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Sample records for main injector numi

  1. Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

  2. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  3. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  4. Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

  5. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

  6. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  7. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  8. Addendum to NuMI shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The original safety assessment and the Safety Envelope for the NuMI beam line corresponds to 400 kW of beam power. The Main Injector is currently capable of and approved for producing 500 kW of beam power2. However, operation of the NuMI beam line at 400 kW of power brings up the possibility of an occasional excursion above 400 kW due to better than usual tuning in one of the machines upstream of the NuMI beam line. An excursion above the DOE approved Safety Envelope will constitute a safety violation. The purpose of this addendum is to evaluate the radiological issues and modifications required to operate the NuMI beam line at 500 kW. This upgrade will allow 400 kW operations with a reasonable safety margin. Configuration of the NuMI beam line, boundaries, safety system and the methodologies used for the calculations are as described in the original NuMI SAD. While most of the calculations presented in the original shielding assessment were based on Monte Carlo simulations, which were based on the design geometries, most of the results presented in this addendum are based on the measurements conducted by the AD ES&H radiation safety group.

  9. Stability of beam in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to remove the limitations of the Main Ring in the delivery of high intensity proton and antiproton beams to the Tevatron. Extensive studies has been made to understand the performance of the Main Injector. In this paper, the authors present a study of the Main Injector lattice, which includes magnetic and misalignment errors. These calculations shows the Main Injector's dynamical aperture is larger than its design value of 40? mm mradian at injection

  10. Stability of beam in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV protron synchrotron, designed to remove the limitations of the Main Ring in the delivery of high intensity protron and antiproton beams to the Tevatron. Extensive studies have been made to understand the performance of the Main Injector. In this paper, we present a study of the Main Injector lattice, which includes magnetic and misalignment errors. These calculations shows the Main Injector's dynamical aperture is larger than its design value of 40? mm mradian at injection

  11. The NuMI Neutrino Beam at Fermilab

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Sacha E.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab is due to begin operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense muon neutrino beam of variable energy 2-20 GeV directed into the Earth at 58 mrad for short (~1 km) and long (~700-900 km) baseline experiments. Several aspects of the design are reviewed, as are potential upgrade requirements to the facility in the event a Proton Driver is built at Fermilab to enhance the neutrino flux.

  12. Low-dispersion ?t jump for the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bipolar ?t-jump design is reported for the Fermilab Main Injector (Lattice MI-17). The total amount of jump is 1.3 units. Both the betatron and dispersion waves are confined, while the betatron tunes remain nearly unchanged. The Fermilab Main Injector has been designed to overcome some of the unfavorable effects on the particle motion around transition energy. Unlike the Main Ring, the Main Injector has a very large aperture, so that beam low due to scraping can be avoided. The bunch area at transition will be less than 0.1 eV-sec, so that the nonlinear Johnsen effect can be avoided. Also rapid ramping across transition is possible, so that the nonadiabatic time can be reduced. Nevertheless, negative-mass instability will develop when the bunch intensity is high enough. The only way to avoid this instability is to incorporate a ?t jump

  13. Component study of the NuMI neutrino beam for NO?A experiment at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutrino beam, NuMI, from Fermilab's Main Injector accelerator is the most intense neutrino beam in the world. The experiment NO?A will use this neutrino beam to study neutrino oscillation where neutrino of a given flavor oscillates into another flavor

  14. Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  15. Main Injector LCW (Low Conductivity Water) Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Seino, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    There are six service buildings uniformly spaced along the perimeter of MI (Main Injector). A total of 18 LCW pumps were installed around the MI ring with 3 pumps per building. Approximately 8,000 GPM of LCW is required to cool magnets, bus and power supplies in the MI enclosure and service buildings. In each service building, a PLC control system controls pumps and valves, and it monitors pressures, flow, resistivities and temperatures. The PLC hardware system consists of...

  16. Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 1010 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20? mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations

  17. Accelerator improvement options for NuMI oroton intensity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, B.; Fields, T.; Foster, G. W.; Graffin, J.; Lucas, P.; Marchionni, A.; Martin, P.; Michael, D.; Prebys, E.; Pruss, S.

    2003-07-29

    In order to meet the needs for protons for MINOS and other experiments, substantial improvements will be necessary in the Booster and Main Injector. They have evaluated a number of improvements which would yield an increase in the number of protons on target for NuMI and Mini-BooNE in the years 2005-2008. They outline a possible program of improvements in the Booster and Main Injector which can be implemented in steps over a five year period and which could result in an increase in proton intensity through the Main Injector which is approximately four times what is currently possible. They provide a list of specific improvements and suggest a possible schedule for the implementation.

  18. Accelerator improvement options for NuMI oroton intensity.

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, B C; Foster, G W; Graffin, J; Lucas, P; Marchionni, A; Martin, P; Michael, D; Prebys, E; Pruss, S

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs for protons for MINOS and other experiments, substantial improvements will be necessary in the Booster and Main Injector. They have evaluated a number of improvements which would yield an increase in the number of protons on target for NuMI and Mini-BooNE in the years 2005-2008. They outline a possible program of improvements in the Booster and Main Injector which can be implemented in steps over a five year period and which could result in an increase in proton intensity through the Main Injector which is approximately four times what is currently possible. They provide a list of specific improvements and suggest a possible schedule for the implementation.

  19. Accelerator improvement options for NuMI oroton intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the needs for protons for MINOS and other experiments, substantial improvements will be necessary in the Booster and Main Injector. They have evaluated a number of improvements which would yield an increase in the number of protons on target for NuMI and Mini-BooNE in the years 2005-2008. They outline a possible program of improvements in the Booster and Main Injector which can be implemented in steps over a five year period and which could result in an increase in proton intensity through the Main Injector which is approximately four times what is currently possible. They provide a list of specific improvements and suggest a possible schedule for the implementation

  20. A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay KL ? ?0? anti ? decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K+ beam to produce a pure K0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare KS decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

  1. NuMI Facility and the MINOS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managed by the Universities Research Association, the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) Facility and the MINOS (the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment are part of the US Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This site was created to illustrate the NuMI, which is being designed to produce a beam of neutrinos aimed at the Soudan Underground Mine State Park in Tower-Soudan, Minnesota. The Web site discusses the MINOS's goal to discover proof of the existence of neutrinos. Physicists can see images and study the design strategies of the near and far detectors. Visitors can also learn how the scientists intend to produce a unique source of neutrinos. Even though the site is geared towards scientists, the general public will find very informative and comprehensible descriptions of neutrinos, MINOS, and NUMI. Although a few links are only for those immediately involved with the project, the site contains a vast amount of information about the knowledge and technology behind the project.

  2. Main Injector Lcw (low Conductivity Water) Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, K C

    2001-01-01

    There are six service buildings uniformly spaced along the perimeter of MI (Main Injector). A total of 18 LCW pumps were installed around the MI ring with 3 pumps per building. Approximately 8,000 GPM of LCW is required to cool magnets, bus and power supplies in the MI enclosure and service buildings. In each service building, a PLC control system controls pumps and valves, and it monitors pressures, flow, resistivities and temperatures. The PLC hardware system consists of a Gateway module and a variety of I/O modules, which are made by Sixnet of Clifton Park, NY. The control system communicates with other buildings including MCR (Main Control Room) via an Ethernet link and front-end computers. For more details of the MI LCW control system, refer to [1] and [2]. One of the key elements of the PLC software is called ISaGRAF workbench, which was created by CJ International of Seyssins, France. The workbench provides a comprehensive control-programming environment, where control programs can be written in five d...

  3. Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the value (and Q{sup 2} dependence) of R{sub QCD} = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}. A Main Injector experiment will check the scaling violation of the theory and provide solid measurements of the gluon distributions.

  4. The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom-made timing board, and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron, The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation

  5. The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate, equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom made timing board and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron. The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation

  6. The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Foulkes, Stephen; Votava, Margaret; Briegel, Charles

    2006-11-01

    The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom-made timing board, and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron, The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation.

  7. Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that inst the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

  8. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  9. Space charge measurements with a high intensity bunch at the Fermilab Main Injector

    OpenAIRE

    Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Yagodnitsyna, A.

    2012-01-01

    For Project X, the Fermilab Main Injector will be required to operate with 3 times higher bunch intensity. The plan to study the space charge effects at the injection energy with intense bunches will be discussed.

  10. Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M. A.; Kourbanis, I.; Zwaska, R. M.

    2009-05-04

    We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance.

  11. Measurement of Pi-K Ratios from the NuMI Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seun, Sin Man; /Harvard U.

    2007-07-01

    Interactions of protons (p) with the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) target are used to create the neutrino beam for the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) Experiment. Using the MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experimental apparatus, the production of charged pions and kaons in p+NuMI interactions is studied. The data come from a sample of 2 x 10{sup 6} events obtained by MIPP using the 120 GeV/c proton beam from the Main Injector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, USA. Pions and kaons are identified by measurement in a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. Presented are measurements of {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}/K{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}/K{sup -} production ratios in the momentum range p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c transversely and 20 GeV/c < p{sub z} < 90 GeV/c longitudinally. Also provided are detailed comparisons of the MIPP NuMI data with the MIPP Thin Carbon data, the MIPP Monte Carlo simulation and the current MINOS models in the relevant momentum ranges.

  12. An 8 GeV H- multi-turn injection system for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 8 GeV superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) has been proposed [1] as a single stage H- injector into the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron . This would be the highest energy H- multi-turn injection system in the world. The conceptual design of an injection system has been further refined by addressing transverse phase space painting issues, chicane dipole fields and foil location, foil temperature issues, and initial longitudinal phase space painting simulations. We present the current state of design

  13. Flow Distribution Around the SSME Main Injector Assembly Using Porosity Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    1995-01-01

    Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Liquid Oxidizer (LOX) flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. 2-D numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows both through tube banks and around the shielded posts over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficient as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts, LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

  14. CFD modeling of turbulent flows around the SSME main injector assembly using porosity formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Farmer, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and LOX flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. Two-dimensional numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows, both through tube banks and round the shielded posts, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficients as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts: LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

  15. A Study of Muon Neutrino Disappearance Using the Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, KE; Armstrong, R.; Auty, DJ; Avvakumov, S.; BARR, G; Barrett, WL; Beall, E; Becker, BR; Bhattacharya, D.; Bock, B.; Bock, GJ; Bogert, D.; Chapman, JD

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a search for muon-neutrino disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27e20 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absen...

  16. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  17. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  18. Experience with the source evaluation board method of procuring technical components for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab has adopted the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) method for procuring certain major technical components of the Fermilab Main Injector. The SEB procedure is designed to ensure the efficient and effective expenditure of Government funds at the same time that it optimizes the opportunity for attainment of project objectives. A qualitative trade-off is allowed between price and technical factors. The process involves a large amount of work and is only justified for a very limited number of procurements. Fermilab has gained experience with the SEB process in awarding subcontracts for major subassemblies of the Fermilab Main Injector dipoles

  19. Pbar deceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector: Tune-Up studies with proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.M. Bhat et al.

    2001-07-03

    In this report we present the results of beam dynamics simulations as well as experiments with protons for deceleration from 150 GeV to 8.9 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). The simulations are carried out on two different deceleration schemes: deceleration with a fast recovery MI cycle and with a slow recovery cycle. As a proof of principle we have carried out the first successful deceleration using proton beam in the Main Injector from the Tevatron extraction energy of 150 GeV to the Recycler injection energy of 8.9 GeV.

  20. Beam dump designs and muon rates in main injector kaon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo study of muon fluxes from various beam dump designs for Main Injector kaon experiments was performed. The results indicate that the design goal less than a megahertz of muons for 1013 incident 125 GeV/c protons is achievable. 4 refs., 15 figs

  1. Field errors introduced by eddy currents in Fermilab main injector magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Main Injector ramps from 8 GeV to 120 GeV in about half a second. The rapidly changing magnetic field induces eddy currents in the stainless steel vacuum tubes, which in turn produce error fields that can affect the beam. Field calculations and measurements are presented for the dipole and quadrupole magnets

  2. Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within ± 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to ± 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

  3. NuMI Proton Kicker Extraction Magnet Termination Resistor System

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The temperature stability of the kicker magnet termination resistor assembly directly affects the field flatness and amplitude stability of the kick. Comprehensive thermal enhancements were made to the existing Main Injector resistor assembly design to satisfy NuMI performance specifications. Additionally, a fluid-processing system utilizing Fluorinert® FC-77 high-voltage dielectric was built to precisely control the setpoint temperature of the resistor assembly from 70 to 120F, required to maintain constant resistance during changing operational modes. The Fluorinert® must be continually processed to remove hazardous breakdown products caused by radiation exposure to prevent chemical attack of system components. Design details of the termination resistor assembly and Fluorinert® processing system are described. Early performance results will be presented.

  4. Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements

  5. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  6. The calculation of orbit length change of the recycler due to main injector ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meiqin; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Orbit length of beam in the Recycler changes during the Main Injector ramps. The unknown kicks from the effects generated by stray field are distributed around the ring. To estimate the changes, simulated virtual kicks are created around each lambertson, C-magnet and their bus of the Main Injector. An orbit measurement consists of the readout of all of the Recycler beam position monitors (BPMs). The orbit lengths difference is calculated by comparing the horizontal closed orbit of the beam with a reference orbit. The calculation methods are described first. The analysis presented here includes the calculation of the orbit length changes and the strength of the simulated kicks before and after LAM52 and V701 magnet bus work done.

  7. Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

  8. Longitudinal bunch monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Thurman-Keup, R; Blokland, W; Crisp, J; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Flora, R; Hahn, A; Hansen, S; Kiper, T; Para, A; Pordes, S; Tollestrup, A V

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the longitudinal behavior of the accelerated particle beams at Fermilab is crucial to the optimization and control of the beam and the maximizing of the integrated luminosity for the particle physics experiments. Longitudinal measurements in the Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons are based on the analysis of signals from resistive wall current monitors. This article describes the signal processing performed by a 2 GHz-bandwidth oscilloscope together with a computer running a LabVIEW program which calculates the longitudinal beam parameters.

  9. Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

  10. Simulations of Electron Cloud Effects on the Beam Dynamics for the FNAL Main Injector Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab main injector (MI) is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort. This upgrade will involve a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value. Such an increase will place the MI in a regime in which electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. We have used the electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP, recently augmented with new modeling capabilities and simulation techniques, to study the dynamics of beam-electron cloud interaction. This work in progress involves a systematic assessment of beam instabilities due to the presence of electron clouds

  11. The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11006

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

  13. A Study of Muon Neutrino Disappearance Using the Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kordosky, Michael; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cabrera, A; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drakoulakos, D; Durkin, T; Dytman, S A; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, i L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a search for muon-neutrino disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27e20 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336 +/- 14 muon-neutrino charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to delta m-squared = 2.74e-3 +0.44/-0.26e-3 eV^2 and sin^2(2 theta) > 0.87 at 68% confidence level.

  14. Proposal for Drell-Yan Measurements of Nucleon and Nuclear Structure with the FNAL Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; /Abilene Christian U.; Arrinton, J.; Geesamn, D.F.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E.; Potterveld, D.H.; /Argonne; Brown, C.N.; /Fermilab; Garvey, G.T.; Leitch, M.J.; /Los Alamos /Rutgers U. /Texas A-M /Valparaiso U.

    2001-04-01

    We propose measuring the fractional momentum (x) dependence of the ratio of the anti-down to anti-up quark distributions in the proton, {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), using proton induced Drell-Yan reactions at 120 GeV. Recent measurements by FNAL E866 unexpectedly show considerable x dependence in this ratio for x > 0.2. A lower energy primary proton beam from the Main Injector makes it possible to extend the E866 measurements to larger x with much higher precision. The apparatus will also be used with nuclear targets to measure parton energy loss and modifications to anti-quark distributions in nuclear targets at large x (x > 0.2).

  15. A preliminary assessment of the electron cloud effect for the FNAL main injector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a preliminary assessment, via computer simulations, of the electron cloud density for the FNAL main injector upgrade at injection energy. Assuming a peak value for secondary emission yield (delta)max = 1.3, we find a threshold value of the bunch population, Nb,th ? 1.25 x 1011, beyond which the electron-cloud density ?e reaches a steady-state level that is ?104 times larger than for Nb b,th, essentially neutralizing the beam, and leading to a tune shift ?0.05. Our investigation is limited to a field-free region and to a dipole magnet, both of which yield similar results for both Nb,th and the steady-state value of ?e. Possible dynamical effects from the electron cloud on the beam, such as emittance growth and instabilities, remain to be investigated separately

  16. Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max is ?> 1.4, and the average electron density is ne ?> 1010 m-3 at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3

  17. Measurements of beam pipe eddy current effects in Main Injector dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dipole magnets for the proposed Main Injector project at Fermilab are designed to ramp to maximum field (1.7 T) at rates over 2.5 T/s. These ramp rates will produce eddy current effects which degrade overall field quality. A harmonics probe was constructed for the purpose of measuring eddy current field components during the ramp cycle. Three separate ramp rates were employed ranging from 1.3 T/s to 2.7 T/s. Tests were performed using beam pipes with two different resistivities. The dominant multipole contribution resulting from eddy current effects in each beam pipe was sextupole. The sextupole component closely matched the calculated prediction

  18. 6 Batch Injection and Slipped Beam Tune Measurements in Fermilab?s Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yan, M.-J.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    During NOVA operations it is planned to run the Fermilab Recycler in a 12 batch slip stacking mode. In preparation for this, measurements of the tune during a six batch injection and then as the beam is decelerated by changing the RF frequency have been carried out in the Main Injector. The coherent tune shifts due to the changing beam intensity were measured and compared well with the theoretically expected tune shift. The tune shifts due to changing RF frequency, required for slip stacking, also compare well with the linear theory, although some nonlinear affects are apparent at large frequency changes. These results give us confidence that the expected tunes shifts during 12 batch slip stacking Recycler operations can be accommodated.

  19. Application of a new scheme for passing through transition energy to the Fermilab Main Ring and Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the vicinity of the transition energy of an ion synchrotron the longitudinal oscillation frequency drops and the motion becomes non- adiabatic; the result is emittance dilution. Furthermore, because the synchrotron oscillation is too slow to average particle energy gain, particles off the synchronous phase get to much or too little acceleration depending whether they lead or lag; therefore, momentum spread is increased. In this regime of rf focusing degrades beam quality. Directly J. Griffin has proposed eliminating the rf focusing near transition by flattening the rf waveform with a second or third harmonic component. The rf is phased so that all particles in the bunch are accelerated by the flattened portion, receiving just the acceleration required by the magnet cycle. We will show by concrete examples related to the Fermilab Main Ring (MR) and Main Injector (MI) that one can eliminate rf focusing sufficiently long before and after transition to reduce the maximum momentum spread and emmitance growth significantly. Additionally, the bunch has its maximum phase spread at transition so that the peak current and resulting microwave instability is mitigated, and the bunch above transition becomes a satisfactory match to an accelerating bucket

  20. Upgrade of the Minos+ Experiment Data Acquisition for the High Energy NuMI Beam Run

    CERN Document Server

    Badgett, William; Torretta, Donatella; Meier, Jerry; Gunderson, Jeffrey; Osterholm, Denise; Saranen, David

    2015-01-01

    The Minos+ experiment is an extension of the Minos experiment at a higher energy and more intense neutrino beam, with the data collection having begun in the fall of 2013. The neutrino beam is provided by the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam-line at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). The detector apparatus consists of two main detectors, one underground at Fermilab and the other in Soudan, Minnesota with the purpose of studying neutrino oscillations at a base line of 735 km. The original data acquisition system has been running for several years collecting data from NuMI, but with the extended run from 2013, parts of the system needed to be replaced due to obsolescence, reliability problems, and data throughput limitations. Specifically, we have replaced the front-end readout controllers, event builder, and data acquisition computing and trigger processing farms with modern, modular and reliable devices with few single points of failure. The new system is based on gigabit Ethernet T...

  1. Measuring correlations between beam loss and residual radiation in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Wu, Guan Hong; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    In order to control beam loss for high intensity operation of the Fermilab Main Injector, electronics has been implemented to provide detailed loss measurements using gas-filled ionization monitors. Software to enhance routine operation and studies has been developed and losses are logged for each acceleration cycle. A systematic study of residual radiation at selected locations in the accelerator tunnel have been carried out by logging residual radiation at each of 142 bar-coded locations. We report on fits of the residual radiation measurements to half-life weighted sums of the beam loss data using a few characteristic lifetimes. The data are now available over a multi-year period including residual radiation measurements repeated multiple times during three extended facility shutdown periods. Measurement intervals of a few weeks combined with variable delays between beam off time and the residual measurement permits sensitivity to lifetimes from hours to years. The results allow planning for work in radiation areas to be based on calibrated analytic models.

  2. Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance. An upgrade to the MI is being considered that would increase the bunch intensity Nb, from the present ? 1 x 1011 to 3 x 1011, corresponding to a total pulse intensity Ntot = 16.4 x 1013, in order to generate intense beams for the neutrino program. Such an increase in beam intensity would place the MI in a parameter regime where other storage rings have seen a significant EC effect. Motivated by this concern, efforts have been undertaken over the recent past to measure and simulate the magnitude of the effect and to assess its operational implications on the proposed upgrade. We report here a summary of simulation results obtained with the code POSINST, and certain benchmarks against measurements. Unless stated otherwise, the simulation parameters used are shown in Tab. 1. Some of these represent a slightly simplified version of the MI operation.

  3. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

  4. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  5. Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

  6. The Fermilab Main Injector dipole and quadrupole cooling design and bus connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed system for connecting the low conductivity water (LCW) and the electrical power to the magnets is explained. This system requires minimum maintenance. Stainless steel headers supply LCW to local, secondary manifolds which regulate the flow to the dipole and to the copper bus which conduct both power and cooling water to the quadrupole. A combination of ceramic feedthroughs and thermoplastic hoses insulate the piping electrically from the copper bus system. The utilities for the Main Injector are grouped together at the outside wall of the tunnel leaving most of the enclosure space for servicing. Space above the headers is available for future accelerator expansion. The new dipoles have bolted electrical connections with flexible copper jumpers. Separate compression fittings are used for the water connections. Each dipole magnet has two water circuits in parallel designed to minimize thermal stresses and the number of insulators. Two electrical insulators are used in series because this design has been shown to minimize electrolyses problems and copper ion deposits inside the insulators. The design value of the temperature gradient of the LCW is 8 degrees C

  7. Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort (1). Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector (2-4). The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max, which we let vary in the range 1.2 (le) (delta)max (le) 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 ?max ?e. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency fRF = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population Ntot. The density ne goes through a clear threshold as a function of Ntot in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in Ntot is a factor ? 2 higher for fRF = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor ? 2 when Ntot is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed

  8. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

  9. Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMI Facility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13 and September 30, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the work done between June 13 and September 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, the facility produces (among other components) tritium in engineered materials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium is generated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to other regions within the facility, or be released to the environment

  10. Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

    2008-05-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

  11. The Modeling of Time-Structured Multiturn Injection into Fermilab Main Injector (Microbunch Injection with Parasitic Longitudinal Painting)

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Phil S; Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of time-structured multiturn injection for an upgraded Main Injector with the 8-GeV Superconducting RF proton driver, or an ILC-style linac, or a Project-X linac. The Radio-Frequency mismatch between a linac and the upgraded Main Injector will induce parasitic longitudinal painting in RF-phase direction. Several different scenarios with a choice of different RF parameters for single RF system and double RF system in the presence of longitudinal space charge have been investigated. From the studies of microbunch injection with the aid of ESME (2003) numerical simulations, it is found that the dual RF system with a choice of appropriate RF parameters allows us to overcome the space-charge limitation set by beam intensity during the multiturn-injection process. A double RF system with a harmonic ratio (R_H = H_2/H_1) of 2.0 and a voltage ratio (R_V = V_2/V_1) of 0.5 are most favored to reduce both longitudinal and transverse effects of space charge in the Main Injector.

  12. Activation Products from Copper and Steel Samples Exposed to Showers Produced by 8 GeV Protons Lost in the Fermilab Main Injector Collimation System

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Bruce C.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Pronskikh, Vitaly S.

    2015-01-01

    In conjunction with efforts to predict residual radiation levels in the Fermilab Main Injector, measurements of residual radiation were correlated with the time history of losses. Detailed examination suggested that the list of radioactive isotopes used for fitting was incomplete. We will report on activation studies of magnet steel and copper samples which we irradiated adjacent to the Fermilab Main Injector collimation system. Our results identified several additional radi...

  13. Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here

  14. CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE MAIN INJECTOR PARTICLE PRODUCTION (FNAL-E907) EXPERIMENT AT 58 GEV ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; /Iowa U.

    2009-12-01

    Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV {pi}, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary {pi}, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected {approx} 0.26 x 10{sup 6} events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

  15. Modernization of the RF-field stabilization system in the main part of the in-booster injector-accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide for high-intense pulsed proton beam acceleration in the main part of the in-booster injector-accelerator a system of auto-compensation (AC) is used which appears to be a fast-operating stabilization system with parametric feedback by a voltage wave reflected from a resonator. Currently the AC system provides for acceleration of beams with the currents of up to 100 mA with the accelerating HF-field stabilization accuracy being insufficient however. Reasons for AC system atsbilization accuracy limitation are considered and ways of the system modernization connected with the increase of quality of branching the waves reflected from the resonator using a powerful ferrite Y-circulator are considered. Results of testing Y-circulator in HF-power range from 0.6 to 3.8 MW are presented. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb = 25 ns or tb = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta)max. For tb = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta)max is below ? 1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

  17. Measurement of Charged Pion Production Yields off the NuMI Target

    CERN Document Server

    Paley, J M; Raja, R; Akgun, U; Asner, D M; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes,, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bhatnagar, V; Choudhary, B; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Graf, N; Gronberg, J; Gulmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Hartouni, E P; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kumar, A; Lange, D J; Lebedev, A; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Mahajan, S; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Singh, A; Solomey, N; Soltz, R A; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K

    2014-01-01

    The fixed-target MIPP experiment, Fermilab E907, was designed to measure the production of hadrons from the collisions of hadrons of momenta ranging from 5 to 120 GeV/c on a variety of nuclei. These data will generally improve the simulation of particle detectors and predictions of particle beam fluxes at accelerators. The spectrometer momentum resolution is between 3 and 4%, and particle identification is performed for particles ranging between 0.3 and 80 GeV/c using $dE/dx$, time-of-flight and Cherenkov radiation measurements. MIPP collected $1.42 \\times10^6$ events of 120 GeV Main Injector protons striking a target used in the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The data have been analyzed and we present here charged pion yields per proton-on-target determined in bins of longitudinal and transverse momentum between 0.5 and 80 GeV/c, with combined statistical and systematic relative uncertainties between 5 and 10%.

  18. Activation Products from Copper and Steel Samples Exposed to Showers Produced by 8 GeV Protons Lost in the Fermilab Main Injector Collimation System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce C; Pronskikh, Vitaly S

    2015-01-01

    In conjunction with efforts to predict residual radiation levels in the Fermilab Main Injector, measurements of residual radiation were correlated with the time history of losses. Detailed examination suggested that the list of radioactive isotopes used for fitting was incomplete. We will report on activation studies of magnet steel and copper samples which we irradiated adjacent to the Fermilab Main Injector collimation system. Our results identified several additional radioactive isotopes of interest. The MARS15 studies using a simplified model are compared with measurements. The long half-life isotopes will grow in importance as operation stretches to a second decade and as loss rates rise. These studies allow us to predict limits on these concerns.

  19. MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

  20. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  1. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's 'New Culture' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. 'New Culture' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper details the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line are presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  2. Studies of Muon-Induced Radioactivity at NuMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HPGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  3. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    CERN Document Server

    Boehnlein, David J

    2012-01-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  4. H- injector for ADRIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron of the ADRIA project, proposed for the upgrading of LNL accelerator complex, have the capability to accelerate protons with an injection energy of 210 MeV, repetition rate of 50 Hz and an average current of about 32 ?A. In this paper we shall spell out a new proposal for the H- injector in this mode of operation. The main components of the linac are a double frequency (32.5 MHz, 65 MHz), an RFQ and DTL cavities (425 MHz). The buncher gives to the bunch sequences the time structure corresponding to the Synchrotron RF frequency at injection. The shunt impedance in DTL cavities (equipped with rare earth quadrupoles) remains sufficiently high up to the synchrotron injection energy. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Injector operations at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injector complex at LAMPF consists of three on-line 750-kV injectors which provide simultaneous H+ and H- beams for LAMPF production and an off-line 200-keV injector for ion source and beam diagnostic development studies. The present operation now entails a 500-?A/sub a/ H+ beam accelerated simultaneously with either a 6-?A/sub a/ unpolarized or 10-nA/sub a/ polarized H- beam. In order to obtain the low-beam spill required for the operation of the LAMPF accelerator, it has been necessary to increase the brightness of the high-intensity H+ beam. The operating experience and development work that has been carried out on all of these injectors to improve the quality and intensity of these beams will be presented. The details of the construction of the test stand injector and the development program planned for this injector will also be outlined

  6. Fuel injector cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartopp, R.

    1989-09-26

    Fuel injectors for internal combustion engines have been found to suffer problems due to a build-up of deposits which restrict the flow of fuel through the injectors and this build-up seriously affects the performance of the injectors. A cleaning system is provided for cleaning fuel injectors of deposits inhibiting their efficient operation. The system provides a circuit for cleaning fluid to be passed through the injector and includes a pump for fluid and control means whereby the fluid is passed through the injector with periodic reversals of flow. The reversal of flow of the cleaning fluid through the injectors improves the removal of deposits. Preferably the fluid used is a mixture of fuel and a cleaning agent such as carburator cleaner. The cleaner is mixed with the fuel in a ratio of cleaner to fuel of 2:1. A flowmeter is provided to check the cleaning condition and an electrical supply to the injector ensures it is in an open condition during cleaning. The injector is releasably located in fluid communication with the fluid. 3 figs.

  7. Groundwater protection for the NuMI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included

  8. Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Aaron Michael; /Minnesota U.

    2007-08-01

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for {nu}{sub {mu}} is given approximately by 1 - sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}sin{sup 2}(1.27{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}L/E), where{theta}{sub 23} and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} between the mass eigenstates {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 2}, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a {nu}{sub {mu}} interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x10{sup 20} protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2{+-}16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level {alpha} = 4.2 x 10{sup -3}. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.32 {+-}{sup 1.06}{sub 0.75} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.74 {+-}{sup 0.44}{sub 0.26} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.87 (68% CL).

  9. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  10. The Heidelberg High Current Injector A Versatile Injector for Storage Ring Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hahn, R; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Welsch, C P

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Injector (HCI) was designed and built as a dedicated injector for the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg to deliver mainly singly charged Li- and Be-ions. After start for routine operation in 1999 the HCI delivered stable beams during the following years for about 50 % of the experiments with very high reliability. Due to the requirements from the experiment the HCI changed during that period from a machine for singly charged positive ions to an injector for a large variety of molecules as well as positively or negatively charged light ions. After successful commissioning of the custom built 18 GHz high power ECR-source at its present test location various modifications and additions were made in preparation of a possible conversion into an injector for highly charged heavy ions as a second phase. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained in the passed 5 years and presents the status of the upgrade of the HCI.

  11. Beam Dynamics Optimization for the Xfel Photo Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, Mikhail

    The main challenge for the European XFEL photo injector is the production of 1 nC electron beams with a normalized transverse emittance of 0.9 mm mrad. The photo injector setup consists of a 1.5-cell L-band rf gun cavity supplied with solenoids for beam focusing and emittance compensation and the first accelerating section with 8 TESLA superconducting cavities. The first 4 cavities are used as a booster to provide by proper choice of its position, gradient and phase matching conditions for the emittance conservation. For optimization of the beam dynamics in the photo injector, a staged algorithm, based on ASTRA simulations, has been developed. The first stage considers the emission of electrons from a photo cathode. The cathode laser energy and its transverse parameters are adjusted to produce a bunch charge of 1 nC in presence of space charge forces (including image charge at the cathode) and Schottky-like effects. The second stage contains rf gun cavity and solenoid optimization. The booster position, gradient and initial phase are optimized at the third stage yielding the minimum emittance at the photo injector exit. Results of the XFEL photo injector optimization will be presented. Besides simulations experimental studies towards XFEL photo injector are carried out. The photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) develops photo injectors for FELs, including FLASH and the European XFEL. A thorough comparison of measured data with results of beam dynamics simulations is one of the main PITZ goals. Detailed experimental studies on photo emission processes, thermal emittance, transverse and longitudinal phase space of the electron beam are being performed together with beam dynamics simulations. This aims to result in better understanding of beam dynamics in high brightness photo injectors. Experimentally obtained photo injector characteristics (like thermal emittance) have to be used in an additional optimization of the photo injector resulting in more realistic beam dynamics simulations. Results of these studies will be reported as well.

  12. Epinephrine auto-injector pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ronna L; Manivannan, Veena; Hartz, Martha F; Sadosty, Annie T

    2012-09-01

    Epinephrine is crucial in the treatment of anaphylaxis. As anaphylaxis frequently occurs in nonmedical settings, use of an epinephrine auto-injector is vital for prompt management. This article provides an overview of the increasing number of epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions and the underlying causes and contributing factors to these rising prescriptions. It also reviews the current indications for prescription of an epinephrine auto-injector, proper use of epinephrine auto-injectors, and the management of unintentional epinephrine injections. PMID:22940899

  13. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  14. PLT neutral injector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience with respect to beamline operation on PLT and on the Princeton test stand is reviewed. We discuss the performance of the injectors, beam energy distributions as measured by two techniques, beam-associated impurities, control of gas evolution in the drift duct by titanium evaporation, reionization in the drift duct, and the computer archiving and control system currently under development

  15. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  16. The KEKB injector linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemoto, Mitsuo; Arakawa, Dai; Enomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funakoshi, Yoshihiro; Furukawa, Kazuro; Higo, Toshiyasu; Honda, Tohru; Honma, Hiroyuki; Iida, Naoko; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Kakihara, Kazuhisa; Kamitani, Takuya; Kasuga, Toshio; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kazakov, Sergey; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Koiso, Haruyo; Kudou, Noboru; Kurashina, Miho; Matsushita, Hideki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Shuji; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Miura, Takako; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Nagahashi, Shinya; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakao, Katsumi; Obina, Takashi; Ogawa, Yujiro; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Oide, Katsunobu; Oogoe, Takao; Satoh, Masanori; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shirakawa, Akihiro; Suetake, Masaaki; Sugimura, Takashi; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Tadano, Mikito; Takenaka, Tateru; Tawada, Masafumi; Ueda, Akira; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yokoyama, Kazue; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB injector linac has been continuously improved to enhance the stability of many devices and the efficiency of beam operation. These improvements include the development of the new C-band accelerating structure, pulse compressor, klystron, rf window, compact modulator, and the new positron production target using crystalline tungsten. We have also achieved two-bunch beam acceleration, the development of an energy spread monitor, a safety system upgrade, and an event-based timing and control system. These developments and practical applications for advanced linac beam handling result in the success of the simultaneous top-up injection among the three independent storage rings. This result greatly improves the integrated luminosity and the operation stability of the KEKB rings. In this paper, we present the progress of the KEKB injector linac in this decade.

  17. Update to the NLC Injector System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance 8 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a 265 ns train of bunches (190 bunches spaced by 1.4 ns or 95 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns); each bunch has a population of up to 1.6 x 1010 particles for 2.8 ns (or 0.8 x 1010 particles for 1.4 ns). Horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be ?(varepsilon)x = 3 x 10-6 m-rad and ?(varepsilon)y = 2 x 10-8 m-rad; bunch length at injection is variable from 90-140 (micro)m. Electron polarization of greater than 80% is required. Electron and positron beams are generated in separate accelerator complexes each of which contains the source, damping ring systems, linacs, bunch length compressors, and collimation regions. Investigation into the feasibility of polarized positrons for the NLC has begun; operations at 180 Hz and the centralization of the injector complex have been studied. The need for affordable, low technical risk, reliable injector subsystems is a major consideration in the design effort. This paper presents an overview of the NLC injector systems with an emphasis on changes in the design since 1999 [1] and discusses the planned R and D

  18. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  19. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, DG; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.(Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece); Arms, KE; Arroyo, C; Ayres, DS; Beall, E; Bernstein, RH; Bhattacharya, D.; Bocean, V.; Bock, GJ; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, DJ; Bogert, D.; Bower, C

    2006-01-01

    This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27x10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 +/- 14 events. The data are consistent with nu(...

  20. Control system in SwissFEL injector test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Free Electron Laser (SwissFEL) Injector Test Facility is an important milestone for the realization of a new SwissFEL facility at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The first beam in the Test Facility was produced on the 24. of August 2010 which inaugurated the Injector operation. Since then, the beam quality in various aspects has been greatly improved. The primary goal of the Injector Test Facility is to demonstrate a high-brightness electron beam which will be required to drive the SwissFEL main linac. The Injector further serves as a platform for the development and validation of accelerator components needed for the SwissFEL project. This paper presents the current status of the Test Facility and is focused on the control system related issues which led to the successful commissioning. In addition, the technical challenges and opportunities in view of the future SwissFEL facility are discussed. (authors)

  1. The Adiabatic Matching Section Solution for the Source Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical designs for a Heavy Ion Fusion Power Plant require the source injector to deliver 100 beams, packed into an array with a spacing of 7 cm. When designing source injectors using a single large aperture source for each beam, the emitter surfaces are packed into an array with a spacing of 30 cm. Thus, the matching section of the source injector must not only prepare the beam for transport in a FODO lattice, but also funnel the beams together. This can be accomplished by an ESQ matching section in which each beam travels on average at a slight angle to the axis of the quadrupoles and uses the focusing effect of the FODO lattice to maintain the angle. At the end of the matching section, doublet steering is used to bring the beams parallel to each other for injection into the main accelerator. A specific solution of this type for an 84-beam source injector is presented

  2. SLC injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injector for the Stanford Linear Collider is being studied using the fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell program MASK. The program takes account of cylindrically symmetrical rf fields from the external source, as well as fields produced by the beam and dc magnetic fields. It calculates the radial and longitudinal motion of electrons and plots their positions in various planes in phase space. Bunching parameters can be optimized and insights into the bunching process and emittance growth have been gained. The results of the simulations are compared to the experimental results

  3. Deuterium pellet injector gun design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging

  4. Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

  5. The TESLA test facility linac injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J.C.; Chehab, R.; Garvey, T.; Jacquemard, B.; Mouton, B.; Omeich, M.; Rodier, J.; Roudier, P.; Thiery, Y. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l`Accelerateur Lineaire; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gournay, J.F.; Jablonka, M.; Joly, J.M.; Juillard, M.; Mosnier, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1994-07-01

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) Linac is a 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting accelerator under construction at DESY (Hamburg) by an international collaboration. The linac is being built to demonstrate the viability of the superconducting RF approach to a future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider. Within the collaboration three participating French laboratories (LAL, IPN and DAPNIA) have undertaken the task of designing and constructing a phase 1 injector for TTF. We describe the studies towards the realisation of this 7 - 14 MeV, 8 mA high duty cycle (800 {mu}s pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate) injector. The front end of the injector will consist of a 250 keV electron gun, a 216.7 MHz sub-harmonic bunching cavity and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. This is followed by a beam analysis line and a transport section to match the beam from the capture cavity to the first cryomodule of the main linac. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig.

  6. The TESLA test facility linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) Linac is a 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting accelerator under construction at DESY (Hamburg) by an international collaboration. The linac is being built to demonstrate the viability of the superconducting RF approach to a future e+e- linear collider. Within the collaboration three participating French laboratories (LAL, IPN and DAPNIA) have undertaken the task of designing and constructing a phase 1 injector for TTF. We describe the studies towards the realisation of this 7 - 14 MeV, 8 mA high duty cycle (800 ?s pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate) injector. The front end of the injector will consist of a 250 keV electron gun, a 216.7 MHz sub-harmonic bunching cavity and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. This is followed by a beam analysis line and a transport section to match the beam from the capture cavity to the first cryomodule of the main linac. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

  7. Injector for negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an injector for negative ions at a predetermined energy level along an injection axis, the injector comprising: A. ion source means for producing He+ ions, B. vacuum chamber means connected to the ion source for providing a vacuum environment through which the ions pass, C. vapor canal means in the vacuum chamber for producing charge exchange vapor in a contained space, D. first permanent magnet means in the vacuum chamber for deflecting the He+ ions from the ion source means onto an axis through the vapor and for focusing the positive ion beam to a focal point in the vapor, the vapor transferring electrons to the ions to produce He- ions, E. second permanent magnet means in the vacuum chamber at the exit of the canal means for focusing the He- ions and deflecting the negative ions onto the injection axis, F. power supply means connected to the ion source or elevating the energy of the ions to the predetermined energy level

  8. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main injectors, but can be a consideration in preburners, where the desire to keep turbine inlet temperatures as cool as possible can make it advantageous for the preburners to operate as far from stoichiometry as can be tolerated. liquid rocket engine technology, and several of these are directed at improving design tools for liquid rocket injectors. -The purpose of the presentation will be to describe some of these latter programs.

  9. The light-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

  10. Commissioning the LCLS Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics

  11. Technical achievements in creation of intense classical type polarized particle injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of achievements in the technique of intense polarized beam production is presented in connection with preparation for the KhFTI injector reconstruction. The main attention is given to the polarized particle source (PPS) assemblies of classical type. Effectiveness of contemporary PPS is compared with that of the KhFTI injector. 40 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tables. (author)

  12. High-brightness injector modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and "macro" factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  13. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  14. Superconducting positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In last year's report, the authors described a long-range plan to upgrade the performance of ATLAS by replacing the present negative-ion source and tandem injector with a positive-ion system consisting of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a superconducting injector linac. The ultimate objective of this upgrade is to (1) increase the beam current by a large factor and (2) to extend the mass range up to uranium. Planning for the positive-ion injector is progressing vigorously. At this stage of the work, the most critical activity is the development of a suitable accelerating structure for slow-moving ions. A first prototype of such a structure is nearing completion. In addition considerable effort has been devoted to a study of the beam dynamics of the injector linac

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Injector Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is underway to construct a 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion. The Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector configuration consists of a zeolite source, a diode of up to 1 MV, together with several electrostatic quadrupole units to simultaneously focus and accelerate the beam to 2 MV. The key issues of source technology, high voltage breakdown, beam aberrations, and transient effects will be discussed. Results from ongoing experiments and simulations will be presented

  16. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  17. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

  18. Observation of Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current ?? interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27x1020 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336±14 events. The data are consistent with ?? disappearance via oscillations with vertical bar ?m322 vertical bar =2.74-0.26+0.44x10-3 eV2 and sin2(2?23)>0.87 (68% C.L.)

  19. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, D.G.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allison, W.W.M.; Alner, G.J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; /Argonne /Athens U. /Benedictine U. /Brookhaven /Caltech /Cambridge U. /Campinas State U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /APC, Paris /Columbia U. /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10{sup 20} 120GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 {+-} 14.4 events. The data are consistent with {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance via oscillations with |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| = 2.74{sub -0.26}{sup +0.44} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and sin{sup 2} (2{theta}{sub 23}) > 0.87 (68% C.L.).

  20. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, D G; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; de Jong, J K; DeMuth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Terekhov, A; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2006-11-10

    This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(mu) disappearance via oscillations with |Delta(m)2/32|=2.74 +0.44/-0.26 x10(-3)eV(2) and sin(2)(2theta(23))>0.87 (68% C.L.). PMID:17155614

  1. Swirl injectors for oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle engines and hypergolic propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew R.

    Presented here are two efforts concerning the application of swirl injectors to rocket engine main chamber injectors. The first study was undertaken to develop a liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with new hypergolic propellants in conjunction with KB Sciences and China Lake. The second study focuses on gas/liquid swirl injectors typically used for main chamber elements in oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines. The design, development and testing of hypergolic liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) and non-toxic hypergolic miscible fuels (NHMF) are discussed first. Cold flow tests were conducted to measure the spray cone angle and discharge coefficient of the injector, and allow for comparison with theoretical predictions to evaluate the design model. The goal of this effort was to establish a method to design swirl injectors operating in a thrust regime of 35 lbf, characteristic lengths of 30 in, and c* efficiencies above 90%. A literature review of existing inviscid swirl models is provided. The bi-centrifugal swirler design process is described, along with the design features of the series of bicentrifugal swirl injectors that were built. Results from cold flow experiments are compared to the theoretical predictions of the models reviewed. Characteristic velocity (c*) efficiencies of 70-92% were measured. Next an introduction will be made to the transition of the study into the research regarding swirl injectors for the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The derivation of the baseline operating conditions is discussed. The liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LOX/H2) preburner and GOX/RP-1 injector design and hardware are detailed. Two alternative injector designs chosen to explore the stability margins of this type of injector and give a quantitative comparison of the dynamic response to the baseline injector geometry are presented. The hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter with established heritage used in the preburner is briefly discussed. Finally, the results of igniter and preburner testing are presented.

  2. Report from the polarization group of the Fermilab injector workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The group considered physics, accelerator, and polarized source issues. Most of the physics study was concerned with what significant and unique experiments could be done if polarized protons could be accelerated in the main injector and eventually in the Tevatron. 12 refs., 4 figs

  3. Report from the polarization group of the Fermilab injector workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Glass, G.; Imai, K.; Jones, L.; Lin, A.M.T.; Mane, S.R.; Meschanin, A.; Onel, Y.; Roberts, J.; Hsueh, S.; Teng, L.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA); Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA); Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR

    1989-07-20

    The group considered physics, accelerator, and polarized source issues. Most of the physics study was concerned with what significant and unique experiments could be done if polarized protons could be accelerated in the main injector and eventually in the Tevatron. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Discharge characteristics of a hydrocyclone with built-in injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Krokhina, A. V.; Dueck, I. G.

    2011-09-01

    On the basis of experimental research and numerical simulation, flow regularities in a 50-millimeter hydrocyclone with injector have been revealed. It is shown that the injected liquid comes out mostly through the lower outlet. At tangential injection toroidal vortex impeding main flow discharge through the lower outlet is formed.

  5. Beam instrumentation in the LEP Pre-injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the beam instrumentation of the LEP pre-injector (LPI) including its design philosophy and software. The usefulness of these equipments for the LPI start-up is considered from an operational point of view and encountered problems are mentioned

  6. ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

  7. Diagnostic hydrogen-atom injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed charge-exchange injector of atoms of hydrogen isotopes has been developed for active particle-beam diagnostics. The length of the current pulse can be adjusted over the range 10--200 ?s; the equivalent current of H0 atoms can be adjusted up to 3.5 A; and the energy of the atoms lies in the range 3--25 keV. The maximum H0 current density 1.5 m from the injector is 250 mA/cm2. Atomic ions make up more than 90% of the primary ion beam. The injector can be used to produce beams of He, Ne, and Ar atoms

  8. CAMAC control system for the UNILAC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer control system for the UNILAC injector has been developed. To study the problems of injector operation under real conditions, a test bench was built which would generate nearly the same load on the control system as the injector. The control problems of source operation, ion beam extraction, focusing, beam diagnostics and spectra optimization have been studied intensively. (orig.)

  9. First studies of ATA injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational characteristics of the 10 kA, 60 ns, 2.5 MeV ATA injector are presented. Studies of beam emittance, beam profile, rf spectrum and other aspects of beam dynamics were performed, as was a detailed study of the operation and interaction of the plasma cathode and the extraction grid

  10. ANL high-resolution injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P. Den; Billquist, P.; Liu, Z.

    1986-05-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne tandem linac accelerator system). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed.

  11. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Jiajie; /South Carolina U.

    2010-07-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |{Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}|, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 23}. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  12. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |?m2|=(2.43±0.13)x10-3 eV2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle sin2(2?)>0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight: namely, neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard-deviation levels, respectively

  13. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

    2008-01-01

    This letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2|=(2.43\\pm 0.13)\\times10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ (68% confidence level) and mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta)>0.90$ (90% confidence level). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight, namely neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard deviation levels, respectively.

  14. A Large Liquid Argon TPC for Off-axis NuMI Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Scott

    2006-07-01

    The ICARUS collaboration has shown the power of the liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) technique to image events with bubble-chamber-like quality. I will describe a proposed long-baseline ?e appearance experiment utilizing a large (? 15 kton1) LArTPC placed off-axis of Fermilab's NuMI ?? beam. The total LArTPC program as it presently stands, which includes a number of smaller R&D projects designed to examine the key design issues, will be outlined.

  15. Testing CPT conservation using the NuMI neutrino beam with the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auty, David John; /Sussex U.

    2010-05-01

    The MINOS experiment was designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters with muon neutrinos. It achieves this by measuring the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor composition of the man-made NuMI neutrino beam 1km after the beam is formed and again after 735 km. By comparing the two spectra it is possible to measure the oscillation parameters. The NuMI beam is made up of 7.0% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, which can be separated from the {nu}{sub {mu}} because the MINOS detectors are magnetized. This makes it possible to study {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations separately from those of muon neutrinos, and thereby test CPT invariance in the neutrino sector by determining the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters and comparing them with those for {nu}{sub {mu}}, although any unknown physics of the antineutrino would appear as a difference in oscillation parameters. Such a test has not been performed with beam {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} before. It is also possible to produce an almost pure {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam by reversing the current through the magnetic focusing horns of the NuMI beamline, thereby focusing negatively, instead of positively charged particles. This thesis describes the analysis of the 7% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} component of the forward horn current NuMI beam. The {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} of a data sample of 3.2 x 10{sup 20} protons on target analysis found 42 events, compared to a CPT conserving prediction of 58.3{sub -7.6}{sup +7.6}(stat.){sub -3.6}{sup +3.6}(syst.) events. This corresponds to a 1.9 {sigma} deficit, and a best fit value of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} = 18 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23} = 0.55. This thesis focuses particularly on the selection of {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} events, and investigates possible improvements of the selection algorithm. From this a different selector was chosen, which corroborated the findings of the original selector. The thesis also investigates how the systematic errors affect the precision of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}. Furthermore, it describes a study to determine the gains of the PMTs via the single-photoelectron spectrum. The results were used as a crosscheck of the gains determined at higher intensities by an LED-based light-injection system.

  16. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  17. ATA injector-gun calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

  18. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .007 to .06c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the independently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience are discussed

  19. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  20. Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ? Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ? ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ? Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times

  1. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  2. PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, P.N.; Holmes, S. D.; Kephart, R. D.; Kerby, J. S.; Lebedev, V. A.; Mishra, C. S.; S. Nagaitsev; Shemyakin, A. V.; N. Solyak; Stanek, R. P.; Li, D

    2013-01-01

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. As part of this development program, we are constructing a prototype of the front end of the Project X linac at Fermilab. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) can be constructed over...

  3. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  4. Centrifuge pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

  5. Investigations of injectors for scramjet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Luca

    Three, coordinate experimental studies were undertakes. First, an experimental study of an aerodynamic ramp (aeroramp) injector was conducted at Virginia Tech. The aeroramp consisted of an array of two rows with two columns of flush-wall holes that induce vorticity and enhance mixing. The holes were spaced four diameters apart in the streamwise direction with two diameters transverse spacing between them. For comparison, a single-hole circular injector with the same area angled downstream at 30 degrees was also examined. Test conditions involved sonic injection of helium heated to 313 K, to safely simulate hydrogen into a Mach 4 air cross-stream with average Reynolds number 5.77 · 107 per meter at a jet to freestream momentum flux ratio of 2.1. Sampling probe measurements were utilized to determine the local helium concentration. Pitot and cone-static pressure probes and a diffuser thermocouple probe were employed to document the flow. The main results of this work was that the mixing efficiency value of this aeroramp design which was originally optimized at Mach 2.4 for hydrocarbon injectants was only slightly higher than that of the single-hole injector at these high Mach number flow conditions with a low molecular weight injectant. The mass-averaged total pressure loss parameter showed that the aero-ramp and single-hole injectors had the same overall losses. The natural extension of the investigation was then to look in detail at two major physical phenomena that occur in a complex injector design such the aeroamp as well as in Scramjet combustors in general: the jet-shock interaction and the interaction of the vortical structures produced by the jets injection into a supersonic cross flow with an added axial vortex. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the effects of impinging shocks on injection of heated helium into a Mach 4 crossflow. Helium concentration, Pitot pressure, total temperature and cone-static measurements were taken during the mixing studies. It was found that the addition of a shock behind gaseous injection into a Mach 4 crossflow enhances mixing only if the shock is closer to the injection point where the counter-rotating vortex pair (always associated with transverse injection in a crossflow) is not yet formed, and the deposition of baroclinic generated of vorticity is the highest. The final investigation was concerned with the interaction of the usual vortex structure produced by jet injection into a supersonic crossflow and an additional axial vortex typical of those that might be produced by the inlet of a scramjet or the forebody of a vehicle to be controlled by jet interaction phenomena. The cases treated are for sonic, heated Helium injection from a circular jet inclined at 30 degrees to a Mach 4 flow at high Reynolds number conditions. The additional axial vortices were generated by a strut-mounted, diamond cross-section wing mounted upstream of the injection location. The wing was designed to produce a tip vortex of a strength comparable to that of one of the typical counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) found in the plume of a jet in a crossflow. For this purpose a separate study of the detailed vortex structure produced by jet injection into a supersonic crossflow was conducted. The profound interaction of supersonic vortices supported by a quantitative description and characterization of the flowfield was been demonstrated. The results show an higher value of the helium maximum concentration in all the cases investigated, but also higher penetration with a wider fuel plume compared to the case without a vortex. The decrease in mixing is attributed to severe disruption of the usual counter-rotating vortex pair in a jet plume.

  6. Beam tests of a wire scanner for the KEKB injector linac and beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam tests of a prototype wire scanner which will be used in the KEKB injector linac and in the beam transport line have been successfully conducted. The main purpose of the tests was to investigate effects of beam background on system performance by using electron beams of the injector linac and to prove that the wire scanner does work in an actual beam situation. This report describes results of the beam tests in detail. (author)

  7. LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

    2007-03-01

    A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

  8. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  9. Harmonic analysis of Fermilab Main Ring quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Main ring Quadrupoles have been used in the Fermilab Main ring and will be utilized in the proposed Fermilab Main Injector. Utilizing a rotating coil harmonic measurement system, a sample of more than 35 Fermilab Main Ring Quadrupoles have been measured. The asymmetric design of these magnets provides many easily measured harmonic coefficients. Results for harmonic coefficients at various excitation levels are presented

  10. Fermilab Antiproton Source, Recycler Ring, and Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, the Accumulator and the Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world's only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II, neutrino experiments using 8-GeV and 120-GeV proton beams, as well as a test beam facility and other fixed target experiments using 120-GeV primary proton beams. This paper provides a brief description of Fermilab accelerators as they operated at the end of the Collider Run II (2011).

  11. Fermilab Antiproton Source, Recycler Ring, and Main Injector

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, the Accumulator and the Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world's only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II, neutri...

  12. HTS sector magnet for the RCNP new injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) of Osaka University, we started to design a Separated Sector Cyclotron (SSC) as a new injector to increase beam currents from the cyclotron cascade system. We plan to apply High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) wires for main coils of sector magnets. A design of the magnet is described as well as recent results of the development of HTS magnets at RCNP. (author)

  13. Charge-exchange target of the negative ion injector min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium charge-exchange cell has been developed to provide large scale negative ion beams experiments. The cell influence on the injector and cell contruction are described. The cell experiments show that main parameters of the cell (jet thickness, leakage of Na, gas pressure difference on the jet) answer the demands or may be easily improved. Some results of H-beam experiments are described. These results are applicable to fusion research. 7 refs

  14. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

  15. Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N2, H2) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x1018 to 1020 atoms. Both the scattering angle (?1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 1016 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (?85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

  16. Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

    2011-01-01

    We report constraints on muon antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4 +/- 11.7(stat) ^{+10.2}_{-8.9}(syst) events under the assumption |dm2bar|=2.32x10^-3 eV^2, snthetabar=1.0. A fit to the two-flavor oscillation approximation constrains |dm2bar|<3.37x10^-3 eV^2 at the 90% confidence level with snthetabar=1.0.

  17. Measurement of neutrino oscillations with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; de Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Harris, E Falk; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

    2008-09-26

    This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |Deltam2| = (2.43+/-0.13) x 10(-3) eV2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle sin2(2theta) > 0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight: namely, neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard-deviation levels, respectively. PMID:18851439

  18. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

  19. Ion source and injector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of low energy accelerators which inject into proton linacs. Laboratories covered include Argonne, Brookhaven, CERN, Chalk River, Fermi, ITEP, KEK, Rutherford, and Saclay. This paper emphasizes complete injector systems, comparing significant hardware features and beam performance data, including recent additions. There is increased activity now in the acceleration of polarized protons, H+ and H-, and of unpolarized H-. New source development and programs for these ion beams is outlined at the end of the report. Heavy-ion sources are not included

  20. Candela Photo-Injector Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Travier, C.; Boy, L.; Cayla, J.N.; Leblond, B.; Georges, P.; Thomas, P.

    1994-01-01

    The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 500 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents energy spectrum measurements of the dark current and intense electron emission that occurs when the laser power density is very high.

  1. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  2. Ions for LHC: performance of the injector chain

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, D; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Blas, A; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Cettour Cave, S; Chanel, M; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Findlay, A; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jowett, JM; Küchler, D; Maury, S; Métral, E; Pasinelli, S; Schokker, M; Tranquille, G; Vandorpe, B; Wenninger, J; Wehrle, U

    2011-01-01

    The first LHC Pb ion run took place at 1.38 A TeV/c per beam in autumn 2010. After a short period of runningin, the injector chain was able to fill the collider with up to 137 bunches per ring, with an intensity of 108 Pb82+ ions/bunch, about 50% higher than the design value. This yielded a luminosity of 3×1025 Hz/cm2, allowing the experiments to accumulate just under 10 ?b-1 each during the four week run. We review the performance of the individual links of the injector chain, and address the main issues limiting the LHC luminosity, in view of reaching 1026 Hz/cm2 in 2011, and substantially beyond when the LHC energy increases after the long shutdown in 2013-14.

  3. Performance of the injectors with ions after LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, D

    2014-01-01

    We review the performance of the ion injector chain at the light of the improvements which will take place during LS1, and we derive the expected luminosity gain for Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions in the LHC. We suggest a baseline plan of upgrades that will allow the requirements of the ALICE experiment after LS2 to be reached. An alternative plan is also presented. Finally, we examine the possibility for different ions species for which some of the other experiments have expressed an interest. The main outcomes of the presentation ‘Work effort in the injector complex (including the Linac4 connection)’ will be reminded with emphasis on their consequences on the ion operations.

  4. Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

    2003-12-01

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

  5. First coupled CH power cavity for the FAIR proton injector

    OpenAIRE

    Brodhage, Robert M.; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Podlech, Holger; Fix, Christopher; Clemente, Gianluigi; Groening, Lars

    2011-01-01

    For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The main acceleration of this room temperature linac will be provided by six CH cavities operated at 325 MHz. Each cavity will be powered by a 2.5 MW Klystron. For the second acceleration unit from 11.5 MeV to 24.2 MeV a 1:2 scaled model has been built. Low level RF measurements have been performed to determine the main parameters and to prove the concept of coupled CH cavities. For...

  6. Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  7. Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

    2010-04-01

    Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 ?m and 733 ?m with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 ?m and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

  8. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (1) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (2) a centrifuge pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (3) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper

  9. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  10. Present status and future of compact injector at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A HIMAC injector is equipped with three ion sources, and provides heavy ions from H to Xe with the sources. The compact injector, which developed at the NIRS, was recently installed in the HIMAC as the second injector, and the beam tests were successfully performed in April, 2011. In this report, we report a summary and the future of the compact injector. (author)

  11. Internal baffling for fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

    2014-08-05

    A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

  12. PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N; Kephart, R D; Kerby, J S; Lebedev, V A; Mishra, C S; Nagaitsev, S; Shemyakin, A V; Solyak, N; Stanek, R P; Li, D

    2013-01-01

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. As part of this development program, we are constructing a prototype of the front end of the Project X linac at Fermilab. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) can be constructed over the period FY12-16 and will include an H- ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two SC cryomodules providing up to 30 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA. Successful operations of the facility will demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that will find applications beyond Project X in the longer term.

  13. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  14. Status of the VICKSI tandem injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VICKSI accelerator facility is being enlarged by the addition of an 8 MV tandem as second injector. This will allow the acceleration of ions up to mass 30 u to energies of 32 MeV/A and furthermore will produce a variety of ions which are not available from the present Penning ion source installed in the terminal of the existing injector. At present installation and testing of all subsystems are in progress and the authors anticipate completion of the project before the end of this year. Routine operation with the tandem injector can start in early 1985

  15. Status of the VICKSI tandem injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VICKSI accelerator facility is being enlarged by the addition of an 8 MV tandem as second injector. This will allow the acceleration of ions up to mass 30 ? to energies of 32 MeV/A and furthermore will produce a variety of ions which are not available from the present Penning ion source installed in the terminal of the existing injector. At present installation and testing of all sub-systems are in progress and it is anticipated completion of the project before the end of this year. Routine operation with the tandem injector can start in early 1985

  16. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  17. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. locity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

  18. Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, re on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

  19. Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO)...

  20. Status of the injector complex at LAMPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.R.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Allison, P.W.; Meyer, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    The injector complex at LAMPF consists of two on-line injectors which provide simultaneous H/sup +/ and H/sup -/ beams for dual beam operation of the linac. A third polarized ion injector is now under construction and will provide polarized H/sup -/ beams. Production runs at LAMPF now employ 100 ..mu..A average H/sup +/ beam simultaneously with up to 10 ..mu..A average of H/sup -/ beam; operational experience and tuning procedures required for dual-beam operation are described. The design of the ion sources, accelerating columns, and beam choppers now in operation is reviewed. A discussion of the high voltage problems involved in the operation of these injectors with high duty factor, high power beams together with a detailed description of the engineering of the accelerating tube and of the control circuits and fast protect systems now employed to achieve low fault rates is presented.

  1. Design aspects of an ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made for the main factors that must be considered on the design of an ion injector. These factors are: the current intensity limits, plasma potential and beam emittance, the current intensity is limited by the beam perveance which depends on the geometry of the extraction system, the type of the ion species and beam aberration factor. We take into account the influence of the plasma potential in determining the actual beam energy. Study of the appropriate design of the einzel lens is necessary in order to match the beam emittance with the accelerator acceptance. The study shows an optimal voltage ratio, which corresponds to the geometry of the lens. At this optimal voltage ratio the beam emittance at the output of the lens is minimum and the beam transport through the lens is without aberration and its intensity decreases with the increase of the atomic number of the ion species. The increase of the extraction voltage affects the increase of the extracted current and decreases the beam brightness which shows that an optimization is necessary to make a compromisation between the extracted current intensity and the beam brightness. (orig.)

  2. An introduction to photo-injector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The high charge state injector for GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new injector for acceleration of U28+ to 1.4 MeV/u was designed. It consists of a 14.5 GHz ECR source, a 108 MHz RFQ linac and an interdigital H-type accelerator. The installation of the new linac was completed in 1991. The commissioning and first operational experience confirmed the overall performance of the new injector. Remaining problems are discussed. (Author) 8 figs., tab., 12 refs

  4. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K+, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 ? mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse

  5. Conceptual study of the RCNP new injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual study on a new injector to the ring cyclotron is in progress at RCNP. A separated sector cyclotron (SSC) with Cockcroft-Walton accelerator as a pre-injector is a candidate and has been discussed. Design of high-temperature superconducting sector magnets and a RF cavity have been studied for the SCC. The RF cavity needs structure to vary a resonant frequency of the cavity. Studies on sizes and structures of the cavity have been performed. (author)

  6. CARE-JRA2* Activities on Photo-Injectors and CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, Louis

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the CARE project, there is a Joint Research Activity (JRA2) called PHIN (PHoto-INjectors). The main objective of this JRA is to perform Research and Development on charge-production by interaction of a laser pulse with material within RF fields and improve or extend existing infrastructures. Another activity of PHIN is the coordination of the activities of various Institutes concerning photo-injectors. A brief review of the work of the eight European laboratories involved in PHIN is presented. One of these R&D topics is the construction of a photo-injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). In this context the status of CTF3 and its main goals - the demonstration of the feasibility of the key issues of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme - is also presented.

  7. Efficient GO2/GH2 Injector Design: A NASA, Industry and University Cooperative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, P. K.; Klem, M. D.; Fisher, S. C.; Santoro, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Developing new propulsion components in the face of shrinking budgets presents a significant challenge. The technical, schedule and funding issues common to any design/development program are complicated by the ramifications of the continuing decrease in funding for the aerospace industry. As a result, new working arrangements are evolving in the rocket industry. This paper documents a successful NASA, industry, and university cooperative effort to design efficient high performance GO2/GH2 rocket injector elements in the current budget environment. The NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program initially consisted of three vehicle/engine concepts targeted at achieving single stage to orbit. One of the Rocketdyne propulsion concepts, the RS 2100 engine, used a full-flow staged-combustion cycle. Therefore, the RS 2100 main injector would combust GO2/GH 2 propellants. Early in the design phase, but after budget levels and contractual arrangements had been set the limitations of the current gas/gas injector database were identified. Most of the relevant information was at least twenty years old. Designing high performance injectors to meet the RS 2100 requirements would require the database to be updated and significantly enhanced. However, there was no funding available to address the need for more data. NASA proposed a teaming arrangement to acquire the updated information without additional funds from the RLV Program. A determination of the types and amounts of data needed was made along with test facilities with capabilities to meet the data requirements, budget constraints, and schedule. After several iterations a program was finalized and a team established to satisfy the program goals. The Gas/Gas Injector Technology (GGIT) Program had the overall goal of increasing the ability of the rocket engine community to design efficient high-performance, durable gas/gas injectors relevant to RLV requirements. First, the program would provide Rocketdyne with data on preliminary gas/gas injector designs which would enable discrimination among candidate injector designs. Secondly, the program would enhance the national gas/gas database by obtaining high-quality data that increases the understanding of gas/gas injector physics and is suitable for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation. The third program objective was to validate CFD codes for future gas/gas injector design in the RLV program.

  8. RF system of the photon factory injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rf system of the Photon Factory 2.5 GeV injector electron linac now under construction is described. The rf system is composed of four stages: a master oscillator, a main booster amplifier (cw, 476 MHz), sub-booster amplifiers (pulse, 2856 MHz) and fourty-two high power klystrons. The output rf power of the klystrons is 30 MW and the rf power of each klystron is split and fed into four accelerator guides composing one acceleration unit. Almost all of the rf equipment and components have been installed in their positions and are in the final adjustment stage

  9. Development and design of railgun system to pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the railgun systems for the application of pellet injector are investigated and developed in the experimental stage. One of the main features of our railgun systems is to employ a pulse laser beam to induce the initial plasma armature between rails to be accelerated. This unique feature provides the reduction of the supplied voltage to the breakdown between the rails and to reduce the erosion of the rails. This paper presents the current results of a the authors' experimental and theoretical research progress, and introduces the design study for electromagnetic railgun based on our research progress

  10. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  11. Overview on superconducting photo injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of most of the proposed ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR-FELs is contingent upon the development of an appropriate source. Electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required to meet future FEL specifications. An elegant way to create such an unique beam is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting RF photo guns with the superconducting technology. Such superconducting RF photo injectors (SRF guns) based on different approaches are under investigation at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Lot of progress could be achieved during the last years and first long term operation was demonstrated at the FZD. In the near future, this effort will lead to SRF guns, which are indispensable devices for future LINAC driven FEL facilities. Based on most prominent projects, this contribution covers status and progress of the state-of-the-art SRF gun developments in the world.

  12. Harmonic analysis of Fermilab main ring quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Main Ring Quadrupoles have been used in the Fermilab Main Ring and will be utilized in the proposed Fermilab Main Injector. Utilizing a rotating coil harmonic measurement system, a sample of more than 35 Fermilab Main Ring Quadrupoles have been measured. The asymmetric design of these magnets provides many easily measured harmonic coefficients. Results for harmonic coefficients at various excitation levels are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Modeling of classical swirl injector dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, Maksud M.

    The knowledge of the dynamics of a swirl injector is crucial in designing a stable liquid rocket engine. Since the swirl injector is a complex fluid flow device in itself, not much work has been conducted to describe its dynamics either analytically or by using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Even the experimental observation is limited up to date. Thus far, there exists an analytical linear theory by Bazarov [1], which is based on long-wave disturbances traveling on the free surface of the injector core. This theory does not account for variation of the nozzle reflection coefficient as a function of disturbance frequency, and yields a response function which is strongly dependent on the so called artificial viscosity factor. This causes an uncertainty in designing an injector for the given operational combustion instability frequencies in the rocket engine. In this work, the author has studied alternative techniques to describe the swirl injector response, both analytically and computationally. In the analytical part, by using the linear small perturbation analysis, the entire phenomenon of unsteady flow in swirl injectors is dissected into fundamental components, which are the phenomena of disturbance wave refraction and reflection, and vortex chamber resonance. This reveals the nature of flow instability and the driving factors leading to maximum injector response. In the computational part, by employing the nonlinear boundary element method (BEM), the author sets the boundary conditions such that they closely simulate those in the analytical part. The simulation results then show distinct peak responses at frequencies that are coincident with those resonant frequencies predicted in the analytical part. Moreover, a cold flow test of the injector related to this study also shows a clear growth of instability with its maximum amplitude at the first fundamental frequency predicted both by analytical methods and BEM. It shall be noted however that Bazarov's theory does not predict the resonant peaks. Overall this methodology provides clearer understanding of the injector dynamics compared to Bazarov's. Even though the exact value of response is not possible to obtain at this stage of theoretical, computational, and experimental investigation, this methodology sets the starting point from where the theoretical description of reflection/refraction, resonance, and their interaction between each other may be refined to higher order to obtain its more precise value.

  14. BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 ?mm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%. (authors)

  15. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PII) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structure. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ? 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A>0.1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 30Si7+, 40Ar11+, 132Xe13+, and 208Pb24+. For all of these, transmission through the injector linac was ? 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ? 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time. (orig.)

  16. Development of steam injector feedwater heater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to realize the simplified BOP system of BWR plant, the authors developed the basic designs of feedwater system simplified by application of Steam Injector. Basic specification of simplified steam injector feedwater heater system (SI-FWH) was developed based on system designs and thermal efficiency evaluation. Test facility was constructed based on system specification selected in accordance with analysis results of plant thermal efficiency. The steam pressures used in the selected best system for low pressure feed water heaters are 0.05 MPa, 0.10 MPa, 0.21 MPa and 0.40 MPa are almost the same pressures as the current ABWR's. Improved steam injectors for feedwater heater system were studied by thermal hydraulic analyses and the test model attained the 1st and 2nd stage specifications. The 3rd and 4th stage injectors succeeded in raising the water temperature to 136degC. The parallel multistage steam injectors rationalize the feedwater system by eliminating the twelve neck-heaters, and prevent the chrome ion, which is dissolved from the stainless steel heater tube, introducing into the RPV. (author)

  17. Using Quasi-Elastic Events to Measure Neutrino Oscillations with MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been designed to search for a change in the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as they travel between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Far Detector in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, 735 km from the target. The MINOS oscillation analysis is mainly performed with the charged current (CC) events and sensitive to constrain high-?m2 values. However, the quasi-elastic (QEL) charged current interaction is dominant in the energy region important to access low-?m2 values. For further improvement, the QEL oscillation analysis is performed in this dissertation. A data sample based on a total of 2.50 x 1020 POT is used for this analysis. In summary, 55 QEL-like events are observed at the Far detector while 87.06 ± 13.17 (syst.) events are expected with null oscillation hypothesis. These data are consistent with ?? disappearance via oscillation with ?m2 = 2.10 ± 0.37 (stat.) ± 0.24 (syst.) eV2 and the maximal mixing angle.

  18. TJ-II neutral beam injectors control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Control and Data Acquisition System for the Neutral Beam Injectors of TJ-II are described in this paper. The DAQ and Control architecture is based on a distributed system including VME-OS9 real-time computers and personal computers (PCs) with Linux and Windows NT. One OS9-VME local computer located near each injector performs the timing, local signal processing, signal interlock, and operation of the injector mechanical and electrical components. A main OS9-VME interfaces and controls some peripheral systems, such as the high voltage power supplies, water cooling, safety and protection systems. Control is performed from the OS9-VME machines, in which the software elements are basically C/C++ programs performing real time processing and a web server enabling access to the HTML pages acting as user graphic interface

  19. Present status of the HIMAC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent performance of the injector system of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is reported. The injector comprises two kinds of ion sources (a PIG ion source and an ECR ion source), a 100 MHz RFQ linac and a 100 MHz Alvarez linac. The beam energy is 6 MeV/u for heavy ions between 4He and 40Ar. The typical intensities of the injector are 357 e?A for He2+ and 445 e?A for C6+. The typical normalized 90% emittance and the momentum spread are 0.7 ?mm·mrad and 0.1%, respectively. These performances satisfied the requirement for the cancer therapy. (author)

  20. Spray features in the near field of a flow-blurring injector investigated by high-speed visualization and time-resolved PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lulin; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2015-05-01

    In a flow-blurring (FB) injector, atomizing air stagnates and bifurcates at the gap upstream of the injector orifice. A small portion of the air penetrates into the liquid supply line to create a turbulent two-phase flow. Pressure drop across the injector orifice causes air bubbles to expand and burst thereby disintegrating the surrounding liquid into a fine spray. In previous studies, we have demonstrated clean and stable combustion of alternative liquid fuels, such as biodiesel, straight vegetable oil and glycerol by using the FB injector without requiring fuel pre-processing or combustor hardware modification. In this study, high-speed visualization and time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are employed to investigate the FB spray in the near field of the injector to delineate the underlying mechanisms of atomization. Experiments are performed using water as the liquid and air as the atomizing gas for air to liquid mass ratio of 2.0. Flow visualization at the injector exit focused on a field of view with physical dimensions of 2.3 mm × 1.4 mm at spatial resolution of 7.16 µm per pixel, exposure time of 1 µs, and image acquisition rate of 100 k frames per second. Image sequences illustrate mostly fine droplets indicating that the primary breakup by FB atomization likely occurs within the injector itself. A few larger droplets appearing mainly at the injector periphery undergo secondary breakup by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Time-resolved PIV is applied to quantify the droplet dynamics in the injector near field. Plots of instantaneous, mean, and root-mean-square droplet velocities are presented to reveal the secondary breakup process. Results show that the secondary atomization to produce fine and stable spray is complete within a few diameters from the injector exit. These superior characteristics of the FB injector are attractive to achieve clean combustion of different fuels in practical systems.

  1. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Maclean, J. F.; Arnold, N. D.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector pri...

  2. Progress of the VICKSI-tandem injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VICKSI-accelerator combination will be enlarged by installing an 8 MV Pelletron tandem injector. The addition of the new injector will allow acceleration of ions up to 32 MeV/A for masses up to approx.= 30 u and will produce a variety of ions which are not available from the Penning ion source installed in the existing CN injector. The progress of the various subsystems for the new injector is described. (orig.)

  3. Hydrogen pellet injector for Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid hydrogen pellet injector has been developed for the Doublet III experimental fusion device. A once-through liquid helium refrigeration system maintains a hydrogen extruder cylinder at a temperature of 10 kelvin. The hydrogen is extruded into a 2 to 3 mm diameter rod which is cut off in 3 to 4 mm lengths and launched into the Doublet III vacuum vessel just prior to plasma initiation. The solenoid launcher is capable of initial pellet velocities up to 15 meters per second. This hydrogen pellet injector is now in operation on Doublet III and is beginning to produce interesting physics results

  4. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  5. JET pellet injector development - outline of a strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program objectives for the JET pellet injector program are outlined. These objectives are aimed at understanding the factors influencing density behavior during pellet injection. The technical basis for the injector design is reviewed and development efforts at several laboratories are listed. Task sharing and time scheduling for injector development are discussed

  6. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 ?s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (< 5k?) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (? 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 ?s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented

  7. Properties of high current RFQ injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author)

  8. Properties of high current RFQ injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempp, A.; Goethe, J.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1996-12-31

    RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author) 2 refs.

  9. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  10. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  11. Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector: Progress and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector - Progress and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  13. Using one-dimensional modeling to analyze the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Results of the simulations and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Effect of using diesel or biodiesel on injector hydraulic behavior has been analyzed. ? Single and main + post injections have been studied for different injection pressures. ? Higher viscosity affects needle dynamics, especially for low injection pressure. ? The post injection masses are lower for biodiesel fuel despite its higher density. ? Modified injector has been proposed to compensate the differences between the fuels. - Abstract: The influence of using biodiesel fuels on the hydraulic behavior of a solenoid operated common rail injection system has been explored by means of a one-dimensional model. This model has been previously obtained, including a complete characterization of the different components of the injector (mainly the nozzle, the injector holder and the electrovalve), and extensively validated by means of mass flow rate results under different conditions. After that, both single and multiple injection strategies have been analyzed, using a standard diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as working fluids. Single long injections allowed the characterization of the hydraulic delay of the injector, the needle dynamics and the discharge capability of the couple injector-nozzle for the two fuels considered. Meanwhile, the effect of biodiesel on main plus post injection strategies has been evaluated in several aspects, such as the separation of the two injections or the effect of the main injection on the post injection fuelction on the post injection fueling. Finally, a modification in the injector hardware has been proposed in order to have similar performances using biodiesel as the original injector configuration using standard diesel fuel.

  14. Atomization performance analysis of impinging injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spray characteristics with the variation of the impinging angle(15 .deg., 20 .deg. and 30 .deg.) of F-O-O-F type injectors are investigated. The droplet size and velocity in the impinging spray flow field were measured using a PDPA. The droplet size and velocity were investigated at mixture ratios of 1.5, 2.0, 2.47 and 3.0 for each injectors. As the impinging angle is increased, the velocity distribution is decreased and the spray width is increased. But, for SMD or uniformity of droplet, the drop size has more uniformity as increasing of impinging angle. The results of this study can be used for the design of a nozzle for liquid propellant rockets

  15. LS1 Report: injectors 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

  16. Development of Dragon-I injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3.5 MeV injector is the electron beam source of Dragon-I induction linac. Electron beam is extracted by the magnetic field from diode powered by an induction voltage adder, which is composed of pulsed power system, induction cavities, cathode/anode stem and radial insulator. Innovation is adopted in the development such as Pierce-like cathode, 800 mm OD ferrite toroid and solenoids placed inside cathode/anode. measurement shows that this injector is of high performance with output beam of 2.8 kA, 3.7 MeV, and normalized emittance of 1040 ?·mm·mrad, energy spread of 2.1%. (authors)

  17. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  18. The ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions

  19. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PH) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structures. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ? 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A > 0. 1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 3OSi7+, 40Arll+, 132Xe13+, and 208Pb24+. For all of these, transmission through the injecter linac was ? 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ? 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time

  20. An integrated aerodynamic-ramp-injector/plasma-torch-igniter for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Lance Steven

    The first integrated, flush-wall, aero-ramp-fuel-injector/plasma-torch igniter and flame propagation system for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels was developed and tested. The main goal of this project was to develop a device which could be used to demonstrate that the correct placement of a plasma-torch-igniter/flame-holder in the wake of the fuel jets of an aero-ramp injector array could make sustained, efficient supersonic combustion with low losses and thermal loading possible in a high enthalpy environment. The first phase of the research effort was conducted at Mach 3.0 at a static pressure and temperature of 0.19 atm and 101 K. This phase involved component analyses to improve on the designs of the aero-ramp and plasma-torch as well as address integration and incorporation difficulties. The information learned from these experiments lead to the creation of the first prototype integrated aero-ramp/plasma torch design featuring a new simplified four-hole aero-ramp design. The second phase of the project consisted of experiments at Mach 2.4 involving a cold-flow mixing evaluation of the new aero-ramp design and a resizing of the device for incorporation into a scramjet flow path test rig at the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL). Experiments were performed at a static pressure and temperature of 0.25 atm and 131 K, and at injector-jet to freestream momentum flux ratios ranging from 1.0 to 3.3. Results showed the aero-ramp to mix at a considerably faster rate than the injector used in the AFRL baseline combustor configuration due to high levels of vorticity created by the injector array. The last phase of the research involved testing the final device design in a cold-flow environment at Mach 2.4 with ethylene fuel injection and an operational plasma torch with methane, nitrogen, a 90-percent nitrogen 10-percent hydrogen (by volume) mixture, and air feedstock gases. Experiments were performed with injector jet to freestream momentum flux ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.3, and 1.2 with the plasma torch at a nominal power level 2000 watts. Overall, the final integrated design showed a high mixing efficiency and a higher potential for repeatable main fuel ignition and flame propagation with the plasma torch placed at the middle of the three downstream torch stations tested ( x/dinjector = 8 downstream from the center of the injector area), with nitrogen as the torch feedstock. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Upgrade of the ATLAS positive ion injector bunching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, significant efforts were concentrated on improving the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) RF bunching system, consisting of a four-harmonic pre-buncher, Traveling Wave Chopper (TWC) and a single-frequency sinusoidal re-buncher. The primary goal was to improve RF field stability with a redesigned RF system and to improve buncher performance for higher current beams resulting in better bunch stability and time structure at the first PII superconducting resonator. The major parts of the system were redesigned and rebuilt, including 12- 48 MHz RF power amplifiers for the harmonic pre-buncher and re-buncher, RF driver rack for the TWC, and the RF control chassis for both the pre-buncher and re-buncher. The four-harmonic resonant structure of the harmonic buncher itself was modified, too, mainly for better mechanical stability and better RF matching. These improvements will be described and the performance of the new system presented

  2. Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne Tandem uses Pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ?E?t of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the negative-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam dissociation, and stripper-foil uniformity. This paper discusses these beam-degrading effects

  3. The Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne tandem uses pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ?E?t of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the neagtive-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam disscociation and stripper-foil uniformity. In this paper we discuss these beam-degrading effects. (orig.)

  4. Comissioning Of The Linear Accelerator-injector Of Tnk Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Zagorodnikov, E I; Chernov, K N; Churkin, I N; Dolgov, A M; Filiptchenko, A V; Grachev, N N; Khramtsov, V P; Kildisheva, O E; Kokin, E N; Korchuganov, V N; Krylov, Yu V; Matveev, Yu G; Matyash, N V; Medvedko, A S; Odintsov, D G; Ostreiko, G N; Repkov, V V; Ruvinsky, S I; Serdobintsev, G V; Shvedov, D A; Sinyatkin, S V; Spinko, N V; Steshov, A G; Tararyshkin, S V; Ushakov, V A; Valentinov, A G; Yudin, V D; Yupinov, Yu L

    2004-01-01

    The industrial storage facility has been developed and manufactured at Budker INP SB RAS. It contains an 80 MeV electron linear accelerator-injector and two electron storage rings: the lesser 450 MeV booster ring and the main 2.5 GeV storage ring. In 2002, the work on the accelerator assembling was begun. On December, 25 of this year the accelerator was started up, and the current at the linear accelerator output was obtained. The linear accelerator schematic together with a description of the 6 meter long accelerating DAW structure which operates at 2.8 GHz, are presented in the paper. The first results of the accelerator start-up are as follows: the accelerated electron current of ~50 mA with the energy of ~55-60 MeV.

  5. Study of RF-asymmetry in photo-injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the RF-asymmetry existing in the full cell of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell type photo-injector has been investigated. The fields of the multi-pole modes have been analyzed respectively, and lastly, a simple and reliable technique is presented to eliminate the dipole mode with the RF-asymmetry induced by dipole mode. In the process of simulation, the time domain module of CST Microwave Studio is mainly used as the tool to calculate the electro-magnetic fields. The FFT technique is employed to conduct frequency domain analysis for the fields. The results of FFT are utilized to estimate emittance growth induced by higher multi-pole modes, according to the framework of Panofsky-Wenzal theorem. Based on the above analysis, efforts have been made to eliminate dipole fields by modifying the length of vacuum port on the opposite side of RF-coupling port

  6. Design of the ITER Neutral Beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed in Europe, Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D0 to the ITER plasma for pulse length of ?1000 s. The injectors each use a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D-. This will be neutralized in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described

  8. New Results with the Ignitor Pellet Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Podda, S.; Bombarda, F.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.; Meitner, S.; Fehling, D.; Roveta, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Ignitor Pellet Injector (IPI) has been developed in collaboration between ENEA and ORNL to provide greater control over the density time evolution and the density peaking in plasmas produced by the Ignitor device. The four barrel, two stage injector has been designed to reach speeds up to 4 km/s, for effective low field side injection into ignited plasmas (Te ?Ti ? 11 keV). The present arrangement accomodates both a two-stage gun and a standard propellant valve on each barrel, allowing seamless switching between standard and high speed operation on any or all gun barrels. The cryostat is actively cooled by a pulse tube refrigerator, equipped with supplemental cooling from a liquid He dewar. The injector has shown very good repeatability; however, intact pellets were not observed over 2 km/s, possibly due to a spinning effect on the pellets at higher speed. The cross sections of the guiding tubes have been increased and other design improvements have been implemented, aimed in particular at reducing leak rates and reducing the dispersion of the pellet trajectories, in preparation of the experimental campaign reported here. Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy, and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  9. Influence of non-condensable gas on micro steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steam injector is useful in various industries since it is a simple, compact and passive component. Steam injector performance depends on the steam condensation onto the water jet surface and turbulent convective heat transfer in the water jet. In order to develop a high performance steam injector, it is necessary to clarity the effect of non-condensable gas. The effect of non-condensable gas was experimentally studied by using a micro steam injector with two kinds of water jet nozzles of round and star-shaped cross-sections. Furthermore the flow behavior was carefully observed with the transparent steam injector. The sound operational condition could be destroyed at the smaller air mass concentration with decreasing the steam flow area at the condensing region. The comparison between the round and star-shaped water nozzles indicated the stronger degradation due to the non-condensable gas in the steam injector adopting the star-shaped water nozzle. (authors)

  10. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Shaker, H

    2015-01-01

    The CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the first report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This report includes the design of the power couplers. The fundamental mode beam loading and higher order modes effect were preliminary studied.

  11. Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measutance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued

  12. Diesel Engine Injector Faults Detection Using Acoustic Emissions Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elamin, F.; Gu, F.; Ball, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on investigation of the method of identifying injector faults in a JCB 444T2 diesel engine using acoustic emission (AE) technique. Different kinds of injector faults were seeded in the four-cylinder, four-stroke, and turbo-engine. Then, faulty injectors are tested to evaluate AE based injection fault detection. The AE signals recorded from the tests were processed in the angular, frequency and joint angular-frequency domain. The results from joint angular-frequency analysis...

  13. Status report of the VICKSI CN-injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the accelerator facility VICKSI at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin a 6 MV Van de Graaff accelerator (HVEC CN-type) is used as injector for a separated sector isochronous cyclotron. The facility is in operation since 1978. In the following we will report about the operating experience with the CN-injector, which had to undergo a near complete reconstruction before it could be used as a heavy ion injector. (orig.)

  14. Initial use of the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positive-ion injector of ATLAS consists of an ECR heavy-ion source coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac. The ECR source and a 3-MV version of the partially completed linac have been used to accelerate successfully several species of heavy ions. The operating experience is summarized, with emphasis on the excellent beam quality of beams from the new injector. Two new fast-timing detectors are described. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. 2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Celata, C. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P. A.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Haber, I.

    2005-01-01

    High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

  16. Influence of variable thrust parameters on swirl injector fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Robert J.

    Current swirl injector design methodologies do not consider elevated chamber pressure and less than design mass flow rate operation found in variable thrust liquid rocket engines. The objective of this work is to study the effects of elevated chamber pressure and off-design mass flow rate operation on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a high pressure chamber, water flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of elevated chamber pressure and reduced mass flow rate. The optically-accessible swirl injector allowed for determination of the film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section. High speed video and digital stills showed significant increases in the film thickness profile at high chamber pressure and low mass flow rate operation. At prescribed combinations of chamber pressure and mass flow rate, a jump was noted in the film thickness profile. This jump was assumed related to a vortex breakdown phenomenon. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber pressure at low mass flow rate operation as opposed to near-design mass flow rate operation. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber pressure worked to decrease the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. A new set of fundamental relations linking swirl injector design parameters to injector geometry and flow conditions were derived. Impacts of the research findings to the swirl injector design process were assessed.

  17. A new injector for the ISL-cyclotron at HMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, O. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Haeuser, J. [NTG-Neue Technologien, Gelnhausen (Germany); Homeyer, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany); Marhauser, F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Pelzer, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany); Schempp, A. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1996-06-01

    A new injector for the ISL (Ionen-Strahl-Labor) heavy ion cyclotron at the HMI (Hahn-Meitner-Institut) Berlin (the former VICKSI machine) is under construction, which uses an RFQ as an injector for a SSC (Separated-Sector-Cyclotron). The ECR source together with two variable energy 4-rod-RFQs will replace the Tandem injector to meet the demands of the solid state physics users. The design of the new RFQ injector and the status of the project will be discussed. (orig.).

  18. A new injector for the ISL-cyclotron at HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new injector for the ISL (Ionen-Strahl-Labor) heavy ion cyclotron at the HMI (Hahn-Meitner-Institut) Berlin (the former VICKSI machine) is under construction, which uses an RFQ as an injector for a SSC (Separated-Sector-Cyclotron). The ECR source together with two variable energy 4-rod-RFQs will replace the Tandem injector to meet the demands of the solid state physics users. The design of the new RFQ injector and the status of the project will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. 2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector

  20. A study of plasma ignition enhancement for aeroramp injectors in supersonic combustion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Scott D.

    The main goal of this project was to investigate the mixing and chemical phenomena associated with the integration of a low-power, uncooled plasma torch into a fuel injector array. The potential application was for an integrated scramjet igniter/injector, with the hope of producing superior mixing and flameholding performance for supersonic combustion applications. To create a knowledge base for integration, several key investigations were made of the anode material, anode geometry, and spectrographic analysis of different light hydrocarbon fuels and inert feedstocks, all aimed at increasing the ignition potential of the plasma torch. Investigations of the anode material demonstrated the molybdenum provided longer lifetimes than either pure copper or tungsten-copper anodes. In addition, geometric studies of the anode revealed that anodes with short constrictor lengths and sonic exit nozzles provided superior ignition performance based on higher transfer rates of thermal energy from the arc to the feedstock. This resulted in the production of higher hydrogen atom concentrations within the plasma jet. Spectrographic observation of the plasma jets revealed that methane, ethylene, propylene, and propane plasmas all contain excited atomic hydrogen, a radical known to participate in important chain-branching combustion reactions. Based on the knowledge gained, and encouraging results, a candidate scramjet igniter and flameholder was designed. The design was observed to exhibit a synergistic effect between the plasma igniter and fuel injector in that the fuel injector provides not only a subsonic region for plasma ignition, but also lifts the combustion enhancing radicals out into the fuel-air stream by means of counter-rotating vortices. Furthermore, under the conditions tested, increases in plasma torch power produced an exponential increase in the intensity of downstream products, indicating an enhancement effect. Based upon these observations, the integrated igniter/injector design is expected to perform well in supersonic combustion applications.

  1. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160?MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5?kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5?kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45?kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena.

  2. Study on mechanism of condensation heat transfer of water jet in steam injector. Radiation between waves on the jet surface and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of a steam injector and steam condensation phenomena on water jet surface in the steam injector were experimentally examined. In visual experiments of behavior of the water jet in the steam injector, many large waves were observed on the water jet surface. The waves showed the tendency to grow as those proceeded downstream. Direct steam condensation on to the water jet surface in the steam injector was mainly controlled by radial heat transport in the water jet. The radial heat transport in the water jet was considerably more effective than that in the usual turbulent heat transport in a pipe. It was pointed out that this highly effective radial heat transport mechanism was created by local circulation in the water jet that was produced by waves on the water jet surface. Waves on the jet surface ware examined. Based on it, the heat transfer correlation of the jet flow accompanying the direct condensation of steam on the surface was proposed. (author)

  3. University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) has been designed and is being fabricated. The injector will be installed on the STOR-M tokamak (R = 0.46 m, a = 0.12 m) to study CT injection into tokamak discharges. The injector is of coaxial configuration consisting of formation, compression and acceleration sections. Discharge of a 500 ?F (2 kV) capacitor bank through a solenoid is capable of inducing a quasi-steady magnetic flux up to 1 mWb. Four fast-acting gas puffing valves inject up to 4 x 1019 hydrogen particles within 100 ?sec into the formation region. Two 20 ?F (20 kV) capacitor banks are used for the formation, compression and acceleration of a CT. High density tungsten coating, ac glow discharge cleaning and on-line baking are among the efforts to produce high quality CTs with low impurity contents. The envisaged CT parameters are: ro (outer radius) ? 0.05 m, ri (inner radius) ? 0.018 m, L (length) ? 0.15 m, n (density) ? 4 x 1021 m-3 and v (velocity) ? 400 km/sec. CT with these parameters should be able to penetrate 1 Tesla magnetic field in the STOR-M tokamak. Magnetic probes and He-Ne laser interferometer will be used to measure the CT velocity, density, magnetic field, and length. Spectroscopic measurements will be performed to investigate impurity contents in the CT. The CT parameters, especially its particle inventory, are designed to allow disruption-free CT injection intruption-free CT injection into the STOR-M tokamak. The emphasis of this research program is to study physics involved in tokamak plasma refueling by CT injection. Feasibility of plasma heating and current drive will also be investigated. In particular, the dependence of injection processes on the injection angle (130 degree to 40 degree with respect to the plasma current direction) will be studied in detail

  4. X-33 Injector Ignition Single Cell Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The X-33 injector ignition single cell was tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center test stand 116. The X-33 was a sub-scale technology demonstrator prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) manufactured and named by Lockheed Martin as the Venture Star. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the technologies needed for a full size, single-stage-to-orbit RLV, thus enabling private industry to build and operate the RLV in the first decade of the 21st century. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

  5. Radiotracer injector: An Industrial Application (RIIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention. (author)

  6. Ion Beam Injector for the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henestroza, E.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Kwan, J. W.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.

    2000-10-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research Group at LBNL is completing the re-design of the LBNL 2-MV ESQ Injector that will deliver at least 500 mA of singly-charged potassium ion beam at 2 MV for the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX). The LBNL 2-MV ESQ Injector, built and operated since 1993, has produced a potassium beam with adequate current (0.8 A) and emittance (0.8 pi-mm-mr normalized) but with a hollow profile at the exit of the injector. This driver-scale injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is required to give the beam emerging from the injector the proper shape to match the downstream HCX lattice. We will present the required modifications to the diode geometry and ESQ focussing strengths that will reduce the beam nonuniformity at the end of the injector. We will also present numerical simulations that show the evolution of the beam in the injector, through the matching section, as well as it is transported in the HCX.

  7. Cfd Simulation to the Flow Field of Venturi Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingfa; Li, Guangyong; Wang, Miao

    Venturi injector is widely used in fertigation system due to its obvious advantages such as cheap and robust system without mobile pieces, simple structure, convenient to operation, stable performance, needless of external energy for operation etc. At present, the hydraulic parameters such as suction capacity (injection rate) for the most of the Venturi injectors produced domestically are not very desirable. In this paper, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was used to simulate the inner flow field of the Venturi injectors, and the relationships among the structure parameters (i.e., throat length L, throat diameter D, slot diameter Da) and suction capacity q, and the optimal structure sizes of the Venturi injector were analyzed. The results show that when the inlet pressure and the slot position are kept unchanged as the sample one, the suction capacity of Venturi injector increases with the decrease of throat diameter D and throat length L, and the increase of slot diameter Da; while keeping the slot diameter Da, throat diameter D and throat length L unchanged, the suction capacity of Venturi injector q increases with the increase of inlet pressure P. The optimal combination of the structural parameters in this size was selected as follows: throat diameter D=8mm, slot diameter Da=18.5mm, and throat length L=14mm. In this case, the suction capacity of the Venturi injector q=1.203m3/h. The results can provide theoretic support for domestic Venturi injector research, design and manufacturing.

  8. Injector for RFQ using electrostatically focused transport and matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the principles and performance of a new type of high- current H- injector for RFQs. The distinguishing feature of our injector is that we replace the conventional gas-neutralized transport and matching units by electrostatic focusing units. Our system prevents plasma formation along the beam instead of utilizing it. Some advantages of this approach are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs

  9. Pellet injector systems for plasma refueling on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen pellet injection is one of the leading candidates for a refueling to magnetic confined fusion plasmas, since it can provide particles directly to core plasma. In order to investigate appropriateness of the pellet injection as a plasma refueling method, two types of solid hydrogen pellet injector systems have been developed and plasma experiments with pellet injection have been carried out on LHD (Large Helical Device). One is an in-situ pipe gun type pellet injector, which is the simplest of all pellet injector concepts. The in-situ pipe gun injector has 10 independent controlled barrels and each barrel can inject 3 mm? x 3 mml pellets with a velocity of ?1200 m/s. The other is a repetitive pellet injector with a screw extruder. The screw extruder can form 2.5 mm? solid hydrogen rod continuously at a extruding rates of ?35 mm/s and, therefore, the repetitive pellet injector can inject pellets in infinitum with repetitive rate of 10 Hz. Common feature of these injectors is employing a compact cryocooler to solidify hydrogen and, therefore, these injectors can be operated with just electricity instead of liquid helium supply system. (author)

  10. Component of astronauts survival equipment backpack - medical injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The automatic medical injectors were carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts space suit.

  11. Status of the 8 UD tandem-injector for VICKSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VICKSI accelerator facility has been improved by the addition of an 8 UD-tandem as an alternate injector. With the tandem injector higher energies can be reached and more ion species can be accelerated by VICKSI. A description of the commissioning process is given including the problems, the difficulties and their solutions. (orig.)

  12. Testing of a fuel injector in a supersonic air stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Calimanescu, Ioan; Buzbuchi, Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    The new idea of liquid fuel (kerosene) aeroramp injector/plasma igniter was tested in cold flow using a supersonic wind tunnel at Mach 2.4. The liquid fuel (kerosene) injector is flush wall mounted and consists of a 2 hole aeroramp array of impinging jets that are oriented in a manner to improve mixing and atomization of the liquid jets. The two jets are angled downstream at 40 degrees and have a toe-in angle of 60 degrees. The plasma torch used nitrogen and air as feedstocks and was placed downstream of the injector as an ignition aid. First, schlieren and shadowgraph photographs were taken of the injector flow to study the behavior of the jets, shape of the plume, and penetration of the liquid jet. The liquid fuel aeroramp was found to have better penetration than a single, round jet at 40 degrees. The Sauter mean droplet diameter distribution was measured downstream of the injector.

  13. A study of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, John Stuart; /Cambridge U.

    2008-06-01

    This thesis presents the results of an analysis of {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with the MINOS experiment, which studies the neutrino beam produced by the NuMI facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are measured in two similar detectors, located at distances of 1 km and 735 km along the NuMI beamline. The Near Detector provides accurate measurements of the initial beam composition and energy, while the Far Detector is sensitive to the effects of neutrino oscillations. The analysis uses data collected between May 2005 and March 2007, corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. As part of the analysis, sophisticated software was developed to identify muon tracks in the detectors and to reconstruct muon kinematics. Events with reconstructed tracks were then analyzed using a multivariate technique to efficiently isolate a pure sample of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} events. An extrapolation method was also developed, which produces accurate predictions of the Far Detector neutrino energy spectrum, based on data collected at the Near Detector. Finally, several techniques to improve the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement were implemented, and a full study of the systematic uncertainties was performed. Extrapolating from observations at the Near Detector, 733 {+-} 29 Far Detector events were expected in the absence of oscillations, but only 563 events were observed. This deficit in event rate corresponds to a significance of 4.3 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and clear distortion of the Far Detector energy spectrum is observed. A maximum likelihood analysis, which fully accounts for systematic uncertainties, is used to determine the allowed regions for the oscillation parameters and identifies the best fit values as {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.29{sub -0.14}{sup +0.14} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.953 (68% confidence level). The models of neutrino decoherence and decay are disfavored at the 5.0{sigma} and 3.2{sigma} levels respectively, while the no oscillation model is excluded at the 9.4{sigma} level.

  14. Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities. (authors)

  15. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Clifft, B E; Sherementov, S; Strickhorn, P

    2002-01-01

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PH has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted rf bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission- line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was suppor...

  16. Multi-beam injector development at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

  17. Advanced, high energy neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNL design of a high energy neutral beam injector is based on the neutralization of negative ions, a process that remains very efficient even at energies up to and above 1 MeV. The principal elements of such an injector are: source of negative ions, beam extraction and transport system, accelerator, neutralizing cell, and system for the removal and dumping (or energy recovery) of the remaining charged components of the beam. Among several possible source geometries, the most advanced is the BNL version of the magnetron. Best results have been obtained by using geometrical focusing of surface produced H- ions and an asymmetric discharge chamber. A large water cooled model is being fabricated, to deliver 1-2 A of H-/D- beam currents in pulses longer than 5 s, with a source power efficiency of about 6 kW/A and a gas efficiency of 6-10%. First tests are scheduled for July 1980. Two options of the beam transport are being studied theoretically and experimentally: a weak focusing bending magnet and a strong focusing chain of electrostatic quadrupoles

  18. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Richard C.; Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B. E.; Sherementov, S.; Strickhorn, P.

    2002-12-01

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PII has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted rf bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission-line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  19. Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

  20. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, R.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J.C.; Garvey, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l`Accelerateur Lineaire; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gougnaud, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.). 7 refs.

  1. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

  2. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  3. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented

  4. Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator systems, and the technical issues involved are summarized

  5. Physics design on C-ADS injector-1 RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear accelerator for C-ADS includes two injectors with the output energy of 10 MeV and the beam cur- rent of 10 mA. In order to safeguard the stability, reliability and availability of the linac, as one injector is in operation, the other is at hot stand-by spare. The injectors consist of a electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton ion source with the output energy of 35 keV, a low energy transport line (LEBT), a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and a superconducting accelerator with the output energy of 10 MeV. In order to research and develop the physics and technology of the injector, the working frequencies for injector-1 and injector-2 are chosen to 325 MHz and 162.5 MHz, respectively. The structures for the superconducting accelerator are also chosen differently as the spoke cavity and the half wave resonator, respectively. Here, only the physics design on C-ADS injector-1 RFQ is presented in detail. (authors)

  6. Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platfrom and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector linac will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator system, and the technical issues involved are summarized

  7. Emittance compensation for an SRF photo injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a superconducting photo injector is an ongoing challenge at the HZDR in Dresden. Several milestones like the first operation of a half cell niobium cavity in 2002 and the worldwide first beam transfer from a 3 1/2-cell SRF gun into an actual accelerator structure have already been accomplished. Nevertheless, as superconducting electron sources are of great interest for future ERL or cw operated FEL projects, studies to improve their output parameters and stability continue to get them on the same level as their normal conducting counterparts. The talk discusses several of the current approaches to reduce the transversal emittance of the next 3 1/2-cell cavity at the HZDR including the installation of a superconducting solenoid within the gun's cryostat.

  8. Commissioning the Linac Coherent Light Source injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.

    2008-03-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is a SASE x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC [J. Arthur , SLAC-R-593, 2002.]. The injector section, from drive laser and rf photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in the fall of 2006. The initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August of 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photocathode drive laser, rf gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band rf systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  9. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  10. ATLAS positive-ion injector proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS facility will provide beams of heavy-ions through approximately mass 130. Energies provided will range from over 20 MeV/A for lighter ions down to approximately 5 MeV/A for mass 130. In discussions with our user group concerning future program needs, two major areas of focus emerged. The first was a desire to increase the beam intensities available by approximately a factor of ten beyond what is possible from our present negative-ion source and tandem injector for all ion species. The second was to obtain beams of at least 10 MeV/A energy for all possible masses through uranium. These features were desired without compromising the presnt qualities of the ATLAS facility: good beam quality, ease of operation, and continuous (DC) operation. The facility which has been proposed to address these goals consists of replacing the negative-ion injector and FN tandem with a positive-ion source and a superconducting linac of a new design which makes use of the high field gradients possible with superconducting structures. The positive-ion source proposed is an electron cyclotron resonance source mounted on a high-voltage platform, providing a 350-kV potential for preacceleration of the ions. This will produce, for example, uranium ions of 7 MeV with a velocity of .008c, assuming a charge state of 20+. The ions will be bunched in a two stage bunching system providing a pulsed beam with a time width of better than 0.4 ns for injection into the linac

  11. A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current

  12. Evaluation Methods for Coolant Injector Performances and Severe Accident Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the numerical simulation methods of the coolant injector in the direct cooling type core catcher, and evaluation methods of the severe accident phenomena. Firstly, the numerical simulation method for two-phase flow behaviour inside coolant injectors is established. Installation of the coolant injectors in the direct cooling type core catcher is one of the concepts to deliver cooling water mixed with inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent steam explosion while effectively cooling down the corium by direct heat transfer. Secondly, the evaluation tools of the severe accident phenomena such as in-vessel accident scenario, the DCH, steam explosion, MCCI, and containment pressurization are surveyed and discussed

  13. Progress in the injector for FEL at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianlu Yang; Wenzhen Zhou; Shinian Fu [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An intense current RF-linac for the far-infrared FEL is now under construction at CIAE. The normalized brightness of 3.4 x 10{sup 9} A/(m-rad) was obtained from the injector of the linac. An acceleration section with 9 cells will be connected with the injector to provide an electron beam for the 200 {mu}m FEL oscillator. In this paper, the late results from the injector beam test will be reported. The physical design and research progress in the acceleration section, beam transport, undulator as well as optical cavity will be introduced respectively.

  14. Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

  15. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced

  16. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  17. Performance and Modeling of the JLab IR FEL Upgrade Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Benson, S V; Herman-Biallas, George; Bullard, Don; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred; Evans, Richard; Grippo, A; Gubeli, Joe; Jordan, Kevin; Neil, George; Shinn, Michelle D; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Shukui

    2004-01-01

    The JLab IR Upgrade Injector has delivered up to 9.1 mA CW of electron beam current at 9 MeV. The injector is driven by a 350 kV DC Photocathode Gun. Injector behavior and beam-based measurements are in very good agreement with PARMELA simulations. The injected beam envelopes were established by measuring beam spot sizes and comparing them with those predicted by a transport matrix based model. The emittances were measured by fitting an initial trial beam matrix to the measured data. The injected bunch length was established by measuring the energy spread downstream of the Linac while operating at either side of crest.

  18. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  19. Numerical and experimental study of the beam dynamics of CANDELA photo-injector and associated instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser triggered radiofrequency guns are the most luminous electron sources allowing to reach the performances requested by highly demanding applications like the e+/e-linear colliders and the short wave free electron lasers. CANDELA is a band S photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. It allows reaching peak currents of hundred of amperes at average energies higher than 2 MeV. The original concept of two accelerating cavities aims at minimizing the transverse and longitudinal emittances following the Gao's principles. From practical reasons the operating parameters, particularly the laser pulse duration, do not correspond to those considered in the design. Hence, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the gun's performances in experimental environment. The study of a stabile injector operation resulted in evolutions with consequences in the phase control systems implying the laser and the HF (Hyper Frequency) source. The beam transverse and longitudinal characteristics have been measured as a function of the main parameters i.e., the beam charge and the phase shift between the laser and the HF wave. Measurements of the transverse emittance energy dispersion and wave packed duration are presented for several injector configurations. The systems of existing beam measurements have been studied to determine the resolution and the experimental conditions to fulfill, in order to suggest improvements for the CANDELA beam. The experiments with the beam have been compared with numerical simulations. Agreement was obtained within wide ranges of parameters for most of the characteristic beam quantities

  20. Main Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss on main nuclear facilities available in the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). As a national research institute whose core activities are nuclear science and technology, MINT are made up of main commercializable radiation irradiators, pilot plant and fully equipped laboratories. Well elaboration on its characteristics and functions explain for RTP (PUPSPATI TRIGA reactors), Cobalt-60 gamma irradiator, electron beam accelerators, and radioactive waste management center

  1. Electron beam diagnostics for a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Thorsten; Arnold, Andre; Boehlick, Daniel; Dirsat, Marc; Klemz, Guido; Lipka, Dirk; Quast, Torsten; Rudolph, Jeniffa; Schenk, Mario; Staufenbiel, Friedrich; Teichert, Jochen; Will, Ingo

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) photoelectron injector is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a continuous-wave SRF injector including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE free electron laser (FEL) and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development, serving a multitude of operation settings. In this paper the layout and the rationale of the diagnostics beamline are described. Furthermore detailed information on specific components is given, together with results from laboratory tests and data taking. PMID:19044401

  2. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  3. Diesel Engine Injector Faults Detection Using Acoustic Emissions Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Elamin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of the method of identifying injector faults in a JCB 444T2 diesel engine using acoustic emission (AE technique. Different kinds of injector faults were seeded in the four-cylinder, four-stroke, and turbo-engine. Then, faulty injectors are tested to evaluate AE based injection fault detection. The AE signals recorded from the tests were processed in the angular, frequency and joint angular-frequency domain. The results from joint angular-frequency analysis have shown that AE can clearly monitor the changes in the combustion process due to its high signal to noise ratio, where other vibro-acoustic sources have little influence. Using features in the AE signal, faults of injector can be identified during the operation of the engine.

  4. Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

  5. Neutral beam injector research and development work in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief review covers the US neutral-beam-injector research and development work carried out at DOE Laboratories: The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), The Lawrence Berkeley and Livermore Laboratories (LBL/LLL), and The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 ? mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  7. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, J F

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

  8. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  9. A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Orival Luccas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator.

  10. DC-SC photocathode injector for high average power FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Hao Jian Kui; Xiang Rong; Zhu Feng

    2002-01-01

    To obtain high average current electron beams for high average power Free Electron Laser (FEL), a DC-SC photocathode injector is designed. It consists of DC extraction gap, 1 + 1/2 superconducting cavity and coaxial input system. High quality electron beams of CW mode or high duty factor can be obtained. The optimization of the injector and simulation of beam dynamics have been done. Model cavity experiments proved the correctness of the simulation

  11. A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples

    OpenAIRE

    Weierstall, U.; Doak, R.B; Spence, J. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the ...

  12. The Mmf Linac H- Injector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Yakushev, V P; Feschenko, A V; Frolov, O T; Nikulin, E S

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the existing proton injector the new H- injector with parameters as follows is under construction: energy of negative ions - 400keV; beam pulse duration - 200?s; pulse repetition rate - 50Hz; average beam current - 500?A The results of beam forming system synthesis and ion source power system automation control development are given. The television application for the beam parameters monitoring proposed.

  13. Spark-integrated propellant injector head with flashback barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory Stuart (Inventor); Fisher, David James (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    High performance propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that allows for effective and safe thermal decomposition and/or combustion of the propellants. By integrating a sintered metal component between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable fuel injector head may be implemented. Additionally the fuel injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  14. Liquid Monopropellant Injector Development for High Power Electrodeless Plasma Thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The thesis work aims at developing a liquid monopropellant injector for a high power electrodeless plasma thruster. The feasibility of using a chemical monopropellant for electric propulsion is investigated. After a design phase, the injector is put to the test with a simulant to the real liquid monopropellant in a simulated environment. Theoretical models are created to predict the power needed to vaporize a mass flow of the monopropellant without decomposing the heavy molecules. Testing has...

  15. Measuring of a fuel injector in a supersonic air stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Calimanescu, Ioan; Buzbuchi, Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    The new idea of liquid fuel (kerosene) aeroramp injector/plasma igniter was tested in cold flow using a supersonic wind tunnel at Mach 2.4. The liquid fuel (kerosene) injector is flush wall mounted and consists of a 2 hole aeroramp array of impinging jets that are oriented in a manner to improve mixing and atomization of the liquid jets. The two jets are angled downstream at 40 degrees and have a toe-in angle of 60 degrees. The plasma torch used nitrogen and air as feedstocks and was placed downstream of the injector as an ignition aid. First, schlieren and shadowgraph photographs were taken of the injector flow to study the behavior of the jets, shape of the plume, and penetration of the liquid jet. The liquid fuel aeroramp was found to have better penetration than a single, round jet at 40 degrees. The Sauter mean droplet diameter distribution was measured downstream of the injector. The droplet diameter was found to vary from 21 to 37 microns and the atomization of the injector does not appear to improve beyond 90 effective jet diameters from the liquid fuel aeroramp.

  16. Maine Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  17. MAINE HYDROGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

  18. General layout of the 17 MeV injector for MYRRHA

    OpenAIRE

    Podlech, Holger; Amberg, Michael; Klein, Horst; Mäder, Dominik; Busch, Marco; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Schempp, Alwin; Tiede, Rudolf; Vossberg, Markus; Zhang, Chuansheng

    2011-01-01

    The MYRRHA Project (Multi Purpose Hybrid Reactor for High Tech Applications) at Mol/belgium will be a user facility with emphasis on research with neutron generated by a spallation source. One main aspect is the demonstration of nuclear waste technology using an accelerator driven system. A superconducting linac delivers a 4 mA, 600 MeV proton beam. The first accelerating section is covered by the 17 MeV injector. It consists of a proton source, an RFQ, two room temperature CH cavities and 4 ...

  19. An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

  20. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  1. RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 1010 A/m2, with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 1010 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR

  2. Recent progress in photo-injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed

  3. Streamlined Darwin methods for particle beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics issues that involve inductive effects, such as beam fluctuations, electromagnetic (EM) instability, or interactions with a cavity require a time-dependent simulation. The most elaborate time-dependent codes self-consistently solve Maxwell's equations and the force equation for a large number of macroparticles. Although these full EM particle-in-cell (PIC) codes have been used to study a broad range of phenomena, including beam injectors, they have several drawbacks. In an explicit solution of Maxwell's equations, the time step is restricted by a Courant condition. A second disadvantage is the production of anomalously large numerical fluctuations, caused by representing many real particles by a single computational macroparticle. Last, approximate models of internal boundaries can create nonphysical radiation in a full EM simulation. In this work, many of the problems of a fully electromagnetic simulation are avoided by using the Darwin field model. The Darwin field model is the magnetoinductive limit of Maxwell's equations, and it retains the first-order relativistic correction to the particle Lagrangian. It includes the part of the displacement current necessary to satisfy the charge-continuity equation. This feature is important for simulation of nonneutral beams. Because the Darwin model does not include the solenoidal vector component of the displacement current, it cannot be used to study high-frequency phenomena or effects caused by rapid current changes. However, because wave motion is not followed, the Courant condition of a fully electromagnetic code can be exceeded. In addition, inductive effects are modeled without creating nonphysical radiation

  4. Impact of palm biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 250 h Endurance test on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and PB20. • Visual inspection of injectors running on DF and PB20 showed deposit accumulation. • SEM and EDS analysis showed less injector deposits for DF compared to PB20 blend. • Engine oil analysis showed higher value of wear particles for PB20 compared to DF. - Abstract: During short term engine operation, renewable fuels derived from vegetable oils, are capable of providing good engine performance. In more extended operations, some of the same fuels can cause degradation of engine performance, excessive carbon and lacquer deposits and actual damage to the engine. Moreover, temperatures in the area of the injector tip due to advanced diesel injection systems may lead to particularly stubborn deposits at and around the injector tip. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline and PB20 (20% palm biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single cylinder CI engine. The effects of DF and PB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors during running on both fuels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for PB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations, decreased viscosity and increased density values when the engine was fuelled with PB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and NOx emissions, and lower HC and CO emissions, for the PB20 blend compared to DF

  5. Inherent stability of central element coaxial liquid-liquid injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Most TRW liquid bi-propellant rocket engines built over the past thirty-plus years have employed a central element coaxial pintle injector and have operated with liquid/liquid propellant injection. This injector is a patented design exclusive to TRW and has unique features that make the rocket engine combustion characteristics different from those of other types of injector engine designs. Its many benefits include excellent combustion performance, efficient deep throttling, adaptability to low cost manufacturing, and high reliability. Approximately 200 pintle injector engines of various sizes and operating on a variety of propellants have been flown without a single inflight failure. An especially important feature of the pintle injector engine is its apparent inherent combustion stability. In over thirty years of development, testing, and production, TRW has never experienced combustion instability in any of its pintle injector engine designs. This has been true of engines operating over a range of thrust from 5 to 250,000 lbs. on earth-storable hypergolic propellants and a large number of smaller engines operating on a variety of propellants (21 combinations) in long duration-firing, pulsing (down to 2 msec), and deep throttling (as much as 19:1) modes. Operating chamber pressures have ranged from 10 to 3,500 psia. This record is particularly impressive given that typical TRW design practice does not consider combustion instability as an issue and no pintle engine has ever employed stability-enhancing features, such as baffles or acoustically resonant chambers. In spite of this, TRW engines have operated stably in regimes not possible with other types of injectors. Various physical explanations and combustion process models for this favorable stability characteristic have been postulated. However, a definitive study that unequivocally establishes the important stabilizing mechanisms still remains to be conducted.

  6. Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 312 cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELchnical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity

  7. Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-3. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

  8. An electron beam injector for pulse compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the physics of longitudal pulse compression in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction linac module. It produces a 50 ns, 40 mA electron pulse with a 2.5 to 7.5 keV, quadratically time-dependent energy shear. This beam will be injected into the existing 5-m long periodic transport channel with 38 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions the pulse will be compressed by a factor of 4 to 5 before reaching the end of the existing solenoid channel. This paper reports on the design features and the measured general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties

  9. A Software-Implemented Fault Injector on Windows NT Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present our experience in developing a tool for Software-Implement Fault Injection (SWIFI into Windows operation system. The fault injector uses software-base strategies to emulate the effects of radiation-induced transients occurring in the system hardware components. The SWIFI tool called MOFI (Memory Oriented Fault Injector is being used, in conjunction with an appropriate system fault model, to evaluate the applications, measure the injecting strength of injector and mean time to failure of injected applications and determine the sensitivity of applications to faults. The MOFI has been validated to inject faults into user-specified CPU registers and memory regions with many random distributions in location and uniform random distribution in time. The different random distributions chosen in location could produce different experiment results. The reason will be discussed in this study.

  10. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In JT-60, pellet injection experiment aims at achieving a high density and high performance plasma. The centrifugal pellet injector was chosen to attain our purpose of repetitive injection in high frequency. New techniques were applied to the pellet production and the acceleration systems because the centrifugal type injector has some technically complicated components, such as fuel extruder and straight line-type rotor. Those were mesh structured components of the pellet generator to exhaust sublimated gas from pellets and a funnel design with an appropriate angle to prevent pellet destruction. The most suitable technical condition in the operation of the injector was studied and the following performance was confirmed: the pellet size is 2.l mm cubic, the variable injection speed of pellet is from 300-690 m/s, and the frequency of repetitive pellet injection is from 1 to 10 Hz at the duration time of 7 s. (author)

  11. First operation of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate tat all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system

  12. A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples

    CERN Document Server

    Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and an in-vacuum microscope allows observation of the liquid jet for diagnostics while it is being exposed to the X-ray beam. A fiber optically coupled pump laser illuminating the jet is incorporated for pump-probe experiments. First results with this injector system have been obtained at the LCLS.

  13. The design and simulation of Injector ? in China ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADS projects undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences is to study how to use nuclear energy safely and effectively. The project includes high current proton accelerator as driven device, spallation target and reactor. The high current proton accelerator is being developed as a key technology. The accelerator includes two injectors. Injector ? whose frequency is 162. 5 MHz, including the ion source whose output energy is 30 keV, low energy transmission section. RFQ which accelerates proton from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV, the middle energy transmission section and the Superconducting Section accelerating proton to 10 MeV. This paper describes the design and simulation results of the injector ?. (authors)

  14. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  15. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PRE-INJECTOR DIGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL,). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (R-FQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device

  16. Electron Beam Ion Source Pre-Injector Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilinski, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Pikin, A.

    2006-11-01

    A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device.

  17. Progress report on the LEP pre-injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEP Pre-injector (LPI) provided very reliably positrons and electrons at 500 MeV for the LEP injector chain during the first LEP injection tests. Later, experiments were performed with the LEP Injector Linacs (LIL) to verify the influence of various parameters on the positron current and on the conversion efficiency. The authors also report experiments done with the Electron-Positron Accumulation ring (EPA) operating at 500 MeV concerning trapping, accumulation, and equilibrium beam parameters. Cutting of the 8 bunches by a thin electrostatic septum to produce two batches of 8 bunches was successfully tested. First runs with e+ and e- at 600 MeV showed the LPI behaves also at this energy as expected. 11 refs., 5 figs

  18. Retrieval of additional epinephrine from auto-injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Seth C; Weil, Carl; Baty, Fred; Fitzpatrick, David; Rowell, Bryan

    2013-12-01

    Anaphylaxis is a challenging condition for any austere environment. It is unpredictable, has sudden onset and a high fatality rate, and is responsive only to epinephrine, a prescription medication. The Wilderness Medical Society has formally recommended that non-medical providers working in austere environments be trained to administer epinephrine. Medical providers frequently prescribe auto-injectors for this purpose due to their ease of use by nonmedical providers. However, auto-injectors have limitations in the wilderness environment, particularly due to their single-dose (or at most 2-dose) design. This paper describes an austere environment technique for obtaining multiple additional doses of epinephrine from auto-injectors that have already been used as designed. PMID:24041621

  19. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

  20. First operation of the ATLAS positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate that all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system. (Author) 5 refs., tab., fig

  1. Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions. The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely avoid a use of the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. At the same time, semi-empirical expressions have the universal constant that does not depend on the injector design.

  2. Subscale Injector Testing to Support J-2X Engine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Elam, Sandy; Weber, Jim; Miller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X engine being pursued for the Ares I will be a derivative of the J-2 engine developed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). As part of the engine development, a subscale injector was fabricated by PWR and hot-fire tested at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate performance data. This subscale injector had a reduced injector diameter and fewer elements than the full scale design, but the element density (#elements / injector area), and element geometries nearly identical to the full scale design. Three different materials were used for the LOX posts in order to test for durability. The subscale injector included 46 standard elements and 6 baffle elements, corresponding to the ratio of baffled elements to core elements in the full scale design. The baffle elements were included to demonstrate thermal compatibility of the baffles and to more closely represent the full scale performance. Fifteen hot-fire tests were conducted totaling over 200 seconds of mainstage time on the injector. Chamber pressures with oxygen/hydrogen propellants ranged from 870-1380 psig with mixture ratios ranging from 4.8-6.1. Fuel manifold inlet temperatures were varied from 190 to 300 R. Modular, water cooled, calorimeter chamber assemblies were used to provide heating rate data and evaluate the effects of characteristic length (L*). Performance was evaluated relative to the resulting characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency. Performance met the value required in order to proceed with this design for the full scale hardware. Hardware inspections show no evidence of cracking at the tip of the LOX post for any of the materials tested. Minor erosion of the baffle element tips was observed in the early testing. A design change was quickly implemented and tested, and this change resolved the issue. Development of the J-2X is continuing with this element density and design.

  3. DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6

  4. SLC injector end to end simulation for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the end-to-end simulation of the SLC injector from the Gun through the first accelerating section. The purpose of these simulations is to aid the injector tuning for high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a 3 dimensional ray trace code with a two dimensional space charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The results from POISSON and SUPERFISH are used in PARMELA to simulate and prescribe experimental parameters

  5. Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operationexclamation

  6. Longitudinal beam performance measurement at compact-ERL injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commissioning operation of Compact-ERL injector has started in KEK. It consists of a photo-cathode electron gun, a super conducting accelerator, and a beam diagnostic line. The beam diagnostic line was built for proving the performance of the injector. It has a bunch length monitor with an RF deflection cavity system, an energy spread measurement system at a dispersive section. We did a series of longitudinal beam characteristics measurements at bunch charge up to 7.7 pC/bunch. (author)

  7. Transverse beam performance measurement at compact-ERL injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commissioning operation of Compact-ERL injector has started in KEK. It consists of a photo-cathode electron gun, a super conducting accelerator, and a beam diagnostic line. The beam diagnostic line was built for proving the performance of the injector. It has an emittance measurement system with a slit scanner. We did a series of emittance measurements by changing bunch charge up to 7.7 pC/bunch. We also did the measurement at different conditions of initial pulse length aiming to check space charge effects. (author)

  8. The development of some kinds of LRE injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueying, Yu

    1995-04-01

    This article introduces technical problems which appear in the development of several types of liquid rocket engine injectors and ways to solve them. At the same time, analysis was done of dual component centrifugal type injector nozzle flow amount deviations. Inquiries were made into methods of controlling flow amount deviations. A type of body interior cooling system was put forward. Option was made for the use of beveled slot drill rod welded integral type structures. In medium thrust liquid rocket engines, experiments were carried out and preliminary conclusions obtained.

  9. Exergy analysis of two-phase steam-water injector

    OpenAIRE

    Trela, Marian; Kwidzinski, Roman; Butrymowicz, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Exergy analysis is used as a tool for the evaluation of exergy losses in a two-phase steam-water injector in an effort to improve its overall performance in respect to exit pressure. The aim of this paper is to study irreversible losses in the component parts of the injector, including the steam nozzle, water nozzle and diffuser as well as the two-phase region comprising the mixing chamber and the condensation shock wave. Calculations based on experimental data revealed th...

  10. Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

    2000-03-17

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

  11. An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    A parametric study of a class of contoured wall fuel injectors is presented. The injectors were aimed at enabling shock-enhanced mixing for the supersonic combustion ramjet engines currently envisioned for applications on hypersonic vehicles. Short combustor residence time, a requirement for fuel injection parallel to the freestream, and strong sensitivity of overall vehicle performance to combustion efficiency motivated the investigation. Several salient parametric dependencies were investigated. Injector performance was evaluated in terms of mixing, losses, jet penetration and heating considerations.A large portion of the research involved a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley High - Reynolds Number Mach 6 Wind-Tunnel. Helium was used as an injectant gas to simulate hydrogen fuel. The parameters investigated include injector spacing, boundary layer height, and injectant to freestream pressure and velocity ratios. Conclusions concerning injector performance and parameter dependencies are supported by extensive three-dimensional flow field surveys as well as data from a variety of flow visualization techniques including Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren, spark-shadowgraph, and surface oil flow.As an adjunct to these experiments, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to conduct a parametric study which closely tracked the experimental effort. The results of these investigations strongly complemented the experimental work. Use of the code also allowed research beyond the fairly rigid bounds of the experimental test matrix. These studies included both basic investigations of shock-enhanced mixing on generic injectors, and applied efforts such as combining film-cooling with the contoured wall injectors.Location of an oblique shock at the base of the injection plane was found to be a loss-effective method for enhancing hypervelocity mixing through baroclinic generation of vorticity and subsequent convection and diffusion. Injector performance was strongly dependent on the displacement effect of the hypersonic boundary layer which acted to modify the effective wall geometry. Strong dependence on injectant to freestream pressure ratio was also displayed. Mixing enhancement related to interaction of the unsteady component of the boundary layer with both steady and unsteady components of the flow field was found to be secondary, as were effects due to variation in mean shear between the injectant and the freestream in the exit plane.

  12. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic (IIL) has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is saturated. d.c. and dynamic analysis of BIL-gate behaviour are given. A minimum gate delay of well below 1 ns is projected if collector areas are smaller than 10 ?m2 within an oxide isolated structure. A relation between maximum injector current density and device size is derived. (author)

  13. KEK injector upgrade for the 4-rings simultaneous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KEK linac is the injector for the four rings (KEKB e-/e+, PF and PF-AR). In the present KEKB operation, the continuous injection has been performed with a frequent switch of the e-/e+ linac beam model. In the future, PF ring needs the top-up beam operation. For these reasons, the injector linac upgrade is indispensable for the simultaneous injection. In this paper, we will present the linac upgrade plan related to the simultaneous injection in detail. (author)

  14. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS

  15. The BOEING double subharmonic electron injector - performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two stage subharmonic injector has been installed and tested on the Boeing S band linac. The injector is designed as a prototype front end for a high voltage linac for free electron laser research. This accelerator will require long macropulse trains of widely spaced high current micropulses. Single micropulse output beams of 1-2 nC, 10 ps width, 1% full width energy spread and normalized emittance of epsilon /SUB n/ = ???r/phi/ = 0.01 cm-rad have been measured. The data are in good agreement with model predictions

  16. Recent trouble cases and improvements of HIMAC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest fault example in HIMAC injector is reported. Many of troubles on HIMAC injector are depended on the electric discharge of RF equipment and ion source power supply. On the other hand, long time stoppage of beam deliveries is caused in the bad condition of ion source equipment. We report some improvement examples; HEC ion source: Generation study of new ionic species, RF: Development of new AGC and APC control unit and install plan of 30 kW semiconductor amplifier, Control and generalization system: Replacement from the special existing equipment to PLC as the flexible use. (author)

  17. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  18. The proposed tandem injector for the VICKSI facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvements are described resulting from the addition of an 8 MV tandem as a second injector for the VICKSI accelerator combination. For ion beams with masses A < 30 the limitation for high energy beams will be given by the magnetic field of the cyclotron, e.g. 32 MeV/A. The alternate use of the two electrostatic injectors will increase the available beam time. The variety of ions for acceleration with VICKSI will be enlarged considerably by use of sputter sources. (orig.)

  19. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development

  20. Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

  1. An EBIS-based heavy ion injector for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS), followed by a heavy ion RFQ and superconducting linac, can be considered as a heavy ion injector for high energy accelerators, such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A test EBIS, on long term loan from Sandia National Laboratory, is presently being commissioned at BNL. Experiments on this source will be used in evaluating the parameters for an EBIS-based RHIC injector. Some results of this commissioning, as well as the conceptual designs of the RFQ and linac, are presented

  2. Status of the positive ion injector for atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, P. K.; Benaroya, R.; Bogaty, J. M.; Bollinger, L. M.; Clifft, B. E.; Craig, S. L.; Henderson, D.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.; Nixon, J. M.; Pardo, R. C.; Phillips, D.; Shepard, K. W.; Tilbrook, I.; Zinkann, G.

    1989-04-01

    The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as ? = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100.

  3. Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as ? = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.)

  4. Adaptation of the 1 MV bushing to the SINGAP concept for the ITER NB injector test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1 MV bushing of the ITER NB injector is probably one of the most challenging components of the whole accelerator, since such a high voltage (HV) in a contaminated and radiated environment requires the development of non-standard technologies. This paper intends to provide a guideline for the design of 1 MV bushing for the ITER neutral beam injector test bed. Although mainly focused on the SINGAP alternative concept of the injector, the reported general criteria can be useful for the design of other HV components, such as post insulators of the acceleration grids. For every different kind of required insulation, basic physical models describing breakdown phenomena are reported together with the main technological implications and the practical recommendations necessary to improve insulation performance. The results of the finite element analyses of 1 MV bushing, operating at CEA-Cadarache laboratories, are used to validate general criteria in a typical geometry. The effects of radiation, such as neutrons and gamma rays, on solid insulators and gases have also been taken into account, describing the most important phenomena and the related implications in terms of voltage hold-off capabilities. Finally the design of the bushing in the SINGAP option and the solutions adopted are described

  5. How to Successfully Renovate a Controls System? - Lessons Learned from the Renovation of the CERN Injectors’ Controls Software

    CERN Document Server

    Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pace, M; Pera Mira, P; Roux, E; Wozniak, J Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Renovation of the control system of the CERN LHC injectors was initiated in 2007 in the scope of the Injector Controls Architecture (InCA) project. One of its main objectives was to homogenize the controls software across CERN accelerators and reuse as much as possible the existing modern sub-systems, such as the settings management used for the LHC. The project team created a platform that would permit coexistence and intercommunication between old and new components via a dedicated gateway, allowing a progressive replacement of the former. Dealing with a heterogeneous environment, with many diverse and interconnected modules, implemented using different technologies and programming languages, the team had to introduce all the modifications in the smoothest possible way, without causing machine downtime. After a brief description of the system architecture, the paper discusses the technical and non-technical sides of the renovation process such as validation and deployment methodology, operational applicatio...

  6. Performance and Stability Characteristics of a Uni-Element Swirl Injector for Oxygen-Rich Stage Combustion Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.; Kalitan, D.; Woodward, R. D.; Santoro, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    A uni-element liquid propellant combustion performance and instability study for liquid RP-1 and hot oxygen-rich pre-burner products was conducted, at a chamber pressure of about 1000 psi. using flush and recessed swirl injectors. High-frequency pressure transducer measurements were analyzed to yield the characteristic frequencies which were compared to expected frequencies of the chamber. Modes, which were discovered to be present within the main chamber included, the first longitudinal, detected at approximately 1950 Hz, and the second longitudinal mode at approximately 3800 Hz. An additional first longitudinal quarter wave mode was measured at a frequency of approximately 23000 Hz for the recessed swirl injector configuration. The characteristic instabilities resulting from these experiments were relatively weak averaging 0.2% to 0.3% of the chamber pressure.

  7. Study liquid length penetration results obtained with a direct acting piezo electric injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A direct acting injector capable of controlling needle lift has been used to determine liquid phase penetration. ? The influence of injection pressure, chamber density and chamber temperature have been measured. ? When needle lift is reduced the stabilized liquid length is shortened. ? The relationship between needle lift and liquid length makes needle lift as a new way to control the injection event. - Abstract: A state of the art prototype common rail injector featuring direct control of the needle by means of a piezo stack (direct acting) has been tested. Liquid phase penetration of the sprays in diesel engine-like conditions has been studied via imaging technique in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). This state of the art injector fitted with a 7-hole nozzle, allows a fully flexible control on the nozzle needle movement, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. The temporal evolution of the seven sprays has been studied recording movies of the injection event in evaporative conditions via Mie scattering imaging technique and using a high speed camera. The results showed a strong influence of needle position on the stabilized liquid length while the effect of the injection pressure is negligible: the decrease of the needle lift causes a pressure drop in the needle seat and thus a reduction in the effective pressure upstream of the orifices (in the nozzle sac). According to known literature the stabilized liquid-length depends mainly on effective diameter, spray cone-angle and fuel/air properties and does not depend on fuel velocity at the orifice outlet. Therefore, due to small change in the spray cone-angle, higher injection pressures give slightly lower liquid length. However, partial needle lifts has an opposite effect: when needle is partially lifted a dramatic increase of the spray cone-angle and a consequent reduction of the liquid length are observed. A deeper analysis revealed that low charges are linked also to higher hole to hole dispersion and flow instabilities. Needle vibrations caused by the fuel-needle interactions with fuel flow at partial needle lift and the onset of cavitation in the needle seat are likely the causes of this unexpected behavior. Finally, the effect of injection rate shaping on the transient liquid penetration is presented, showing the capability of the injector to control the liquid length along the injection event. This feature, when applied in a real engine, yields to develop new injection strategies to avoid fuel wall impingement

  8. Expected performance in the injectors at 25 ns without and with Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Damerau, H; Findlay, A; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Oeftiger, A

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the 25ns beams that can be delivered at the LHC injection is determined by the injection process into the PSB, as well as by space charge, collective interactions, electron cloud and RF power limitations in the PS and SPS. Using the information available from our present experience, the main goal of this paper is twofold: (1) to assess the intensity and brightness reach of the 25ns beams produced by the LHC injector chain with the two main schemes, before and after the connection of the PSB to Linac 4; and (2) to identify which bottlenecks will be likely to limit the performance with Linac 4. A few options to maximize the potential of the increased brightness provided by Linac 4, based on flattened bunch profiles at the PS injection or the use of alternative optics configurations, will be included in the analysis.

  9. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  10. Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yutaka, E-mail: abe@kz.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shibayama, Shunsuke

    2014-03-15

    Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper.

  11. Development of ion source for JIPP T-II injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-filament arc type ion source is tested as the proto-type source for JIPP-T-II injector. Displaced aperture electrodes are used to foculize the multi-beam and to inject the beam extracted from a large extraction electrode surface more effectively. Fundamental characteristics of the ion source and the power supply systems are described. (auth.)

  12. An injector for the CLIC test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, L; Pittin, R; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, D

    2008-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

  13. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  14. Development of H2 pellet injectors for industrial marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Discussion of the construction of injector installation at ETA-BETA II. 2. Production and experience with two different ''pipe-guns''. One for large pellets, diameter/length = 4.5-5 mm/8-20 mm and one for small pellets, diameter/length = 2 mm/3-4 mm. (author) 27 ills., 39 refs

  15. Deflecting cavity for beam diagnostics at Cornell ERL injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, Sergey, E-mail: s.belomestnykh@cornell.ed [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bazarov, Ivan; Shemelin, Valery; Sikora, John; Smolenski, Karl; Veshcherevich, Vadim [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A single-cell, 1300-MHz, TM110-like mode vertically deflecting cavity is designed and built for beam slice emittance measurements, and to study the temporal response of negative electron affinity photocathodes in the ERL injector at Cornell University. We describe the cavity shape optimization procedure, RF and mechanical design, its performance with beam.

  16. Development and validation of a railgun hydrogen pellet injector model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model is presented and its predictions are compared with the experimental data. High-speed hydrogenic ice injection is the dominant refueling method for magnetically confined plasmas used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. As experimental devices approach the scale of power-producing fusion reactors, the fueling requirements become increasingly more difficult to meet since, due to the large size and the high electron densities and temperatures of the plasma, hypervelocity pellets of a substantial size will need to be injected into the plasma continuously and at high repetition rates. Advanced technologies, such as the railgun pellet injector, are being developed to address this demand. Despite the apparent potential of electromagnetic launchers to produce hypervelocity projectiles, physical effects that were neither anticipated nor well understood have made it difficult to realize this potential. Therefore, it is essential to understand not only the theory behind railgun operation, but the primary loss mechanisms, as well. Analytic tools have been used by many researchers to design and optimize railguns and analyze their performance. This has led to a greater understanding of railgun behavior and opened the door for further improvement. A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model has been developed. The model is based upon a pellet equation of motion that accounts for the dominant loss mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. Th mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. The model has been validated using railgun pellet injectors developed by the Fusion Technology Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

  17. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: Design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently completed Positive-Ion Injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed

  18. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: design and operating experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L. M.; Pardo, R. C.; Shepard, K. W.; Billquist, P. J.; Bogaty, J. M.; Clifft, B. E.; Harkewicz, R.; Munson, F. H.; Nolen, J. A.; Zinkann, G. P.

    1993-06-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed.

  20. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed. (orig.)

  1. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an 40Ar12+ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 ? keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. Penetration of crystalline powder particles into excised human skin membranes and model gels from a supersonic powder injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Katja; Lee, Geoffrey

    2006-07-01

    The penetration of crystalline ibuprofen particles into excised human skin membranes and model target gels on actuation with the PowderJect ND1 ballistic needle-free injector has been examined. The deliverable dose of powder exiting the device is approximately 50% of the total cassette loading; the rest is lost via a gap forced open between the injector base and the surface of the target gel. It could be shown that substantial comminution of two different ibuprofen particle size fraction (38-53 microm, 53-75 microm) occurs within the injector on actuation. This resulted in an equiparation of the two initially different size fractions. Reduced comminution occurs with an ibuprofen/PVP (95:5) particulate formed by spray-drying/compaction/milling. On actuation into excised human skin membranes approximately 37% of cassette dose is recovered from the stratum corneum by stripping, and only 3% from the epidermis. It is concluded that powder delivery is mainly intra-epidermal with few particles fully breaching the stratum corneum. This is a consequence of the relative magnitude of the particle diameter (approximately 48 microm) and the stratum corneum thickness (approximately 10 microm). A 'soft' polyethylene glycol monolayer target gel gives the closest total percentage recovery of powder to that seen with the excised human skin membranes. Bilayer gels differentiated between surface impact/retention and penetration, but were difficult to handle. Powder penetration studies should therefore preferentially to be performed with human skin-membranes. PMID:16724324

  3. A model to assess the infection potential of jet injectors used in mass immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P N; Abuknesha, R A; Andrews, N J; Samuel, D; Lloyd, J S

    2001-07-16

    Jet injectors are needleless injectors that penetrate skin with high-pressure fluid. They have potential advantages over needles and syringes in mass immunisation programs, but concerns over their capacity to transfer blood-borne viruses have been a barrier to acceptance. Hepatitis B infection can transmit in 10 pl of blood; detection of such low volumes presents severe difficulties to such assessments. A model to assess jet injector safety was developed using injection of an inert buffer into calves and assaying the next injector discharge, representing the next dose of vaccine, for blood using a highly sensitive ELISA. Four injectors were tested: two with reusable heads and direct skin contact, one with single-use injector heads and one where the injector head discharged at a distance from the skin. All injectors tested transmitted significant (over 10 pl) volumes of blood; the volumes and frequency of contamination varied with injector. The source of the contamination was consistent with contamination by efflux of injected fluid and blood from the pressurised pocket in tissue that is formed during injection. This insight should inform the design of safe jet injectors. PMID:11427278

  4. Epinephrine auto-injector use and demographics in a Veterans Administration population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirzadeh, Ali; Verma, Prashant; Lee, Sabrina; Klaustermeyer, William

    2010-01-01

    The epinephrine auto-injector has been widely used over a long period of time. Certain aspects of this therapy and demographic data, however, have not been well studied. This study investigates patient use and understanding of epinephrine auto-injector use. As part of an ongoing quality assurance program, we evaluated 66 patients who had been given an epinephrine auto-injector and followed in the Allergy and Immunology Clinics at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical indications for epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions, and the patient's understanding and use of the device. The mean age of our patients was 50 years. There were 44 men (66.7%) and 22 women (33%). Twenty-three patients were prescribed epinephrine auto-injector for adverse food reactions. Ninety-two percent (92%) of the patients knew how to use their epinephrine auto-injector properly, however, only 58% carried their device with them consistently. Of the patients, 91% understood why the auto-injector was prescribed. Of the total patients prescribed epinephrine auto-injector, 79% refilled their medication before the 1 year expiration date. Only 12% of the patients studied had required the use of their auto-injector. Most patients knew how and when to administer their epinephrine auto-injector. Despite detailed instructions in a specialty clinic only a slight majority carried it consistently. These data clearly indicate that further patient education or other measures are needed to improve compliance and effective use. PMID:20819320

  5. Burner Emissions Associated with Lobed and Non-Lobed Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1998-01-01

    The present experimental study examines NO(sub x), and CO emissions associated with three alternative fuel-injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air and strain their interfaces to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which molecular mixing of reactants is associated with streamwise vorticity generation, while the third one is a non-lobed fuel injector. Results show that rapid mixing allowed both lobed injector geometries to produce very lean premixed flame structures, with a lower achievable turn-down or fuel/air mass flux ratio than for the analogous non-lobed injector, which largely, produced distinct diffusion flames. All three injectors exhibited some level of sooting near walls and in the far-field region, with the non-lobed injector sooting to the greatest extent. At low fuel flow rates, in which the lobed injectors created locally very lean premixed conditions, there resulted lower NO(sub x) emissions as compared with non-lobed injector emissions. Yet at higher fuel-air mass flux ratios, NO(sub x) emissions from the lobed injectors were actually higher than for the nonlobed injector, likely due to reduced sooting and hence reduced radiative heat losses associated with enhanced mixing. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions became high for low values of the fuel/air mass flux ratio, again consistent with locally premixed combustion behavior, despite the fact that fuel was injected separately from air directly into the burner test section. The present study demonstrates that, for fuel-air mixing enhancement devices, control of the local equivalence ratio is critical in order to optimize burner emissions.

  6. LIL, one of the LEP injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1986-01-01

    The linear accelerator for LEP (LIL) was used to provide electrons and positrons at an energy of 600 MeV for the acceleration chain while the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was running at CERN between 1989 and 2000. Most of the accelerators at CERN are circular synchrotrons that can store beams for a long time. LINACS are used mainly for injecting beams as a first stage in a chain of accelerators.

  7. High-current injector for the proposed SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, high-current injector has been designed to yield the 7.5 x 1010e- per S-band bunch necessary for the proposed linear collider. The injector consists of two prebunchers at the 16th subharmonic, a 0.75 c traveling wave buncher, and a three-meter velocity of light traveling wave structure. The e- beam is confined by a solonoidal magnetic field in the buncher and capture regions. A computer simulation similar to that used by Mavrogenes et al., has been used to calculate the bunching. The calculation indicates it is possible to achieve approx. 1 x 1011e- in 160 of S-band from a 15 amp gun pulse of 1.5 nsec duration

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  9. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching signi?cantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the ?rst part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  10. Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

  11. Status of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

  12. Performance reach of the injector complex in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational beam performance in the injector chain has evolved considerably since the 2010 run and is much better than ever anticipated. Available margins have been well exploited and leave little room for further performance increases, unless changes as foreseen by the LIU project are implemented. The best operational performance to the LHC in 2011 was a beam with a bunch intensity of 1.5*1011 protons in 1.9 ?m 1? normalized, resulting in a beam brightness of 7.9*1010 p/b/?m. After careful adjustments of the beam in the injector chain the anticipated operational performance to the LHC in 2012 is a beam with a bunch intensity of 1.6*1011 protons in 2 ?m 1? normalized, resulting in a beam brightness of 8*1010 p/b/?m

  13. The low of formation of accelerating voltage frequency change in the IHEP ring booster injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block-diagram of a new section for accelerating field frequency formation in the ring injector - the IHEP booster is described. To obtain the effective tuning range of 0.7-2.8 MHz, heterodyne method with two controlled oscillators was used. Two oscillators are connected in the same circuit, their circuits have similar inductance coils and are placed into an aggregate thermostat. Block-diagrams of a master oscillator, an initial frequency oscillator and a function converter are given. Digital control application permitted not only to improve main section characteristics but to gain new possibilities for using computers. Control program provides work with equipment, dialogue with an operator, and a specialized operational system provides regime rescuing and restoration

  14. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2003-07-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Simulation for a New Polarized Electron Injector (SPIN) for the S-DALINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Bastian; Gräf, Hans Dieter; Richter, Achim; Roth, Markus; Weiland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting DArmstädter LINear ACcelerator (S-DALINAC) is a 130 MeV recirculating electron accelerator serving several nuclear and radiation physics experiments. For future tasks, the 250 keV thermal electron source should be completed by a 100 keV polarized electron source. Therefore a new low energy injection concept for the S-DALINAC has to be designed. The main components of the injector are a polarized electron source, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter spin-rotator and a Mott polarimeter. In this paper we report over the first simulation and design results. For our simulations we used the TS2 and TS3 modules of the CST MAFIA (TM) programme which are PIC codes for two and three dimensions and the CST PARTICLE STUDIO (TM).

  16. Ignition sequence of an annular multi-injector combustor

    CERN Document Server

    Philip, Maxime; Vicquelin, Ronan; Schmitt, Thomas; Durox, Daniel; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Candel, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Ignition is a critical process in combustion systems. In aeronautical combustors, altitude relight capacities are required in case of accidental extinction of the chamber. A simultaneous study of light-round ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor has been performed on the experimental and numerical sides. This effort allows a unique comparison to assess the reliability of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in such a configuration. Results are presented in fluid dynamics videos.

  17. Health physics aspects of nuclear radiations from deuterium beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations are made for X-ray generation from the accelerator column of various neutral beam injectors. For the case of deuterium beam operation where 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons pose a serious health physics concern, neutron and tritium production rates from beam targets are calculated for different beam energies. Biological doses from these radiations and shielding requirements are discussed

  18. 70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

  19. Introduction of Modern Subsystems at the KEK Injector-linac

    OpenAIRE

    Kamikubota, N.; Furukawa, K.; Kusano, S.; Obata, T.

    2001-01-01

    As an accelerator control system survives over several years, it is often the case that new subsystems are introduced into the original control system. The control system for the KEK electron/positron injector-linac has been using Unix workstations and VME computers since 1993. During the eight-year operation, we extended the system by introducing a) Windows PCs, b) PLC controllers with a network interface, and c) web servers based on modern information technology. Although ...

  20. Diagnostics Neutral Beam Injector at the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this report we summarize the technical and experimental effort made on diagnostics neutral beam injector (DNBI) which was installed at tokamak TCV last year. Basic components of DNBI are reviewed, its remote control is presented in more detail. Profile and attenuation studies are referred to. First experimental results obtained with DNBI, which led to a decision to upgrade the machine, are discussed in the last section. (author)

  1. Commissioning and operation of the Nuclear Physics Injector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A

  2. Descemet's tear due to injector cartridge tip deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Partha; Sengupta, Subhrangshu; Paul, Ajoy; Kochgaway, Lav; Biswas, Sayantan

    2012-01-01

    Foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using an injector system through 2.8-mm clear corneal incision following phacoemulsification provides excellent speedy postoperative recovery. In our reported case, a Sensar AR40e IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, USA) was loaded into Emerald C cartridge, outside the view of the operating microscope, by the first assistant. The surgeon proceeded with the IOL injection through a 2.8-mm clear corneal incision after uneventful phacoemulsification, immediate...

  3. Development of The High Speed Pellet Injector For Ignitor

    OpenAIRE

    Coppi, Bruno; Roveta, G.; Fehling, D.; Meitner, S.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Ronci, G.; Capobianchi, M.; Migliori, S.; Bombarda, F.; Frattolillo, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENEA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are collaborating on the development of a four barrel, two-stage pneumatic injector for the Ignitor experiment, featuring two innovative concepts: (i) the proper shaping of the propellant pressure pulse to improve pellet acceleration, and (ii) the use of fast closing (< 10 ms) valves to drastically reduce the expansion volumes of the propellant gas removal system. Two independent sub-systems have been built and tested separately by ENEA and ORNL. ...

  4. Operation of the rf controls in the CEBAF injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF injector has produced its first relativistic beam with two superconducting cavities. Six RF control modules are used to control amplitude and phase in the chopper cavities, the buncher, the capture section, and the two superconducting cavities. In this paper the required stability and actual performance of the modules are discussed. For the superconducting cavity control, performance is consistent with energy stability of ?10-4

  5. Modeling of an Electron Injector for the AWAKE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mete, O; Apsimon, R; Burt, G; Doebert, S; Fiorito, R; Welsch, C

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations were performed by using PARMELA to characterise an electron injector with a booster linac for the AWAKE project in order to provide the baseline specifications required by the plasma wakefield experiments. Tolerances and errors were investigated. A 3 GHz travelling wave structure designed by using CST code. Particles were tracked by using the field maps acquired from these electromagnetic simulations. These results are pre- sented in comparison with the generic accelerating structure model within PARMELA.

  6. Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

  7. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D2 cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x1020 atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D? intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  8. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D{sub 2} cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10{sup 20} atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D{alpha} intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  9. Understanding and improving the neutral beam injector conditioning problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of high voltage electrical breakdowns between the ion beam extraction grids of a high-power neutral beam injector is one of the major factors that determine the performance of an injector. The tedious procedure of 'conditioning' the electrodes in up to several thousand shots and the stressing of electrical supplies by the fast transients are two examples illustrating the need for more understanding of the actual origins of the high-voltage breakdown and the desire to reduce their frequency, thereby shortening the down-times on an injector. This report is an attempt to systematically address these questions. It starts with a survey of the relevant literature relevant to gap breakdown in the extraction optics system. Considering the various possible reasons for breakdowns, different methods for conditioning are discussed as to their potential effectiveness and with respect to the necessary effort. The proposed experimental work to improve the conditioning time will then be described. Finally the results so far obtained will be reported. (orig.)

  10. Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures

  11. Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Glatz, J.; Selph, F.B.; Fahmie, M.P.; Ritchie, A.L.; Keith, S.R.; Stover, G.R.; Besse, L.J.

    1979-09-01

    A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures.

  12. BPM DAQ system upgrade for SuperKEKB injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KEK electron/positron linac is a 600-m-long injector providing the beams of different energies with four independent storage rings. A non-destructive beam position monitor (BPM) is an indispensable diagnostic tool for a long-term stable beam operation. In the KEK linac, around one hundred BPMs with the four strip-line type electrodes are utilized for the beam position and charge measurement. The measured beam positions can be used for the beam orbit and energy feedback loops. The current BPM data acquisition (DAQ) system comprises 23 fast digital oscilloscopes based on Windows-XP, and the precision of measurement precision is approximately 50 ?m. Toward the SuperKEKB project, the upgrade of injector linac is now going on for increasing the beam intensity and reducing the beam emittance. For the SuperKEKB linac, the emittance of electron beam should be reduced one-fifth smaller than that of former KEKB injector. For this reason, a high precision of the beam position measurement less than 10 ?m is strongly required. In this paper, we present the system description and performance evaluation of a new BPM DAQ system in detail. (author)

  13. Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accurately caught the timing of the injector needle lift and return for a single-injection pattern, but it could not for the second or third injection when multiple injections occurred. Only the first needle lift timing of the injector was caught with the injection rate shape obtained from the Bosch method, however, this method cannot identify any other lift or return timing values after the first lift timing.

  14. The KEK injector upgrade for the fast beam-mode switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KEK electron/positron linac is a 600-m-long injector with the maximum energy of 8-GeV electron and 3.5-GeV positron. It injects four different beams into four different rings. In order to enhance the operation efficiency, we have an injector upgrade plan aiming a quasi-simultaneous injection. In this paper, we will present the injector upgrade plan in detail. (author)

  15. Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron

  16. Construction of the Photon Factory 2.5 GeV injector electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory accelerator consists of a 2.5 GeV injector linac and a 2.5 GeV storage ring. The linac will be used not only for the injector of the 2.5 GeV storage ring but also for other purposes; as an injector for lower energy small storage rings, picosecond, nanosecond and microsecond range pulsed-light sources, and eventually for the electron and positron injector for TRISTAN . This report describes the general picture and special features of the linac and the present status of construction. (orig.)

  17. Development of a high-current deuteron injector for the FMIT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.D.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Meyer, E.A.; Armstrong, D.D.; Sherwood, B.A.; Catlin, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    The injector for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility has been designed to deliver a 100-keV, 125-mA dc deuteron beam. A prototype injector has been built to run with a H/sub 2//sup +/ ion beam. Two ion sources are being tested - one with magnetic-cusp geometry. The injector transport consists of a single-stage modified-Pierce extractor, a double-focusing 90/sup 0/ analyzing magnet, a high-power emittance scanner, steering and quadrupole focusing magnets, a mechanical beam-current modulator and a deflection type beam pulser. The performance of the prototype injector is discussed.

  18. Development of a high-current deuteron injector for the FMIT Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injector for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility has been designed to deliver a 100-keV, 125-mA dc deuteron beam. A prototype injector has been built to run with a H2+ ion beam. Two ion sources are being tested - one with magnetic-cusp geometry. The injector transport consists of a single-stage modified-Pierce extractor, a double-focusing 900 analyzing magnet, a high-power emittance scanner, steering and quadrupole focusing magnets, a mechanical beam-current modulator and a deflection type beam pulser. The performance of the prototype injector is discussed

  19. Using one-dimensional modeling to analyse the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Detailed injection system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? One-dimensional model of a solenoid injection system has been developed in AmeSim. ? Complete characterization of the injector elements has been carried out. ? Experimental mass flow rate results have been used for validating the model widely. - Abstract: A combined experimental and computational investigation has been performed in order to evaluate the influence of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-direct injection system with second generation solenoid injectors. For that purpose, after a complete characterization of the system, which involved mechanical and hydraulic characterization, a one-dimensional model has been obtained and extensively validated. Simulations have then been performed with a standard diesel and a 100% rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel which allowed a comparison and analysis of the dynamic response of the injector to be done. Different injection strategies involving main injection and main plus post-injection have been used to explore the impact of the use of biodiesel on the performance and stability of solenoid injectors. As far as the dynamic response of the injector is concerned, the results obtained have clearly shown that the use of biodiesel affects the dynamic response of the needle, especially at low injection pressures. The behavior of the system under multi-injection strategies (main plus post-injection) has been also evaluated determining for different operating conditions (injedifferent operating conditions (injection pressures and backpressures) the minimum dwell time between injections to assure a stable behavior in the injection process (mass flow rate). Important differences have been found between biodiesel and standard diesel in this critical parameter at low injection pressures, becoming less important at high injection pressure. Finally, a modification on the injector hardware has been proposed in order to compensate these differences.

  20. Parental knowledge and use of epinephrine auto-injector for children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, G; Deschildre, A; Castelain, C; Sardet, A; Sagot-Bevenot, S; de Sauve-Boeuf, A; Thumerelle, C; Santos, C

    2006-05-01

    Epinephrine should be prescribed for patients at risk of anaphylaxis. Our purpose was to determine the use of Anapen prescribed for food-allergic children, to assess parental knowledge regarding Anapen, and to evaluate the arrangements for emergency kits and personalized care projects in everyday life. A prospective study was performed with a questionnaire sent to families with a food-allergic child previously prescribed Anapen. One hundred and fifty two families were contacted and finally 111 children included (median age 6.5 yrs). Main food allergens were peanuts (n = 89), egg (n = 39) and cow's milk (n = 10). The use of Anapen had been demonstrated to 90% of parents (by prescribing physician, 69%; pharmacist, 25%; general practitioner, 5%; nurse 1%), with a training device (76%) and/or written instructions (49%). When asked to list symptoms requiring injection, 48% of parents cited more than one response: breathing difficulties only (23%), or with angio-edema (41%), collapse or faintness (38%), anaphylactic shock (48%). Of 107 children attending school, 54% had a personalized care project, 72% an Anapen device, and 60% a complete emergency kit (epinephrine, inhaled beta-agonist, corticosteroid, anti-H1 drug). Beta-agonists were forgotten at school by 34 children (13 asthmatics). Anapen was used in one child for angio-edema and dyspnea after inadvertent ingestion of egg at home. In our population, epinephrine auto-injectors and emergency kits were insufficiently available at schools and in daily life. The use of auto-injectors was not adequately demonstrated. The prescription of epinephrine for food-allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis requires accurate diagnosis, educational programs, information, and follow up. PMID:16672011

  1. PC-based control of a high-voltage injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of high voltage injectors is one of the major problems in any accelerator system. Most of the troubles encountered in the normal operation of an accelerator are connected with the ion source and associated high voltage platforms, regardless of the source or high voltage generator type. The quality of the ion beam injected in the accelerator strongly depends on the power supplies used in the injector and on the ability to control the non-electrical parameters (gas-flow, temperature, etc.). A wide used method in controlling is based on optical links between high-voltage platform and computer, the adjustments being more or less automated. Although the method mentioned above can be still useful in injector control, a different approach is presented in this work, i.e., the computer itself is placed inside the high-voltage terminal. Only one optical link is still necessary to connect this computer with an user-friendly host at ground potential. Requirements: - varying and monitoring the filament current; - gas flow control in the ion source; - reading the vacuum values; - current and voltage control for the anodic, magnet, extraction, suppression and lens' sources. Even in the high voltage terminal there are compartments with different voltages regardless the floating ground. In our injector the extraction voltage is applied on the top of the ion source including the filament and the anodic voltage. The extraction voltage is of maximum 30 kV. In this situationage is of maximum 30 kV. In this situation a second optical link is required to transfer the control for the anodic and magnet source power supply assuming the dedicated computer on the floating ground. One PC is placed inside the high voltage terminal and one PC outside the injector. The optical link (more precisely two optical wires) connects the serial ports. The inside computer is equipped with two multipurpose ADC/DAC and digital I/O card. They permit to read or output DC levels ranging between 0 to 10 volts or TTL signals. The filament current control was realized by a stepping motor that rotates a variable resistor through an insulating stick. Two hundred motor steps per complete rotation assumes a very good resolution in driving the filament current between 0 Amps and maximum 40 Amps. The gas flow control is realized by a stepping motor that drives a needle valve. The flow gas can be varied in very small steps. The vacuum read-out is performed by two gauges, Penning and Pirani, providing a 0 to 10 V analog signal. The DC voltages are input to two ADC channels. The current and voltage source control is performed by ADC and DAC channels that drive/read the source output. The outside computer presents an user friendly interface by a Visual Basic program. It permits to vary all the mentioned quantities and reports periodically (at every two seconds) the output values. The user drives the program only with the mouse, having complete control all over the electric hardware inside the injector. A fast reset function is also provided in case of severe malfunction. (author)

  2. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI

  3. Remote maintenance of FED neutral-beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FED Remote Maintenance Equipment Workshop was held to establish the characteristics of major remote equipment items, and this was done during the first session which was held in January, 1981. A list of general purpose and special purpose equipment was established. The second session, held in March, developed more detailed concepts for maintenance of specific reactor components. The details of an investigation into neutral beam injector remote handling are presented herein. The baseline concept for FED auxiliary heating uses radio frequency waves: electron cyclotron resonance heating for plasma formation and ion cyclotron resonance heating for additional heating to ignition temperature. The alternate concept uses neutral beam injection for ignition heating

  4. Ions for LHC Towards Completion of the Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Angoletta, M E; Arduini, Gianluigi; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Belochitskii, P; Benedetto, E; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Chanel, M; Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jacquet, D; Jowett, John M; Kain, V; Küchler, D; Martini, M; Maury, S; Métral, E; Normann, L; Papotti, G; Pasinelli, S; Schokker, M; Scrivens, R; Tranquille, G; Vallet, J L; Vandorpe, B; Wehrle, U; Wenninger, J

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning of CERN's ion injector complex [1] to allow 1.1 PeV collisions of ions in LHC is well under way. After the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in 2005 [2] and the Proton Synchrotron (PS) in 2006 [3], the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) has now been commissioned with the 'Early' ion beam, which should give a luminosity of $5×10^{25}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ in the LHC. This paper summarizes the operation in 2007 of all the machines involved in the ion injection chain.

  5. Performance characterization of the Caltech compact torus injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described which is designed to refuel tokamaks of major radius ?1 m and magnetic field ?1 T by the injection of a compact torus. The injector utilizes an acceleration stage which adds kinetic energy to the compact torus so that it can penetrate the tokamak magnetic field. The performance of the device was found to be optimized in an unexpected parameter regime. It is theorized that in this regime the accelerator takes part in the formation of the CT. A performance threshold with respect to accelerator current will be presented and methods of impurity reduction will be detailed

  6. Dipole Mode Detuning in the Injector Linacs of the NLC

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, Karl L. F.; Li, Zenghai

    2000-01-01

    The injector linacs of the JLC/NLC project include the prelinac, the e+ drive linac, the $e- booster, and the $e+ booster. The first three will be S-band machines, the last one, an L-band machine. We have demonstrated that by using detuning alone in the accelerator structure design of these linacs we will have acceptable tolerances for emittance growth due to both injection jitter and structure misalignments, for both the nominal (2.8ns) and alternate (1.4ns) bunch spacings.

  7. PICs in the injector complex - what are we talking about?

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, K

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will identify PIC activities for the LHC injector chain, and point out borderline cases to pure consolidation and upgrade. The most important PIC items will be listed for each LIU project (PSB, PS, SPS) and categorized by a) the risk if not performed and b) the implications of doing them. This will in particular address the consequences on performance, schedule, reliability, commissioning time, operational complexity etc. The additional cost of PICs with regard to pure consolidation will be estimated and possible time lines for the implementation of the PICs will be discussed. In this context, it will be evaluated if the PICs can be implemented over several machine stops.

  8. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholud, A., E-mail: azholud@emory.edu; Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  9. Sodium target for a negative-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A construction diagram and operation description of a charge-exchanged vapour-sodium supersonic target of continuous action with 22x48 cm apertures are presented. The target is included in an injector of negative hydrogen ions intended for 5-10 A H- current generation. The results of measuring the target thickness, its profile, vacuum properties, value of sodium removal into apertures are given. Operational period of the target is 65 h. The target provides the production of H- or D- quasistationary beams

  10. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  11. Experimental study of acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors in a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered

  12. The new Denso common rail diesel solenoid injector; Der neue Diesel-Magnetventil-Injektor von Denso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shuichi; Date, Kenji; Taguchi, Tooru [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan). Diesel Injection Engineering Div.; Herrmann, Olaf Erik [Denso International Europe, Wegberg (Germany). Team Advanced Diesel Engine Management System

    2013-02-01

    The new G4S injector from Denso with a three-way valve function improves hydraulic efficiency, thus cutting fuel consumption by around 1 %. A 75 % reduction in moving masses results in significantly improved hydraulics. Due to its minimised leakage, the injector has considerably lower fuel cooling requirements and is significantly more robust in dealing with variations in diesel fuel qualities. (orig.)

  13. Injector test stand ITS-2 for two-stage ion sources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITS-2 is an injector test stand for developing ion sources and beam line hardwares used in neutral beam injector of JT-60. It is capable of testing two-stage ion sources up to 40A at 80 - 100 kV for 0.5 sec. (auth.)

  14. Breakup structure of two-phase jets with various momentum flux from a porous injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inchul; Kim, Dohun; Koo, Jaye

    2014-02-01

    Spray structure and atomization characteristics were investigated through a comparison of a porous and a shear coaxial injector. The porous injector shows better atomization performance than the shear coaxial injector. To increase atomization performance and mixing efficiency of two-phase jets, a coaxial porous injector which can be applicable to liquid rocket combustors was designed and tested. The characteristics of atomization and spray from a porous and a shear coaxial injector were characterized by the momentum flux ratio. The breakup mechanism of the porous injector is governed by Taylor-Culick flow and axial shear forces. Momentum of injected gas flow through a porous material which is composed of sintered metal is radically transferred to the center of the liquid column, and then liquid column is effectively broken up. Although the shapes of spray from porous and shear coaxial jets were similar for various momentum ratio, spray structures such as spray angle and droplet sizes were different. As increasing the momentum flux ratio, SMD from the porous injector showed smaller value than the shear coaxial injector

  15. Transient Tolerant Automated Control System for the LEDA 75kV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) injector is designed to inject 75-keV, 110-mA, proton beams into the LEDA RFQ. The injector operation has been automated to provide long term, high availability operation using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Automated recovery from spark-downs demands reliable spark detection and sequence execution by the injector controller. Reliable computer control in the high-energy transient environment required transient suppression and isolation of hundreds of analog and binary data lines connecting the EPICS computer controller to the injector and it's power supplies and diagnostics. A transient suppression design based on measured and modeled spark transient parameters provides robust injector operation. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design, implementation and operational performance

  16. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized. (orig.)

  17. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L. M.; Pardo, R. C.; Shepard, K. W.; Bogaty, J. M.; Clifft, B. E.; Munson, F. H.; Zinkann, G.

    1993-04-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  18. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized

  19. Characterization of the transverse phase space at the photo-injector test facility in DESY, Zeuthen site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staykov, Lazar

    2012-10-15

    High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.

  20. Characterization of the transverse phase space at the photo-injector test facility in DESY, Zeuthen site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High brightness electron beams with charge of 1 nC and low transverse emittance are necessary for the functioning of advanced light sources such as the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray FEL (XFEL). The photo-injector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) is dedicated to the optimization of such electron beams. At PITZ the electrons are produced using an RF gun cavity operated at accelerating gradients of up to 60 MV/m. The gun is equipped with a pair of solenoids for the compensation of the emittance growth due to linear space charge forces. This solenoid compensation scheme is enhanced with a properly matched TESLA type normal conducting booster cavity. The main tool for the characterization of the transverse phase space of the electron beam at PITZ is the emittance measurement system (EMSY). It employs the single slit method for the measurement of the transverse phase space distribution of the electron beam. In this thesis, the performance of the EMSY was optimized for measurement of low emittances in a wide range of photo-injector parameters including such that result in electron beams close to the XFEL specifications. First results on the characterization of the PITZ photo-injector with a gun operated at maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m are presented. This includes scans of the solenoid focusing strength, the initial beam size and the booster gradient. A comparison between results obtained at lower accelerating gradients is made with emphasize on the benefit of higher accelerating gradient.

  1. Power and gas flow models for monoenergetic neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, ignition tokamak reactors (ITR, EPR, and beyond will require supplemental heating to achieve ignition. In the earlier machines, at least, this heating will probably be provided by monoenergetic neutral beams. These beams, with energies greater than or equal to 150 keV, will most likely be derived from D+ or D- ions produced by direct extraction ion sources. A positive ion source will be followed by a bending magnet, a neutralizer, and a second bending magnet. The first magnet will remove molecular ions, and the second one atomic ions. Direct convertors will be used to recover energy from unused molecular and atomic ions. The first bending magnet may be omitted if D- ion sources are used. Models have been developed for power and gas flow in injectors which employ direct extraction D+ or D- ion sources. The power flow model accounts explicitly for all beam losses in terms of line densities of gas along paths traversed by ions and neutrals and cross sections for dissociation and charge-changing collisions. The gas flow model uses the results of power flow calculations and known gas flows from sources and neutralizers to determine gas loads and pumping requirements in various parts of the injector

  2. Neutral beam injector research and development work in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe neutral beam injector research and development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. All neutral beam systems for present and near-term applications are based on the acceleration and neutralization of positive ions. The research and development is carried out at LBL/LLL and ORNL. Present emphasis at LBL/LLL is on 80 to 120 kV systems for the mirror program and for the TFTR and D III tokamaks. Present emphasis at ORNL is on 40 to 80 kV systems for the PLT, ISX, and PDX, and 80 to 200 kV systems for LPTT and TNS tokamaks. Injectors for the future experiments and reactors may operate at energies of 200 keV or higher, especially for mirror machine applications, where positive-ion-based efficiencies will be very low, assuming no energy recovery. Research on negative-ion-based systems with potentially high efficiencies is carried out at BNL and at LBL/LLL and ORNL. The first demonstration of a high-power neutral beam based on negative ions is planned for 1980

  3. Effect on non-condensable gas on steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. Although non-condensable gases are well known for reducing heat transfer, the effect of the non-condensable gas on the condensation of supersonic steam on high-speed water jet has not been cleared. The present paper presents an experimental study of condensation of supersonic steam around turbulent water jet with model steam injector made by transparent plastic. The experimental apparatus is described. The visual observation was carried out by using high-speed camera. The non-condensable gas effect on the pump performance and flow characteristics are clarified by the image processing technique for the jet shape and gas-liquid interface behavior. (authors)

  4. Heavy ion upgrade of the Bevatron local injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new heavy ion injector system for the Bevatron, consisting of a PIG ion source, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, is nearing completion. It will make available to the Bevatron a source of ions up to mass 40 independent of the SuperHILAC, enhancing the operational flexibility of the Bevalac complex. The RFQ accelerator, made operational in mid 1983, accelerates ions with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 to 200 keV/n. The RFQ is followed by a new 200 MHz Alvarez linac operating in the 2?lambda mode which further accelerates the ions to 800 keV/n. This linac is followed by a foil stripper and a portion of the old injector linac, rebuilt to accelerate beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.35 to 5 MeV/n in the 2?lambda mode. Details are given of the configuration, equipment modifications, and project status

  5. Investigation of carburising treatment of injector flange in diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of carburising treatment of injector flange in a diesel engine was investigated. Initially, a carburized case structure made of low-carbon (0.23%) steel was approximately modelled by five sub-regions. Then, finite element stress analyses were performed using Abaqus CAE® software to determine performances of several models, which the thickness of five sub-regions were changed. Examining performances of case thicknesses with respect to load bearing capacity, minimum case thickness value was approximately determined to be 1 mm. After determining this superior case thickness configuration, for real service loading and boundary conditions, FE analyses were repeated to determine the cyclic stress components for a fatigue analysis. Based on the FE results, carburising treatment was applied and superior strength was determined for a case, in which the maximum hardness is 570 ± 20 Hv on surface and 290 ± 25 Hv at depth 1.05 mm from the surface with the condition that heat treatments before and after cold forming were properly applied. Experiments and FE analyses give almost similar results. The result showed that carburising treatment of injector flange provides 8% increase in static load bearing capability with 1 mm case thickness. Additionally, it is realized that the case hardened flange had a reasonable fatigue safety factor. In the real service test with 200 carburized flanges on 50 diesel engines, no failure was observed during 3000 engine operation hours (approximately 2 years).

  6. A control system upgrade of the spear synchrotron and injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPEAR electron synchrotron is an old and venerable facility with a history of great physics. When this storage ring was converted to serve as a full-time synchrotron light source, it was evident that the facility was due for an overhaul of its control system. Outdated hardware interfaces, custom operator interfaces, and the control computer itself were replaced with off-the-shelf distributed intelligent controllers and networked X-workstations. However, almost all applications and control functions were retained by simply rewriting the layer of software closest to each new device. The success of this upgrade prompted us to do a similar upgrade of our Injector system. Although the Injector was already running an X-windows based control system, it was non-networked and Q-bus based. By using the same Ethernet based controllers that were used at SPEAR, we were able to integrate the two systems into one that resembles the ''standard model'' for control systems, and at the same time preserve the applications software that has been developed over the years on both systems

  7. Energy-Spread-Feedback System for the KEKB Injector Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    New energy-spread feedback system using nondestructive energy-spread monitors have been developed in order to control and stabilize the energy spreads of single-bunch electron and positron beams in the KEKB injector linac. The well-controlled feedback systems of the injector linac are successfully working in dairy operation not only for keeping the injection rate higher along with the beam-orbit and energy feedback systems but also for reducing a background level to the high-energy B-factory experiment. The energy spreads of the injection beams are well stabilized within 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.3% for the electron beam, the positron beam, and the high-current primary electron beam for positron production, respectively, through the energy-spread feedback system under the nominal operation condition. In this paper, we will report in detail the energy-spread feedback system using the nondestructive energy-spread monitors with multi-strip-line electrodes and their performance in the KEKB operation.

  8. Linac4, a New Injector for the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Pasini, M; Rossi, C; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2006-01-01

    The first bottle-neck towards higher beam brightness in the LHC injector chain is due to space charge induced tune spread at injection into the CERN PS Booster (PSB). A new injector called Linac4 is proposed to remove this limitation. Using RF cavities at 352 and 704 MHz, it will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2, and deliver a 160 MeV, 40 mA H- beam. The higher injection energy will reduce space charge effects by a factor of 2, and charge exchange will drastically reduce the beam losses at injection. Operation will be simplified and the beam brightness required for the LHC ultimate luminosity should be obtained at PS ejection. Moreover, for the needs of non-LHC physics experiments like ISOLDE, the number of protons per pulse from the PSB will increase by a significant factor. This new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios. It is also designed to become the low energy part of a future 3.5 GeV, multi-megawatt superconducting linac (SPL). The present desig...

  9. Problems of development of fast atom injectors for thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of using injectors of megawatt ion beams and deuterium atoms in thermonuclear machines and reactors are considered. Given are requirements to ion sources and injection systems for large thermonuclear machines of the tokamak type of the next generation: one source ion current -38-80 A, power of hydrogen or deuterium atom beam - 10-20 MW at 40-120 keV particle energy and 0.5-10 S pulse duration. It is likely, that deuterium atom energy will be over 200 keV in demonstration reactors, and total injection power exceeds 100 MW. Energetic efficiency should amount to 50-70%. Modern hydrogen ion sources without external magnetic fields with uncooled multishit ion-optical IBM-5 and IBM-6 systems permit to produce well-focussed beams with current up to 35 and 100 A and 20-40 keV energy at pulse duration up to 200 ms. Designing directions of hybrid and thermonuclear reactor injectors are shown. At deuterium atom energies up to 200 keV preferred is an injection scheme using recharging of positive ions by proper gas flowing out from the source to a recharging chamber. An injection scheme using negative deuterium ions will be apparently used for deuterium atom energies

  10. Performance of the PHIN High Charge Photo Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Petrarca, M; Doebert, S; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Fedoseev, V; Lebas, N; Lefevre, T; Losito, R; Egger, D; Mete, O

    2010-01-01

    The high charge PHIN photo injector is studied at CERN as an electron source for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) drive beam as an alternative to the present thermionic gun. The objective of PHIN is to demonstrate the feasibility of a laser-based electron source for CLIC. The photo injector operates with a 2.5 cell, 3 GHz RF gun using a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated by UV laser pulses generated by amplifying and frequency quadrupling the signal from a Nd:YLF oscillator running at 1.5GHz. The challenge is to generate a beam structure of 1908 micro bunches with 2.33nC per micro bunch at 1.5GHz leading to a high integrated train charge of 4446nC and nominal beam energy of 5.5MeV with current stability below 1%. In this paper we report and discuss the time resolved transverse and longitudinal beam parameters measurements. The performance of the photo cathodes made at CERN with a peak quantum efficiency of 18 % is shown as well. Laser pointing and amplitude stability results are discussed taking into account correla...

  11. A low-charge-state injector linac for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a low-charge-state linac which is capable of accelerating, for example, 132Sn1+ for injection into the existing heavy-ion linac ATLAS is discussed. The injector linac is intended for radioactive beam applications, and will accelerate a low- charge-state beam to energies of 500 keV/nucleon, at which point the ions can be stripped to charge states sufficiently high to be injected into ATLAS. A primary design goal has been to extend the very good longitudinal beam quality typical of ATLAS to low charge state beams. The proposed injector linac consists of several elements. First is a gridded-gap four-harmonic buncher and a short (normally-conducting) 12 MHz RFQ structure, both operating on a 350 kV open-air variable-voltage platform. Then comes an array of 24 Mhz and 48 Mhz superconducting interdigital accelerating structures interspersed with superconducting quadrupole transverse focusing elements. Numerical ray-tracing studies indicate that a transverse acceptance greater than 0.25? mm-mrad can be obtained while simultaneously limiting longitudinal emittance growth to a very few keV-nsec

  12. CERN Upgrade Plans for the LHC and its Injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of CERN and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) community is to ensure that LHC is operated efficiently, that it achieves nominal performance in the shortest term, and that its performance steadily improves. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for maximizing the physics reach of the LHC by upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injectors, in a phased approach. The first phase comprises construction of a new proton linac, LINAC4 and an LHC interaction-region (IR) upgrade, with the goal of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2?3×1034 cm?2s?1, while maximizing the use of mature magnet technologies and of the existing infrastructure. These two projects were approved by the CERN Council in December 2007 and are scheduled for completion in 2014. The second phase foresees further substantial improvements in the injector chain, with a proposed replacement of the aging PS and its booster, by a superconducting proton ...

  13. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  14. Viability of ?m2?1??eV2 sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines

    OpenAIRE

    KARAGIORGI, Georgia Stelios; Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Conrad, Janet; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low-energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have bee...

  15. Viability of Delta m(2) similar to 1 eV(2) sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines

    OpenAIRE

    Sorel, Michel; Shaevitz, M. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Karagiorgi, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low-energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have bee...

  16. Viability of $\\Delta m^2\\sim$ 1 eV$^2$ sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiorgi, G.; Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sorel, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscilla...

  17. Viability of $\\Delta m^2\\sim$ 1 eV$^2$ sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Karagiorgi, G; Conrad, J; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have been imposed.

  18. Preliminary Results from MINOS on Muon Neutrino Disappearance Based on an Exposure of 2.5x10^20 120 GeV Protons on the NuMI Target

    OpenAIRE

    MINOS collaboration

    2007-01-01

    Updating our previous measurements with new data and analysis modifications, we report preliminary results on the energy-dependent deficit of muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam as observed with the MINOS Far Detector located 735 km away in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. From an exposure of 2.50x10^20 protons on target, we observe 563 charged-current nu_mu interaction candidates in the Far Detector, where 738+/-30 events are expected in the absence of neutrino osc...

  19. A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, D.; Jensen, D.; Jostlein, H.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; /Fermilab; Bromberg, C.; /Michigan State U.; Lu, C.; McDonald, T.; /Princeton U.; Gallagher,; Mann, A.; Schneps, J.; /Tufts U.; Cline, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Wang, H.; /UCLA; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; /Yale U.; Menary, S.; /York U., Canada

    2005-09-01

    Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) [2], which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in {nu}{sub e} charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for {nu}{sub e} appearance searches from neutral current events with a {pi}{sup 0} are reduced well below the {approx} 0.5-1.0% {nu}{sub e} contamination of the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam [3]. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC [4], a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept [5] based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded) [6]. Continuing R&D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. Efforts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K [7]. The 2005 APS neutrino study [1] recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term R&D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our R&D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics.

  20. Finding a solution to internal diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, Robert; Quigley, Robert; Panesar, Avtar; Payne, James [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim; Stevens, Andrew [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) have caused widespread problems in the automotive industry since around 2005. Modem injectors that have been precisely engineered to operate highly controlled injection strategies are experiencing problems in the field due to deposits that have formed on their critical moving parts, such as the needle and control valve. Problems range from rough idling to a failure to start, when the moving parts become stuck. Early studies showed that the composition of these deposits is variable. In some cases the deposit contained noticeable amounts of sodium carboxylate; these are now generally referred to as 'sodium soaps'. In other incidences the dominant chemical functionality observed was an amide group, and hence these deposits are referred to as 'amide lacquers'. A combination of both types has been observed in many cases and other metals, like calcium, have also been detected. Further studies have shown that the sodium soap type can be formed from specific types of corrosion inhibitors. The source of the amide lacquers is less certain, but there are indications that they originate from specific fuel additives that contain critical levels of low molecular weight species. This paper broadly explores this area of high interest. It will report results on the analysis of deposits and the conditions needed to reproduce both types of IDID in bench engine testing. It will also investigate the types of contaminants that are likely to form IDIDs and explore difference in chemical structure that can lead to pro-fouling, non-fouling and anti-fouling behaviour. It will then show that a deposit control additive, specifically designed to control nozzle tip deposits in modem direct injection diesels, is equally effective in controlling IDIDs; both in terms of prevention and removal. Since IDIDS are formed from multiple sources, some of which are difficult to control in today' s market, the use of a broadly acting fuel additive is a more reliable way of avoiding the issues associated with this new form of injector deposit. (orig.)

  1. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  2. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 1: Hydraulic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    An experimental study of two real multi-hole Diesel injectors is performed under current DI Diesel engine operating conditions. The aim of the investigation is to study the influence of injector technology on the flow at the nozzle exit and to analyse its effect on the spray in evaporative conditions and combustion development. The injectors used are two of the most common technologies used nowadays: solenoid and piezoelectric. The nozzles for both injectors are very similar since the objective of the work is the understanding of the influence of the injector technology on spray characteristics for a given nozzle geometry. In the first part of the study, experimental measurements of hydraulic characterization have been analyzed for both systems. Analysis of spray behaviour in evaporative conditions and combustion development will be carried out in the second part of the work. Important differences between both injectors have been observed, especially in their transient opening and closing of the needle, leading to a more efficient air-fuel mixing and combustion processes for the piezoelectric actuated injector. (author)

  3. Improvements to the Fermilab main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of converting Fermilab's Main Ring to operate in the capacity of an injector into the Tevatron and a source of protons for pbar stacking, a number of changes were made to it. These included the construction of overpasses to provide space for detectors in the nearby Tevatron, the change in the high field energy from 400 GeV to 150 GeV resulting in more destructive remanent fields at injection, and the insertion of a number of aperture restricting magnets used in the various transfers between Main Ring and other accelerators. Each of these changes has had a detrimental effect on the efficiency of Main Ring transmission at the injection energy of 8 GeV. This paper describes the attempts to measure, simulate and rectify the problems which have been outlined above. Extensive tracking has been done in an attempt to understand the reduced 8 GeV lifetime. In doing so the authors have found that the systematic multipoles play an important role in particle stability. Admittance measurements have verified the restricted aperture due to the overpasses. As a result the vertical dispersion originating from the overpasses has been reduced. The effectiveness of these steps is discussed

  4. Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of a Double-Base Swirl Injector in a Liquid Rocket Propellant Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah OMMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fundamentals of swirl injector calculation is investigated and new design procedure is proposed. The design method for double-base liquid-liquid injectors is presented based on this theory and experimental results. Then special conditions related to double-based liquid-liquid injectors are studied and the corresponding results are applied in design manipulation. The behaviour of injector in various performing conditions is studied, and the design procedure is presented based on obtained results. A computer code for designing the injector is proposed. Based on this code, four injectors are manufactured. A specialized laboratory was setup for the measurement of macroscopic spray characteristics under different pressure such as homogeneous droplet distribution, spray angle, swirl effect. Finally, through PDA cold test, the microscopic characteristics of injectors spray are also obtained and measured. The results, which will be explained in detail, are satisfactory.

  5. Laser based alignment system for the KEKB injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new laser-based alignment system is under development at the KEKB injector linac. Towards the Super-KEKB project, the new system is strongly required for increasing the operation stability and enhancing the quality of electron and positron beams. A new laser optics aiming the stable beam propagation has been developed for the laser-based alignment system. The new system comprises two convex lenses with different focal length, six flat mirrors, and a flat-parallel glass plate. By using this system, the 300-m-long laser propagating is tested, and its profile is measured. In this report, we present the overview of the new alignment system and its test results in detail. (author)

  6. Proposed bunching scheme for a polarized H- injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements to the polarized H- injector at LAMPF will include a two-stage buncher and beam chopper. The buncher scheme will permit the compression of a major part of the current in 20 RF cycles of the drift-tube linac (100 nsec) into a single RF cycle (5 nsec), thus making possible time-of-flight experiments with the polarized H- beam. A proposed first buncher stage would use a ramp drive waveform; the second stage, a sinusoidal waveform. Design and sensitivity calculations are summarized, including beam energy considerations, buncher and chopper drive requirements, and longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics. The calculations indicate that about 70% of the beam from the source may be bunched in the 1-nsec acceptance region of the linac, with less than 0.1% of the beam in neighboring RF cycles

  7. Comments on Injector Proton Beam Study in Run 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-09-15

    During the entire period of injector proton study in run 2014, it seems that the beam transverse emittance out of Booster is larger than that in run 2013. The emittance measured at the BtA transfer line and also the transmission from Booster late to AGS late are presented for this argument. In addition to this problem, it seems that the multiturn Booster injection, which defines the transverse emittance, needs more attention. Moreover, for high intensity operations, the space charge effect maybe already relevant in RHIC polarized proton runs. With the RHIC proton intensity improvement in the next several years, higher Booster input intensity is needed, therefore, the space charge effect at the Booster injection and early ramp may become a new limiting factor.

  8. Radiation field simulation of C-ADS Injector II

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Guangyi; He, Yuan; Li, Yuxiong; Li, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    The injector of C-ADS (Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System) project is a high current, fully super-conducting proton accelerator. Meanwhile, a BLM system is indispensable to this facility, especially in low energy segments. This paper presents some basic simulations for 10MeV proton by Monte Carlo program FLUKA, as well as the distributions on different secondary particles in three aspects: angular, energy spectrum and current. These results are beneficial to selecting the detector type and its location and determining its dynamic range matching different requirements for both fast and slow beam loss. Further, the major impact of the background is analyzed, such as superconducting cavity X radiation and radiation caused by material activation, in this paper as well. This work is meaningful in BLM system research.

  9. Three bunch energy stabilization for the SLC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow feedback has been developed to control the energy and energy spread of the beams which are injected into the SLC damping rings. Within a single RF pulse, two bunches of electrons and one bunch of positrons are accelerated to an energy of 1.21 GeV in the injector of the SLC. The two electron bunches are deflected into the north damping ring while the positrons are targeted into the south ring. In order to fit into the acceptance of the rings, the composite energy deviation and energy spread of the beams must be less than 2% full width. Control of the beam energy characteristics is accomplished with a set of computer controlled feedback loops which monitor the parameters of the three bunches and make adjustments to the available RF energy, RF phasing, and RF timing. This paper presents an overview of the feedback algorithms and of the special hardware developments, and reports on the operational status of the processes

  10. Two-pulse injector experiments with the RIIM electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RADLAC-II accelerator foilless diode injector was operated under double-pulse conditions utilizing the RIIM accelerator as the test bed [M. G. Mazarakis, D. L. Smith, R. B. Miller, R. S. Clark, D. E. Hasti, D. L. Johnson, J. W. Poukey, K. R. Prestwich, and S. L. Shope, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 3237 (1985)]. The original RIIM accelerator pulsed-power network was modified to provide for the generation, transmission, and delivery to the foilless diode of two distinct multimegavolt pulses with variable interpulse separation from 0 to 2 ms. The foilless diode successfully produced two 10-kA current pulses with interpulse separations up to 1 ?s. For larger separations, the generated plasma and an excessive neutral gas release following the first pulse prevented the diode from producing a second current pulse

  11. Arbitrary function generator for APS injector synchrotron correction magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APS injector synchrotron has eighty correction magnets around its circumference to provide the vernier field changes required for beam orbit correction during acceleration. The arbitrary function generator (AFG) design is based on scanning out encoded data from a semi-conductor memory, a first-in-first-out (FIFO) device. The data input consists of a maximum of 20 correction values specified within the acceleration window. Additional points between these values are then linearly interpolated to create a uniformly spaced 1000 data-point function stored in the FIFO. Each point, encoded as a 3-bit value is scanned out in synchronism with the injection pulse and used to clock the up/down counter driving the DAC. The DAC produces the analog reference voltage used to control the magnet current. 1 ref., 4 figs

  12. Superconducting magnetic shields for neutral beam injectors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large high energy deuterium neutral beams which must be made from negative ions require extensive magnetic shielding against the intense fringe fields surrounding a magnetic fusion power plant. The feasibility of shielding by multilayer sheets of copper-superconducting laminated material was investigated. It was found that, if necessary fabrication techniques are developed, intrinsically stable type II superconductors will be able to shield against the magnetic fields of the fusion reactors. Among the immediate benefits of this research is better magnetic shields for neutral beam injectors in support of DOE's fusion program. Another application may be in the space vehicles, where difficulties in transporting heavy ?-metal sections may make a comparatively light superconducting shield attractive. Also, as high-field superconducting magnets find widespread applications, the need for high-intensity magnetic shielding will increase. As a result, the commercial market for the magnetic shields should expand along with the market for superconducting magnets

  13. Anaphylaxis treatment: current barriers to adrenaline auto-injector use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T T; Worm, M; Lieberman, P

    2014-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition that is increasing in prevalence in the developed world. There is universal expert agreement that rapid intramuscular injection of adrenaline is life-saving and constitutes the first-line treatment of anaphylaxis. The unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis and its rapid progression makes necessary the availability of a portable emergency treatment suitable for self-administration. Thus, anaphylaxis treatment guidelines recommend that at-risk patients are provided with adrenaline auto-injectors (AAIs). Despite these clear recommendations, current emergency treatment of anaphylaxis continues to be inadequate in many cases. The aim of this review is to highlight the barriers that exist to the use and availability of AAIs and that prevent proper management of anaphylaxis. In addition, we review the characteristics of all AAIs that are presently available in Europe and the USA and discuss the need for regulatory requirements to establish the performance characteristics of these devices. PMID:24835773

  14. Report of the Accelerator Group: the light-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good progress was made on the various sub-systems of the light-ion injector cyclotron SPC1. The radio-frequency system, which consists of the two resonators (each with a 25 kW power amplifier) and the stabilization and control system was completed. Orbit calculations were used to determine the phase selection attainable from the combined axial and radial slits, and also to give an indication of the momentum selection which could be achieved using the radial slits. The detail design of all the extraction elements, i.e. the eletrostatic extraction channel EEK and two magnetic channel MEK1 and MEK2 has been completed. On the 15th December 1983, the first beams of ions were accelerated in SPC1. The following subsystems of SPC1 are discussed: magnets, radio-frequency systems, orbit calculations of the phase section, extraction process, vacuum system and beam diagnostics

  15. Fast opening gas valve for the TCABR pellet injector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro, Vannucci; Carlos Mariz de O., Teixeira; Fernanda Sá, Teixeira; José H., Vuolo; Alexandre C. de, Paulo; Fernando, Horita; Francisco T., Degasperi; Juan I., Elizondo; Edson K., Sanada; Vittorio A.L., Almeida; Fábio, Pantano.

    1752-17-01

    Full Text Available Fast acting gas valves that operate between two very different pressure environments, which may differ in several orders of magnitude, are not available commercially and, therefore, they must be specifically projected and constructed. For the TCABR impurity pellet injector, under construction, an el [...] ectromagnetic valve has been built which operates for gas pressure that ranges from 20 to 40 atm at one side of the valve to 10-9atm at the other side. The working principle of the valve is based on the displacement of an aluminum disk (which controls the gas flux) from its closing position by an electromagnetic force, in result to an induced electric current on the disk caused by a magnetic flux variation. Experimental results showed that the electromagnetic impulse on the disk lasts for 200 mus and takes less than 30 ms for the valve to shut up again.

  16. Beam synchronous data acquisition for SwissFEL test injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 250 MeV injector facility at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute) has been constructed to study the scientific and technological challenges of the SwissFEL project. Since in such pulsed machines in principle every beam can have different characteristics, due to varying machine parameters and/or conditions, it is very crucial to be able to acquire and distinguish control system data from one pulse to the next. In this paper we describe the technique we have developed to perform beam synchronous data acquisition at 100 Hz rate. This has been particularly challenging since it had to provide us with a reliable and real-time data acquisition method in a non real-time control system. We describe how this can be achieved by employing a powerful and flexible timing system with well defined interfaces to the control system. The concept of local buffering is presented. (authors)

  17. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  18. Upgrade of JT-60 pellet injector for higher velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet injection experiments have been performed to improve the plasma performance by the JT-60 tokamak from June, 1988. From the results of the experiments, it was found that the plasma confinement time increased up to 40% with pellet injection (velocity over 1.5 km/s), in which was obtained with 10 MW neutral beam injection highly peaked electron density profile. The experimental results suggested that improvement of the plasma confinement time depends on the penetration depth of the pellet into the plasma column, especially into 'q2 to 100 kg/cm2 and from 80degC to 200degC respectively. The upgraded pellet injector can inject, independently, four pellets, two of which are 3.0 mm in diameter x 3.0 mm in length and the other two of which are 4.0 mm in diameter x 4.0 mm in length. (author)

  19. Preliminary test of SC solenoid for ADS injector ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary test of the superconducting solenoid for ADS injector ? has been carried out in order to measure its performances. A vertical dewar with height 1 600 mm and outer diameter 510 mm was employed for this test. The magnet was energized by a cryogenic sms superconducting magnet current source. The axial magnetic distribution and leakage field were also tested through hall probes. The center field can be excited up to 8.20 T and the relative deviation between the measured value and the calculated value of the stray and leakage field is less than 10%. The measurements of the strain and stress status of the magnet skeleton show that the distortion is small and the mechanical performance is robust. (authors)

  20. Thermal Calculations Of Input Coupler For Erl Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Sobenin, N P; Bogdanovich, B Yu; Kaminsky, V I; Krasnov, A A; Lalayan, M V; Veshcherevich, V G; Zavadtsev, A A; Zavadtsev, D A

    2004-01-01

    The thermal calculation results of input coupler for ERL injector cavities are presented [1]. A twin coaxial coupler of TTF-3 type was chosen for 2×75 kW RF power transfer. TTF-3 coupler was intended for high pulse and not high average power transmission, so there were revisings proposed in its design. New coupler configuration provides thermal leakage not more than 0.2 W at temperature 2.0K, 2 W at the temperature 4,0K and 50 W at temperature 80K. Construction revising was made at "cold" and "warm" bellows. In particularly, bellows separating was proposed to install additional heat sink. Coupler configuration with "warm" window of choke type was examined. It provides mechanical uncoupling of input waveguide and ceramic insulator. Electrodynamics simulations were carried out by MicroWaveStudio and HFSS codes, thermal analysis was maid using ANSYS.

  1. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector - phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter ? 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge

  2. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 ?s.

  3. SIMULATION AND OPTIMISATION OF A 100MA DC PHOTO-INJECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype 100mA injector is presently being designed and manufactured jointly between Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and Advanced Energy Systems (AES). This paper discusses the physics optimization and performance of the injector which has been studied using the space-charge tracking code ASTRA. The objective is to operate the 7MeV injector with 135pC electron bunches at 748.5MHz repetition rate. We show that the longitudinal and transverse electron bunch properties can be realized within the constraints of the design

  4. Visualization of cavitating and flashing flows within a high aspect ratio injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew S.

    Thermal management issues necessitate the use of fuel as a heat sink for gas turbine and liquid rocket engines. There are certain benefits to using heated fuels, namely, increased sensible enthalpy, increased combustion efficiency, a decrease in certain emissions, and enhanced vaporization characteristics. However, the thermal and pressure enviornment inside an injector can result in the fuel flashing to vapor. Depending on the injector design, this can have deleterious effects on engine performance. As interest in heated fuels inreases, it is important to understand what occurs in the flow path of an injector under flashing conditions. At the High Pressure Laboratory at Purdue University's Maurice J. Zucrow Laboritories, a test rig was designed and built to give visual access into the flow path of a 2-D slot injector. The rig is capable of pressurizing and heating a liquid to superheated conditions and utilizes a pneumatically actuated piston to pusth the liquid through the slot injector. Methanol was chosen as a surrogate fuel to allow for high levels of superheat at relatively low temperatures. Testing was completed with acrylic and quartz injectors of varying L/DH. Flashing conditions inside the injector flow path were induced via a combination of heating and back pressure adjustments. Volume flow rate, pressure measurements, and temperature measurements were made which allowed the discharge characteristics, the level of superheat, and other parameters to be calculated and compared. To give a basis for comparison the flashing results are compared to the flow through the injector under cavitating conditions. Cavitation and flashing appear to be related phenomena and this relationship is shown. Bubble formation under cavitating or flashing conditions is observed to attenuate the injector's discharge characteristics. High speed videos of the flow field were also collected. Several flow regimes and flow structures, unique to these regimes, were observed. A frequency analysis was also performed on the video files. Bubble formation in the flow field dominates the frequency spectrum, which is confined below 1 kHz. The test campaign was successful. The result is a possible way to predict an injector's performance under flashing conditions without running heated fuel through the injector. These results may be applicable to real world injector design and testing.

  5. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D- beams in future neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid

    2015-04-01

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  6. Design of spheromak injector using conical accelerator for large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization of CT injector for LHD has been carried out and conical electrode for adiabatic CT compression is adopted in the design. Point-model of CT acceleration in a co-axial electrode is solved to optimize the electrode geometry and the power supplies. Large acceleration efficiency of 34% is to be obtained with 3.2 m long conical accelerator and 40 kV - 42 kJ power supply. The operation scenario of a CT injector named SPICA mk. I (SPheromak Injector using Conical Accelerator) consisting of 0.8 m conical accelerator is discussed based on this design. (author)

  7. Strategies for minimizing emittance growths in high intensity CW FEL injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss beam emittance growths in high intensity CW FEL injectors due to linear and non-linear space charge fields, phase space bifurcation, skew-quad effect, longitudinal momentum modification by space charges in bends, and equipartitioning, etc. We generalize Kim's RF laser gun theory to DC laser guns. We discuss the traditional free energy theory of emittance growth. The best strategies for designing high-intensity CW FEL injectors are derived, and their application to the design analysis of the CEBAF 10 MeV DC laser gun CW FEL injector test stand is discussed

  8. A DC injector of energy recovery type for the high power free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high current electron injector for the future compact free electron laser of energy recovery type is under design works. The electron injector will be operated by DC 2MV with an energy recovery scheme. The accelerator tube and decelerator tube will be composed as independent vacuum systems to prevent the outgas at the beam dump from flowing to the electron gun. The injector will be contained in a pressure vessel made of carbon steel and filled with insulation gas. Candidates for the gun cathode are thermionic oxides with a wide grid, CsTe2 photocathode, photoelectron multiplier cathode, and so on. (K.Y.)

  9. Mixture distribution in a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced fluorescence has been mainly used to characterise the two-dimensional fuel vapour concentration inside the cylinder of a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors. The effects of injection timing, in-cylinder charge motion and injector tip layout have been quantified. The flexibility in nozzle design of the multi-hole injectors has proven to be a powerful tool in terms of matching overall spray cone angle and number of holes to specific engine configurations. Injection timing was found to control spray impingement on the piston and cylinder wall, thus contributing to quick and efficient fuel evaporation. It was confirmed that in-cylinder charge motion plays a major role in engine's stable operation by assisting in the transportation of the air-fuel mixture towards the ignition locations (i.e. spark-plugs) in the way of a uniformly distributed charge or by preserving stratification of the charge depending on operating mode of the engine

  10. The detection of back-to-back proton pairs in Charged-Current neutrino interactions with the ArgoNeuT detector in the NuMI low energy beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

    2014-01-01

    Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (NN SRC) carry important information on nuclear structure and dynamics. NN SRC have been extensively probed through two-nucleon knock- out reactions in both pion and electron scattering experiments. We report here on the detection of two-nucleon knock-out events from neutrino interactions and discuss their topological features as possibly involving NN SRC content in the target argon nuclei. The ArgoNeuT detector in the Main Injector neutrino beam at Fermilab has recorded a sample of 30 fully reconstructed charged current events where the leading muon is accompanied by a pair of protons at the interaction vertex, 19 of which have both protons above the Fermi momentum of the Ar nucleus. Out of these 19 events, four are found with the two protons in a strictly back-to-back high momenta configuration directly observed in the final state and can be associated to nucleon Resonance pionless mechanisms involving a pre-existing short range correlated np pair in the nu...

  11. The MINER?A data acquisition system and infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINER?A (Main INjector ExpeRiment ?-A) is a new few-GeV neutrino cross-section experiment that began taking data in the FNAL NuMI (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam-line in March of 2010. MINER?A employs a fine-grained scintillator detector capable of complete kinematic characterization of neutrino interactions. This paper describes the MINER?A data acquisition system (DAQ) including the readout electronics, software, and computing architecture.

  12. Ionization Chambers for Monitoring in High-Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, J.; Naples, D.; Velissaris, C.; Erwin, A.; Ping, H; Viren, B.; Diwan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation-hard ionization chambers were tested using an intense electron beam from the accelerator test facility (ATF) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The detectors were designed to be used as the basic element for monitoring muons in the Main Injector Neutrino beamline (NuMI) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). Measurements of linearity of response, voltage dependence, and the onset of ionization saturation as a function of gap voltage were per...

  13. The magnetized steel and scintillator calorimeters of the MINOS experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Alner, GJ; Andreopoulos, C.; ANDREWS, M.; Andrews1, R; C.; Arroyo; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, DS; Baller, B; Barish, B; Jr, BPD; Belias, A.; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B.; Bock, GJ

    2008-01-01

    (G. J. Feldman is the Harvard author) The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment uses an accelerator-produced neutrino beam to perform precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the "atmospheric neutrino" sector associated with muon neutrino disappearance. This long-baseline experiment measures neutrino interactions in Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beam with a near detector at Fermilab and again 735 km downstream with a far detector in the Soudan Undergr...

  14. PROCEEDING OF WORKSHOP ON PHOTO-INJECTOR FOR ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,X.J.

    2001-01-22

    Workshop on Photo-injectors for Energy Recovery Linac was held at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on January 22 and 23, 2001. Fifty people attended the workshop; they came from three countries, representing universities, industries and national laboratories. This is the first workshop ever held on photo-injectors for CW operation, and for the first time, both DC and RF photo-injectors were discussed at the workshop. Workshop covered almost all major issues of photo-injectors, photocathode, laser system, vacuum, DC, 433 MHz/B-factory cavities based RF gun, 1.3 GHz RF gun and beam instrumentation. High quantum efficiency and long live time photocathode is the issue discussed during the workshop. Four working group leaders have done great jobs summarizing the workshop discussion, and identifying the major issues for future R and D.

  15. An equilibrium model for helicity injector operation in the helicity injected tokamak (HIT) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. K.; Jarboe, T. R.

    1996-11-01

    The helicity injected tokamak (HIT) experiment uses coaxial helicity injection to drive current in a low aspect-ratio tokamak. In order to accurately calculate the equilibria of such objects, a model which includes the essential physics of the injector and edge region must be included. Such a model is also crucial in determining the performance of future helicity injector designs. We present a model for the helicity injector that treats the open field lines as being in a force-free equilibrium determined by the field line length, the applied injector voltage, and an effective resistivity 0741-3335/38/11/007/img1, which can have both resistive and dynamic components. This model agrees well with data for plasmas with little or no closed flux, using a uniform 0741-3335/38/11/007/img2 as the fitting parameter.

  16. Evolutionary genetic optimization of the injector beam dynamics for the ERL test facility at IHEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yi

    2014-08-01

    The energy recovery linac test facility (ERL-TF), a compact ERL-FEL (free electron laser) two-purpose machine, has been proposed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. As one important component of the ERL-TF, the photo-injector was designed and preliminarily optimized. In this paper an evolutionary genetic method, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, is applied to optimize the injector beam dynamics, especially in the high-charge operation mode. Study shows that using an incident laser with rms transverse size of 1-1.2 mm, the normalized emittance of the electron beam can be kept below 1 mm·mrad at the end of the injector. This work, together with the previous optimization of the low-charge operation mode by using the iterative scan method, provides guidance and confidence for future construction and commissioning of the ERL-TF injector.

  17. Evolutionary genetic optimization of the injector beam dynamics for the ERL test facility at IHEP

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    The energy recovery linac test facility (ERL-TF), a compact ERL-FEL (free electron laser) two-purpose machine, was proposed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. As one important component of the ERL-TF, the photo-injector started with a photocathode direct-current gun was designed and preliminarily optimized. In this paper an evolutionary genetic method, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, is applied to optimize the injector beam dynamics, especially in the high-charge operation mode. Study shows that using an incident laser with rms transverse size of 1~1.2 mm, the normalized emittance of the electron beam can be kept below 1 mm.mrad at the end of the injector. This work, together with the previous optimization for the low-charge operation mode by using the iterative scan method, provides guidance and confidence for future constructing and commissioning of the ERL-TF injector.

  18. Design of low energy beam transport for new LANSCE H+ injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present LANSCE injector utilizes two 750-keV Cockcroft–Walton (CW) based injectors for simultaneous injection of H+ and H? beams into 800-MeV accelerator. To reduce long-term operational risks, the new project to replace the existing H+ CW injector with a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is underway [1]. The new injector requires a Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). An ion source and 2-solenoid magnetic LEBT have been designed and optimized to transport beams over a wide range of space-charge neutralization and transverse emittance, while allowing sufficient space for diagnostics and a beam deflector. The design layout minimizes the beam size in the LEBT and potential emittance growth due to solenoid aberrations and nonlinear space-charge forces. This paper describes the details of the LEBT design activity

  19. Real-Sized Pressure Swirl GDI Injector Investigation with HSFV and FPIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the application of optical diagnostics to the study of internal flows in real-sized GDI injector nozzles. The application of non-intrusive optical techniques provides an opportunity for in-depth study of internal flows in GDI injectors, allowing comprehensive measurement and investigation of injection phenomenon. It also allows the study of spray structures and other physical processes generating atomised fuel. In this study, a series of pressure swirl injectors with varying internal geometry were manufactured from fused silica to allow an investigation of variable driving pressure, variable swirl ratio and pintle angles of 300, 450 and 600. Data is presented for the structure of the aircore formed within the nozzle of the injector, together with FPIV data of the axial and tangential components of the internal flow field. The data is compared with semi-empirical relationships found in literature and good agreement was obtained

  20. Predictions for Non-Solenoidal Startup in Pegasus with Lower Divertor Helicity Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.

    2014-10-01

    Non-solenoidal startup in Pegasus has focused on using arrays of local helicity injectors situated on the outboard midplane to leverage PF induction. In contrast, injector assemblies located in the lower divertor region can provide improved performance. Higher toroidal field at the injector increases the helicity injection rate, providing a higher effective loop voltage. Poloidal flux expansion in the divertor region will increase the Taylor relaxation current limit. Radial position control requirements are lessened, as plasma expansion naturally couples to injectors in the divertor region. Advances in cathode design and plasma-facing guard rings allow operation at bias voltages over 1.5 kV, three times higher than previously available. This results in increased effective loop voltage and reduced impurity generation. Operation of helicity injectors in the high field side elevates the current requirements for relaxation to a tokamak-like state, but these are met through the improved injector design and increased control over the poloidal field structure via the addition of new coil sets. These advances, combined with the relocation of the injectors to the divertor region, will allow access to the operational regime where helicity injection current drive, rather the poloidal induction, dominates the discharge--a prerequisite for scaling to larger devices. Initial estimates indicate that plasma currents of 0.25-0.30 MA are attainable at full toroidal field with 4 injectors of 2 cm2 each and 8 kA total injected current. Non-solenoidal startup in Pegasus has focused on using arrays of local helicity injectors situated on the outboard midplane to leverage PF induction. In contrast, injector assemblies located in the lower divertor region can provide improved performance. Higher toroidal field at the injector increases the helicity injection rate, providing a higher effective loop voltage. Poloidal flux expansion in the divertor region will increase the Taylor relaxation current limit. Radial position control requirements are lessened, as plasma expansion naturally couples to injectors in the divertor region. Advances in cathode design and plasma-facing guard rings allow operation at bias voltages over 1.5 kV, three times higher than previously available. This results in increased effective loop voltage and reduced impurity generation. Operation of helicity injectors in the high field side elevates the current requirements for relaxation to a tokamak-like state, but these are met through the improved injector design and increased control over the poloidal field structure via the addition of new coil sets. These advances, combined with the relocation of the injectors to the divertor region, will allow access to the operational regime where helicity injection current drive, rather the poloidal induction, dominates the discharge--a prerequisite for scaling to larger devices. Initial estimates indicate that plasma currents of 0.25-0.30 MA are attainable at full toroidal field with 4 injectors of 2 cm2 each and 8 kA total injected current. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. Microwave proton source development for a high-current linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powerful CW proton linear accelerators (100-mA at 0.5--1.0 GeV) are being proposed for spallation neutron-source applications. A 75-keV, 110-mA dc proton injector using a microwave ion source is being tested for these applications. It has achieved 80-keV, 110-mA hydrogen-ion-beam operation. Video and dc beam-current toroid diagnostics are operational, and an EPICS control system is also operational on the 75-keV injector. A technical base development program has also been carried out on a 50-keV injector obtained from Chalk River Laboratories, and it includes low-energy beam transport studies, ion source lifetime tests, and proton-fraction enhancement studies. Technical base results and the present status of the 75-keV injector will be presented

  2. Potential failure mode and effects analysis for the ITER NB injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used analytical technique that helps in identifying and reducing the risks of failure in a system, component or process. The application of a systematic method like the FMEA was deemed necessary and adequate to support the design process of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injector). The approach adopted was to develop a FMEA at a general 'system level', focusing the study on the main functions of the system and ensuring that all the interfaces and interactions are covered among the various subsystems. The FMEA was extended to the whole NBI system taking into account the present design status. The FMEA procedure will be then applied to the detailed design phase at the component level, in particular to identify (or define) the ITER Class of Risk. Several important failure modes were evidenced, and estimates of subsystems and components reliability are now available. FMEA procedure resulted essential to identify and confirm the diagnostic systems required for protection and control, and the outcome of this analysis will represent the baseline document for the design of the NBI and NBTF integrated protection system. In the paper, rationale and background of the FMEA for ITER NBI are presented, methods employed are described and most interesting results are reported and discussed.

  3. Collection and analysis of component failure data from jet systems: neutral beam injectors and power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this ongoing activity is to develop a fusion specific component failure database with data coming from operating experiences gained in various fusion laboratories. The activity began in 2001 with the study of the Joint European Torus (JET) Vacuum and Active Gas Handling Systems. Two years later the neutral beam injectors (NBI) and the power supply (PS) systems were considered and since last year the ion cyclotron resonant heating system is under evaluation. The number of failures/malfunctions that have occurred during the years of operations, failure modes and, where possible, causes and consequences of the failures were identified, as well as the sets of components under analysis. Components were classified and counted in order to determine component counts by type of component, related total operating hours and related demands to operate (for components operating in an intermittent manner). Main reliability parameters (such as the failure rate and corresponding standard errors and confidence intervals) for the component types were also estimated. In this paper the NBI and PS results are presented

  4. Radiation dose due to tritium release from the ITER neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arienzo, Marco, E-mail: marco.darienzo@enea.i [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua (Italy); Borgognoni, Fabio [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Coniglio, Angela [Ospedale Fatebenefratelli, Isola Tiberina, Piazza Fatebenefratelli, 00186 Roma (Italy); Daniele, Antonio [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua (Italy); Sandri, Sandro [ENEA, Radiation Protection Institute, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) will be located in the area of the RFX Consortium, (Council of National Researches - CNR), in Padua, Italy. The ITER NB accelerates negative deuterium ions with maximum energy of 1 MeV and maximum beam current of 40 A. The production of tritium from this facility, mainly due to the D-D nuclear reaction on the injector calorimeter, might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. In the present paper, tritium release in atmosphere is evaluated. Analysis was performed using three different computer codes. Different release scenarios were taken into account, and doses to reference groups (population and workers) were calculated. Our results show that the dose limit of 1 mSv/year stated by Italian law for the population is not exceeded around the facility and away from it. Even considering the most conservative scenario, the dose rate per year to the reference group is about three order of magnitude lower than the dose limit.

  5. Radiation dose due to tritium release from the ITER neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) will be located in the area of the RFX Consortium, (Council of National Researches - CNR), in Padua, Italy. The ITER NB accelerates negative deuterium ions with maximum energy of 1 MeV and maximum beam current of 40 A. The production of tritium from this facility, mainly due to the D-D nuclear reaction on the injector calorimeter, might be a concern from the radiological safety point of view. In the present paper, tritium release in atmosphere is evaluated. Analysis was performed using three different computer codes. Different release scenarios were taken into account, and doses to reference groups (population and workers) were calculated. Our results show that the dose limit of 1 mSv/year stated by Italian law for the population is not exceeded around the facility and away from it. Even considering the most conservative scenario, the dose rate per year to the reference group is about three order of magnitude lower than the dose limit.

  6. Integration design of TPE-RX Neutral Beam Injector on RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TPE-RX Neutral Beam Injector, which provides a 25 keV positive ion beam energy with a maximum current of 50 A for a pulse duration of 30 ms, will be installed on RFX-mod thanks to the agreement with the AIST Institute of Tsukuba (Japan). The main scientific objective is the study of the behavior of the fast ions, which in the RFP helical equilibrium have exhibited very long confinement times. The integration of TPE-RX NBI on RFX-mod requires the development of several new components: a mechanical interface between the RFX-mod vacuum vessel and neutralizer; a Magnetic Residual Ion Dump; a new vacuum pumping system designed to maximize pumping and minimize beam stopping due to reionization. As regards the power supplies the compliance of the Japanese equipment to the Italian safety rules has been considered and layout studies have been carried out; the integration of the NBI control system in the RFX timing sequence has been studied as well.

  7. Time resolved transverse and longitudinal phase space measurements at the high brightness photo injector PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyutin, Dimitriy

    2014-08-15

    Short wavelength, high intensity Free Electron Lasers (FELs) require a high brightness electron beam, i.e. the beam should have small transverse and longitudinal sizes, small divergence and energy spread and high peak current. Therefore, the detailed characterization of the beam is required. The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ), was established as a test stand of the electron source for Free electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL). The PITZ beamline consists of various types of diagnostic devices for the detailed bunch characterization. Mainly, the transverse phase space characterization is performed at PITZ, but longitudinal phase space measurements are also of great importance for full characterization of high brightness electron bunches from the photo injector. One of the ways to measure the longitudinal phase space of electron bunch is an RF deflector. It deflects particles transversely with respect to the movement direction of the bunch in a linear dependence on their longitudinal coordinates within the bunch. As a result it gives the possibility to perform measurements of the bunch longitudinal properties in combination with a following transverse beam characterization. Using additionally a dispersive section the longitudinal phase space can be obtained as well. Another approach to measure the longitudinal phase space of the bunch is a tomographic method based on measurements of the momentum spectra while varying the electron bunch energy chirp. The energy chirp at PITZ can be applied and changed by varying the RF phase of the CDS booster - the accelerating structure installed downstream the gun. The resulting momentum distribution can be measured with a dipole spectrometer downstream. As a result, the longitudinal phase space at the entrance and exit of the CDS booster can be reconstructed over a wide range of bunch charges. In this thesis both methods for longitudinal phase space measurements are described in detail. Measurement techniques are introduced. Numerical simulations of the measurements are performed and studied. Results of the first longitudinal phase space measurements at PITZ using the tomographic technique are presented.

  8. Environmental Pollution Assessment of Different Diesel Injector Location Of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines: Theoretical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eyad S.M. Abu-Nameh; J. A.A. Yamin

    2008-01-01

    An Analytical investigation on the effect of injector location of a four-stroke DI diesel engine on its pollutants? emissions was carried out under different injector locations ranging from central to peripheral at different engine speeds ranging from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm. The simulation results clearly indicated the advantages and disadvantages of the central location over the peripheral one. It revealed that near central location gave less carbon dioxide, smoke level and particulate matter ...

  9. Design of transfer line magnets for booster synchrotron from injector linac at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of 20 - 30 MeV injector linac as an alternative injector for the booster synchrotron is in progress. A new transfer line will connect the linac to the booster synchrotron while a part of existing transfer line - 1 (from Microtron to booster synchrotron) will also be used. Design of various type of magnets (dipole, quadrupole, independent and combined function steering magnets) to be used in the new transfer line is carried out. (author)

  10. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working...

  11. The rotating injector as a tool for exploring DI diesel combustion and emissions formation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Magnus

    2001-01-01

    A diesel fuel injector has been modified to allow rotationaround its axis, driven by an electric motor. Injections at upto 6000 rpm from the rotating injector have been investigatedunder the influence of air swirl on one optical research engineand one optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine. The experiments show that changing from a normal, staticinjection to a sweeping injection has profound effects on sprayformation, dispersion and penetration. This influences thefuel/air-mixing, auto...

  12. Status report on the positive ion injector (PII) for ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Positive Ion Injector (PII) is part of the Uranuim upgrade for ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper will include a technical discussion of the Positive Ion Injector (PII) accelerator with its superconducting, niobium, very low-velocity accelerating structures. It will also discuss the current construction schedule of PII, and review an upgrade of the fast- tuning system. 10 refs., 6 figs

  13. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device backflow into cartridge during intraocular lens insertion using injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuura K; Inoue Y

    2014-01-01

    Kazuki Matsuura,1 Yoshitsugu Inoue2 1Nojima Hospital, 2Tottori University, Kurayoshi City, Tottori, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of intraocular contamination caused by intraocular lens (IOL) insertion with injectors by observing the dynamics of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Methods: Each type of injector was equipped with a colored OVD and IOL, and a 2 mm length from the tip of the cartridge was replaced with a colored OVD. The various combin...

  14. Evolutionary genetic optimization of the injector beam dynamics for the ERL test facility at IHEP

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, JIAO

    2013-01-01

    The energy recovery linac test facility (ERL-TF), a compact ERL-FEL (free electron laser) two-purpose machine, was proposed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. As one important component of the ERL-TF, the photo-injector started with a photocathode direct-current gun was designed and preliminarily optimized. In this paper an evolutionary genetic method, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, is applied to optimize the injector beam dynamics, especially in ...

  15. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius

  16. Investigation of Corrossion Effects of Jatropha Biodiesel on the Injector of an Engine Fuel System

    OpenAIRE

    I. Nuhu; F.M. Sani; I. A. Rufai

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the corrosive behaviour of biodiesel on the injector of the fuel system of a diesel engine. The experimental study was based on the methods of weight loss and scanning electron microscopy. Test specimens prepared from the injector of a diesel engine were exposed to different blends of Jatropha biodiesel for a period of 28 days under ambient conditions. Corrosion rates were determined in accordance with Callister (1997). Jatropha biodiesel blends B100,...

  17. Development of the new RF control system (AGC and APC) for HIMAC injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new RF auto gain and phase control system (AGC and APC) for HIMAC injector LINAC. The new AGC and APC supports the better workability for the research and the maintenance than the conventional AGC and APC for HIMAC injector LINAC. The test operation in the new AGC and APC showed the stable control for RF phase and magnitude. Also, we found a problem in existing APC circuit and made an additional circuit module preventing APC circuit problem. (author)

  18. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    OpenAIRE

    Macadam Clare; Barnett Julie; Roberts Graham; Stiefel Gary; King Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse Michel; Holloway Judith A; Lucas Jane S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or...

  19. Tuning of the injector system to match possible lattice upgrades at diamond light source

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, C; Bartolini, R.; Kay, J (Janice)

    2013-01-01

    Studies of novel lattice upgrades for Diamond Light Source to achieve an increase in the number of insertion devices and/or a lower natural emittance are underway [1]. Such upgrades if carried out progressively would result in successive reductions in storage ring circumference. To maintain synchronous injection then requires the injector system to operate at various frequencies to match these changes. This paper describes the tests carried out with beam, to prove that the injector system of ...

  20. Development of a 500 keV, 22 A D- ion source for neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large negative ion source producing 500keV, 22A, 10s D- ion beams is being developed for a high energy neutral beam injector for JT-60U. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. Design of the ion source and recent R and D results related to the design are presented. (author)