 16 weeks in two greenhouses covered with different UVB-absorbing (280-320 nm) plastic foils. Using the ambient UVB radiation level of a southern location (Portugal, 38.7oN) in one of the greenhouses as an enhanced radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse, an increase of about 12% of UVB was simulated. Six of the eight cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 18.9% at all developmental stages under increased UVB. In contrast to this, the fresh and dry weight as well as the leaf area was reduced under UVB only at early developmental stages, but with ongoing development the UVB stressed plants caught up. The total content of absorbing compounds of the maize cultivars was completely unaffected by UVB. A flowering delay up to a maximum of 5 days was observed under higher UVB in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay in the cob development the yield decreased to 27.7% under higher UVB at the first harvest after 12 and 14 weeks, whereas at the second harvest after 14 and 16 weeks yield reduction levelled off. (Author)

  2. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p <0.......001), reconfirming the potential of overall grain yield increase when growing varieties in mixtures. The mixing effect varied between crop types, with largest and significant effects for winter wheat and spring barley. The meta-regression demonstrated that mixing effect increased significantly with (1) diversity in...... reported grain yields, (2) diversity in disease resistance, and (3) diversity in weed suppressiveness, all among component varieties. Relative mixing effect was also found to increase significantly with the effective number of component varieties. The effects of the latter two differed significantly...

  3. Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea maize yield in irrigated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of different rates of P fertilizer on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea mays (C.V.Lg 11) were studied by use of 15 N technique. The main objectives of this study were to study effect of different level of P on N-utilization and determine the interaction between P and N on zea mays yield, and the efficiency of N-fertilizer during different stages of plant growth. The field experiment was conducted for two years 1985 and 1986. The treatments were 0, 80, 160 Kg N, as urea Co(15 NH2)2 and 0, 40, 80, 160 Kg P2 O5 as triplsuperphophate. The experiment design was randomized block of four replicates for each treatment. Yield (grain and dry matter), utilization of urea, N-uptake, total N, N-yield, Ndff%, NDF% and A-values were determined. All results indicate that zea mays responds to the addition of nitrogen and the yield increases with the increase of added nitrogen. The highest yield was for N2 (160 Kg) level during two seasons. Also zea mays responds clearly to phosphorus especially at stages 1 and 2, where dry matter yield increases with the increase of phosphorus rate. The highest yield was for P3 (160 Kg) rate. While in grain stage the response was for rate P1 (40 Kg) and P2 (80 Kg) in comparison with control. However P1, rate was dominant over P2 and P3. The effect of P2 rate on grain yield was very little in comparison with P1, while P3 decreases the grain yield during two seasons in comparison with control. There is an effect of N and P when added both or separately. There is also effect for interaction between them on the yield (grain and dry matter). Generally, from the previous data we can conclude that the rate 160 Kg N/ha and 40 Kg P2 O5/ha were optimum rate for zea mays fertilization in Deir-Ezzor (Syria) and similar areas for grain yield. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Grain yield of corn at different population densities and intercropped with forages

    OpenAIRE

    José M. do Nascimento; Carlos E. A. Furlani; Carlos A. Chioderoli; Renata F. de Queiroz; Rafael S. Bertonha; Fabio A. Cavichioli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The no-tillage system optimizes agricultural areas, maintaining the supply of straw and promoting crop rotation and soil conservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sowing quality and grain yield of corn intercropped with three forage species of the Urochloa genus associated with two corn population densities. The experiment was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP), in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 x 3 facto...

  5. Various irrigation cycles effect on grain yield, proline and adaptive metabolits in some wheat genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Zare; Meysam Siasinejad; Sasan Ghasemi; Arash Azarpanah

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress globally affects the growth and production of plants. Wheat is an important crop whose research in this aspect is highly noticeable related to food quality. In recent study, the effects of two different irrigation cycles (weekly (control) and 15-day irrigation) on leaf proline, carbohydrate, N, P, K accumulation and grain yield of three wheat genotypes (Chamran, Dehdasht and Kohdasht) were evaluated at the field of Agriculture Research Station of Borazjan, Bushehr state, Iran, ...

  6. EFFECT OF STEM RUST INFECTION ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Asmmawy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is an important disease of wheat worldwide. To estimate grain yield losses due to stem rust, replicated experiments including twelve wheat cultivars i.e.  Gemmeiza 7, Gemmeiza 9, Gemmeiza 10, Gemmeiza 11, Sakha 61, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Sids 12, Sids 13, Giza 168, Misr 1 and Misr 2 were evaluated for adult plant resistance at Sakha Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. The field experiment was surrounded by spreader area of highly susceptible varieties i.e. Morroco and Max inoculated with a mixture of stem rust races as a source of inoculum. Disease severity was recorded each 10 days and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was estimated and ranged from 100 to 475 in 2011/12 and 100 to 750 in 2012/13. It was found that, yield losses ranged between 2.47 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 2 to 6.29 % in the wheat cultivar Sids 12 during 2011/12, while during 2012/13 ranged from 1.96 % in the wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 7 to      8.21 % in the wheat cultivar Misr 1. High correlation was found between yield losses with disease severity and AUDPC.

  7. STUDIES ON GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR GRAIN YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Lingaiah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The D2 statistics is useful tool to assess genetic diversity among genotypes. It also provides qualitative measures of association between geographical and genetic diversity based on generalized distances. In the present study data on forty nine genotypes were subjected to D2 analysis, which revealed the presence of substantial amount of genetic variability among them. The pattern of distribution of genotypes into various clusters was random, suggesting that geographical and genetic diversity were not related. The experimental material was partitioned into eight clusters. Flag leaf area per plant contributed maximum towards genetic diversity followed by days to 50 per cent tasseling.

  8. The Effect of Different Densities and Interferences Periods of Sorghum on Contribution of Stem Reserves to Corn Grain Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SHakiba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield component and determinate the contribution of stem reserves to corn yield under effect of different densities and interference periods of sorghum, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2002 on the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture Tabriz University. Experimental factors were sorghum interference at different periods (0,14,28,42 days after corn emergence and also during plant life corn with three densities (4,8,12 plants m-2. Characteristics of study were yield, yield component and the contribution of stem reserves to corn grain yield. The results showed that with increasing sorghum density and interference, corn yield components (except the number of grain rows were decreased, due to shading and competition between plants for using available resources. Maximum grain yield and grain number per ear was obtained at pure corn plantation. With increasing sorghum density and interference periods grain yield decreased, and maximum corn yield loss was 38%, which occurred at the highest sorghum density and interference. Dry matter remobilization and contribution of stem reserves were significantly influenced by sorghum densities and interferences in corn grain yield. The highest contribution of dry matter remobilization and stem reserves to corn yield was obtained at maximum density and complete interference of sorghum. The least contribution of reserves was shown in pure corn plantation. This might be related to shading and competition between plants for light and other resources.

  9. Grain yield of corn at different population densities and intercropped with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. do Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The no-tillage system optimizes agricultural areas, maintaining the supply of straw and promoting crop rotation and soil conservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sowing quality and grain yield of corn intercropped with three forage species of the Urochloa genus associated with two corn population densities. The experiment was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP, in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme with four replicates. The treatments consisted of two corn densities (55,000 and 75,000 plants ha-1 intercropped with three forages (Urochloa brizantha, Urochloa decumbens and Urochloa ruziziensis sown between rows of corn in the V4 stage. The following corn variables were analysed: mean number of days for emergence, longitudinal distribution, grain yield, initial population and final population. There were differences between corn populations (p < 0.1 and the intercropping of corn with the species U. brizantha and U. ruziziensis promoted the best results, which permitted concluding that the cultivation of corn at the population density of 75,000 plants ha-1 intercropped U. brizantha and U. ruziziensis promoted better sowing quality and, consequently, higher grain yields.

  10. Influence of Zinc Nutrition on Growth and Yield Behaviour of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Azeem Tariq; Shakeel A. Anjum; Mahmood A. Randhawa; Ehsan Ullah; Muhammad Naeem; Rafi Qamar; Umair Ashraf; Mubashar Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    ha-1 (Zn1), foliar application at vegetative stage (9 leaf stage) @ 1% ZnSO4 solution (Zn2) and foliar application at reproductive stage (anthesis) @ 1% ZnSO4 solution (Zn3) and one treatment was kept as a control, where zinc was not applied (Zn0). The experimental results showed substantial difference in all physiological and yield parameters except plant height and stem diameter. Statistically maximum grain yield (8.76 t·

  11. Efecto del fertirriego y labranza de conservacin en propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de maz / Effect of fertigation and conservation tillage on soil properties and maize yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel ngel, Martnez Gamio; Cesario, Jasso Chaverria; Esteban Salvador, Osuna Ceja; Luis, Reyes Muro; Jess, Huerta Daz; Benjamn, Figueroa Sandoval.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrcola primavera-verano de 2009-2011 se realizaron trabajos de investigacin en el Campo Experimental San Luis del INIFAP con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del fertirriego y labranza de conservacin en algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de maz. Se evaluaron tres ni [...] veles de nitrgeno: 200, 300 y 400 kg ha-1 y dos para potasio: 100 y 200 kg ha-1. La preparacin del suelo se realiz con el sistema de labranza de conservacin. Se utiliz el maz H-358. El diseo experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Durante el desarrollo del cultivo se realizaron muestreos de planta para determinar la concentracin de nutrientes en el tejido vegetal y generar las curvas de extraccin de NPK. Se realizaron muestreos de suelo para determinar el porcentaje de materia orgnica y la biomasa microbiana. Se determin la velocidad de infiltracin y resistencia mecnica del suelo. Al final de cada ciclo, se evalu el rendimiento de grano y sus componentes. Al aplicar la dosis tradicional de fertilizacin a travs del riego por goteo y dosificada por etapa fenolgica y con labranza de conservacin se increment 35% el rendimiento de maz en relacin con la fertilizacin al suelo, riego por gravedad y labranza tradicional. Se obtuvieron las curvas de extraccin de NPK, herramienta bsica para realizar una adecuada fertilizacin, acorde a las necesidades del cultivo por etapa fenolgica. Abstract in english During the spring-summer agricultural cycle of 2009-2011 research was conducted in the Experimental Station San Luis from INIFAP in order to evaluate the effect of fertigation and conservation tillage on soil properties and maize yield. Three levels of nitrogen were tested: 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 [...] and two for potassium: 100 to 200 kg ha-1. Land preparation was made with the system of conservation tillage. Corn H-358 was used. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. During the development of the crop plant samples were made to determine the concentration of nutrients in plant tissue and generate extraction curves of NPK. Soil samples were made to determine the percentage of organic matter and microbial biomass. The infiltration rate and soil strength was determined. At the end of each cycle, grain yield and its components were evaluated. When applying traditional doses of fertilization through drip irrigation and metered by phenological stage and with conservation tillage, maize yield increased 35% in relation to soil fertilization, irrigation by gravity and conventional tillage. Extraction curves NPK, were obtained; a basic tool for proper fertilization according to crop needs by phenological stage.

  12. Improving grain yield and nitrogen fixation of common bean grown in an acrisol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of selected management practices such as the use of phosphate rock (PR), partially acidulated phosphate rocks (PAPRs) and soil liming, on improving grain yields and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in an strongly acid Acrisol from Cuba. In Experiment 1 the agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR and FPA 50, a PAPR from Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 50% acidulation level were evaluated as P sources for the common bean genotypes, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa. In Experiment 2 the response of the CC 25-9N common bean genotype to the increasing application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1) of two P sources, i.e. triple super phosphate and C 40, was determined at two liming levels. C40 was a PAPR from the indigenous Trinidad de Guedes PR with H2SO4 at 40% acidulation level. In Experiment 3 the effect of soil liming on grain yield and BNF of BAT 58, BAT 304, BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390, Judia Roja Camagueyana (JRC) and Censa common bean genotypes was studied. The most effective P sources to increase grain yields of the studied bean genotypes were the water-soluble superphosphate in experiments 1 and 2. Both partially acidulated PR products, FPA 50 and C 40, showed intermediate agronomic effectiveness and they increased grain yields over the PR and control (without P) treatments. Soil liming increased grain yields and BNF of the common bean genotypes tested. Based on an economic analysis of profit and value/cost ratios, single superphosphate was the P source that gave the highest economic profit for all common bena genotypes while FPA 50 was efficient for DOR 390 and Censa. Lime application increased the economic profit of all bean genotypes. Genotype BAT 304 showed adaptability to soil acidity and gave the highest profit in limed soil. (author)

  13. White lupin leads to increased maize yield through a soil fertility-independent mechanism: a new candidate for fighting Striga hermonthica infestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Laure; Akello, Pollycarp; Milleret, Roxane; Khan, Zeyaur R.; Schulthess, Fritz; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Le Bayon, Renée-Claire

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N)-deficiency and lack of phosphorus (P) availability are major constraints to maize yields in Western Kenya. In a two-season field study in the lake Victoria basin, we tested the capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus (L.), cv. Ultra), as a nitrogen-fixing crop with a highly efficient P-acquisition capacity, to increase maize yields when used as a companion or cover crop, or as a source of organic matter. Each experiment was performed on three different fields (Vertisols) differing...

  14. The use of phenotypic correlations and factor analysis in determining characters for grain yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Cengiz; Ilhan Cagirgan, M

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of factor analysis in determining characters for yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate yield criteria in chickpea using phenotypic correlations and factor analysis. Factor 1 composed of biological yield, reaction to ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr.), plant height, grain yield and harvest index. Factor 2 consisted of branches and pods per plant. Factor 3 encompassed of only the grain weight. The total factors explained 92.9% of the total variance caused in the characters. The grain yield was positively and statistically significant correlated with biological yield, harvest index, plant height, branches and pods per plant, while it was negatively and statistically significant related with reaction to ascochyta blight and grain weight. Biological yield, harvest index, plant height and reaction to ascochyta blight instead of many selection criteria should previously be evaluated in selection to increase the grain yield in chickpea breeding programs. Pods per plant should be handed together with and branches per plant. Apart from the other selection criteria, the grain weight should solely be evaluated to select large grained genotypes. PMID:15198713

  15. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  16. Presowing stimulation of maize in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper information is given about the presowing stimulation of maize in Syria. For radiation treatment of the seeds 137 Cs source was used in 5-50 Gy dose range. to the experiments-between 1985 and 1988 significant increase in the grain yield was obtained with optimum dose. (author). 7 refs. 5 tabs

  17. Effects of Postponing N Application on Wheat Grain Yield, Protein Quality and Fertilizer-N use Efficiency in Low-Yield Field in Jianghan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 to 2010, the effects of postponing N application on wheat grain yield and process quality were studied in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain in wheat. The results were as follows. When the Topdressing fertilizer N (TN was postponed from tilling stage to jointing stage, the biomass and the SPAD value in flag leaf reduced, respectively. And grain yield, protein content in grain and stability time of paste, reduced as a result. When the topdressing fertilizer N was postponed from jointing stage to booting stage, the regularity of above index changed conversely. For the treatments with the same topdressing fertilizer date (jointing stage, the appropriate ratio of Basal dressing fertilizer (BNto topdressing fertilizer was 3:7, with high biomass, high SPAD value in flag leaf, high grain yield and high process quality as a result. The results also indicated that the right stage for more N in organ vegetative to be transferred to grain was jointing stage and the right ratio of BN to TN was 3:7, which was the very basis for high nitrogen fertilizer utilization. Based on the above results, it was suggested that to gain high grain yield and high process quality the appropriate date for topdressing fertilizer N in low-yield field in Jianghan Plain was jointing stage and the ratio of BN to TN was 3:7.

  18. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8x8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P=0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  19. Correlation studies of some qualitative and quantitative traits with grain yield in spring wheat across two environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 8 X 8 complete diallel population was studied to estimate correlation coefficients of seven quality and morphological traits in wheat. Sowing was done on 15 November and 15 December 2007-08. The differences among all the traits were statistically significant. Grain yield per plant under normal planting was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, peduncle length and 1000-grain weight. It was also positively correlated with spike length and gluten at genotypic level at P.0.01. Only grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with protein under both planting dates at genotypic level. Genotypic correlation of grain yield per plant in case of late planting was positive and non-significant with plant height, peduncle length and spike length, while it was negatively correlated with gluten. Phenotypic correlation of grain yield per plant with plant height, peduncle length, spike length, 1000-grain weight and gluten was positive and significant under both plantings while grain yield per plant was negatively and significantly associated with protein. It is therefore suggested that 1000-grain weight, peduncle length and gluten should be given more emphasis to improve yield and quality in wheat. (author)

  20. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.; Spliid, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, G. C.; Jørgensen, L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) can occur in cereals conjugated to glucose and probably also to other sugars. These conjugates, which are often referred to as "masked mycotoxins", will not be detected with routine analytical techniques. Furthermore, it is suspected that the parent......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n = 10). The samples were collected from the harvest years 2006–2010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37 % of...

  1. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3--D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, K. F.; Ghorbani, F.; Spliid, N. H.; Nielsen, G. C.; Jrgensen, L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) can occur in cereals conjugatedto glucose and probably also to other sugars. These conjugates, which are often referred to as masked mycotoxins, will not be detected with routine analytical techniques. Furthermore, it is suspected that the parent......), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n048) and artificially (n030) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... silage (n010). The samples were collected from the harves years 20062010, The results show that DON-3-glucoside and DON co-occurred in cereal grains and, especially in several of the highly contaminated samples, the concentration of the glucoside can be relatively high, corresponding to over 37 % of the...

  2. Changes in Grain Yield and Associated Physiological Traits in Iranian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars Released During 1940-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study changes in morphophysiological traits of wheat cultivars released from 1940 to 2000 in Iran and to determine the association of these traits with grain yield, an RCBD experiment was conducted with 15 wheat cultivars released during past 60 years in Arsanjan (Fars province in 2006 and 2007. Results indicated that grain yield increased significantly during these 60 years (r=0.912, P<0.01. HI and BY increased significantly with increasing grain yield. The changes in photosynthesis rate were not significant during this period, but transpiration rate and stomotal conductance in recent cultivars increased significantly. Chlorophyll index also increased in new cultivars. Among yield components, grain number per ear increased significantly, but increase in ear number was not significant. Plant height decreased significantly in new cultivars. The results showed that during wheat breeding in Iran, increasing HI, grain number per ear, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and decreasing plant height had the highest role in wheat yield increase. The role of BY and ear number per area were lower in grain yield increase. It seems that present HI values are near the highest possible value, but the opportunity for increasing grain yield by mean of HI is still possible.

  3. Severidade de ferrugem polissora em cultivares de milho e seu efeito na produtividade Severity of southern rust in maize cultivars and its effect on yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dudienas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem polissora, causada por Puccinia polysora Underw. é uma das doenças mais destrutivas da cultura do milho, ocorrendo em importantes áreas de produção desta cultura no Brasil. A principal forma de controle desta doença é o uso de cultivares resistentes, havendo no mercado um grande número de cultivares com diferentes graus de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de cultivares comerciais de milho quanto à resistência à ferrugem polissora, em diferentes localidades no Estado de São Paulo, correlacionando com a produtividade. Foram avaliados 50 híbridos simples e triplos (HST e 22 híbridos duplos e variedades de milho (HDV em uso pelos agricultores no ano agrícola 2005/2006 quanto à sua reação à ferrugem polissora em seis locais nas regiões oeste e centro-norte do Estado de São Paulo. Nos experimentos com HST, as cultivares mais resistentes e que tiveram as maiores produtividades foram: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 e Impacto. Dentre os HDV, destacaram-se como as mais resistentes e apresentando as maiores produtividades: 30S40 e AG 2040. A redução de produtividade em função da severidade da ferrugem polissora, avaliada no estádio de grãos pastosos, variou de 3,5% para cultivares com aproximadamente 2,5% de área foliar afetada a 20,3% para cultivares com, em média, 39% de área foliar afetada, em relação às cultivares com maior resistência à doença (1,4% de área foliar afetada.Southern rust, caused by Puccinia polysora Underw., has become one of the most destructive diseases affecting maize, occurring in important areas of production of this crop in Brazil. Using resistant cultivars is the most efficient means to control this disease, and there are a large number of cultivars with different resistance degrees in the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of commercial maize cultivars for resistance to southern rust in different localities of São Paulo State, correlated to yield. A total of 50 simple and triple hybrids (HST and 22 double hybrids and varieties of maize (HDV in use by farmers were evaluated in 2005/2006 for their reaction to southern rust in six locations in western and north-central regions of São Paulo State. In the experiments with HST, the most resistant cultivars with the highest yields were: 30F80, 30F90, 30K73, AG 7000, DAS 2B710, DKB 191, DKB 466 and Impacto. Among HDV, the most resistant ones presenting the highest yields were: 30S40 and AG 2040. Yield losses due to the severity of southern rust, assessed in the stage of pastry grain, ranged from 3.5%, for cultivars with approximately 2.5% of leaf area affected by the disease, to 20.3% for cultivars with 39% of the leaf area affected, compared to cultivars of higher resistance to the disease (1.4% affected leaf area.

  4. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  5. Does Exogenous Application of Kinetin and Spermine Mitigate the Effect of Seawater on Yield Attributes and Biochemical Aspects of Grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldesuquy, Heshmat S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of grain presoaking in kinetin ( 0.1 mM, spermine (0.3 mM and their interaction on yield components and biochemical aspects of yielded grains of wheat plants irrigated with 25% seawater . Seawater induced marked reduction in biochemical aspects of yielded grains especially carbohydrates content, nitrogenous constituents, total protein and nucleic acids contents as well as proline and organic acids (citric and keto-acids content. Conversely, seawater stress increased phosphorus and ions (Na+, K+ and Cl- content. Application of kinetin or spermine appeared to mitigate the effect of seawater stress on wheat yield and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with kinetin + spermine treatment.

  6. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lignin content leads to higher cell wall digestibility and, therefore, better forage quality and increased conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. However, reduced lignin content might lead to weaker stalks, lodging, and reduced biomass yield. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall lignification have been shown to influence both cell wall digestibility and yield traits. Results In this study, associations between monolignol biosynthetic genes and plant height (PHT, days to silking (DTS, dry matter content (DMC, and dry matter yield (DMY were identified by using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation explained by these polymorphisms or tight LD groups ranged from 6% to 25.8% in our line collection. Only 4CL1 and F5H were found to have polymorphisms associated with both yield and forage quality related characters. However, no pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, and PHT or DMY were discovered, even under less stringent statistical conditions. Conclusion Due to absence of pleiotropic polymorphisms affecting both forage yield and quality traits, identification of optimal monolignol biosynthetic gene haplotype(s combining beneficial quantitative trait polymorphism (QTP alleles for both quality and yield traits appears possible within monolignol biosynthetic genes. This is beneficial to maximize forage and bioethanol yield per unit land area.

  7. Prediction of Chinese per Capita Grain Yield Base on Residual Modification GM (1, 1 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To build effective grain yield prediction system and predict its trend scientifically, this study, on the basis of statistics, prognostics and agricultural economics, explains and functions grey system theory. As a new method, grey system still has many shortages. On the basis of comparison in correlative prediction, we propose GM (1, 1 grey prediction method by modifying ends to improve predictive precisions. Besides, combining with historic data during 2000-2009, predict, summary and propose the research future. Research indicates, whether theoretic basis or practice, grey model is more useful and convenient. It predicts the yield in future 5 years, the increasing speed will decrease. The increasing yield is 5-6 kilos per person, less than 8-10 kilos per person during 2003-2009. Surely, grain industry includes many son industries, such as rice, corn and wheat. The biggest son industry should be found to give different financial support, in order to eliminate errors. The innovation is to solve time responding function and incandesce equation of end residual sequence of GM (1, 1 model, to eliminate error. Besides, analyze practical examples to indicate its value in economic prediction and provide references for relative areas.

  8. A triple-scale dislocation-crystal plasticity simulation on yield point drop of annealed FCC ultrafine-grained metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annealed ultrafine-grained metals contain some grains with extremely low dislocation density, so that the critical resolved shear stress increases at the first stage of deformation due to the exhaustion of dislocation sources in a grain. In this paper, in order to express the increase of critical resolved shear stress, the conventional Bailey-Hirsh's relationship is extended on the basis of physical consideration for grain boundary that plays a role of dislocation source. A triple-scale dislocation-crystal plasticity FE simulation based on the above model, geometrically necessary crystal defects and the homogenization method is carried out for annealed FCC polycrystals with different initial grain size and initial dislocation density. Yield point drop and propagation of Lueders bands observed in macroscopic specimen with annealed FCC fine-grains are numerically reproduced. Moreover, macroscopic yielding of specimen and microscopic grain yielding are investigated in detail so as to clarify the initial yield behavior of annealed ultrafine-grained metals. It is also shown that plastic deformation is easy to be localized and the tensile ductility decreases as the grain size reduces. (author)

  9. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  10. Effects of the sowing density on the yield and the number of germinated seeds in seed maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovin Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The trials were carried out in the regular production of the seed maize ZP 680 at the agricultural estate "Nova Budu?nost" arkovac during 2001 and 2002. Sowing densities (71,400, 85,500, 99,900 plants ha"1 affected varying of yields (4.01, 4.38. 4.40 t ha"1. The 1000-seed weight decreased over increased densities (305.6, 2912, 282.5 g. Germination was even over densities (95.0, 94.9, 94.7 %. A greater number of germinated seeds per area unit (13,122,000, 15,022,000, 15,569,000 was obtained in greater densities. The percentile share of fractions in the weight was uniform over all sowing densities.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Milling Quality Characters of Two Line Rice Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mahalingam and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. India and the materials for thisstudy consisted of three TGMS lines viz., TS 29, TS 6 and GD 98013 and 11 testers viz., ADT 39, ADT 41, Pusa Basmathi 1,Basmathi 370, Improved White ponni, AD 98028, GEB 24, ADT 43, ADT 45, Taroari Basmathi and Jeeraga samba. Crossing wasdone according to clipping and churning method in L X T fashion. Based on the nature of combing ability inferred from line xtester analysis, three cross combinations viz, TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 were selectedfor generation mean analysis study. The scaling tests indicated the presence of epitasis for all the characters and there fore sixparameters model was followed to estimate the various gene action. The scales A and C are negatively significant in all thecrossed viz., TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for grains per panicle and hundred grainsweight. The scale B is negatively non significant for grains per panicle and hundred grains weight in all the three crosses. Thecrosses TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 showed positively significant A and C scales forgrain yield. The mean effect m was significantly positive and greater than all other effects in all the three crosses viz., TS 29 /ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for productive tillers, hundred grain weights, graim yield, hulling percent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. A significant additive x dominance (j effect was recorded in TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 crosses for grain yied and hulling per cent A significant additive x dominance (j was observed in TS29 / ADT 41 cross (panicle length and milling per cent. The (h and (l effects took opposite signs in all the three crossesindicating the involvement of duplicate dominant epistatic kinds of interaction for productive tillers, hundred grains weight, grainyield, hulling per cent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. In general , both additive and non-additive gene effects appear toall eight characters studied. Therefore, improvement of these traits appears to beset with difficulties as simple selection techniqueswill not be able to fix superior lines in the early segregating generations. Postponement of selection of superior lines to latergenerations in pedigree breeding will be effective.

  12. Rendimiento, heterosis y depresin endogmica de cruzas simples de maz / Yield, heterosis and inbreeding depression of single crosses of maize

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nrida, Escorcia-Gutirrez; Jos D, Molina-Galn; Fernando, Castillo-Gonzlez; Jos A, Meja-Contreras.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron en tres localidades las generaciones F1, F2 y F3 de las 45 cruzas simples posibles entre 10 lneas de maz (Zea mays L.) con nueve o ms autofecundaciones. Las lneas fueron derivadas en forma aleatoria del compuesto varietal 'Xolache' de la raza Chalqueo. Se estimaron los efectos de a [...] ptitud combinatoria general (ACG) de las lneas y los efectos de aptitud combinatoria especfica (ACE) de las cruzas y con estos estimadores se construy la estructura gentica de las cruzas (Xij= + g i+ g j+ s ij). Con base en la estructura gentica fue posible explicar el potencial de rendimiento, la heterosis y la depresin endogmica de cada cruza. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto, la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) fue alta en al menos una de sus lneas y la aptitud combinatoria especfica (ACE) de las cruzas tambin fue alta. En las cruzas con rendimiento bajo, al menos una de sus lneas tuvo ACG baja y los efectos de ACE fueron negativos con alto valor absoluto. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto y heterosis alta particip cuando menos una lnea de alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron positivos con valor absoluto alto. En las cruzas con rendimiento alto y heterosis baja particip cuando menos una lnea de alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron cercanos a cero. En las cruzas con depresin endogmica alta, los efectos de ACE fueron positivos con valor absoluto alto, mientras que en las de baja depresin endogmica, las dos lneas tuvieron alta ACG y los efectos de ACE fueron cercanos a cero. Por tanto, los programas de mejoramiento gentico de maz por hibridacin, debieran tener una base de lneas de alta ACG y alto rendimiento, en cuyas cruzas simples sera posible identificar las de mayor heterosis. Abstract in english Information was obtained from evaluating the F1, F2 and F3 of 45 single crosses among ten maize inbred lines with nine or more generations of selfing. Such inbred lines were randomly derived from the maize composite Xolache of the Chalqueo race. General and specific combining effects (GCA and SCA) [...] were estimated for lines and crosses, respectively and the genetic structure (Xij= + g i + g j + s ij) of each cross was constructed. Based on the genetic structure, it was possible to explain the potential yield, heterosis and inbreeding depression of each cross. High yielding crosses were those having at least one high general combining ability inbred line and high positive SCA effects. Reversely, low yielding crosses had at least a low GCA inbred line and high negative SCA effects. High yielding crosses with high heterosis had at least one high GCA inbred line and high positive SCA effects. On the other hand, high yielding crosses with low heterosis were those having at least one high GCA inbred line and low negative SCA effects. High yielding crosses with high inbreeding depression had at least a high GCA inbred line and high positive SCA effects. Reversely, high yielding crosses with low inbreeding depression had both inbred lines with high GCA and low positive or negative SCA effects. The most important inference derived from the genetic interpretation of the components of the genetic structure of single crosses is that any hybrid maize program should it have a base of high GCA inbred lines, and that by single crossing should be possible to identify those crosses presenting the highest heterosis.

  13. Effect of Different Row Spacings on the Grain Yield and Some Yield Characteristics of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Bornova Ecological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Geren, Hakan; KAVUT, Yaşar Tuncer; ALTINBAŞ, Metin

    2015-01-01

    his study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings (17.5 cm, 35 cm, 52.5 cm, 70 cm) on the grain yield and some other yield characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under T

  14. ARTICLE - Epistatic effects on grain yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Acevedo Barona; Jos Manoel Colombari Filho; Vanderlei da Silva Santos; Isaias Olvio Geraldi

    2012-01-01

    Studies addressing the estimation of genetic parameters in soybean have not emphasized the epistatic effects. The purpose of this study was to estimate the significance of these effects on soybean grain yield, based on the Modified Triple Test Cross design. Thirty-two inbred lines derived from a cross between two contrasting lines were used, which were crossed with two testers (L1 and L2). The experiments were carried out at two locations, in 10 x 10 triple lattice designs with 9 replications...

  15. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Sun, Yang; Zhang, He; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2016-01-01

    DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether) and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride) have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012), using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958) at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68%) from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69%) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) (by 8.57% and 6.55%) from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs). In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other treatments. Compared to control, the bending strength of 3rd internode was increased by 14.47% in PCH-treated plants in 2011, increased by 18.40% in 2012, and the difference was significant. Puncture strength of 1st, 3rd and 5th internode was increased by 37.25%, 29.17% and 26.09% in 2011 and 34.04%, 25% and 23.68% in 2012, compared to control. Leaf area and dry weight per plant reduced significantly in CCC-treated plants, increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants from 2011 to 2012. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence improved with CCC and DCPTA application. Due to the additive effect of DCPTA and CCC, PCH showed the significant effect on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence. Compared to control, total enzyme activity (SOD, POD, CAT, APX and GR) and soluble protein content increased, malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content reduced in PCH-treated plants. The transportation of soluble sugar from leaf to kernel improved significantly at the late silking stage. The research provided the way for the further use of DCPTA and CCC into the production practice. PMID:26872260

  16. Nitrogênio disponível ao milho: crescimento, absorção e rendimento de grãos Nitrogen available to maize: absorption, growth and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange França

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou quantificar o nitrogênio (N disponível ao milho e avaliar seu efeito sobre o índice de área foliar (IAF, a produção de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, o N absorvido pela parte aérea e o rendimento de grãos. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 52, 65, 74, 82, 99 e 160 dias após a emergência (DAE em um experimento de manejo de solo conduzido em plantio direto desde 1985, com os sistemas de culturas de aveia/milho (A/M, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi (A+E/M+C e ervilhaca/milho (E/M e duas doses de N (0 N e 180 N - kg ha-1 aplicadas no milho, na forma de uréia. Na safra 2000/01 foram aplicadas doses de 0, 60, 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. O N estimado disponível ao milho e calculado a partir da contribuição do solo, plantas de cobertura e do adubo nitrogenado, variou de 27 a 192 kg ha-1, sendo os menores valores associados aos tratamentos apenas com gramíneas (A/M e os maiores aos com N e presença de leguminosas no sistema (E/M e A+E/M+C. Todas as variáveis avaliadas apresentaram alta dependência do N disponível e tiveram seus valores maximizados próximos da maior disponibilidade de N (192 kg ha-1. Com esta disponibilidade foram observados, no estádio de polinização (65 DAE, o maior IAF (4,41 e a mais alta concentração de N na folha índice (2,49%, enquanto o maior acúmulo de N na parte aérea foi constatado no estádio de grão leitoso (74 DAE e o acúmulo de MSPA no estádio de grão dentado (99 DAE. O rendimento máximo de grãos atingido foi de 8.920 kg ha-1, correspondendo a uma exportação de N pelo grão, de 112 kg ha-1.This work aimed to quantify the available nitrogen (N to a maize crop and evaluate its effects on leaf area index (LAI, shoot dry matter (SDM production, N absorption by the above ground biomass, and grain yield. The evaluations were performed in a soil management experiment run since 1985, with three cropping systems (oat - Avena strigosa/maize, oat + vetch - Vicia sativa/maize and oat + vetch/maize + cowpea - Vigna unguiculata and two rates of nitrogen (0 and 180 kg ha-1 applied to maize. In the 2000/2001 cropping year, four nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The estimated available N to the maize calculated from the contribution from the soil, cover crops and N fertilizer varied from 27 to 192 kg ha-1. All evaluated variables presented high dependence on available N, and reached its maximum level near to the highest level of available N (192 kg ha-1. With this level of availability, at the stage of pollination, the largest values of LAI (4.41 and the highest leaf N concentration were observed, however, the highest N accumulation in the above ground biomass was observed at the milk grain stage and the shoot dry matter accumulation at the dent stage. The maximum grain yield obtained was 8,920 kg ha-1, corresponding to 112 kg ha-1 of exported N by the grain.

  17. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric...

  18. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2010-01-01

    radiation (S0, control). Compared with S0, the observed grain yield increased in the S1 and S2 treatments of YM 158 but not in S1 of YM 11. The yield loss of YM 11 was 2.3% and 6.7% in S2 and S3, respectively, and 5.9% in S3 of YM 158, which was much less than the corresponding reduction in radiation. Under...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a...

  19. Long-term effects of conventional and reduced tillage systems on soil condition and yield of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rátonyi, Tamás; Széles, Adrienn; Harsányi, Endre

    2015-04-01

    As a consequence of operations which neglect soil condition and consist of frequent soil disturbance, conventional tillage (primary tillage with autumn ploughing) results in the degradation and compaction of soil structure, as well as the reduction of organic matter. These unfavourable processes pose an increasing economic and environmental protection problem today. The unfavourable physical condition of soils on which conventional tillage was performed indicate the need for preserving methods and tools. The examinations were performed in the multifactorial long-term tillage experiment established at the Látókép experiment site of DE MÉK. The experiment site is located in the Hajdúság loess ridge (Hungary) and its soil is loess-based calcareous chernozem with deep humus layer. The physical soil type is mid-heavy adobe. The long-term experiment has a split-split plot design. The main plots are different tillage methods (autumn ploughing, spring shallow tillage) without replication. In this paper, the effect of conventional and reduced (shallow) tillage methods on soil conditions and maize yield was examined. A manual penetrometer was used to determine the physical condition and compactedness of the soil. The soil moisture content was determined with deep probe measurement (based on capacitive method). In addition to soil analyses, the yield per hectare of different plots was also observed. In reduced tillage, one compacted layer is shown in the soil resistance profile determined with a penetrometer, while there are two compacted layers in autumn ploughing. The highest resistance was measured in the case of primary tillage performed at the same depth for several years in the compacted (pan disk) layer developed under the developed layer in both treatments. The unfavourable impact of spring shallow primary tillage on physical soil conditions is shown by the fact that the compaction of the pan disk exceed the critical limit value of 3 MPa. Over the years, further deterioration of physical conditions were observed below the regularly cultivated layer. In shallow tillage, soil contained more moisture (at 40-50 cm deep and below) than in the ploughed treatment. There are multiple reasons for this phenomenon. This tillage method is moisture preserving as the depth of disturbance (15 cm) is lower than in ploughed treatments (25-30 cm). Soil surface is covered by stem residues after sowing, which may reduce the extent of evaporation. The soil surface CO2 emission was determined based on primary tillage depth, intensity and the period which passed since primary tillage. Spring shallow primary tillage resulted in higher CO2 emission than conventional tillage. The average maize yield was significantly higher in the autumn ploughing treatment (6,6-13,9 t/ha) in the first half (7 years) of the examined period (2000-2014). Higher average yields were observed in two years in the spring shallow tillage treatment and no significant yield difference was observed between tillage treatments in other examined years. Reduced (shallow) tillage increases the risk of near-surface soil compaction and the biological activity of the soil, while it reduces the moisture loss of the soil. Reducing tillage intensity does not necessarily reduce the average yield of the produced crop (maize).

  20. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH₄(+) and NO₃(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  1. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  2. The role of cattle manure in enhancing on-farm productivity, macro- and micro-nutrient uptake, and profitability of maize in the Guinea savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, A. C.; Diels, J.; Schulz, S.; Oyewole, B.D.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    An on-farm trial was conducted in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, over a period of five years, with the objectives of quantifying the effects on maize of applying cattle manure in combination with synthetic fertilizer with regard to soil characteristics, yield, plant nutrition and profitability. Maize grain yield was significantly increased by the annual application of cattle manure, compared to maize receiving an equal amount of N through synthetic fertilizer, but only from the third...

  3. Sistema de cultivo e doses de nitrognio na sanidade e no rendimento do milho / Cropping systens and nitrogen levels in the maize plant health and yield

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joo Amrico, Wordell Filho; Evandro, Spagnollo.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As podrides da base do colmo (PBC) e gros ardidos (GA) ocorrem em lavouras de milho, causando prejuzos aos produtores e contaminando os gros com micotoxinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os efeitos do monocultivo de milho, da rotao de culturas com feijoeiro e da adubao nitrogenada [...] na incidncia de PBC e GA, nos teores de fumonisinas, peso de mil sementes (PMS) e no rendimento de gros de milho. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repeties por tratamento. Na parcela principal, foram testados trs hbridos de milho: P30F36, AS 1575 e Maximus. Nas subparcelas, foi avaliada a resposta dos hbridos a cinco doses de nitrognio (N), equivalentes a 0; 75; 140; 215 e 290kg de N ha-1, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. No foram observadas diferenas significativas para os valores mdios de PBC, fumonisina e rendimento de gros nos dois sistemas de cultivo avaliados. Para os valores mdios de GA e PMS, ocorreram diferenas entre hbridos somente quando cultivados em rotao de cultura. A incidncia dos parmetros PBC e GA, quando em monocultura, foi superior aos encontrados quando cultivado em rotao de culturas. As variaes mdias do PMS e rendimento de gros foram superiores quando em rotao, comparativamente ao sistema de cultivo em monocultura. As diferentes doses de N explicaram apenas parcialmente as variaes observadas em todas as variveis analisadas. Abstract in english The stalk rot (SR) and grain rot (GR) occur in crops as corn, causing losses to farmers and contaminating the grain with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of corn monoculture, crop rotation with common bean, and nitrogen fertilization on the incidence of SR, GR, fumonisin [...] levels, weight of thousand seeds (WTS) and grain yield. The experiment was randomized blocks with split plot and four replicates per treatment. In the main plot were tested three maize hybrids: P30F36, AS 1575 and Maximus. In the sub-plots, each of the hybrids was evaluated in five levels of nitrogen (N), equivalent to 0; 75; 140; 215 and 290kg of N ha-1 in both cropping systems. There were no significant differences for mean values of SR, Fumonisin and grain yield in both cropping systems evaluated. For GR and WTS average values had differences between hybrids only when corn was grown in crop rotation with common bean. The annual growth rate of SR and GR parameters in corn monoculture ranged from 44.8 to 172.4 %, above the rate found on corn when grown in crop rotation. In turn, mean changes of WTS and grain yield was 1.2 to 17.6 % higher when in rotation compared to monoculture cropping system. The differences found in nitrogen rates partly explained the changes observed in all variables.

  4. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha-1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  5. ARTICLE - Epistatic effects on grain yield of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Acevedo Barona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the estimation of genetic parameters in soybean have not emphasized the epistatic effects. The purpose of this study was to estimate the significance of these effects on soybean grain yield, based on the Modified Triple Test Cross design. Thirty-two inbred lines derived from a cross between two contrasting lines were used, which were crossed with two testers (L1 and L2. The experiments were carried out at two locations, in 10 x 10 triple lattice designs with 9 replications, containing 32 lines (Pi , 64 crosses (32 Pi x L1 and 32 Pi x L2 and controls. The variation between ( L?1i + L?2i - P?i revealed the presence of epistasis, as well as an interaction of epistasis x environment. Since the predominant component of epistasis in autogamous species is additive x additive (i type, we suggest postponing the selection for grain yield to later generations of inbreeding in order to exploit the beneficial effects of additive x additive epistasis.

  6. Phosphorus fertilization in the sowing furrow and foliar as affecting the common beans grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element in plant metabolism, and limiting the production of beans. One option would be through foliar fertilization, favoring the reduction of phosphate fertilizers in the soil, causing economic and environmental gains. However, this practice is still carried out without scientific basis, making it difficult to obtain reliable results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the foliar P application increases the efficiency of utilization of P from soil by bean. The trial was conducted for three consecutive years in a representative soil of the Cerrado in the winter season with supplemental irrigation. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates in a factorial scheme 4 (rates of P applied in the soil x 4 (rates of P applied foliar. The Increased in the rates of P applied to soil and foliar provided increased in the number pods m-2, grain yield and P content in the common bean plant. The highest grain yield (3,446 kg ha-1 was obtained with the combination of 120 kg ha-1 of P2O5 in the soil with 1662 g of P2O5 ha-1 foliar. The crop response to the application of P in the soil was increased with foliar application.

  7. Various irrigation cycles effect on grain yield, proline and adaptive metabolits in some wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress globally affects the growth and production of plants. Wheat is an important crop whose research in this aspect is highly noticeable related to food quality. In recent study, the effects of two different irrigation cycles (weekly (control and 15-day irrigation on leaf proline, carbohydrate, N, P, K accumulation and grain yield of three wheat genotypes (Chamran, Dehdasht and Kohdasht were evaluated at the field of Agriculture Research Station of Borazjan, Bushehr state, Iran, during 2011-2012 growing season. Experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The results demonstrated that different irrigation cycles and wheat genotype effects were significant on leaf proline, carbohydrate, K leaf accumulation and grain yield. This finding suggested that Dehdasht genotype could be considered as more resistance genotype against drought condition than Kohdasht and Chamran genotypes. In arid condition which water is limited and dry land farming is necessary, Kohdasht could be selected as a tolerance genotype to water deficiency. Accumulation of proline and carbohydrates was also considered as osmotic adjustment in response to drought stress condition.

  8. [Effects of plastic mulch on soil moisture and temperature and limiting factors to yield increase for dryland spring maize in the North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Yao; Zhang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Jian-Ming; Fan, Feng-Cui; Shi, Yu-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Four treatments, including ridge tillage with plastic mulch (RP), ridge tillage without mulch (RB), flat tillage with plastic mulch (FP) and flat tillage without mulch (FB), were carried out to examine the tillage type and mulch on the effects of soil moisture and temperature, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of dry land spring maize in the North China. Results showed that the average soil temperature was increased by 1-3 C and the accumulated soil temperature was increased by 155.2-280.9 C from sowing to tasseling by plastic mulch, and the growing duration was extended by 5.9-10.7 d. The water conservation effect of plastic mulch was significant from sowing to the seedling establishment, with WUE being increased by 81.6%-136.4% under mulch as compared with that without mulch. From the seedling to jointing stage, which coincided with the dry period in the region, soil water utilization by the maize under mulch could reach the depth of 80-100 cm, and its WUE was about 17.0%-21.6% lower than the maize without mulch, since the latter was affected by dry stress. With the coming of rainy season around the trumpeting stage, soil water in each treatment was replenished and maintained at relative high level up to harvest. Yield of maize was increased by 9.5% under RP as compared with RB. However, yield was reduced by 5.0% under FP, due to the plastic film under flat tillage prevented the infiltration of rainfall and waterlogging occurred. No significant difference in yield was found between RB and FB. Higher yield of spring maize was limited because of the mismatching in water supply and demand characterized by soil water shortage before the rainy season and abundant soil water storage after the rainy season. PMID:25898617

  9. Effect of different levels of NPK (15:15:15) on the growth and yield of maize in rainforest agro-ecological zone

    OpenAIRE

    Obidiebube et al.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different levels of NPK (15:15:15) to the growth and yield of maize was carried out in rainforest agroecological zone. The data collected at weekly intervals were plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight, ear length and 100 seeds weight. The initial soil test value showed that the location fell within the pH range (pH 6.0 – 6.5) at which maize cultivation is suitable. There were significant differences among treatments for plant height, number of leaves and leaf a...

  10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Content, Hectoliter Weight and Yield Variations of Wheat Grain as Aff ected by Cropping Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Svečnjak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns over the potential environmental hazards of intensive agriculture have renewed an interest in the low-input nitrogen (N fertilization practices for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. A two-year study (2001 and 2002 was conducted to determine the infl uence of cropping intensity, namely the low-N (67 kg N ha-1 and high-N (194 kg N ha-1 input levels on the grain N and phosphorus (P content, phytate-P (phytic acid and its salts, hectoliter weight and grain yield of three bread wheat cultivars widely grown in Croatia. Growing conditions significantly affected grain yields averaging 6641 kg ha-1 in the fi rst growing season and 8295 kg ha-1 in the following year. Despite an associated increase in the 1000-grain weights, the use of the low-N fertilization brought about a significant decrease in grain yield, hectoliter weight and grain N content in all cultivars by an average of 18.1%, 1.5% and 22.6%, respectively, when compared to the high-N fertilization level. The reductions in grain N content were consistent in both years regardless of variations in grain yields among three tested cultivars. Grain N content under the low-N fertilization averaged 17.1 g kg-1 only, which may limit its use for breadmaking. In contrast, grain P content was not affected by N fertilization or growing season and averaged 4.70 g kg-1 across all treatments. Absolutely small, but significant differences existed among cultivars for total grain P content, of which about 80% was in the form of phytate-P. A negative correlation between the 1000-grain weight and P content was found because of tendency toward lower P content in heavier grains. When compared to the high-N input, the low-N fertilization practices for wheat crop were associated with a significant decrease in grain yield and grain N content in all cultivars, but had no effect on grain P content regardless of cultivar.

  11. Effect of Irrigation Amounts Applied With Drip Irrigation on Maize Evapotranspiration, Yield, Water Use Efficiency, and Net Return in A Suba?"Humid Cli

    OpenAIRE

    KUSCU, Hayrettin; KARASU, Abdullah; Oz, Mehmet; DEMIR, Ali Osman; TURGUT, ?lhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of irrigation amount applied with drip irrigation on field maize (Zea mays L.) evapotranspiration (ET), yield, water use efficiency, yield response factor (ky) and net return in a subhumid environment of Turkey. Irrigation management treatments were created as 125%, 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% replenishment of water depleted in the 90 cm root zone from 100% replenishment treatment in every seven days. Irrigation amounts ranged from 76 to 1...

  12. Herbicidal control of parthenium weed in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years experiments were conducted using randomized complete block (RCB) design, having eight treatments, replicated four times to find their impact on maize, parthenium and associated weeds. The treatments consisted of 6 herbicides, viz., Aatrax (atrazine) at the rate 1.0, Buctril super (bromoxynil+MCPA) 60 EC at the rate 0.80, Dual gold (s-metolachlor) 960 EC at the rate 1.92, Sencor extra (metribuzin) at the rate 2.0, Primextra gold 720 SC (atrazine+s-metolachlor), at the rate 1.50 Stomp (pendimethalin) 330 EC at the rate 1.50 kg. a.i. ha/sub -1/, hand weeding and a control. Data showed that weed density was significantly influenced by application of various herbicides in maize. Fresh weed biomass (g m/sup -2/) was reduced in plots where Primextra gold and Dual gold were sprayed followed by hand weeding. Weed mortality (%) was significantly influenced by application of different herbicides, whereas year effect remained similar for weed mortality. Higher weed mortality was observed in Primextra gold treated plots, followed by hand weeding and Dual gold which were statistically at par. Long stature maize plants were recorded in hand weeding and Primextra gold treated plots, whereas short stature plants were found in control plots. Number of grains ear-1 was significantly increased by application of herbicides and higher numbers of grains were recorded in Primextra gold and hand weeded plots. Thousand grain weight was significantly increased by herbicides and hand weeding. Application of herbicides significantly influenced biological and grain yields of maize. The effect of year was found non-significant for both grain and biological yields. Control plots resulted in lower grain and biological yield. Overall results indicated that application of Primextra gold as pre-emergence could provide good control of parthenium weed and associated weeds in maize. (author)

  13. Effects of Cd2+ on chlorophyll content in flag and grain yield of wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted with wheat cultivars Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 to investigate the effects of Cd2+ stress on chlorophyll contents in flag leaves, flag leave area, thousand kernel weight, kernel filling velocity and yield of wheat. Results indicated that, under low Cd2+ stress (10 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b of Luohan 6 reduced by 1.6%, however, its average area of flag leave and yield increased by 3.8% and 1.6%, respectively. At the same time, the average content of chlorophyll a + b, area of flag leave yield of Yumai 18 reduced 8.0%, 9.6% and 5.4%. Under high Cd2+ stress (100 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b, areas of flag leaves and yields of Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 reduced by 29.2% and 30.5%, 6.3% and 17.4%, 16.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that Cd2+ restrained synthesis and accumulation of chlorophyll and its components. This study even showed that within a range of Cd2+ concentration could promote the growth of flag leaves, and it also had an equal positive effect on yield of wheat if the Cd2+ concentration in grains were not out of limit. The growth of flag leave and yield of wheat would be limited when Cd2+ concentration exceed that range. Overall, Yumai 18 bore more poison from Cd2+ than Luohan 6. (authors)

  14. Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter for Two Growth Stages to Assess Grain Yield of Malaysian Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Proper yield management in rice influences grain quality and quantity. Nitrogen site-specific management is also effective on final product of crops because excessive nitrogen application at any growth stage can reduce yield and increase disease incidence. In contrast, suboptimal nitrogen levels at discrete growth stages may substantially reduce plant productivity. The nitrogen status at specific growth stages may be used for estimating supplemental nitrogen requirements and yield potential. The SPAD chlorophyll meter is a quick and non-destructive tool used for directly measuring leaf chlorophyll and indirectly assessing the proportional parameter of leaf, plant nitrogen status and finally, grain yield. Approach: Describing within-field variability in a typical Malaysian paddy field was conducted to show the temporal variability of SPAD readings and also grain yield. Furthermore, the study aimed to introduce the rice growth stage which SPAD readings show higher relationship with grain yield. SPAD readings data was collected at two different growth stages (55 DAT and 80 DAT using a Minolta SPAD 502. Grain yield was then collected at the end of the season to compare results with SPAD values. Results: Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of parameters and also their relationship. Conclusion: Variability maps of the aforementioned parameters were generated. Increasing of SPAD values with growth stage could be observed in this study. SPAD readings taken at 55 DAT had a better relationship to grain yield than those taken at 80 DAT; therefore assessment of grain yield status is better to be done at 55 DAT.

  15. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  16. The Effect of Tillage System and Rimsulfuron Application on Weed Flora, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM Root Colonization and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of tillage system and rimsulfuron application on weed flora and growth of maize (Zea mays L. Mitic F1 at a site with no history of pesticide use for the last 5 years. A randomized complete block design was employed with three replicates per treatment (conventional tillage without rimsulfuron application (control, no-tillage with rimsulfuron application (NT+Rim and conventional tillage with rimsulfuron application (CT+Rim. The lowest leaf area index, dry weight and yield of maize were recorded in NT+Rim plots. In addition, the highest soil bulk density was determined in NT+Rim plots. Moreover, the rimsulfuron application resulted in significant reduction in the root growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization. The lowest root biomass, root length density, root surface and AM root colonization was found in CT+Rim plots. The lowest weed number and biomass was also observed at CT+Rim plots. Sustainability yield index (SYI shown that the maize crop is more stable under conventional tillage compared with no-tillage. Our results indicated that root growth was reduced significant by rimsulfuron application but statistically significant lower maize yield was obtained in no-tillage system.

  17. Soil Texture and Cultivar Effects on Rice (Oryza sativa, L.) Grain Yield, Yield Components and Water Productivity in Three Water Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fugen; Soriano, Junel; Tabien, Rodante E.; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water regime/soil condition (continuous flooding, saturated, and aerobic), cultivar (‘Cocodrie’ and ‘Rondo’), and soil texture (clay and sandy loam) on rice grain yield, yield components and water productivity using a greenhouse trial. Rice grain yield was significantly affected by soil texture and the interaction between water regime and cultivar. Significantly higher yield was obtained in continuous flooding than in aerobic and saturated soil conditions but the latter treatments were comparable to each other. For Rondo, its grain yield has decreased with soil water regimes in the order of continuous flooding, saturated and aerobic treatments. The rice grain yield in clay soil was 46% higher than in sandy loam soil averaged across cultivar and water regime. Compared to aerobic condition, saturated and continuous flooding treatments had greater panicle numbers. In addition, panicle number in clay soil was 25% higher than in sandy loam soil. The spikelet number of Cocodrie was 29% greater than that of Rondo, indicating that rice cultivar had greater effect on spikelet number than soil type and water management. Water productivity was significantly affected by the interaction of water regime and cultivar. Compared to sandy loam soil, clay soil was 25% higher in water productivity. Our results indicated that cultivar selection and soil texture are important factors in deciding what water management option to practice. PMID:26978525

  18. Genetic gains for grain yield in two selection phases of a wheat breeding program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation and selection of experimental lines over several environments is critical component of wheat breeding programs before release of cultivars to growers. Fifteen-year (1989-90 to 2004-05) data from three consecutive trials (A, B and Micro plot) of the Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak (Nowshera) were analyzed as two independent selection phases to estimate selection differentials, genetic gains and realized heritability for grain yield. Wheat lines tested in A-trials ranged from 108 to 378 year/sup -1/ with selection intensity of 10 to 30% vs 72 to 198 year/sup -1/ in B-trials with selection intensity of 6 to 22%. Selection differentials and genetic gains were positive for each pair of years during the 15 year period. Averaged across 15-years, mean selection differential, genetic gain and realized heritability were 8.9 vs 5.3%, 6.0 vs 7.2%, and 0.63 vs 0.56 under Phase-I and Phase-II, respectively indicating more selection efficiency in Phase-I. The selected wheat lines out yielded the check cultivars throughout the 15 ear period in A-trials, while the checks surpassed the selected lines in 12 of the 15-years in B-trials. An upward trend in grain yield ha/sup -1/ was generally followed by a decline both under A and B-trials. The statistical procedure used is effective for estimating genetic improvement for important traits in multi-stage crop breeding programs. (author)

  19. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  20. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  1. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kenny; Pauk, János; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Sass, László

    2016-01-01

    We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI) and performance (PI) indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves is correlated with grain yield and green biomass, respectively. In addition, secondary trait associated mechanisms like delayed senescence and higher water-use efficiency also contribute to biomass stability. Our studies further prove that photosynthetic parameters could be used to characterize environmental stress responses.

  2. CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO2 (eCO2) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO2; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO2, whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO2. For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. - Highlights: • Grain yield and grain number were positively affected by 6–7% per 100 ppm CO2. • Yield stimulation by CO2 was influenced by plant nitrogen status. • Cd concentration was reduced by elevated CO2. • Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated by CO2, but less than grain yield. • A simple dilution model did not explain effects on Zn, Mn and protein. - Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated less by elevated CO2 than grain yield, while Cd yield and grain mass were unaffected, in wheat exposed in FACE and open-top chambers

  3. Effects of row spacing and N fertilizer on N2 fixation of groundnut, N transfer to intercropped maize and crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to examine effects of row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on N2 fixation, N transferred to the intercropped maize, (Zea mays, L.) and the yields of crops in cropping systems involving maize and groundnut (Arachis hypogea, L.). The cropping systems involved were: (1)L1, one groundnut row between maize double rows; (2) L2, two groundnut rows between maize double rows; (3) L3, one groundnut row between maize single rows; (4) L4, sole groundnut; and (5) M, sole maize. The rate of N fertilizer studied was 80 kg N/ha. Both with and without the N fertilizer, L1 produced not only the highest maize yield but also the highest total crops dry matter. Without the N fertilizer, groundnut in L1, L2, L3, and L4 gave percent N derived from fixation of 53, 63, 46 and 60, and of 22, 52, 31, and 175 kg/ha of N2 fixed by the legumes, respectively. With the N fertilizer, the corresponding figures were 41, 44 and 34 percent and 14, 25, and 20 kg/ha for L1, L2, and L3, respectively. Quantities of fixed N2 estimated by Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and by N-Balance Method (NB) highly correlated with those estimated by the 15N isotope dilution method. However, ARA generally gave higher figures that ID, especially in the cases of high N2 fixation whereas NB gave higher figures than ID in the cases of low fixation and lower figures in the cases of high fixation. There was no evidence to support transfer of fixed N from the legume to the intercropped maize in any of the systems. Without the N fertilizer, L2 gave smaller amount of N deficit due to cropping than L1 and L3. With the N fertilizer, the three systems were comparable. Both with and without the N fertilizer, the three systems were comparable in their quantities of N returned to the soil in stubbles. Taking these and crop yields into account, L1 is the most recommendable intercropping system. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Development and Application of Techniques in Breeding for Greater Grain Yield of Rice under Favourable Conditons in Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the correlation of carbon isotope discrimination (CID) with yield and yield components, to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling CID of irrigated rice, during 2005 to 2007 under field conditions. The 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Zhenshan97 and Minghui63 were employed for identification of QTLs. Six hybrid varieties (Chuanxiagyou727, IIyou838, Liangyoupei9, 99you029, Shanyou63 and Liangyou125) were used to investigate relationships between CID and grain yield and/or its yield components under six fertilizer N topdressing rates of 0, 90, 135, 180, 225 and 270 kg N ha-1. A significant transgressive segregation for CID was found in the RILs, and the frequency of CID was almost normally distributed. The CID at the heading stage was negatively correlated with heading date. Negative correlations of CID at 30 days after transplanting were observed with biomass and spikelets per panicle, while positive correlations were found with harvest index and number of panicles. Grain yield, grain filling percentage and 1000 grain weight were not correlated with CID at 30 days after transplanting. Similarly, CID at the heading stage showed poor negative correlations with grain yield, harvest index and 1000 grain weight, while significant negative correlations with biomass, spikelets and productive panicle number were found. A total of five and three QTLs for CID at the heading stage were identified in 2006 and 2007, respectively. They were located at chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10 and 12. The QTL located at R1440-C1023 on chromosome 7 and the QTL located at C909b-R496 were consistently detected in two years. The QTL for CID located at RG236-C86 on chromosome 1 was associated with the QTLs to control grain yield. CID varied among rice genotype and fertilizer N had a negative effect on CID in three field experiments. Although there was poor correlation of CID with grain yield for inbred germplasm and RILs, a significant negative correlation occurred between CID and grain yield for hybrid varieties. The CID values of high yielding hybrid rice are lower than those of lower yielding varieties, opening up the possibility of using CID for screening high yielding hybrid rice under favourable irrigated field conditions. (author)

  5. Yield analysis in gamma ray induced advance generation mutants of short grain aromatic non-Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield analysis was made in a population comprising 18 advance generation (M4) morphologically distinct induced mutants along with their two mother genotypes, derived from Gobindabhog, a popular short grain aromatic non-basmati rice variety of West Bengal. The estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight, harvest index, grain yield and flag leaf length; and low for days to flower, panicle length, plant height, panicle number, spikelet number, spikelet fertility (per cent), grain number, test weight. The estimates of heritability in broad sense were very high for days to flower, flag leaf angle, plant height, spikelet fertility per cent, test weight, flag leaf length and straw weight moderate for grain number, spikelet number, harvest index, grain yield and panicle length; and low for panicle number. The estimates of genetic advance as per cent of mean were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight and harvest index; and low for the remaining characters. The results of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance revealed flag leaf angle, grain number, straw weight and grain yield per plant would be useful traits for selection

  6. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen and Cutting Time on Grain and Forage Yield of Karoon Cultiver of Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Noor Mohammadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and cutting time of forage on grain and forage yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Karoon cultivar was studied during 1995-1996 at Ramin Agricultural Research and Educational Center, University of Shahid Chamran, Ahwas, by using a split plot design in randomized complete block with 4 replications. Main plots were assigned to five levels of N fertilizer (45, 90, 135, 180 and 225 kg N/ha as urea fertilizer and subplots to three cutting times (no cutting, cutting forage at early stem elongation without removing reproductive meristem and cutting forage in the middle of stem elongation with cut reproductive meristem. The effects of N rates and cutting time on grain yield were significant. Maximum yield was obtained with 281.6 g/m2 when crop plants received 90 kg N/ha and cutting time at early stem elongation and minimum yield was obtained (158.2 g/m2 with 45 kg N/ha and cutting forage in the middle of stem elongation. Interactive effect of levels of N and cutting time on spike number per m2, grain number in spike and grain weight were significant. Among yield components, spike number and grain weight showed the highest sensitivity to both. Different levels of N increased forage protein concentration and protein yield significantly, but delay in cutting time decreased protein concentration and increased protein yield. Results indicated that high levels of N could not compensate for the delay in cutting time of forage for grain yield. It was concluded that application of 90 kg N/ha and cutting time in early stem elongation was preferable for grain and forage production as compared to other treatments.

  7. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration and Irrigation on Photosynthetic Parameters and Yield of Maize in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Fanchao; Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Hao, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable re...

  8. Comparing the effects of climate and impact model uncertainty on climate impacts estimates for grain maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzkämper, Annelie; Honti, Mark; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2015-04-01

    Crop models are commonly applied to estimate impacts of projected climate change and to anticipate suitable adaptation measures. Thereby, uncertainties from global climate models, regional climate models, and impacts models cascade down to impact estimates. It is essential to quantify and understand uncertainties in impact assessments in order to provide informed guidance for decision making in adaptation planning. A question that has hardly been investigated in this context is how sensitive climate impact estimates are to the choice of the impact model approach. In a case study for Switzerland we compare results of three different crop modelling approaches to assess the relevance of impact model choice in relation to other uncertainty sources. The three approaches include an expert-based, a statistical and a process-based model. With each approach impact model parameter uncertainty and climate model uncertainty (originating from climate model chain and downscaling approach) are accounted for. ANOVA-based uncertainty partitioning is performed to quantify the relative importance of different uncertainty sources. Results suggest that uncertainty in estimated yield changes originating from the choice of the crop modelling approach can be greater than uncertainty from climate model chains. The uncertainty originating from crop model parameterization is small in comparison. While estimates of yield changes are highly uncertain, the directions of estimated changes in climatic limitations are largely consistent. This leads us to the conclusion that by focusing on estimated changes in climate limitations, more meaningful information can be provided to support decision making in adaptation planning - especially in cases where yield changes are highly uncertain.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM IN CONTINUOUS MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is considered to be one of the most important and potentially most severe pest of maize worldwide. The pest was detected in Croatia for the first time in 1995. Since then it has been spread over all areas with maize production in Croatia. The economically most efficient and preventive control measure is crop rotation and growing maize hybrids that show toleranceto WCR. The trials were settled in the area near Dubosevica where in 2002 and 2003 the economic damages caused by WCR were up to 80%. The aim of this investigation is to determine damages on maize root caused by WCR and loss in grain yield on commercial maize hybrids in continuous farming. Pheromone traps, type Csal♀m♂N®, were used in order to monitor WCR population dynamics. In the period of two months, 366 WCR adult beetles in total were captured. Root damage was evaluated according to Iowa Node Injury Scale and grain yield was measured and corrected to 14% moisture. Furthermore, the plant lodging, as a consequence of larval feeding, was assessed. The results have shown that root damage for hybrid Bc 5982 was1.15, and 0.73 damage was on Pr 35p 12 roots. The grain yield obtained from hybrid Bc 5982 was 11.7 t/ha, and Pr 35p 12 had 12.3 t/ha. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant differences in root damage and losses in grain yield between the two investigated hybrids. Results of this investigation indicate that growing maize for 2 to 3 years in continuous farming, in the same field, would not cause economically significant loss in maize gain yield.

  10. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and changes in climate variables could be identified. This will need further detailed studies at the field and regional scale.

  11. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and changes in climate variables could be identified. This will need further detailed studies at the field and regional scale. (paper)

  12. Influence of sowing date on the growth and grain yield performance of wheat varieties under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of high yielding varieties against varying sowing dates under rainfed conditions during winter 2008-9 at Adaptive Research Farm, Bhaun, Chakwal. Treatments were four sowing dates, viz. D1 (October 15), D2 (October 30) D3 (November 15), D4 (November 30),and five varieties, viz GA 2002, Chakwal 50, Farid 2006, Wafaq 2001 and Sehar 2006. Sowing dates, varieties and interaction of sowing dates and varieties remained significant on plant height, spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike and grain yield (kg ha-1). The results showed that wheat variety Chakwal 50 sown on October 30 produced maximum grain yield, followed by sehar 2006 sown on same date. Yields were reduced by 17.4% 17.2% and 26.2% from the crop planted on November 15 , November 30 and October 15, respectively, as compared with the crop planted on October 30. As far as varietal comparison is concerned, yields were reduced by 19.7%, 21.5%, 12.4% and 3.2%, by wheat varieties GA 2002, Farid 2006, Wafaq 2001 and Sehar 2006, respectively, as compared with wheat variety Chakwal 50. Interactive effect of sowing date and wheat varieties also remained significant on grain yield (kg ha-1). All planted varieties showed maximum grain yield when planted on October 30. Wheat variety Chakwal 50 sown on October 30 produced maximum grain yield (5684 kg ha-1)followed by Sehar 2006 sown on the same date (5183 kg ha-1). (author)

  13. Effect of Ascorbic Acid Foliar Application on Yield, Yield Component and several Morphological Traits of Grain Corn under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Seyed Ali Mohammad MODARRES SANAVY; Kamal Sadat ASILAN

    2010-01-01

    In order to study effect of ascorbic acid foliar application on morphological traits, yield and yield components of grain corn under conditions of water stress, an experiment was conducted in Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran in 2006 growing season. Experimental design was RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) and treatments were sat in split-split plot arrangement. Water deficit stress treatment with three levels (no stress, vegetative phase stress and reproductive phase stress) was...

  14. Evaluation of water deficiency at the post anthesis and source limitation during grain filling on grain yield, yield formation, some morphological and phonological traits and gas exchange bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abdoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to determine the effect of post-anthesis water deficiency at the early and late grain growth periods separately and also the roles of main ear (spike and leaves photosynthesis in yield production of wheat. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD in a factorial arrangement with three replications. It comprised of source limitations i.e., control, defoliation of all leaves except the flag leaf and shaded ear and two water stress treatments i.e., well water or control (Irrigation in all stages of plant growth normally, water stress (post-anthesis water deficiency with withholding of irrigation. The results showed that the averages of grain yield and thousand grain weight of different treatments in controlled condition were 0.92 g spike-1 and 22.6 g respectively, while under water deficiency stress these values significantly reduced to 0.55 g spike-1 and 15.2 g respectively. Grain yield had the highest decrease percent under drought stress condition that it was probably due to reduce thousand grains weight under drought stress. The photosynthesis of all leaves except the flag leaf made significant contributions to the growing grains about 19% and ear photosynthesis makes a significant contribution to thousand grain weight of bread wheat, 18.6% in the absence of stress, and 23.3% under water deficit. Water deficiency at the post-anthesis significantly reduced net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Net photosynthesis rate generally decreased with chlorophyll content and also this was paralleled by a lower stomatal conductance. Ear photosynthesis might represent a “buffer” to maintain grain yield under source limitations (e.g. defoliation, water stress conditions, and could have an important role even without stress, because an incipient ‘source’ limitation might be emerging in modern cultivars of bread wheat.

  15. Ammonia volatilization and yield components after application of polymer-coated urea to maize / Volatilizao de amnia e componentes da produo do milho com a aplicao de ureia revestida com polmeros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Zavaschi; Letcia de Abreu, Faria; Godofredo Cesar, Vitti; Carlos Antonio da Costa, Nascimento; Thiago Augusto de, Moura; Diego Wyllyam do, Vale; Fernanda Latanze, Mendes; Marcos Yassuo, Kamogawa.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma das maneiras de aumentar a eficincia dos fertilizantes nitrogenados, visando, por exemplo, reduo de perdas de amnia por volatilizao, o revestimento desses com polmeros. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicao de ureia revestida com polmeros no controle da volatilizao de amnia e [...] a sua influncia nos componentes da produo na cultura do milho. O experimento foi instalado na safra 2009/10 no municpio de Uberlndia, MG, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (LVA) distrfico textura argilosa. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicao, em cobertura no milho, de ureia revestida com polmeros e ureia convencional nas doses de 45; 67,5; e 90 kg ha-1 de N, mais um tratamento-controle (sem N), dispostos em blocos casualizados. A aplicao de N influenciou positivamente o teor do nutriente nas folhas e nos gros, a leitura SPAD e a produtividade de gros, porm a ureia revestida no alterou as taxas de volatilizao de amnia, a leitura SPAD e o teor de N nas folhas e gros, assim como a produtividade de gros em relao aplicao do fertilizante convencional. Abstract in english A form of increasing the efficiency of N fertilizer is by coating urea with polymers to reduce ammonia volatilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated urea on the control of ammonia volatilization, yield and nutritional characteristics of maize. The experiment was [...] carried out during one maize growing cycle in 2009/10 on a Geric Ferralsol, inUberlndia, MG, Brazil. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as topdressing on the soil surface in the following urea treatments: polymer-coated urea at rates of 45, 67.5 and 90 kg ha-1 N and one control treatment (no N), in randomized blocks with four replications. Nitrogen application had a favorable effect on N concentrations in leaves and grains, Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter readings and on grain yield, where as coated urea had no effect on the volatilization rates, SPAD readings and N leaf and grain concentration, nor on grain yield in comparison to conventional fertilization.

  16. Relationship between distribution and redistribution of the assimilates and grain yield in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and redistribution of the assimilates of two winter barley varieties with 2-rowear (A) and 6-row ear (B) type were studied by 14C-tracer technique. The results indicated that the contribution of assimilates to grain yield at tillering, elongation, heading and filling stage were 13.5%(A) and 13.4%(B), 15.7%(A) and 16.5%(B), 40.8%(A) and 43.7%(B) and 25.5%(A) and 28.9%(B), respectively. The yield was mainly determined by photosynthesis taking place in heading stage. 14C-assimilate distribution rate in organs was positively correlated with numbers and weight of organs. Distributed assimilate amount was determined by 14C-assimilate distribution rate and the net photosynthetic amount of barley plant. Photosynthetic efficiency in the 6-row ear barley variety was higher than that in the 2-row ear one. Barley root might become temporary sink during stem rapid growth. A little assimilate in root was transferred to main shoot before filling stage

  17. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on Development and Survival of Angoumois Grain Moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Stored Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Girma Demissie; Swaminathan Rajamani; O. Prakash Ameta

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different rearing temperatures (26oC, 30oC, 32oC and 35oC) and of different relative humidities (55, 65, 70 and 85 per cent) on the development and survival of Angoumois grain moths, Sitotroga cerealella (Olive.) were investigated on maize under laboratory conditions during the period from May 2013 to January 2014. Temperature was the main factor affecting egg incubation period, larval-pupal development time, and adult survivorship. The highest number of eggs was laid at 30oC (...

  18. RESPONSE OF MAIZE PLANTS TO SIMULATED MECHANICAL DAMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCIO KARAM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate either incision or maceration simulated damage in maize. A field experiment was established at Embrapa Maize and Sorghun farm, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The treatments aimed to simulate cut and crush of the aerial parts of maize plants at V2 and V4 stages. Damages were assessed on grain yield, accumulated dry biomass of aerial parts (leaves, stalks, tassels and stylesstigmas, height of ear insertion, plant height, ear biomass/total biomass accumulated ratio and harvest indexes. Biomass of maize stalk in V4 was significantly different from other treatments. Leaves, tassels and styles-stigmas also significantly differed in V4. Similarity was seen within treatments for height of ear insertion and plant height. The analysis of grain yield revealed dissimilarity between treatments with simulated damage and control. Ear biomass/total biomass ratio and harvest indexes were not different among treatments. Plants submitted to cut and maceration showed decreased accumulated aerial biomass, compared to non-damaged plants. Mechanical damages at V4 stage are more detrimental to corn yield. The damage caused by cut or crush in V2 and V4 stages of maize reduced the grain yield.

  19. Impact of Predicted Changes in Rainfall and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Maize and Wheat Yields in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, A.; Biazin, B.; Stroosnijder, L.; Bewket, W.; Keesstra, S.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on maize and wheat yields in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. We considered effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and changes in rainfall during the main (Kiremt) and the short (Belg) rain and cropping seasons. Crop yield simulations were made with the FAO AquaCrop model using baseline climate data and climate change scenarios projected by the ECHAM5 General Circulation Model under A2 (high) and B1 (low) emission scenarios. The MarkSimGCM daily weather generator was used to generate projected daily values of precipitation and temperature. The projected rainfall during Kiremt shows an increase by about 12-69% while projected Belg rainfall decreases by up to 68%. The mean onset of the Belg cropping season for maize is projected to be delayed by 2-9 weeks and the mean cessation is expected to be extended by more than a month in sub-humid/humid areas of the CRV. In most of the sub-humid/humid areas, the 90 day maize and wheat growing periods will not have dry spells lasting longer than 10 consecutive days. However, in the semiarid areas dry spells could last longer than 15 days. The mean simulated maize yield increased by up to 30% due to changes in the projected seasonal rainfall alone, and by up to 14% due to elevated CO2 alone. The combined effect of elevated CO2 and projected climate factors increased maize yields by up to 59% in sub-humid/humid areas, but resulted in a decrease of up to 46% in the semiarid areas. Wheat yield showed no significant response to the projected rainfall changes, but increased by up to 40% due to elevated CO2. Our results suggest that climate change will increase crop yields in the sub humid/humid regions of the CRV. However, in semi-arid areas the overall projected climate change will affect the yield negatively.

  20. EFFECTS DETASSELING METHODOLOGIES ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF HYBRID MAIZE SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE SILVA KOMATUDA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of research in mechanical detasseling, the present work was carried out to compare the manual and mechanical detasseling procedures. The detasseling influence on yield and seed quality was studied in AG 122 hybrid, produced by Monsanto do Brasil Ltda. This experiment was carried out in Cachoeirinha farm, at Caiapnia (GO, in the 2003/2004 growing season. The complete randomized-block experimental design was used, with six treatments and four replications. Treatments were comprised by six types of detasseling which were divided into four mechanical detasseling procedures (in the first three procedures, the machines tires were set to remove 50%, 75% and 90% of the tassels and the fourth had cutters applied to the second procedure (removal of 75% of the tassels with tires and two manual detasseling procedures (one with the removal of tassels only and the standard procedure, which consisted of removing tassels with four-to-five leaves. The mechanical detasseling caused more injuries to the upper leaves of the corn plant, leading to a 24.5% of seed yield reduction when the machine was regulated to remove 90% of the tassels with tires; the first manual procedure, i.e. the removal of tassel only, affected vigor of the flat seeds when compared to the standard procedure, but the procedures did not affect the germination and vigor of the round seeds.

  1. The Role of Indigenous Mycorrhiza in Combination with Cattle Manure in Improving Maize Yield (Zea Mays L) on Sandy Loam of Northern Lombok, Eastern of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Astiko; Ika Rochdjatun Sastrahidayat; Syamsuddin Djauhari; Anton Muhibuddin

    2013-01-01

    A glass house study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in improving maize yield grown on sandy loam of Northern Lombok. The package of organic fertilizers treatments were tested including: without inoculation of mycorrhiza, inoculation mycorrhiza and no added inorganic fertilizers, inoculation of mycorrhiza with cattle manure added, inoculation of mycorrhiza with rock phosphate added and inoculation mycorrhiza with inorganic fertilizers....

  2. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Sun, Yang; Zhang, He; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2016-01-01

    DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether) and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride) have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC a...

  3. Rice grain yield and quality responses to free-air CO2 enrichment combined with soil and water warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Rising air temperatures are projected to reduce rice yield and quality, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) can increase grain yield. For irrigated rice, ponded water is an important temperature environment, but few open-field evaluations are available on the combined effects of temperature and [CO2 ], which limits our ability to predict future rice production. We conducted free-air CO2 enrichment and soil and water warming experiments, for three growing seasons to determine the yield and quality response to elevated [CO2 ] (+200?molmol(-1) , E-[CO2 ]) and soil and water temperatures (+2C, E-T). E-[CO2 ] significantly increased biomass and grain yield by approximately 14% averaged over 3years, mainly because of increased panicle and spikelet density. E-T significantly increased biomass but had no significant effect on the grain yield. E-T decreased days from transplanting to heading by approximately 1%, but days to the maximum tiller number (MTN) stage were reduced by approximately 8%, which limited the panicle density and therefore sink capacity. On the other hand, E-[CO2 ] increased days to the MTN stage by approximately 4%, leading to a greater number of tillers. Grain appearance quality was decreased by both treatments, but E-[CO2 ] showed a much larger effect than did E-T. The significant decrease in undamaged grains (UDG) by E-[CO2 ] was mainly the result of an increased percentage of white-base grains (WBSG), which were negatively correlated with grain protein content. A significant decrease in grain protein content by E-[CO2 ] accounted in part for the increased WBSG. The dependence of WBSG on grain protein content, however, was different among years; the slope and intercept of the relationship were positively correlated with a heat dose above 26C. Year-to-year variation in the response of grain appearance quality demonstrated that E-[CO2 ] and rising air temperatures synergistically reduce grain appearance quality of rice. PMID:26463894

  4. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  5. Effect of {sup 15}n-labeled hairy vetch and nitrogen fertilization on maize nutrition and yield under no-tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Acosta, Jose Alan de [Drakkar Solos, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Silva, Leandro Souza da, E-mail: tamado@smail.ufsm.b, E-mail: leandro@smail.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Soil Dept.; Neergaard, Andreas de; Vinther, Mads, E-mail: adn@life.ku.d [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Silveira Nicoloso, Rodrigo da, E-mail: rodrigo.nicoloso@cnpsa.embrapa.b [Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This study evaluated the effect of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) as cover crop on maize nutrition and yield under no tillage using isotope techniques. For this purpose, three experiments were carried out: quantification of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in hairy vetch; estimation of the N release rate from hairy vetch residues on the soil surface; quantification of {sup 15}N recovery by maize from labeled hairy vetch under three rates of mineral N fertilization. This two year field experiment was conducted on a sandy Acrisol (FAO soil classification) or Argissolo Vermelho distrofico arenico (Brazilian Soil Classification), at a mean annual temperature of 18 deg C and mean annual rainfall of 1686 mm. The experiment was arranged in a double split-plot factorial design with three replications. Two levels of hairy vetch residue (50 and 100 % of the aboveground biomass production) were distributed on the surface of the main plots (5 x 12 m). Maize in the sub-plots (5 x 4 m) was fertilized with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha{sup -1} N), with urea as N source. The hairy vetch-derived N recovered by maize was evaluated in microplots (1.8 x 2.2 m). The BFN of hairy vetch was on average 72.4 %, which represents an annual input of 130 kg ha{sup -1} of atmospheric N. The N release from hairy vetch residues was fast, with a release of about 90 % of total N within the first four weeks after cover crop management and soil residue application. The recovery of hairy vetch {sup 15}N by maize was low, with an average of 12.3 % at harvest. Although hairy vetch was not directly the main source of maize N nutrition, the crop yield reached 8.2 Mg ha{sup -1}, without mineral fertilization. There was an apparent synergism between hairy vetch residue application and the mineral N fertilization rate of 60 kg ha{sup -1}, confirming the benefits of the combination of organic and inorganic N sources for maize under no tillage. (author)

  6. Modeling of Milling Yield Components and Their Relationship to Grain Quality QTLs in Long Grain japonica Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling yield, also called "head rice recovery", is defined as the percentage of head rice obtained from rough rice. Milling yield is a critically important trait to the commercialization of rice cultivars because it largely determines the economic value of the farmer's crop. To investigate the inh...

  7. Combining Ability Studies of Grain Yield Relating Characters in Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shahzad

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of 4 4 diallel crosses in wheat was analysed for combining ability of traits like number of tillers per plant, spike length, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. The mean squares for general (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significantly for number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. The reciprocal effects were also highly significant for all traits under study except spike length which was non-significant. The additive gene effect controlled the expression of number of tillers per plant and 1000-grain weight as is evidenced by greater components of variance for GCA. Non-additive gene effects controlled the expression of spike length and number of grains per spike as is apparent by greater components of variance for SCA. Variety Pitic 62 was considered to be good general combiner for spike length, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight.

  8. Components of genetic variance and degree of dominance for grain and fodder yields in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Shivani and Ch.Sreelakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis for grain and fodder yield in sorghum genotypes using six generation means indicated the major role of additive genetic effects (d for days to maturity and grain yield in both the crosses viz., EP 82 x CRS 1 and CSV 14R x SPV 1375. The cross EP 82 x CRS 1 indicated additive variance for plant height and grain yield while the cross CSV 14 R x SPV 1375 for days to maturity, plant height, panicle length, test weight and grain yield. Among the epistatic components of genetic variance, the fixable additive x additive component (i was significant for almost all the traits except, days to 50% flowering in the cross EP 82 x CRS 1 and fodder yield in the cross CSV 14 R x SPV 1375. The characters exhibiting significant and positive additive genetic effects invariably were accompanied by additive x additive (i interaction effects for plant height in the cross EP 82 x CRS1. However, the presence of positive and significant additive x additive interactions along with additive genetic effects for test weight in the cross EP 82 x CRS1 indicate the predominance of interaction component rather than their direct influence. Additive as well as additive x additive interaction effects with duplicate epistasis were observed in the cross EP 82 x CRS1 for plant height. Grain yield exhibited significant dominance variance in the cross CSV 14R x SPV 1375. Fodder yield exhibited significant dominance and dominance x dominance interactions in the cross CSV 14R x SPV 1375

  9. Maize yield and rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales in Southern Brazil Rendimento de milho e chuva em diferentes escalas espaço-temporais no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Bergamaschi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish relationships between maize yield and rainfall on different temporal and spatial scales, in order to provide a basis for crop monitoring and modelling. A 16-year series of maize yield and daily rainfall from 11 municipalities and micro-regions of Rio Grande do Sul State was used. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine associations between crop yield and rainfall for the entire crop cycle, from tasseling to 30 days after, and from 5 days before tasseling to 40 days after. Close relationships between maize yield and rainfall were found, particularly during the reproductive period (45-day period comprising the flowering and grain filling. Relationships were closer on a regional scale than at smaller scales. Implications of the crop-rainfall relationships for crop modelling are discussed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre rendimentos de milho e totais de chuva em diferentes escalas temporais e espaciais, com a finalidade de fornecer bases para modelagem e monitoramento de safras. Utilizou-se uma série de 16 anos de rendimento de milho e dados diários de chuva de 11 municípios e microrregiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Análises de correlação e regressão foram utilizadas para determinar associações entre rendimento e total de chuva no ciclo do milho, do pendoamento até 30 dias depois, e de 5 dias antes a 40 dias após o pendoamento. Altas relações foram encontradas entre rendimento de milho e chuvas do período reprodutivo, em particular dos 45 dias que englobam florescimento e enchimento de grãos. Essas relações foram mais elevadas em escala regional do que em nível de município. São discutidas implicações das relações clima-chuva para modelagem de cultivos.

  10. The impacts of future climate and carbon dioxide changes on the average and variability of US maize yields under two emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Daniel W.; Sheffield, Justin; Lobell, David B.

    2015-04-01

    The United States is the largest producer of maize in the world, a crop for which demand continues to rise rapidly. Past studies have projected that climate change will negatively impact mean maize yields in this region, while at the same time increasing yield variability. However, some have questioned the accuracy of these projections because they are often based on indirect measures of soil moisture, have failed to explicitly capture the potential interactions between temperature and soil moisture availability, and often omit the beneficial effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on transpiration efficiency. Here we use a new detailed dataset on field-level yields in Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois, along with fine-resolution daily weather data and moisture reconstructions, to evaluate the combined effects of moisture and heat on maize yields in the region. Projected climate change scenarios over this region from a suite of CMIP5 models are then used to assess future impacts and the differences between two contrasting emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). We show that (i) statistical models which explicitly account for interactions between heat and moisture, which have not been represented in previous empirical models, lead to significant model improvement and significantly higher projected yield variability under warming and drying trends than when accounting for each factor independently; (ii) inclusion of the benefits of elevated CO2 significantly reduces impacts, particularly for yield variability; and (iii) net damages from climate change and CO2 become larger for the higher emission scenario in the latter half of the 21st century, and significantly so by the end of century.

  11. Effect of Ascorbic Acid Foliar Application on Yield, Yield Component and several Morphological Traits of Grain Corn under Water Deficit Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria DOLATABADIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of ascorbic acid foliar application on morphological traits, yield and yield components of grain corn under conditions of water stress, an experiment was conducted in Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran in 2006 growing season. Experimental design was RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design and treatments were sat in split-split plot arrangement. Water deficit stress treatment with three levels (no stress, vegetative phase stress and reproductive phase stress was allocated to main plots. Ascorbic acid was used at two time (vegetative phase and reproductive phase and four concentration (0, 50, 100 and 150 mgl-1 as sub plots and sub-sub plots, respectively. The results demonstrated that water deficit stress and ascorbic acid foliar application had significant effect on upon traits. Water deficit stress significantly decreased dry or fresh weight of plants at two growing phases, but leaf area was just decreased due to water deficit stress at vegetative phase. Regarding yield and yield components, a significant decrease was observed when plants were water stressed. It�s notable that final yield was more affected when plants were stressed at reproductive phase than those were stressed at vegetative phase. Ascorbic acid foliar application increased stem and leaf dry weight and leaf fresh weight. In addition, an increase was observed in grain weight when plants were treated by 150 mgl-1 ascorbic acid at two growing phases and no stress and vegetative stress. The highest infertile grains were observed in reproductive stress and without ascorbic acid plots while ascorbic acid foliar application led to increase of grain fertility. In general, these results suggests that ascorbic acid foliar application decreases adverse effects of water deficit stress and improves growth and production at normal and stressed conditions.

  12. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

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    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles is illustrated on time series of all grain yields in Russia for the last 119 years. Phase portrait of this time series is illustrated in twodimension space. As a result, the phase portrait consists of 22 frequently unstable quasicycles which tottality forms a strange attractor. Quasicycles have quantitative (length and quality (configuration characteristics. Their combination defines very important characteristic called trend-stability. Phase analysis is a powerful form of analysis of time series to assess cyclic recurrence and is a tool for pre-forecasting analysis. Fuzzy sets' mathematical apparatus is also used in this article. An algorithm of formation of fuzzy sets' quasicycles' length is also presented here. Quasicycles' statistics are presented in tables, geometric patterns and in the form of fuzzy sets

  13. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina de Oliveira Borba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190 maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm.

  14. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety...... derived for each component variety in each trial. The relationship between intervarietal diversity of each characteristic and the mixing effect on grain yield was analysed. Additionally, various types of yield stability were estimated and compared among mixtures and component varieties. One mixture out...... than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety...

  15. Baby corn, green ear, and grain yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, de espigas verdes e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itala Paula de C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Most maize cultivars have been developed for grain production. Because superior cultivars may differ in their exploiting purposes, interest has been demonstrated for the evaluation of corn cultivars with regard to their baby corn, green ear, and grain yields production ability. In the present work ten corn cultivars (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 and DKB 747 were evaluated in the yield of baby corn, green ears and dry grains. Two experiments were carried out in the same season, in neighboring areas and managed in a similar way, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, in a randomized blocks design with five replicates. Baby corn yield (178,571 plants ha-1 was evaluated in one of the experiments. The other experiment (50,000 plants ha-1 was set to evaluate green ear and dry grain yield. Cultivars DKB 350 and AG 8080 were the most productive in number and weight of marketable unhusked, and husked baby corn ears. Cultivars DKB 435 and AG 8080 were the most productive in number and weight of marketable, unhusked, and husked ears. There were no differences between cultivars for grain yield.Desde que a maioria das cultivares de milho foi desenvolvida para produção de grãos, existe interesse em se avaliá-las quanto à produção de minimilho e espigas verder pois as cultivares superiores podem diferir, dependendo da finalidade de exploração da cultura. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as produções de minimilho, espigas verdes e de grãos de dez cultivares (AG 405, AG 1051, AG 2060, AG 6690, AG 7575, AG 8080, DKB 333 B, DKB 435, DKB 350 e DKB 747 de milho. Dois experimentos, conduzidos na mesma época, em áreas vizinhas e manejados de forma semelhante, foram realizados em Mossoró-RN, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. Em um deles (178.571 plantas ha-1 avaliou-se a produção de minimilho. No outro (50.000 plantas ha-1, avaliaram-se as produções de espigas verdes e de grãos. As cultivares DKB 350 e AG 8080 mostraram-se as mais produtivas em número e peso de espigas de minimilho comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. As cultivares DKB 435 e AG 8080 mostraram-se as mais produtivas quanto aos números e pesos de espigas verdes comercializáveis, empalhadas e despalhadas. Não houve diferença entre cultivares quanto ao rendimento de grãos.

  16. SalinityGrain Yield Response Functions of Barley Cultivars Assessed with a Drip-Injection Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Royo, Antonio; Arags Lafarga, Ramn; Playn Jubillar, Enrique; Ortiz, R.

    2000-01-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of convenient methods to accurately evaluate genotypes under field conditions. We report the evaluation of a drip-injection irrigation system (DIS) for assessing the salt tolerance of barley genotypes. Ten barley cultivars were randomized within each of nine salinities imposed by a DIS in an experiment with two replications. Grain yields were regressed against soil salinity (ECe) using a sigmoidal growth resp...

  17. EVALUATION OF GRAIN YIELD STABILITY, RELIABILITY AND CULTIVAR RECOMMENDATIONS IN SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) FROM KAZAKHSTAN AND SIBERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez HUGO FERNEY; ALEXEI, Morgounov; Abugalieva AIGUL

    2007-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to determine the stability and adaptability patterns of a set of 40 promising spring wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan and Siberia evaluated in a multievironment yield trial across 22 environments. Some of the most widely known parametric stability parameters were used as well as the less frequently cited reliability index (I). Grain yield correlated significantly and positively with the stability parameters b and S2 and the reliability index (I); but did not c...

  18. The effect of farm yard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer on yield of maize on small scale farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial to investigate the effect of methods and levels of farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer appliction was carried out at two sites in Njoro. Manure at 6 tons/ha, 3 tons/ha +63 kg DAP/ha were compared with 130 kg DAP/ha. Methods of application included placing manure in planting hole, furrows and broadcasting. The trial was laid down in a split plot arrangement in RCBD. Methods of manure application formed the main plots while levels of manure formed the sub plots. Methods of application of manure did not differ significantly in terms of grain yield. However yields from different levels of manure differed significantly from each other. There were also significant interaction between the manure levels and the method of application in one site showing that higher levels of manure are required if broadcast methods are used. In general however, 130 kg DAP/ha produced the higher yield than even the highest level of FYM. (author)

  19. The Balance of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers to Limiting Factors Nutrient, Soil Fertility and Maize (Zea mays L Yield on Paddy Soil of C-Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Minardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities for other purposes in the paddy soil will cause soil damage and reduce the values of soil productivity. The use of organic fertilizer is one of efforts to recover and rehabilitate the soil, because it is the key to improve its properties. The purposes of this research were to identify the characteristics of the soil (chemical as a component of soil fertility, nutrition limiting factors and knowing the balance of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the optimum cultivation of maize (Zea mays L to achieve maximum production. Research was conducted by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with single factor: consisting of six treatments, as follows consisted of control, treatment of inorganic fertilizer as recommended, organic fertilizer (manure, and the balance between organic and inorganic fertilizers. The results showed that the balance between organic and inorganic fertilizers can increase nutrition limiting factors (N and P and soil fertility in paddy soil of C-excavation. It has been proved by the increasing growth and yield of maize, such as plant height, fresh and dry weight of plant, weight and girth of cob. The highest yield of maize was shown in weight cobs per plant, i.e 190 g as shown in the treatment of the balance between organic and inorganic fertilizers (75: 25%. It is significantly different than the control treatment, however it showed no significant difference with other treatments.

  20. Influence of Micronutrients Foliar Application and Nitrogen Fertilization on Wheat Yield and Quality of Grain and Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Seadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted at Tag AL-Ezz, Agricultural Research Station Farm, Dakahlia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt (+7 m altitude, 31° 36' latitude and 30° 57' longitude, during 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 seasons to study the effect of foliar application with micronutrients (untreated (control, spraying with water, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at the rate of 500 ppm of each as well as the mixture of these 4 micronutrients at the rate of 500 ppm of each under nitrogen levels 50, 70 and 90 kg N fed-1, as well as, their interactions on yield and its components, grains quality and chemical composition of wheat cultivar Giza 168. Also, a laboratory experiment was conducted at Seed Technology Research Unit at Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, to determine germination percentage and seedling vigor tests (seed quality of the resultant seed from field experiment. Results indicated that foliar application of the micronutrients mixture at the rate of 500 ppm produced the highest values of grain yield and its components, chemical composition as well as quality parameters of both grains and seed with significant differences compared with other foliar application treatments in both seasons. The second best treatment was the application of Zn followed by Mn in both seasons. Cu and Fe treatments were similar in their effects and the difference between them were insignificant in most traits. The highest values of both straw and grain yields and yield components as well as quality parameters of grains and seed were resulted from increasing nitrogen levels up to 90 kg N fed-1 as compared with other levels (50 and 70 kg N fed-1 in both seasons. The results under the present conditions of Tag El-Ezz show that foliar application with mixture of micronutrients in addition to fertilizing with 90 kg N fed-1 can be maximize wheat straw and grain yields and gave the best quality parameter of both grains and seed. Moreover, it can be recommended that spraying wheat plants with Cu or Mn or Fe or Zn or mixture (at the rate of 500 ppm and adding 70 kg N fed-1, which surpassed grain yield over untreated (control + 90 kg N fed-1.

  1. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinizao do solo e produtividade de milho e feijo caupi em sistema de rotao cultural utilizando guas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudivan F. Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS, and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.A utilizao de guas salinas bem como o reso de guas de drenagem na irrigao dependem de estratgias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconmica e ambiental dos sistemas agrcolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigao com gua salina na estao seca e com gua de baixa salinidade na estao chuvosa sobre o acmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijo-de-corda em sistema de rotao. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repeties. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estao seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com gua de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias aps a semeadura (DAS, sendo realizadas as avaliaes: crescimento vegetativo, produo de gros por planta, matria seca de 1.000 gros e produtividade. Durante a estao chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijo caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliaes de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e aps o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijo caupi. A salinidade da gua de irrigao acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o perodo seco. Os elevados totais de precipitao pluviomtrica durante a estao chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviao dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estao seca e eliminaram os possveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijo caupi. Porm, o feijo caupi apresentou um comportamento atpico com uma expressiva proporo de massa vegetativa e baixa produo de vagens, o que reduziu a eficincia dessa estratgia de rotao de culturas, nas condies do presente estudo.

  2. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters / Salinizao do solo e produtividade de milho e feijo caupi em sistema de rotao cultural utilizando guas salinas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudivan F., Lacerda; Geocleber G., Sousa; Francisco L. B., Silva; Francisco V. A., Guimares; Giovana L., Silva; Lourival F., Cavalcante.

    Full Text Available A utilizao de guas salinas bem como o reso de guas de drenagem na irrigao dependem de estratgias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconmica e ambiental dos sistemas agrcolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigao com gua salina na estao seca e com gua d [...] e baixa salinidade na estao chuvosa sobre o acmulo de sais no solo e a produtividade de milho e feijo-de-corda em sistema de rotao. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repeties. O primeiro cultivo foi instalado durante a estao seca de 2007, com a cultura do milho irrigada com gua de diferentes salinidades (0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1). As plantas foram coletadas aos 90 dias aps a semeadura (DAS), sendo realizadas as avaliaes: crescimento vegetativo, produo de gros por planta, matria seca de 1.000 gros e produtividade. Durante a estao chuvosa de 2008, foi cultivado o feijo caupi nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas com milho. Ao final do ciclo, as plantas foram coletadas, sendo realizadas avaliaes de crescimento vegetativo e produtividade. Amostras de solo foram coletadas antes e aps o cultivo do milho e ao final do cultivo com feijo caupi. A salinidade da gua de irrigao acima 2,2 dS m-1 reduziu a produtividade do milho durante o perodo seco. Os elevados totais de precipitao pluviomtrica durante a estao chuvosa proporcionaram a lixiviao dos sais acumulados durante o cultivo na estao seca e eliminaram os possveis efeitos negativos da salinidade sobre o feijo caupi. Porm, o feijo caupi apresentou um comportamento atpico com uma expressiva proporo de massa vegetativa e baixa produo de vagens, o que reduziu a eficincia dessa estratgia de rotao de culturas, nas condies do presente estudo. Abstract in english The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and [...] fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1). The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS), and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.

  3. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  4. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  5. Weed control and green ear yield in maize Controle de plantas daninhas e rendimento de espigas verdes de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of weeding frequency on cultivar Centralmex green corn yield. Two experiments were conducted in Mossoró-RN (Brazil, with the use of sprinkler irrigation. A random block design with four replicates was used. It was observed that the total number and weight (TW of unhusked green ears, the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number and weight of marketable husked ears were reduced under no weeding treatment. The number timing of weedings did not influence green corn yield, except for one weeding at 60 DAP, which was equivalent to the "no weeding" treatment, for TW. When maize is marketed considering the total number of green ears, higher net income is obtained when one weeding is carried out 45 days after planting.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as influências da freqüência de capinas sobre o rendimento de milho-verde do cultivar Centralmex. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Mossoró-RN, com irrigação por aspersão. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que a ausência de capinas reduz o número e o peso (PT totais de espigas verdes empalhadas, o número e o peso de espigas empalhadas comercializáveis e o número e o peso de espigas despalhadas comercializáveis. O número e a época de realização das capinas não influenciaram o rendimento de milho-verde, exceto uma capina aos 60 DAP, que é equivalente ao tratamento "sem capina", para PT. Quando o milho é comercializado considerando-se o número total de espigas verdes, maior receita líquida é obtida com a realização de uma capina, aos 45 dias após o plantio.

  6. Physiological and Morphological Responses of Two Barley Cultivars to Salinity Stress in Relation to Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Emam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the physiological responses of two barley cultivars to salinity stress, a 4-replicate CRD greenhouse experiment was conducted during at the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran2003-2004. The treatments consisted of two barley cultivars: Afzal and Reyhan and five salinity levels: 0, 4, 8, 12 and 14 dS/m. Seedling emergence, number of tillers and leaves per plant, leaf area and dry matter decreased with increasing salinity levels. The reductions were lower in Afzal (salt tolerant than Reyhan (salt sensitive. A lower Na+ and higher K+Na+ in Afzal compared to Reyhan were observed under high level of salinity. The results of the present experiment also showed that the tolerance to salinity was associated with a greater stomatal conductivity, as well as transpiration and photosynthesis rate. Sub-stomatal CO2 concentration in both cultivars decreased with an increase in salinity, with the exception of 12dS/m, where it led to an increase in sub-stomatal CO2 concentration. Leaf temperature increased with an increase in salinity level in both cultivars, whereas a more pronounced decrease for number of fertile tillers, ears per plant, kernels per ear, thousand grain weight and harvest index was observed in Reyhan compared to Afzal .Since a higher tolerance to salinity in Afzal was apparently associated with a lower concentration of Na+ and a higher K+/Na+ ratio of the shoots, this trait could probably be used for yield improvement of barley cultivars under saline conditions.

  7. Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield Sequências de culturas em semeadura direta: efeitos sobre a fertilidade do solo e a produtividade de soja, milho e arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Valente Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing crop residues in no-tillage system can alter soil chemical properties, which may consequently influence the productivity of succession crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil chemical properties and soybean, maize and rice yield, grown in the summer, after winter crops in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil (21 ° 15 ' 22 '' S; 48 ° 18 ' 58 '' W on a Red Latosol (Oxisol, in a completely randomized block design, in strip plots with three replications. The treatments consisted of four summer crop sequences (maize monocrop, soybean monocrop, soybean/maize rotation and rice/bean/cotton rotation combined with seven winter crops (maize, sunflower, oilseed radish, pearl millet, pigeon pea, grain sorghum and sunn hemp. The experiment began in September 2002. After the winter crops in the 2005/2006 growing season and before the sowing of summer crops in the 2006/2007 season, soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5; 2.5-5.0; 5-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm. Organic matter, pH, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and H + Al were determined in each soil sample. In the summer soybean/maize rotation and in maize the organic matter contents and P levels were lower, in the layers 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm, respectively. Summer rice/bean/cotton rotation increased soil K levels at 0-10 cm depth when sunn hemp and oilseed radish had previously been grown in the winter, and in the 0-2.5 cm layer for millet. Sunn hemp, millet, oilseed radish and sorghum grown in the winter increased organic matter contents in the soil down to 30 cm. Higher P levels were found at the depths 0-2.5 cm and 0-5 cm, respectively, when sunn hemp and oilseed radish were grown in the winter. Highest grain yields for soybean in monoculture were obtained in succession to winter oilseed radish and sunn hemp and in rotation with maize, after oilseed radish, sunn hemp and millet. Maize yields were highest in succession to winter oilseed radish, millet and pigeon pea. Rice yields were lowest when grown after sorghum.Os resíduos vegetais das culturas, ao se decomporem, alteram os atributos químicos do solo e, como consequência, influenciam a produtividade das culturas em sucessão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os atributos químicos do solo e a produtividade das culturas de soja, milho e arroz, cultivadas no verão, em sucessão a culturas de inverno em semeadura direta. O experimento foi realizado em Jaboticabal-SP (48 ° 18 ' 58 '' W e 21 ° 15 ' 22 '' S, em um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema em faixas, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de quatro sequências de culturas de verão (monoculturas de milho e soja e rotações soja/milho e arroz/feijão/algodão com sete culturas de inverno (milho, girassol, nabo forrageiro, milheto, guandu, sorgo e crotalária. Os cultivos iniciaram-se em 2002. Após o manejo das culturas de inverno e antes da semeadura das culturas de verão do ano agrícola 2006/2007, foram coletadas amostras de solo nas camadas de 0-2,5; 2,5-5,0; 5-10; 10-20; e 20-30 cm. Nas amostras de solo, foram determinados: teores de matéria orgânica, pH, teores de P (resina, K, Ca e Mg trocáveis e acidez potencial (H + Al. As sequências de verão rotação soja/milho e milho em monocultura proporcionaram no solo menores teores de matéria orgânica na camada de 0-10 cm e de P do solo na camada de 0-20 cm. Na sequência de verão arroz/feijão/algodão, maiores teores de K foram proporcionados pelas culturas de inverno crotalária e nabo forrageiro, na camada de 0-10 cm, e milheto, na de 0-2,5 cm. Crotalária, milheto, nabo forrageiro e sorgo, cultivados no inverno, proporcionaram maiores teores de matéria orgânica no solo na camada de 0-30 cm. Maiores teores de P no solo foram proporcionados pela crotalária, na camada de 0-2,5 cm, e pelo nabo forrageiro, na de 0-5 cm. Maiores produtividades de soja, como monocultura de verão, foram obtidas após nabo forrageiro e crotalária e, quando em rotação com milho no verão, após nabo forrageiro, crotalária e milheto. Maiores produtividades de milho foram obtidas após nabo forrageiro, milheto e guandu, e menor produtividade de arroz foi obtida após sorgo.

  8. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg-1 soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH4+-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO3--N and NH4+-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH4+-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO3--N treatment, with urea-N and NH4+-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form

  9. Respuesta en rendimiento de hbridos de maz a diferentes distancias entre surcos y densidades de plantas / Yield response of maize hybrids to different distances between furrows and density plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Soltero-Daz; Carlos, Garay-Lpez; Jos Ariel, Ruiz-Corral.

    2010-06-30

    Full Text Available La produccin de maz en surcos angostos, es una tcnica nueva que se est evaluando en Mxico. Durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2007, se llev a cabo este trabajo de investigacin en el cultivo de maz en tres localidades ubicadas en la regin Cinega de Chapala, en el estado de Jalisco. El exp [...] erimento tuvo como objetivo evaluar el distanciamiento entre surcos (76 y 50 cm), tres densidades de plantas (75 000, 90 000 y 105 000 plantas ha-1) y cinco hbridos; para conocer con cual tratamiento se obtiene el rendimiento ms alto. Con las combinaciones de los tres factores estudiados se obtuvo un factorial completo de 30 tratamientos; se utiliz el diseo experimental bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones y un arreglo en parcelas divididas, siendo la parcela grande la distancia entre surcos y como subparcelas a los factores hbridos y densidades de plantas, respectivamente. Se realiz el anlisis de varianza en conjunto y comparacin de medias para la variable rendimiento de grano utilizando el programa SAS. Los resultados indican que el rendimiento de grano ms alto se obtuvo con el surcado angosto a 50 cm y una densidad de al menos 90 000 plantas ha-1; el rendimiento de grano aument 9.06% al reducir la distancia entre surcos de 76 a 50 cm; por lo tanto, se sugiere utilizar esta recomendacin para aumentar la produccin comercial de maz en la regin antes mencionada. Abstract in english Maize farming in narrow furrows is a new technique that is being evaluated in Mexico. This investigation was carried out during the 2007 spring-summer cycle, on maize farming in three locations in the area of Cinega de Chapala, in the state of Jalisco. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the [...] distance between furrows (76 and 50 cm), three plant densities (75 000, 90 000 and 105 000 plants ha-1) and five hybrids, in order to know which treatment provides the highest yield. With the combination of all three studied factors, a complete factorial was obtained, with 30 treatments. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design in a split-plot treatment arrangement with three replications and an arrangement in divided parcels, with the large parcel being the distance between furrows and as subplots, the hybrid factors and plant densities, respectively. A variance analysis was carried out as a whole, and an average analysis for the grain yield variable using the program SAS. Results indicate that the highest grain yield was obtained with the narrow furrow at 50 cm and a density of at least 90 000 plants ha-1; the grain yield increased 9.06% when reducing the distance between furrows from 76 to 50 cm, therefore it is suggested to use this recommendation to increase commercial production of maize in the area in question.

  10. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. PMID:25200781

  11. Effect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semi-arid climate of Tadla (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouazzama, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods in 2009 and 2010 in order to study the effect of water stress on crop growth, water consumption and dry matter yield of silage maize (Zea mays L. supplied with flood irrigation under the semi-arid climate of Tadla in Morocco. Four to five irrigation treatments were applied at the rates of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% crop evapotranspiration (ETc of maize. Soil water status, crop growth, leaf area index and above-ground biomass were measured. Results showed that irrigation deficit affected plant height growth, accelerated the senescence of the leaves and reduced the leaf area index. The maximum values of this parameter reached at flowering under the full irrigation treatment (100% ETc were 5.1 and 4.8 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Dry matter yields varied from 5.3 t·ha-1 under T4 (40% ETc to 16.4 t·ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc in 2009, whereas in 2010, it oscillated between 3.9 t·ha-1 under T5 (20% ETc to 12.5 t·ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc. The establishment of the water budget by growth phase showed that the water use efficiency was higher during the linear phase of growth. Water use efficiency calculated at harvest varied between 2.99 kg·m-3 under T1 to 1.84 kg·m-3 under T5. The actual evapotranspiration under T1 (100% ETc was 478 mm and 463 mm in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Using the averaged values of the two years, linear relationships were evaluated between dry matter yield and water consumption ETa. The yield response factor (Ky for the silage maize for both growth seasons was 1.12. Under the Tadla semi-arid climate, it is proposed that silage maize should be irrigated as a priority before other crops with a Ky lower than 1.12. It is also recommended that, under limited water supplies, irrigation be applied during the linear phase of growth of this crop.

  12. Genetic improvement of sesame for plant architecture and grain yield through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop high yielding, widely adapted varieties of sesame a mutation breeding project was initiated with the partial support of FAO/IAEA. Genetic variation was observed for a number of yield components. Mutants with earliness in flowering, short stature, monostem, heavy bearing and high yield have been selected. True breeding lines developed from the present project have exhibited impressive yield potential in preliminary yield evaluation. This report discusses the results of these investigations. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  14. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMY OF REPLACING MAIZE WITH COMBINATIONS OF BREWERS’ GRAINS, JACK BEAN AND CASSAVA ROOT MEAL IN BROILER FINISHER RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Uchegbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the effect of complete replacement of maize with maize/sorghum-based brewers’ dried grains (MSBDG, jackbean (JB and cassava root meal (CRM on performance of finisher broilers and the feed cost implication of using these test materials as the major energy sources. Four experimental diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain maize, MSBDG, JB and CRM in the following proportions 60, 0, 0, 0%; 0, 20, 15, 25%; 0, 20, 20, 20%, and 0, 20, 25, 15% respectively. Other ingredients were the same for the four diets. One hundred and sixty eight (168 4-week-old Hubbard broilers were divided into 4 treatment groups of 42 birds each; and each group subdivided into 3 replicates of 14 birds per replicate. Each treatment group was randomly assigned to an experimental diet in a completely randomized design (CRD experiment. The feed intake of T1, T2 and T4 birds were similar (P>0.05 but lower (P0.05 difference in daily weight gain between T1 (1.70g and T2 (1.55g birds. The feed conversion ratio of T1 birds was better (P<0.05 than T2, T3 and T4 birds. The feed cost of N195.58 for T4 required to produce 1kg meat was lower than the cost of N214.50 required for meat production in T1. Generally, the MSBDG/JB/CRM feeds produced 1kg meat at costs 6.17%, 3.71% and 8.82% for T2, T3 and T4 lower than the T1 diet.

  15. The Influence Of Cereal Share In Crop Rotations On The Grain Yield And Quality Of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babulicov Mria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to find out the influence of different share of cereals and various fertilisation on the grain yield and quality of winter wheat. The long-term field trial with 40, 60 and 80% share of the cereals and two levels of fertilisation (H1 mineral fertilisation + organic manure Veget; H2 mineral fertilisation only were carried out in the very warm and dry area of continental weather on luvi-haplic chernozem. In the years 20102013, the grain yield, the wet gluten content, gluten index, the falling number and sedimentation index of winter wheat according to Zeleny were investigated. The significantly higher grain yield of winter wheat was recorded after preceding crop of common pea. The yield of cereals in crop rotation with 60% share of cereals (7.00 t/ha was significantly higher than in crop rotation with 80% share of cereals (6.78 t/ha.The statistically higher wet gluten content after pea fore-crop was found out when the mineral fertilisation and organic fertiliser Veget were applied (33.4% with comparison to the treatment with mineral fertilisation only (30.08%.

  16. Polymorphisms in monolignol biosynthetic genes are associated with biomass yield and agronomic traits in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zein, Imad; Brenner, Everton A; Andersen, Jeppe R; Landbeck, Mathias; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    using a panel of 39 European elite maize lines. In total, 10 associations were detected between polymorphisms or tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) groups within the COMT, CCoAOMT2, 4CL1, 4CL2, F5H, and PAL genomic fragments, respectively, and the above mentioned traits. The phenotypic variation...

  17. Assessment of germplasm using multivariate analysis for grain yield and quality traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was designed to find diversity patterns among fourteen lines of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Nine quantitative traits were determined phenotypically. Moreover the grain properties were also determined by laboratory procedures. Cluster analysis categorized cultivars into four groups. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the first seven components explained over 88% of genetic variation. Cluster analysis based on PCA using the first seven principal components indicated four separate groups of genotypes, with the maximum genetic distance observed between the genotypes in each cluster. Grain diameter, grain weight, gluten content, protein content, fiber, fat and starch contributed towards significant principal components (PCs). The genotypes 88146, Fareed-06, 6317 and 88132 were concluded as more diverse parents. Diverse parents from various clusters are helpful in planning and broadening the breeding programme by planning the crosses and increased use of heterosis and genetic diversity especially for grain quality in Pakistan. (author)

  18. Molecular and physiological approaches to maize improvement for drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Wesley B; Edmeades, Gregory O; Barker, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    Average maize yields have increased steadily over the years in the USA and yet the variations in harvestable yield have also markedly increased. Much of the increase in yield variability can be attributed to (1) varying environmental stress conditions; (2) improved nitrogen inputs and better weed control; and (3) continuing sensitivity of different maize lines to the variation in input supply, especially rainfall. Drought stress alone can account for a significant percentage of average yield losses. Yet despite variable environments, new commercially available maize hybrids continue to be produced each year with ever-increasing harvestable yield. Since many factors contribute to high plant performance under water deficits, efforts are being made to elucidate the nature of water-stress tolerance in an attempt to improve maize hybrids further. Such factors include better partitioning of biomass to the developing ear resulting in faster spikelet growth and improved reproductive success. An emphasis on faster spikelet growth rate may result in a reduction in the number of spikelets formed on the ear that facilitates overall seed set by reducing water and carbon constraints per spikelet. To understand the molecular mechanisms for drought tolerance in improved maize lines better, a variety of genomic tools are being used. Newer molecular markers and comprehensive gene expression profiling methods provide opportunities to direct the continued breeding of genotypes that provide stable grain yield under widely varied environmental conditions. PMID:11741036

  19. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing

    2011-01-01

    Split nitrogen applications are widely adopted to improve grain yield and enhance nitrogen use effective in crops. In a twoyear field experiment at two eco-sites, five fractions of topdressed nitrogen of 0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were implemented. Responses of radiation interception and leaf...... photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...

  20. Numerically Efficient Gradient Crystal Plasticity with a Grain Boundary Yield Criterion and Dislocation-based Work-Hardening

    OpenAIRE

    Wulfinghoff, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    This book is a contribution to the further development of gradient plasticity. Several open questions are addressed, where the efficient numerical implementation is particularly focused on. The book inspects an equivalent plastic strain gradient plasticity theory and a grain boundary yield model. Experiments can successfully be reproduced. The hardening model is based on dislocation densities evolving according to partial differential equations taking into account dislocation transport.

  1. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine and potassium for improving water relations and grain yield of wheat under drought

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A.S, Raza; M.F, Saleem; G.M, Shah; I.H, Khan; A, Raza.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compatible solutes rescue plants in the hour of intense water deficit conditions. Glycinebetaine (GB) and potassium (K) are main solutes, playing role in improving plant water potential and ultimately the crop yield. However, only a few attempts have been made so far to study their optimum dozes and [...] interactions to ameliorate the drought stress in wheat. To explore this, GB solutions of 0, 50,100 and 150 mM concentration and K solutions of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% concentration were sprayed at milking stage of two wheat varieties under stress (Auqab-2000; drought sensitive and Lasani-2008; drought resistant). The stress was created by withholding water up till appearance of wilting symptoms and then the solutes (alone and/or in combination) were sprayed with carboxymethyl cellulose as a sticking agent, whereas Tween-20 was used as a surfactant for foliar spray. At maturity, ten random plants from field-experiments and three in case of pot experiment were selected to estimate plant height, spike length, number of spikelets spike-1, number of grains spike-1, and grain yields. Besides, water potential, osmotic potential and turgor potential of crop were also estimated. The results indicated that the drought stress adversely affected all the above parameters. The exogenous application of GB and K to wheat significantly improved spike length, number of grain per spike and grain yields. Moreover, a significant interaction between these solutes was observed since at a given level of GB all these yield parameters were increased (p

  2. Grain yield, symbiotic N2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    g N-15-labeled N m(-2). The effect of intercropping on the dry matter and N yields, competition for inorganic N among the intercrop components, symbiotic fixation in pea and N transfer from pea to barley were determined. As an average of four years the grain yields were similar in monocropped pea...... barley tended to be slightly lower than