WorldWideScience
1

Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

2

Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics.

Brown, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lucas, P.; Malensek, A.; Murphy, C.T.; Yang, M.-J.

1997-08-01

3

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

NONE

1997-12-01

4

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

5

Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

6

Slow extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slow resonant extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector through the extraction channel was achieved in February, 2000, with a spill length of 0.3 sec. Beam losses were small. Excellent wire chamber profiles were obtained and analyzed. The duty factor was not very good and needs to be improved.

Craig D. Moore et al.

2001-07-20

7

Charged Kaons at the Main Injector (CKM)  

OpenAIRE

The CKM collaboration is proposing to measure the branching ratio of the rare K decay (K+ --> pi+ nu nubar) at the Main Injector at Fermilab. Our goal is to be able to observe about 100 events, for a Standard Model branching ratio of about 1.0E-10. This implies that we must be able to reduce the background to a few events.

Milstene, C.; Collaboration, Ckm

2000-01-01

8

Addendum to NuMI shielding assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original safety assessment and the Safety Envelope for the NuMI beam line corresponds to 400 kW of beam power. The Main Injector is currently capable of and approved for producing 500 kW of beam power2. However, operation of the NuMI beam line at 400 kW of power brings up the possibility of an occasional excursion above 400 kW due to better than usual tuning in one of the machines upstream of the NuMI beam line. An excursion above the DOE approved Safety Envelope will constitute a safety violation. The purpose of this addendum is to evaluate the radiological issues and modifications required to operate the NuMI beam line at 500 kW. This upgrade will allow 400 kW operations with a reasonable safety margin. Configuration of the NuMI beam line, boundaries, safety system and the methodologies used for the calculations are as described in the original NuMI SAD. While most of the calculations presented in the original shielding assessment were based on Monte Carlo simulations, which were based on the design geometries, most of the results presented in this addendum are based on the measurements conducted by the AD ES&H radiation safety group.

Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

2007-10-01

9

A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

2012-01-01

10

Magnet end design: The main injector dipoles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the accelerator designer standpoint, one of the quantities of interest in a magnet is the axially integrated transverse field. It is easily shown that the latter satisfies the equations of 2D magnetostatics. This is the basic theoretical result needed to design accelerator magnet ends. Unfortunately, axially integrated fields must be obtained from accurate 3D field maps and magnets ends have historically been designed using a cut and try approach. To a certain extent, this remains true even today; however, the advent of reliable 3D magnet design codes now permits to substantially reduce the costs associated with the construction of various prototypes. In this paper, the theory of magnet end design is reviewed. The design of the end of the dipole magnets of the proposed Fermilab Main Injector is analyzed in a detailed manner using TOSCA, a well-established 3D finite element code. Provided the limitations of the code are well understood by the user, the integrated field profile is satisfactorily predicted

11

The Magnetic Design and Performance of the Main Injector Lambertson  

Science.gov (United States)

A new 1.1 Tesla Lambertson for Main Injector injection/extraction and Tevatron injection has been designed and the magnetic properties of the first production magnet have been measured. The Main Injector Lambertsons will be used for injection of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons from the Antiproton Source and 150 GeV/c antiprotons recycled from the Tevatron, and the extraction of 120 GeV/c protons for antiproton production, 150 GeV/c protons for Tevatron Injection, 120 GeV/c resonant extraction, and the Main Injector abort. This magnet must accomodate Main Injector and Tevatron circulating beam in its field free region while the field region is at all excitation levels with minimal impact on the circulating beam. The design specifications and results of magnetic measurements in both the field region and field free region for the first production magnet are discussed.

Johnson, D. E.; Dimarco, J. E.; Harding, D. J.; Martin, P. S.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Walbridge, D. G. C.; Baiod, R.

1997-05-01

12

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

OpenAIRE

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY v...

Scott, D. J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K. L.; Zwaska, R. M.; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T. P.; Palmer, M. A.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

2013-01-01

13

Radiation shielding for the Main Injector collimation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding studies performed with the MARS15 code for the Main Injector collimation system at Fermilab are presented and discussed. MAD-to-MARS Beam Line Builder is used to generate realistic extended curvilinear geometry models.

Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

14

Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C

2013-01-01

15

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

Scott, D J; Duel, K L; Zwaska, R M; Greenwald, S; Hartung, W; Li, Y; Moore, T P; Palmer, M A; Kirby, R; Pivi, M; Wang, L

2013-01-01

16

Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control  

Science.gov (United States)

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

2013-07-01

17

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

18

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

Mahajan, Sonam; /Panjab U. /Fermilab

2010-12-09

19

Main Injector LCW (Low Conductivity Water) Control System  

OpenAIRE

There are six service buildings uniformly spaced along the perimeter of MI (Main Injector). A total of 18 LCW pumps were installed around the MI ring with 3 pumps per building. Approximately 8,000 GPM of LCW is required to cool magnets, bus and power supplies in the MI enclosure and service buildings. In each service building, a PLC control system controls pumps and valves, and it monitors pressures, flow, resistivities and temperatures. The PLC hardware system consists of...

Seino, K. C.

2001-01-01

20

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment Status Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MIPP Overview: Measure particle production off various nuclei, Incoming secondary beams of ?±, K± and p± from 5 to 80 GeV/c or primary p beam from the Main Injector (120 GeV/c), Large acceptance spectrometer featuring a Time Projection Chamber, Measure momentum of all charged particles produced, Identify particles with dE/dx, ToF, differential and ring imaging Cherenkov

21

Main Injector beam to the new muon and meson areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measured beam parameters from the Main Injector are used to calculate the beam envelope from MI extraction to the Meson area. The primary beam is then transported to a straw-man experiment in the MP beamline. Secondary yields are also calculated for the MTest test beam. For this study, it was assumed that the A0 region was modified as per Switchyard in the Main Injector Era Technical Design Report, and that the cryogenic magnets in Switchyard had EPB type gaps. Under these assumptions, it is possible to transport 120 GeV/c protons from the Main Injector to the Meson and New Muon areas with minimal (on the order of 1%) scraping. Regarding the Meson area, this scraping occurs at the FSeps (which produce the three-way split to Meson). Regarding the New Muon area, the scraping occurs at the MuSeps, MuLams (both of which establish the Neutrino/Muon split), and the final focusing quadrupoles. Thus, multi-beam, high-intensity running to the Meson area is precluded, as is high intensity running to the New Muon area

22

Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. [1] Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40{pi} to 60{pi} mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets. Details can be found in Ref [2].

Chou, W.; Bartelson, L.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Crisp, J.; DiMarco, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Johnson, D.; Kashikhin, V.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

23

Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector  

OpenAIRE

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled...

Brown, Bruce C.

2013-01-01

24

Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10{sup 10} protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20{pi} mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations.

Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

1994-03-01

25

Radiation shielding for the Main Injector collimation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding studies performed with the MARS15 code for the Main Injector collimation system are presented and discussed. A Proton Plan was developed recently at Fermilab for the benefit of the existing neutrino programs as well as to increase anti-proton production for the Tevatron programs [1]. As a part of the plan, the intensity of proton beams in the Main Injector (MI) should be increased by means of slip-stacking injection. In order to localize beam loss associated with the injection, a collimation system was designed [2] that satisfies all the radiation and engineering constraints. The system itself comprises a primary collimator and four secondary ones to which various masks are added. It is assumed that beam loss at the slip-stacking injection is equal to 5% of total intensity which is 5.5 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse [2]. As far as pulse separation is 2.2 seconds, one has (5.5 x 10{sup 13}/2.2) x 0.05 = 1.25 x 10{sup 12} protons interacting per second with the primary collimator. In the paper the geometry model of the corresponding MI region and beam loss model are described. The model of the region was built by means of the MAD-MARS Beam Line Builder (MMBLB) [3] using results of the collimation studies [2]. The results of radiation shielding calculations performed with the MARS15 code [4] are presented.

Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

2007-12-01

26

A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay KL ? ?0? anti ? decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K+ beam to produce a pure K0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare KS decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

27

2 MW upgrade of the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 2002, the Fermilab Director initiated a design study for a high average power, modest energy proton facility. An intensity upgrade to Fermilab's 120-GeV Main Injector (MI) represents an attractive concept for such a facility, which would leverage existing beam lines and experimental areas and would greatly enhance physics opportunities at Fermilab and in the U.S. With a Proton Driver replacing the present Booster, the beam intensity of the MI is expected to be increased by a factor of five. Accompanied by a shorter cycle, the beam power would reach 2 MW. This would make the MI a more powerful machine than the SNS or the J-PARC. Moreover, the high beam energy (120 GeV) and tunable energy range (8-120 GeV) would make it a unique high power proton facility. The upgrade study has been completed and published. This paper gives a summary report

28

NuMI proton kicker extraction system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This system extracts up to 9.6 {micro}s of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than {+-} 1% with a field rise time of 1.52 {micro}s. New kicker magnets were built based on the successful traveling wave magnets built for the Main Injector. Two of these magnets are in series which places a serious constraint on the rise time of the pulser. A forced cooling system using Fluorinert{reg_sign} was designed for the magnet termination resistors to maintain the field flatness and amplitude stability.

Jensen, C.C.; Krafczyk, G.A.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

29

STE thrust chamber technology: Main injector technology program and nozzle Advanced Development Program (ADP)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the STME Main Injector Program was to enhance the technology base for the large-scale main injector-combustor system of oxygen-hydrogen booster engines in the areas of combustion efficiency, chamber heating rates, and combustion stability. The initial task of the Main Injector Program, focused on analysis and theoretical predictions using existing models, was complemented by the design, fabrication, and test at MSFC of a subscale calorimetric, 40,000-pound thrust class, axisymmetric thrust chamber operating at approximately 2,250 psi and a 7:1 expansion ratio. Test results were used to further define combustion stability bounds, combustion efficiency, and heating rates using a large injector scale similar to the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) STME main injector design configuration including the tangential entry swirl coaxial injection elements. The subscale combustion data was used to verify and refine analytical modeling simulation and extend the database range to guide the design of the large-scale system main injector. The subscale injector design incorporated fuel and oxidizer flow area control features which could be varied; this allowed testing of several design points so that the STME conditions could be bracketed. The subscale injector design also incorporated high-reliability and low-cost fabrication techniques such as a one-piece electrical discharged machined (EDMed) interpropellant plate. Both subscale and large-scale injectors incorporated outer row injector elements with scarfed tip features to allow evaluation of reduced heating rates to the combustion chamber.

1993-01-01

30

Physics design for the C-ADS main linac basing on two different injector design schemes  

CERN Document Server

The China ADS (C-ADS) project is proposed to build a 1000 MW Accelerator Driven sub-critical System around 2032. The accelerator will work in CW mode with 10 mA in beam current and 1.5 GeV in final beam energy. The linac is composed of two major sections: the injector section and the main linac section. There are two different schemes for the injector section. The Injector-I scheme is based on a 325-MHz RFQ and superconducting spoke cavities of same RF frequency and the Injector-II scheme is based on a 162.5-MHz RFQ and superconducting HWR cavities of same frequency. The main linac design will be different for different injector choice. The two different designs for the main linac have been studied according to the beam characteristics from the different injector schemes.

Yan, Fang; Meng, Cai; Tang, Jing-Yu

2013-01-01

31

Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the value (and Q{sup 2} dependence) of R{sub QCD} = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}. A Main Injector experiment will check the scaling violation of the theory and provide solid measurements of the gluon distributions.

Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

1991-01-01

32

The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom-made timing board, and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron, The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation

33

Measurement of Pi-K Ratios from the NuMI Target  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions of protons (p) with the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) target are used to create the neutrino beam for the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) Experiment. Using the MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experimental apparatus, the production of charged pions and kaons in p+NuMI interactions is studied. The data come from a sample of 2 x 10{sup 6} events obtained by MIPP using the 120 GeV/c proton beam from the Main Injector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, USA. Pions and kaons are identified by measurement in a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. Presented are measurements of {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}/K{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}/K{sup -} production ratios in the momentum range p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c transversely and 20 GeV/c < p{sub z} < 90 GeV/c longitudinally. Also provided are detailed comparisons of the MIPP NuMI data with the MIPP Thin Carbon data, the MIPP Monte Carlo simulation and the current MINOS models in the relevant momentum ranges.

Seun, Sin Man; /Harvard U.

2007-07-01

34

Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that inst the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

35

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

36

Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within ± 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to ± 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

37

Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within {+-} 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to {+-} 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

Bocean, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1999-07-01

38

CFD modeling of turbulent flows around the SSME main injector assembly using porosity formulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and LOX flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. Two-dimensional numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows, both through tube banks and round the shielded posts, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficients as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts: LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Farmer, Richard C.

1992-01-01

39

Flow Distribution Around the SSME Main Injector Assembly Using Porosity Formulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Liquid Oxidizer (LOX) flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. 2-D numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows both through tube banks and around the shielded posts over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficient as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts, LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

1995-01-01

40

Design considerations and prototype performance of the Fermilab Main Injector dipole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Main Injector project at Fermilab requires a dipole with good field quality from 0.1 T to 1.73 T with ramps to full field at up to 2.4 T/s over an aperture of 10 x 5 cm. Operation of this magnet for the variety of purposes proposed for the Main Injector results in a design with low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction. The resulting design is presented, along with measurement results of a prototype magnet emphasizing the field uniformity. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

41

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

42

Profile Monitor SEM's for the NuMI Beam at FNAL  

CERN Document Server

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project will extract 120 GeV protons from the FNAL Main Injector in 8.56usec spills of 4E13 protons every 1.9 sec. We have designed secondary emission monitor (SEM) detectors to measure beam profile and halo along the proton beam transport line. The SEM?s are Ti foils 5um in thickness segmented in either 1?mm or 0.5?mm pitch strips, resulting in beam loss ~5E-6. We discuss aspects of the mechanical design, calculations of expected beam heating, and results of a beam test at the 8 GeV transport line to MiniBoone at FNAL.

Indurthy, D; Pavlovich, Z; Proga, M

2004-01-01

43

Tritium transport in the NuMI decay pipe region - modeling and comparison with experimental data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at Main Injector) beam facility at Fermilab is designed to produce an intense beam of muon neutrinos to be sent to the MINOS underground experiment in Soudan, Minnesota. Neutrinos are created by the decay of heavier particles. In the case of NuMI, the decaying particles are created by interaction of high-energy protons in a target, creating mostly positive pions. These particles can also interact with their environment, resulting in production of a variety of short-lived radionuclides and tritium. In the NuMI beam, neutrinos are produced by 120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator which are injected into the NuMI beam line using single turn extraction. The beam line has been designed for 400 kW beam power, roughly a factor of 2 above the initial (2005-06) running conditions. Extracted protons are bent downwards at a 57mr angle towards the Soudan Laboratory. The meson production target is a 94 cm segmented graphite rod, cooled by water in stainless tubes on the top and bottom of the target. The target is followed by two magnetic horns which are pulsed to 200 kA in synchronization with the passage of the beam, producing focusing of the secondary hadron beam and its daughter neutrinos. Downstream of the second horn the meson beam is transported for 675 m in an evacuated 2 m diameter beam (''decay'') pipe. Subsequently, the residual mesons and protons are absorbed in a water cooled aluminum/steel absorber immediately downstream of the decay pipe. Some 200 m of rock further downstream ranges out all of the residual muons. During beam operations, after installation of the chiller condensate system in December 2005, the concentration of tritiated water in the MINOS sump flow of 177 gpm was around 12 pCi/ml, for a total of 0.010 pCi/day. A simple model of tritium transport and deposition via humidity has been constructed to aid in understanding how tritium reaches the sump water. The model deals with tritium transported as HTO, water in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced with tritium. Based on concepts supported by the modeling, a dehumidification system was installed during May 2006 that reduced the tritium level in the sump by a factor of two. This note is primarily concerned with tritium that was produced in the NuMI target pile, carried by air flow into the target hall and down the decay pipe passageway (where most of it was deposited). The air is exhausted through the existing air vent shaft EAV2 (Figure 1).

Hylen, J.; Plunkett, R.; /Fermilab

2007-03-01

44

The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

45

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; /Fermilab; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; /Cornell U.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

2012-05-01

46

Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements

47

Beam intensity limits in the Main Injector through transition with a normal phase jump scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector, which is under construction, will be a high intensity proton synchrotron and will be capable of accelerating (decelerating) protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c (150 GeV/c to 8.9 GeV/c). Presently, the plan is to accelerate or decelerate the beam through the transition energy of 20.49 GeV, using basic normal phase jump scheme. Efficient deceleration of anti p through the Main Injector is crucial for the success of the Recycler Ring Project. We have performed extensive longitudinal beam dynamics simulations for both modes of operation to determine the beam intensity limits and other properties. We present the latest results of calculation and their implications

48

Comments on the behavior of ?1 in main injector ?t jump schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracking studies of transition crossing in the Main Injector have shown that the Johnsen effect is the dominant cause of beam loss and emittance blow up. To suppress this effect one has to have control over ?1 (dispersion of the momentum compaction factor ?). Various ?t jump configurations are examined and the resulting changes in ?1 are assessed. These results are further validated by comparison between the simulation and simple analytic ?1--formulas derived for a model FODO lattice with full chromaticity compensation in the presence of an eddy current sextupole component. A scheme involving the introduction of a dispersion wave in the arcs of the Main Injector, around transition time, seems to be promising if one regards the strength of the eddy current sextupole family as an external ''knob'' to control values of ?1

49

Operational use of ionization profile monitors in the Fermilab Main Injector  

OpenAIRE

Ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are used in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) to monitor injection lattice matching by measuring turn-by-turn sigmas at injection and to measure transverse emittance of the beam during the acceleration cycle. The IPMs provide a periodic, non-destructive means of performing turn-by-turn emittance measurements where other techniques are not applicable. As Fermilab is refocusing its attention on the intensity frontier, non-intercepting diagnosti...

Morris, Denton K.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Meyer, Thomas; Seiya, Kiyomi; Slimmer, David; Yang, Ming-jen; Zagel, James

2012-01-01

50

Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

51

Orbit centering studies of the IUCF injector and main stage cyclotrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IUCF cyclotrons accelerate a variety of light ion beams over a wide energy range (20 to 200 MeV protons for example) for research purposes. The beams are accelerated in three stages by a DC ion source pre-injector terminal, a small (K = 15) separated sector cyclotron, and a larger (K = 200) cyclotron of similar design. Because the research program requires a flexible machine operating schedule with between two and three energy or particle changes per week, the efficiency of these machine changes can have a significant impact on the amount of useable beam time delivered in a year of operation. The design and operation of a simple beam profile monitor to observe the outer 8 cm of the radial turn structure in both the injector and main stage cyclotrons is described. Some results of the orbit centering studies performed with the scanners are also presented

52

Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector tracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose the authors have used old Main Ring dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to the authors, they have separated in their simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables them to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular they have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8-9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

53

Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector Tracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose we have used old Main Ping dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to us we have separated in our simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables us to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular we have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8.9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

54

The impact of deformation on the final alignment of the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of deformation of the reference points is very important for the final alignment process and the future performance of the FMI machine. In case of Main Injector Tunnel practically all points of the network were subject to deformation. The method of minimizing the first norm of the displacement vector of the reference points was chosen as the method to analyze the deformation experienced within the project. Basic principles of deformation determination and analysis evaluations movement of the network relative of the beam position will be exhibited in this poster. (authors)

55

A search for coupled-bunch instability in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) we are planning to double the bunch intensity from its design value by slip stacking. The accelerator consists of 18 rf cavities which operate at a harmonic number of 588. These cavities are known to have many higher ordered resonances. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability induced by excitation of the rf cavities may be an important issue to be addressed in the intensity upgrade. Here we have carried out some simulation studies of the longitudinal coupled bunch instability to investigate bunch intensity limits. The results are presented in this paper

56

Longitudinal bunch monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons  

CERN Document Server

The measurement of the longitudinal behavior of the accelerated particle beams at Fermilab is crucial to the optimization and control of the beam and the maximizing of the integrated luminosity for the particle physics experiments. Longitudinal measurements in the Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons are based on the analysis of signals from resistive wall current monitors. This article describes the signal processing performed by a 2 GHz-bandwidth oscilloscope together with a computer running a LabVIEW program which calculates the longitudinal beam parameters.

Thurman-Keup, R; Blokland, W; Crisp, J; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Flora, R; Hahn, A; Hansen, S; Kiper, T; Para, A; Pordes, S; Tollestrup, A V

2011-01-01

57

Operational use of ionization profile monitors in the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are used in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) to monitor injection lattice matching by measuring turn-by-turn sigmas at injection and to measure transverse emittance of the beam during the acceleration cycle. The IPMs provide a periodic, non-destructive means of performing turn-by-turn emittance measurements where other techniques are not applicable. As Fermilab is refocusing its attention on the intensity frontier, non-intercepting diagnostics such as IPMs are expected to become even more important. This paper gives an overview of the operational use of IPMs for emittance measurements and injection lattice matching measurements at Fermilab, and summarizes the future plans.

Morris, Denton K; Capista, David; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Meyer, Thomas; Seiya, Kiyomi; Slimmer, David; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zagel, James

2012-01-01

58

The Fermilab Main Injector Dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120-150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. In this paper the design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T

59

The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

60

Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

61

Magnet reliability in the Fermilab Main Injector and implications for the ILC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Linear Collider reference design requires over 13000 magnets, of approximately 135 styles, which must operate with very high reliability. The Fermilab Main Injector represents a modern machine with many conventional magnet styles, each of significant quantity, that has now accumulated many hundreds of magnet-years of operation. We review here the performance of the magnets built for this machine, assess their reliability and categorize the failure modes, and discuss implications for reliability of similar magnet styles expected to be used at the ILC.

Tartaglia, M.A.; Blowers, J.; Capista, D.; Harding, D.J.; Kiemschies, O.; Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

2007-08-01

62

Design and multiparticle simulation of the half integer slow extraction system for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the roles of the new Main Injector ring, in the second phase of the Fermilab upgrade, is to deliver all year around the slow extracted 120 GeV test beams. The half-integer slow extraction system design and results from a Monte-Carlo simulation of fast spill are presented. The simulation was performed with a computer tracking program based on the TEVLAT program with a large number of particles (up to 1000). Particle tracking included the systematic errors produced by the magnetic multipoles within the dipoles and quadrupoles as well as random multipole errors

63

The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11006

2011-01-01

64

A Study of Muon Neutrino Disappearance Using the Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Beam  

CERN Document Server

We report the results of a search for muon-neutrino disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27e20 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336 +/- 14 muon-neutrino charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to delta m-squared = 2.74e-3 +0.44/-0.26e-3 eV^2 and sin^2(2 theta) > 0.87 at 68% confidence level.

Kordosky, Michael; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cabrera, A; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drakoulakos, D; Durkin, T; Dytman, S A; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, i L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2007-01-01

65

Measurements of beam pipe eddy current effects in Main Injector dipole magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dipole magnets for the proposed Main Injector project at Fermilab are designed to ramp to maximum field (1.7 T) at rates over 2.5 T/s. These ramp rates will produce eddy current effects which degrade overall field quality. A harmonics probe was constructed for the purpose of measuring eddy current field components during the ramp cycle. Three separate ramp rates were employed ranging from 1.3 T/s to 2.7 T/s. Tests were performed using beam pipes with two different resistivities. The dominant multipole contribution resulting from eddy current effects in each beam pipe was sextupole. The sextupole component closely matched the calculated prediction

66

Analog Signal Pre-Processing For The Fermilab Main Injector BPM Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency-selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton and 2.5 MHz antiproton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware

67

Design for Fermilab main injector magnet ramps which account for hysteresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the dominant fields in accelerator electromagnets are proportional to the excitation current, precise control of accelerator parameters requires a detailed understanding of the fields in Main Injector magnets including contribution from eddy currents, magnet saturation, and hysteresis. Operation for decelerating beam makes such considerations particularly significant. Analysis of magnet measurements and design of control system software is presented. Field saturation and its effects on low field hysteresis are accounted for in specifying the field ramps for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Some simplifying assumptions are made which are accepted as limitations on the required ramp sequences. Specifications are provided for relating desired field ramps to required current ramps for the momentum, tune, and chromaticity control

68

Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMI Facility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13 and September 30, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report details the work done between June 13 and September 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, the facility produces (among other components) tritium in engineered materials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium is generated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to other regions within the facility, or be released to the environment

69

Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

2008-05-01

70

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2011-01-01

71

Experimental test of a new antiproton acceleration scheme in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to provide higher intensity and lower emittance antiproton beam to the Tevatron collider for high luminosity operation, a new Main Injector (MI) antiproton acceleration scheme has been developed [1-4]. In this scheme, beam is accelerated from 8 to 27 GeV using the 2.5 MHz rf system and from 27 to 150 GeV using the 53 MHz rf system. This paper reports the experimental results of beam study. Simulation results are reported in a different PAC'05 paper [5]. Experiments are conducted with proton beam from the Booster. Acceleration efficiency, emittance growth and beam harmonic transfer between 2.5 MHz (h=28) and 53 MHz (h=588) buckets have been studied. Beam study shows that one can achieve an overall acceleration efficiency of about 100%, longitudinal emittance growth less than 20% and negligible transverse emittance growth. accelerated to 150 GeV and injected to the Tevatron. The multi-bunch coalescing process is eliminated in this acceleration scheme. Consequently, longitudinal emittance growth is reduced. Smaller emittance growth reduces beam loss.

Wu, V.; Bhat, C.M.; Chase, B.E.; Dey, J.E.; Meisner, K.G.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

72

Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance. An upgrade to the MI is being considered that would increase the bunch intensity Nb, from the present ? 1 x 1011 to 3 x 1011, corresponding to a total pulse intensity Ntot = 16.4 x 1013, in order to generate intense beams for the neutrino program. Such an increase in beam intensity would place the MI in a parameter regime where other storage rings have seen a significant EC effect. Motivated by this concern, efforts have been undertaken over the recent past to measure and simulate the magnitude of the effect and to assess its operational implications on the proposed upgrade. We report here a summary of simulation results obtained with the code POSINST, and certain benchmarks against measurements. Unless stated otherwise, the simulation parameters used are shown in Tab. 1. Some of these represent a slightly simplified version of the MI operation.

73

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

74

An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

D.A. Edwards

1998-11-01

75

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort [1]. Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector [2-4]. The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}, which we let vary in the range 1.2 {le} {delta}{sub max} {le} 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 {approx}< {delta}{sub max} {approx}< 1.35 at this location. From this piece of information we estimate features of the EC distribution for various fill patterns, including the average electron number density n{sub e}. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency f{sub RF} = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population N{sub tot}. The density n{sub e} goes through a clear threshold as a function of N{sub tot} in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in N{sub tot} is a factor {approx} 2 higher for f{sub RF} = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor {approx} 2 when N{sub tot} is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed.

Furman, Miguel .A.

2008-08-25

76

The Modeling of Time-Structured Multiturn Injection into Fermilab Main Injector (Microbunch Injection with Parasitic Longitudinal Painting)  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents the modeling of time-structured multiturn injection for an upgraded Main Injector with the 8-GeV Superconducting RF proton driver, or an ILC-style linac, or a Project-X linac. The Radio-Frequency mismatch between a linac and the upgraded Main Injector will induce parasitic longitudinal painting in RF-phase direction. Several different scenarios with a choice of different RF parameters for single RF system and double RF system in the presence of longitudinal space charge have been investigated. From the studies of microbunch injection with the aid of ESME (2003) numerical simulations, it is found that the dual RF system with a choice of appropriate RF parameters allows us to overcome the space-charge limitation set by beam intensity during the multiturn-injection process. A double RF system with a harmonic ratio (R_H = H_2/H_1) of 2.0 and a voltage ratio (R_V = V_2/V_1) of 0.5 are most favored to reduce both longitudinal and transverse effects of space charge in the Main Injector.

Yoon, Phil S; Chou, Weiren

2008-01-01

77

CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE MAIN INJECTOR PARTICLE PRODUCTION (FNAL-E907) EXPERIMENT AT 58 GEV ENERGY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV {pi}, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary {pi}, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected {approx} 0.26 x 10{sup 6} events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; /Iowa U.

2009-12-01

78

Modernization of the RF-field stabilization system in the main part of the in-booster injector-accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide for high-intense pulsed proton beam acceleration in the main part of the in-booster injector-accelerator a system of auto-compensation (AC) is used which appears to be a fast-operating stabilization system with parametric feedback by a voltage wave reflected from a resonator. Currently the AC system provides for acceleration of beams with the currents of up to 100 mA with the accelerating HF-field stabilization accuracy being insufficient however. Reasons for AC system atsbilization accuracy limitation are considered and ways of the system modernization connected with the increase of quality of branching the waves reflected from the resonator using a powerful ferrite Y-circulator are considered. Results of testing Y-circulator in HF-power range from 0.6 to 3.8 MW are presented. 4 refs.; 3 figs

79

Measurement of Charged Pion Production Yields off the NuMI Target  

CERN Document Server

The fixed-target MIPP experiment, Fermilab E907, was designed to measure the production of hadrons from the collisions of hadrons of momenta ranging from 5 to 120 GeV/c on a variety of nuclei. These data will generally improve the simulation of particle detectors and predictions of particle beam fluxes at accelerators. The spectrometer momentum resolution is between 3 and 4%, and particle identification is performed for particles ranging between 0.3 and 80 GeV/c using $dE/dx$, time-of-flight and Cherenkov radiation measurements. MIPP collected $1.42 \\times10^6$ events of 120 GeV Main Injector protons striking a target used in the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The data have been analyzed and we present here charged pion yields per proton-on-target determined in bins of longitudinal and transverse momentum between 0.5 and 80 GeV/c, with combined statistical and systematic relative uncertainties between 5 and 10%.

Paley, J M; Raja, R; Akgun, U; Asner, D M; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes,, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bhatnagar, V; Choudhary, B; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Graf, N; Gronberg, J; Gulmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Hartouni, E P; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kumar, A; Lange, D J; Lebedev, A; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Mahajan, S; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Singh, A; Solomey, N; Soltz, R A; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K

2014-01-01

80

A Conceptual Design of an Internal Injection Absorber of 8 GeV H-Injection into the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An 8 GeV superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) has been proposed as a single stage H{sup -} injector into the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron[1]. This would be the highest energy H{sup -} multi-turn injection system in the world. An injection absorber is required to absorb a few percent o the incoming beam on a regular pulse by pulse basis. The requirements and conceptual design of an internal absorber, capable of steady state 6.5 kW is discussed.

Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

81

Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb = 25 ns or tb = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta)max. For tb = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta)max is below ? 1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

82

Studies of e-cloud build up for the FNAL main injector and for the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb=19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb=25 ns or tb=75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) ?max. For tb=25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if ?max is below ?1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb=75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2. (author)

83

Activation Products from Copper and Steel Samples Exposed to Showers Produced by 8 GeV Protons Lost in the Fermilab Main Injector Collimation System  

CERN Document Server

In conjunction with efforts to predict residual radiation levels in the Fermilab Main Injector, measurements of residual radiation were correlated with the time history of losses. Detailed examination suggested that the list of radioactive isotopes used for fitting was incomplete. We will report on activation studies of magnet steel and copper samples which we irradiated adjacent to the Fermilab Main Injector collimation system. Our results identified several additional radioactive isotopes of interest. The MARS15 studies using a simplified model are compared with measurements. The long half-life isotopes will grow in importance as operation stretches to a second decade and as loss rates rise. These studies allow us to predict limits on these concerns.

Brown, Bruce C; Pronskikh, Vitaly S

2015-01-01

84

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

85

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing.

Flora, R.; Martin, K.; Moibenko, A.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.; Prieto, P.; Hays, S.

1995-04-01

86

Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

87

Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

88

Electron linac injector developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

89

Synergies between the first-generation JHF-SK and NuMI superbeam experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss synergies in the combination of the first-generation JHF to Super-Kamiokande and NuMI off-axis superbeam experiments. With synergies we mean effects which go beyond simply adding the statistics of the two experiments. As a first important result, we do not observe interesting synergy effects in the combination of the two experiments as they are planned right now. However, we find that with minor modifications, such as a different NuMI baseline or a partial antineutrino running, one could do much richer physics with both experiments combined. Specifically, we demonstrate that one could, depending on the value of the solar mass squared difference, either measure the sign of the atmospheric mass squared difference or CP violation already with the initial stage experiments. Our main results are presented in a way that can be easily interpreted in terms of the forthcoming KamLAND result

90

The NLC Injector System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider (NW) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance, 10 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a train of 9.5 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns; each bunch has a population of 1.15 x 1010 particles. At injection into the main linacs, the horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be ? varepsilonx = 3 x 10-6 m-rad and ? varepsilon

91

Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI  

CERN Document Server

The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

Boehnlein, David J

2012-01-01

92

The injector cyclotrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPC1 injector cyclotron has been running very reliably. Beam interruptions due to injector failures amounted to only 6.2% of the total running time. A few minor modifications were made to improve the reliability even more, and the control of the rf-system has been automated to a point where almost no action is required from the operators during runs. Progress with the second injector cyclotron SPC2 has been slower than originally planned. Final preparations are being made for the magnetic field mapping of the main magnet. Most of the calculations for the central region have been completed, but the design of the central region has been delayed. Manufacture of the extraction system, which is basically the same as that of SPC1, the diagnostic system and the design of the vacuum control system are progressing well. The ECR-source has been delivered and is being installed. Manufacturing of the ion source for polarized protons and deuterons has been completed and the source is now being tested at the factory. Delivery is expected by the end of 1988. 1 fig., 2 refs., 2 tabs

93

Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) being built at SLAC will integrate the new technologies of X-band Accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider, demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of higher-order deflecting modes, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. The current injector being constructed for phase 1 of the NLCTA tests is a simple injector consisting of a gun with a 150 ns long pulse and X-band bunching and accelerating system. While the injector will provide average currents comparable to what is needed for NLC it will not provide the bunch structure since every X-band RF bucket will be filled. The injector upgrade will produce a similar bunch train as planned for NLC mainly a train of bunches 1.4 ns apart with 3 nC in each bunch up to 50 to 60 MeV. The bunching system for the upgrade is more elaborate than the current injector and the plan is to produce a bunch train right at the gun. The difference between the NLCTA injector upgrade and the planned injector for NLC is that the NLCTA injector will not have polarized beam and the accelerator sections are X-band rather than S-band. If the authors are able to produce beams comparable to the NLC requirements with the X-band injector then it should be easier to do with the S-band

94

Electron injector for UHF generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns the techniques for injecting an electron beam into a cavity resonator or electromagnetic structure. It features an injector of simple construction for injecting a tubular beam of monokinetic electrons in a helical orbit and which, by a very easy adjustment, makes it possible to obtain at will annular beams of monokinetic electrons the thickness of which is variable at will in significant proportions and of which the slope angle of the helical trajectories of each electron in relation to the centre of the corresponding helix can reach high figures. This injector is of the kind that include an annular electron gun in an axisymmetrical vacuum vessel and having also as main characteristic electric coils able to create the cyclotron effect by a static magnetic field varying progressively and continuously according to the axis of the injector

95

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included.

Wehmann, A.; Smart, W.; Menary, S.; Hylen, J.; Childress, S.

1997-10-01

96

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included

97

Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for {nu}{sub {mu}} is given approximately by 1 - sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}sin{sup 2}(1.27{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}L/E), where{theta}{sub 23} and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} between the mass eigenstates {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 2}, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a {nu}{sub {mu}} interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x10{sup 20} protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2{+-}16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level {alpha} = 4.2 x 10{sup -3}. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.32 {+-}{sup 1.06}{sub 0.75} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.74 {+-}{sup 0.44}{sub 0.26} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.87 (68% CL).

McGowan, Aaron Michael; /Minnesota U.

2007-08-01

98

Liquid rocket engine injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The injector in a liquid rocket engine atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion that will provide the required thrust without endangering hardware durability. Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the rocket engine combustion chamber, and have varied from a few inches to more than a yard in diameter. This monograph treats specifically bipropellant injectors, emphasis being placed on the liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors that have been developed for and used in flight-proven engines. The information provided has limited application to monopropellant injectors and gas/gas propellant systems. Critical problems that may arise during injector development and the approaches that lead to successful design are discussed.

Gill, G. S.; Nurick, W. H.

1976-01-01

99

MINERvA: a dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI  

CERN Document Server

MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment.

McFarland, K S

2006-01-01

100

MINERvA: A Dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment

101

Fuel injector characterization studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The atomization of several general aviation piston engine manifold port fuel injectors was investigated. The injectors were installed in a test rig and operated under simulated conditions. Laser interferometric techniques were used to optically probe the spray droplet fields for droplet size and velocity at numerous spatial locations throughout the field.

Houser, M. J.; Bachalo, W. D.

1980-01-01

102

Injector of the positron generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main components of the Positron Generator injector are briefly described, which include an electron gun, a subharmonic buncher (SHB), a prebuncher and a buncher, an rf waveguide, a transport and a vacuum system, etc. The vacuum system around the gun was carefully made to obtain a high emission current. The SHB was introduced to increase the peak current and operates at 119 MHz, the 24th subharmonic frequency. Performance of the injector has been tested yielding the results that about 60% of the injected current from the gun is successfully accelerated without the SHB. An injection current obtained is typically 7 A for 5 nsec pulse. For 3 nsec (FWHM) beam the accelerated electron and the positron beams are increased by a factor of 1.5 with the SHB

103

Nanosecond electron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a pulsed electron injector that consists of a three-electrode gun and a modulator, which is at the injection potential. The nanosecond injector can be used with an accelerator to study transients in linear accelerators as well as in applications such as pulse radiolysis. This injector provides the basis for a high-frequency pulsed x-ray source. When a molybdenum target with a thickness of 0.3 mm was used, the pulse dose rate at a distance of 30 cm from the target was 20 R/sec

104

Injector element characterization methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

Cox, George B., Jr.

1988-01-01

105

The ANKA Injector  

OpenAIRE

ANKA is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation storage ring under construction at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The injector system will consist of a pre-injector with an end energy of 20 to 50 MeV and a 0.5 GeV booster synchrotron. In the following three different concepts for designing the booster synchrotron are compared.

Einfeld, D.; Perez, F.; Rossmanith, R.; Walther, R.

1997-01-01

106

Fuel flexible fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

2015-02-03

107

The Heidelberg High Current Injector A Versatile Injector for Storage Ring Experiments  

CERN Document Server

The High Current Injector (HCI) was designed and built as a dedicated injector for the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg to deliver mainly singly charged Li- and Be-ions. After start for routine operation in 1999 the HCI delivered stable beams during the following years for about 50 % of the experiments with very high reliability. Due to the requirements from the experiment the HCI changed during that period from a machine for singly charged positive ions to an injector for a large variety of molecules as well as positively or negatively charged light ions. After successful commissioning of the custom built 18 GHz high power ECR-source at its present test location various modifications and additions were made in preparation of a possible conversion into an injector for highly charged heavy ions as a second phase. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained in the passed 5 years and presents the status of the upgrade of the HCI.

Von Hahn, R; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Welsch, C P

2004-01-01

108

Beam Dynamics Optimization for the Xfel Photo Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The main challenge for the European XFEL photo injector is the production of 1 nC electron beams with a normalized transverse emittance of 0.9 mm mrad. The photo injector setup consists of a 1.5-cell L-band rf gun cavity supplied with solenoids for beam focusing and emittance compensation and the first accelerating section with 8 TESLA superconducting cavities. The first 4 cavities are used as a booster to provide by proper choice of its position, gradient and phase matching conditions for the emittance conservation. For optimization of the beam dynamics in the photo injector, a staged algorithm, based on ASTRA simulations, has been developed. The first stage considers the emission of electrons from a photo cathode. The cathode laser energy and its transverse parameters are adjusted to produce a bunch charge of 1 nC in presence of space charge forces (including image charge at the cathode) and Schottky-like effects. The second stage contains rf gun cavity and solenoid optimization. The booster position, gradient and initial phase are optimized at the third stage yielding the minimum emittance at the photo injector exit. Results of the XFEL photo injector optimization will be presented. Besides simulations experimental studies towards XFEL photo injector are carried out. The photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) develops photo injectors for FELs, including FLASH and the European XFEL. A thorough comparison of measured data with results of beam dynamics simulations is one of the main PITZ goals. Detailed experimental studies on photo emission processes, thermal emittance, transverse and longitudinal phase space of the electron beam are being performed together with beam dynamics simulations. This aims to result in better understanding of beam dynamics in high brightness photo injectors. Experimentally obtained photo injector characteristics (like thermal emittance) have to be used in an additional optimization of the photo injector resulting in more realistic beam dynamics simulations. Results of these studies will be reported as well.

Krasilnikov, Mikhail

109

Present status of the PF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After construction of the PF 2.5-GeV linac and the Positron Generator Linac, continuous efforts have been made to improve performance of both linacs. The KEK B-Factory is presently under consideration as the TRISTAN phase-II future project. It requires 8-GeV electrons and 3.5-GeV positrons. The pre-injector has been upgraded in order to investigate instabilities induced by high intense electron beams in the main linac. Several developments, investigations and considerations are underway for the project. The present status of the PF injector linacs is described. (author)

110

The FNAL injector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present FNAL H- injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H- sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system. The present FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) injector has been operational since 1978 and has been a reliable source of H- beams for the Fermilab program. At present there are two Cockcroft-Walton injectors, each with a magnetron H- source with a slit aperture. With these two sources in operation, the injector has a reliability of better than 97%. However, issues with maintenance, equipment obsolescence, increased beam quality demands and retirement of critical personnel, have made it more difficult for the continued reliable running of the H- injector. The recent past has also seen an increase in both downtime and source output issues. With these problems coming to the forefront, a new 750 keV injector is being built to replace the present system. The new system will be similar to the one at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) that has a similar magnetron source with a round aperturilar magnetron source with a round aperture and a 200MHz RFQ. This combination has been shown to operate extremely reliably.

111

Variations in the wide band and narrow band beams for NuMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is directed at studies related to using the main injector at Fermilab to generate neutrino beams. The note describes two studies that have been done on variations of the reference beams. The first suggests a method to reduce the low-energy tail of the narrow band beam (NBB); the second addresses possibilities for minimizing the far/near variations in the spectra for the wide band beam (WBB). Both of these are studied with NUADA (Long Baseline) and are meant to give guidance for GEANT calculations that would be able to answer whether the suggested ideas are in fact improvements, once all the complex processes are included

112

PLT neutral injector performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experience with respect to beamline operation on PLT and on the Princeton test stand is reviewed. We discuss the performance of the injectors, beam energy distributions as measured by two techniques, beam-associated impurities, control of gas evolution in the drift duct by titanium evaporation, reionization in the drift duct, and the computer archiving and control system currently under development.

Grisham, L.R.; Eubank, H.P.; Dylla, H.F.; Goldston, R.J.; Schilling, G.; Stewart, L.D.; Stookesberry, R.W.; Ulrickson, M.

1978-10-01

113

PLT neutral injector performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience with respect to beamline operation on PLT and on the Princeton test stand is reviewed. We discuss the performance of the injectors, beam energy distributions as measured by two techniques, beam-associated impurities, control of gas evolution in the drift duct by titanium evaporation, reionization in the drift duct, and the computer archiving and control system currently under development

114

Linac pre-injector  

CERN Multimedia

New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

1965-01-01

115

Ground Motion Studies at NuMI. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground motion can cause significant deterioration in the luminosity of a linear collider. Vibration of numerous focusing magnets causes continuous misalignments, which makes the beam emittance grow. For this reason, understanding the seismic vibration of all potential LC sites is essential and related efforts in many sites are ongoing. In this document we summarize the results from the studies specific to Fermilab grounds as requested by the LC project leader at FNAL, Shekhar Mishra in FY04-FY06. The Northwestern group focused on how the ground motion effects vary with depth. Knowledge of depth dependence of the seismic activity is needed in order to decide how deep the LC tunnel should be at sites like Fermilab. The measurements were made in the NuMI tunnel, see Figure 1. We take advantage of the fact that from the beginning to the end of the tunnel there is a height difference of about 350 ft and that there are about five different types of dolomite layers. The support received allowed to pay for three months of salary of Michal Szleper. During this period he worked a 100% of his time in this project. That include one week of preparation: 2.5 months of data taking and data analysis during the full period of the project in order to guarantee that we were recording high quality data. We extended our previous work and made more systematic measurements, which included detailed studies on stability of the vibration amplitudes at different depths over long periods of time. As a consequence, a better control and more efficient averaging out of the daytime variation effects were possible, and a better study of other time dependences before the actual depth dependence was obtained. Those initial measurements were made at the surface and are summarized in Figure 2. All measurements are made with equipment that we already had (two broadband seismometers KS200 from GEOTECH and DL-24 portable data recorder). The offline data analysis took advantage of the full Fourier spectra information and the noise was properly subtracted. The basic formalism is summarized if Figure 3. The second objective was to make a measurement deeper under ground (Target hall, Absorber hall and Minos hall - 150 ft to 350 ft), which previous studies did not cover. All results are summarized in Figure 3 and 4. The measurements were covering a frequency range between 0.1 to 50 Hz. The data was taken continuously for at least a period of two weeks in each of the locations. We concluded that the dependence on depth is weak, if any, for frequencies above 1 Hz and not visible at all at lower frequencies. Most of the attenuation (factor of about 2-3) and damping of ground motion that is due to cultural activity at the surface is not detectable once we are below 150 ft underground. Therefore, accelerator currently under consideration can be build at the depth and there is no need to go deeper underground is built at Fermi National Laboratory.

116

Update to the NLC Injector System Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance 8 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a 265 ns train of bunches (190 bunches spaced by 1.4 ns or 95 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns); each bunch has a population of up to 1.6 x 1010 particles for 2.8 ns (or 0.8 x 1010 particles for 1.4 ns). Horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be ?(varepsilon)x = 3 x 10-6 m-rad and ?(varepsilon)y = 2 x 10-8 m-rad; bunch length at injection is variable from 90-140 (micro)m. Electron polarization of greater than 80% is required. Electron and positron beams are generated in separate accelerator complexes each of which contains the source, damping ring systems, linacs, bunch length compressors, and collimation regions. Investigation into the feasibility of polarized positrons for the NLC has begun; operations at 180 Hz and the centralization of the injector complex have been studied. The need for affordable, low technical risk, reliable injector subsystems is a major consideration in the design effort. This paper presents an overview of the NLC injector systems with an emphasis on changes in the design since 1999 [1] and discusses the planned R and D

117

NLCTA injector experimental results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is to integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of high-order deflecting modes, measure the transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. For beam loading R and D, an average current of about 1 A in a 120 ns long bunch train is required. The initial commissioning of the NLCTA injector, as well as the rest of the accelerator have been progressing very well. The initial beam parameters are very close to the requirement and they expect that injector will meet the specified requirements by the end of this summer

118

Photoelectric injector design considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We will present an analysis for different emittance growth mechanisms for electron beams in photoelectric injectors. The mechanisms will be broken up into three groups: space-charge forces due to self-similar expansion, space-charge forces due to non-self-similar expansion (including divergences and convergences of the beam), and rf forces. We will show that some of the emittance can be eliminated downstream, particularly that of the first group. General design considerations will become clear from this analysis and a generic design will be presented. In addition, a photoelectric injector design for both the Los Alamos National Laboratory XUV FEL and a compact free-electron laser (FEL) will be used to show a numerical agreement with the analysis. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Carlsten, B.E.; Sheffield, R.L.

1988-01-01

119

Tritium pellet injector results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

120

Injector cyclotron for CYCLONE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy ion facility for CYCLONE (Belgium) is described. It consists of an injector cyclotron, able to accelerate heavy ions to a K value of 70 MeV Q2/A, with an upgrading possibility of 100 MeV Q2/A. Expected intensities are large. Some design aspects are described which allow the cost of the project to be quite low. (auth)

121

Pellet injectors for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

122

MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

2011-05-01

123

MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO?A will deliver about 18 x 1020 protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

124

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(mu) disappearance via oscillations with |Delta(m)2/32|=2.74 +0.44/-0.26 x10(-3)eV(2) and sin(2)(2theta(23))>0.87 (68% C.L.). PMID:17155614

Michael, D G; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; de Jong, J K; DeMuth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Terekhov, A; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-11-10

125

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-01-01

126

Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described.

Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

2013-10-15

127

Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab  

Science.gov (United States)

In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

2014-06-01

128

MINERV?A : A High Statistics Neutrino Scattering Experiment in the NuMI Neutrino Beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MINER?A experiment at Fermilab propose a fully-active scintillator based fine grained neutrino detector exposed to the high rate NuMI neutrino beam. Minerva will measure low energy neutrino interaction properties and cross-sections to a new level of precision. These measurements will be critical input to neutrino oscillations measurements from accelerator neutrino oscillations experiments which will be performed in this energy range

129

NLC electron injector beam dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) being designed at SLAC requires a train of 90 electron bunches 1.4 ns apart at 120 Hz. The intensity and emittance required at the interaction point, and the various machine systems between the injector and the IP determine the beam requirements from the injector. The style of injector chosen for the NLC is driven by the fact that the production of polarized electrons at the IP is a must. Based on the successful operation of the SLC polarized electron source a similar type of injector with a DC gun and subharmonic bunching system is chosen for the NLC

130

Requirements specification for the Neutral Beam Injector on FAST  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the scientific and technical requirements for a Neutral Beam Injection system on the FAST tokamak and describes a preliminary conceptual design of a suitable injector. FAST is being proposed as a European experiment in support to the operations on ITER and to the design of DEMO. The specific mission of this device is an integrated approach to a number of outstanding burning plasmas physics and operational issues with an emphasis on the impact of fast particles on turbulent transport. Such scientific requirements set a series of technical challenges regarding the injector and the coupling of the injector to the FAST main chamber that are addressed in the paper. A preliminary conceptual design of the injector is proposed which attempts to meet the stated requirements.

131

Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 are presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. 2012 MD will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided. (authors)

132

The FNAL injector upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The present FNAL H- injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H- sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system.

Tan, C Y; Duel, K L; Lackey, J R; Pellico, W A

2012-01-01

133

LCLS Injector Drive Laser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Requirements for the LCLS injector drive laser present significant challenges to the design of the system. While progress has been demonstrated in spatial shape, temporal shape, UV generation and rep-rate, a laser that meets all of the LCLS specifications simultaneously has yet to be demonstrated. These challenges are compounded by the stability and reliability requirements. The drive laser and transport system has been installed and tested. We will report on the current operational state of the laser and plans for future improvements.

Dowell, D.H.; Castro, J.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; White, W.; /SLAC

2007-11-02

134

Deuterium pellet injector gun design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging

135

The TESLA test facility linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) Linac is a 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting accelerator under construction at DESY (Hamburg) by an international collaboration. The linac is being built to demonstrate the viability of the superconducting RF approach to a future e+e- linear collider. Within the collaboration three participating French laboratories (LAL, IPN and DAPNIA) have undertaken the task of designing and constructing a phase 1 injector for TTF. We describe the studies towards the realisation of this 7 - 14 MeV, 8 mA high duty cycle (800 ?s pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate) injector. The front end of the injector will consist of a 250 keV electron gun, a 216.7 MHz sub-harmonic bunching cavity and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. This is followed by a beam analysis line and a transport section to match the beam from the capture cavity to the first cryomodule of the main linac. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

136

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

137

Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main injectors, but can be a consideration in preburners, where the desire to keep turbine inlet temperatures as cool as possible can make it advantageous for the preburners to operate as far from stoichiometry as can be tolerated. costs. In fact, it can easily be argued that reducing engine development time and costs is essential to maintaining U.S. competitiveness in space. *The Propulsion Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory has invested in a number of programs to advance liquid rocket engine technology, and several of these are directed at improving design tools for liquid rocket injectors. -The purpose of the presentation will be to describe some of these latter programs.

Talley, D. G.

1993-11-01

138

The light-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

139

Piezo inline injectors; Piezo-Inline-Injektoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamentals of piezo inline injectors are gased on the experience with conventional common rail injectors and with a mechatronic approach to injection system design. With the development of this injector family and its successful serial application in 2003, Robert Bosch GmbH provided the basis for an innovative concept of common rail injectors.

Mattes, P.; Boecking, F.; Kampmann, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2005-07-01

140

Steam injectors modelling with CATHARE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among thermal-hydraulic passive systems, the Steam Injectors are one of the most interesting apparatus. In a Steam Injector (SI), steam is used as an energy source to pump low pressure and low temperature water. The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency Feed Water System (EFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The DEEPSSI program was supported by the European Commission in the framework of the 5th R and D program. The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative Steam Injector (SI) design. In the frame of the DEEPSSI project, the development of a specific 1D module of the CATHARE code for the Steam Injector has been achieved. A set of modified correlations - the interfacial friction and the bulk condensation rate in the mixing chamber is used in the presented studies. The first results have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE to well describe the studied steam injectors. The proposed SI modeling was qualified in different test conditions (different inlet vapor pressures, different liquid flow rates, different injectors: CLAUDIA, IETI, IMP-PAN) and it seems rather satisfactory. A simple model of closed circuit has been proposed. It proved the capability of the steam injector model for the CATHARE computer code to work in a closed circuit under relevant reactor conditions. (author)

141

Assessment of radiological releases from the NuMI facility during MINOS and NOvA operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report makes projections of the radiological releases from the NuMI facility during operations for the MINOS and NO ?A experiments. It includes an estimate of the radionuclide levels released into the atmosphere and the estimated tritium and sodium-22 concentrations in the NuMI sump water and Fermilab pond system. The analysis was performed for NuMI operations with a beam power on target increased from the present 400 kW design up to a possible 1500 kW with future upgrades. The total number of protons on target was assumed to be 18 x 10{sup 20} after the completion of MINOS and 78 x 10{sup 20} after the completion of NO ?A.

Martens, Mike; /Fermilab

2007-04-01

142

Space Transportation Main Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-07-01

143

High-brightness electron injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

144

Testing CPT conservation using the NuMI neutrino beam with the MINOS experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS experiment was designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters with muon neutrinos. It achieves this by measuring the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor composition of the man-made NuMI neutrino beam 1km after the beam is formed and again after 735 km. By comparing the two spectra it is possible to measure the oscillation parameters. The NuMI beam is made up of 7.0% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, which can be separated from the {nu}{sub {mu}} because the MINOS detectors are magnetized. This makes it possible to study {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations separately from those of muon neutrinos, and thereby test CPT invariance in the neutrino sector by determining the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters and comparing them with those for {nu}{sub {mu}}, although any unknown physics of the antineutrino would appear as a difference in oscillation parameters. Such a test has not been performed with beam {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} before. It is also possible to produce an almost pure {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam by reversing the current through the magnetic focusing horns of the NuMI beamline, thereby focusing negatively, instead of positively charged particles. This thesis describes the analysis of the 7% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} component of the forward horn current NuMI beam. The {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} of a data sample of 3.2 x 10{sup 20} protons on target analysis found 42 events, compared to a CPT conserving prediction of 58.3{sub -7.6}{sup +7.6}(stat.){sub -3.6}{sup +3.6}(syst.) events. This corresponds to a 1.9 {sigma} deficit, and a best fit value of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} = 18 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23} = 0.55. This thesis focuses particularly on the selection of {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} events, and investigates possible improvements of the selection algorithm. From this a different selector was chosen, which corroborated the findings of the original selector. The thesis also investigates how the systematic errors affect the precision of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}. Furthermore, it describes a study to determine the gains of the PMTs via the single-photoelectron spectrum. The results were used as a crosscheck of the gains determined at higher intensities by an LED-based light-injection system.

Auty, David John; /Sussex U.

2010-05-01

145

Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2|=(2.43\\pm 0.13)\\times10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ (68% confidence level) and mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta)>0.90$ (90% confidence level). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight, namely neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard deviation levels, respectively.

Adamson, P; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

2008-01-01

146

Superconducting positive-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In last year's report, the authors described a long-range plan to upgrade the performance of ATLAS by replacing the present negative-ion source and tandem injector with a positive-ion system consisting of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a superconducting injector linac. The ultimate objective of this upgrade is to (1) increase the beam current by a large factor and (2) to extend the mass range up to uranium. Planning for the positive-ion injector is progressing vigorously. At this stage of the work, the most critical activity is the development of a suitable accelerating structure for slow-moving ions. A first prototype of such a structure is nearing completion. In addition considerable effort has been devoted to a study of the beam dynamics of the injector linac

147

High-brightness injector modeling  

CERN Document Server

There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and "macro" factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

Lewellen, J W

2004-01-01

148

Steady state neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >105 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m2, frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

149

A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |{Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}|, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 23}. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

Ling, Jiajie; /South Carolina U.

2010-07-01

150

Swirl injectors for oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle engines and hypergolic propellants  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented here are two efforts concerning the application of swirl injectors to rocket engine main chamber injectors. The first study was undertaken to develop a liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with new hypergolic propellants in conjunction with KB Sciences and China Lake. The second study focuses on gas/liquid swirl injectors typically used for main chamber elements in oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines. The design, development and testing of hypergolic liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) and non-toxic hypergolic miscible fuels (NHMF) are discussed first. Cold flow tests were conducted to measure the spray cone angle and discharge coefficient of the injector, and allow for comparison with theoretical predictions to evaluate the design model. The goal of this effort was to establish a method to design swirl injectors operating in a thrust regime of 35 lbf, characteristic lengths of 30 in, and c* efficiencies above 90%. A literature review of existing inviscid swirl models is provided. The bi-centrifugal swirler design process is described, along with the design features of the series of bicentrifugal swirl injectors that were built. Results from cold flow experiments are compared to the theoretical predictions of the models reviewed. Characteristic velocity (c*) efficiencies of 70-92% were measured. Next an introduction will be made to the transition of the study into the research regarding swirl injectors for the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The derivation of the baseline operating conditions is discussed. The liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LOX/H2) preburner and GOX/RP-1 injector design and hardware are detailed. Two alternative injector designs chosen to explore the stability margins of this type of injector and give a quantitative comparison of the dynamic response to the baseline injector geometry are presented. The hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter with established heritage used in the preburner is briefly discussed. Finally, the results of igniter and preburner testing are presented.

Long, Matthew R.

151

Report from the polarization group of the Fermilab injector workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The group considered physics, accelerator, and polarized source issues. Most of the physics study was concerned with what significant and unique experiments could be done if polarized protons could be accelerated in the main injector and eventually in the Tevatron. 12 refs., 4 figs

152

Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL); Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Lee, Chien-Chang (Rochester Hills, MI); Miller, Charles R. (Metamora, IL)

2002-01-01

153

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

154

Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

Wiebe, David J.

2012-10-09

155

Experimental investigation of a simulated LOX injector flow field  

Science.gov (United States)

Current development of liquid oxidizer injectors for liquid rocket engines is highly dependent upon experimental investigations of the two-phase liquid oxidizer/gaseous fuel injection plume characteristics. This paper describes an effort to increase the applicability of optical diagnostic approaches to such flow fields find includes an innovative approach for interpreting laser-induced fluorescence signals from axisymmetric two-phase flows. The usefulness of both laser-induced fluorescence and surface scattering techniques are explored herein. The flow field selected for this investigation is an oxidizer-swirled, coaxial flow produced using an injector design under consideration for use in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The liquid oxygen (LOX) flow through this injector is simulated using water. Photographs of laser-induced fluorescence and particle scattering and measured profiles of the mass distribution in this flow field are presented and discussed herein.

Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Eskridge, Richard

1993-01-01

156

ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

2007-08-29

157

A new biolistic intradermal injector  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

2013-07-01

158

Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions  

CERN Document Server

A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

1979-01-01

159

Pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several advanced plasma fueling systems are under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for present and future magnetic confinement devices. These include multishot and repeating pneumatic pellet injectors, centrifuge accelerators, electrothermal guns, a Tritium Proof-of-Principle experiment, and an ultrahigh velocity mass ablation driven accelerator. A new eight-shot pneumatic injector capable of delivering 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, and 4.0 mm diameter pellets at speeds up to 1500 m/s into a single discharge has been commissioned recently on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor. The so-called Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) is a prototype of a Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) scheduled for use on TFTR in 1990. Construction of the TPI will be preceded by a test of tritium pellet fabrication and acceleration using a 4 mm bore ''pipe gun'' apparatus. A new repeating pneumatic pellet injector capable of 2.7 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm operation is being installed on the Joint European Torus to be used in ORNL/JET collaborative pellet injection studies. A 1.5 m centrifuge injector is being developed for application on the Tore Supra experiment in 1988. The new device, which is a 50% upgrade of the prototype centrifuge used on D-III, features a pellet feed mechanism capable of producing variable-size pellets (1.5 to 3.0 mm diameter) optimally shaped to survive acceleration stresses. Accelerating pellets to velocities in excess of 2 km/s is being pursued through two new development undertakings. A hydrogen plasma electrothermal gun is operational at 2 km/s with 10 mg hydrogen pellets; this facility has recently been equipped with a pulsed power supply capable of delivering 1.7 kJ millisecond pulses to low impedence arc loads

160

Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design  

Science.gov (United States)

An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.

Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.

1993-01-01

161

Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

We report constraints on muon antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4 +/- 11.7(stat) ^{+10.2}_{-8.9}(syst) events under the assumption |dm2bar|=2.32x10^-3 eV^2, snthetabar=1.0. A fit to the two-flavor oscillation approximation constrains |dm2bar|<3.37x10^-3 eV^2 at the 90% confidence level with snthetabar=1.0.

Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

2011-01-01

162

High-current cyclotron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choosing the parameters of a high-current cyclotron intended for production of 1-10 mA intensity beam is considered. The cyclotron is assumed to be used as an injector for deuteron accelerating facility to 45 MeV/nucleon energy. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

163

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single- stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. A new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capabilityovide full tritium pellet capability

164

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

165

Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

2003-12-01

166

Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm  

OpenAIRE

A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing...

Zhang, Xiaohu; Yuan, Youjin; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, Zhongshan

2013-01-01

167

Spray characteristics of a gasoline direct injector injector with short durations of injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sprays into atmosphere from a GDI injector were visualised and the velocity and droplet characteristics measured at an injection pressure of 50 bar and at different injection durations, with emphasis on short injection periods. The images show that the initial and closing delay times were 0.225 and 0.2 ms, respectively, and that the cone angle increased with injection duration to a constant value of 62 at 0.5 ms. They also revealed large droplets ahead of the main spray with its smaller droplets. An injection duration of 0.15 ms led to fuel leaving the injector with little atomisation, but a 30% increase led to the formation of the cone, which was present for times greater than 0.5 ms. The poor atomisation associated with short injection durations and the initial phase of longer injections, was due to low swirl velocities. The droplet velocities were higher in the initial phase of injection than in the main phase, with values up to 50 m/s. The Sauter mean diameters of the initial and main-spray droplets were approximately 55 and 35 {mu}m respectively and with a tendency to decrease with time from the start of injection. (orig.)

Nouri, J.M. [Dept. of Aeronautics, Civil and Mechanical Engineering City Univ., London (United Kingdom); Whitelaw, J.H. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine Thermofluids Section, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

2001-10-01

168

Pb injector at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the CERN Lead Ion Accelerating Facility (achieved within a collaboration of several outside laboratories and with financial help of some member states) a new dedicated Linac has been built. This Linac has been installed in 1994 and served during two extended physics runs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of this machine and describes the first operational experience. Emphasis is put on new features of this accelerator, its associated equipment and on the peculiarities of heavy ions. (author)

169

The ATLAS positive ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

170

RFQ-injector for HERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the HERA project at DESY an RFQ will be built as injector for a 20 mA H- beam from 18 to 750 keV with a duty cycle of 10-4. The low average power and the moderate electrode voltage of 70 kV allows a flexible and simple design of the resonator. The design of the RFQ is described and the status of the project is discussed

171

Injector linac of SPring-8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

172

Centrifuge pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

173

Fermilab Antiproton Source, Recycler Ring, and Main Injector  

OpenAIRE

At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, the Accumulator and the Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world's only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II, neutri...

Nagaitsev, Sergei

2014-01-01

174

Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, re on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

175

Design of Injector Systems for LUX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LUX concept [1] for a superconducting recirculating linac based ultrafast x-ray facility features a unique high-brightness electron beam injector. The design of the injector complex that meets the baseline requirements for LUX is presented. A dual-rf gun injector provides both high-brightness electron beams to drive the cascaded, seeded harmonic generation VUV-soft x-ray FELs as well as the ultra- low-vertical emittance (''flat'') beams that radiate in hard x-ray spontaneous emission synchrotron beamlines. Details of the injector complex design and performance characteristics are presented. Contributions by the thermal emittance and optical pulse shaping to the beam emission at the photocathode and to the beam dynamics throughout the injector are presented. Techniques that seek to optimize the injector performance, as well as constraints that prevent straightforward optimization, are discussed.

Lidia, Steven M.

2004-07-01

176

Cavity BPM design for PKU-FEL injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is designed for the injector of PKU-FEL Facility. The designed frequency of the dipole mode TM110 is 1.3 GHz, which is equal to the frequency of the main accelerator in PKU-FEL Facility. The cross-talk problem is solved by introducing two rectangular recesses into the cavity. The position resolution of the cavity BPM is about 10 ?m, the dynamic range is more than 30 mm and the time response is bunch to bunch, which are sufficient for the PKU-FEL injector. Compared with the bunch power, the power dissipation of the main resonant modes excited by e-bunches can be neglected. (authors)

177

Present status of the HARIMAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyogo Hadrontherapy facility in Harima Science Garden City is a cancer therapy facility with proton, helium and carbon beams. The beams are supplied by a synchrotron with RF linacs as an injector. The injector was installed at the site in the last summer, and sufficient acceleration characteristics have been obtained in the commissioning operation. The injector has been supplying the beams to the synchrotron routinely. This report describes the acceleration characteristics and the present status. (author)

178

Design status of heavy ion injector program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

179

Transient Beam Dynamics in the LBL 2 MV Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K{sup +}) and low normalized emittance (< 1 {pi} mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun preinjector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot aluminosilicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 {micro}s, and is reversed to turn-off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several {micro}s), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the Particle in Cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3d in a time dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation in WAIW3d of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented.

Henestroza, E; Grote, D

1999-12-07

180

Injector complex of recharged electrostatic accelerator EGP-10K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modernization of some injector systems with a radical change of injector complex structure is described. Special attention was paid to the reliability problems, convenience in operation and control, duration of continuous work. Vertical injector is 1.8 m long

181

Development of GOX/Hydrocarbon Multi-Element Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

In developing the advanced liquid rocket engine, injector design is critical to obtaining the dual goals of long engine life as well as providing high-energy release efficiency in the main combustion chamber. Introducing a swirl component in the injector flow can enhance the propellant mixing and thus improve engine performance. Therefore, swirl coaxial injectors, which swirl liquid fuel around a gaseous oxygen core, show promise for the next generation of high performance staged combustion rocket engines utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Understanding the mixing and combustion characteristics of the swirl coaxial flow provides the insight of optimizing the injector design. A joint effort of Sierra Engineering (Sierra) and the Propulsion Directorate of the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) was conducted to develop a design methodology, utilizing both high-pressure cold-flow testing and uni-element hot-fire testing, to create a high performing, long life swirl coaxial injector for multi-element combustor use. Several swirl coax injector configurations designed and fabricated by Sierra have been tested at AFRL. The cold-flow tests and numerical simulations have been conducted. The cold flow result provided valuable information of flow characteristics of swirl coaxial injectors. However, there are two important flow features of liquid rocket engines missed from the cold flow test: (1) the effect of combustion on the propellant mixing, and (2) the interaction of multiple injectors. The present work studies the hot flow environment specifically the multiple element swirl coaxial injector. Numerical simulations were performed with a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FDNS. CFD results produced loading environments for an ANSYS finite element thermal/structural model. Since the fuels are injected at temperature below its critical temperature, the effect of phase change and chemical reactions needs to be accounted for in the CFD model.

Johnson, C. W.; Muss, J.; Cheng, G. C.; Davis, R.; Cohn, R. K.

2002-11-01

182

Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N2, H2) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x1018 to 1020 atoms. Both the scattering angle (?1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 1016 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (?85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

183

Ion source and injector development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a survey of low energy accelerators which inject into proton linacs. Laboratories covered include Argonne, Brookhaven, CERN, Chalk River, Fermi, ITEP, KEK, Rutherford, and Saclay. This paper emphasizes complete injector systems, comparing significant hardware features and beam performance data, including recent additions. There is increased activity now in the acceleration of polarized protons, H+ and H-, and of unpolarized H-. New source development and programs for these ion beams is outlined at the end of the report. Heavy-ion sources are not included

184

Pneumatic pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

185

Candela Photo-Injector Experimental Results  

OpenAIRE

The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 500 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents energy spectrum measurements of the dark current and intense electron emission that occurs when the laser power density is very high.

Travier, C.; Boy, L.; Cayla, J. N.; Leblond, B.; Georges, P.; Thomas, P.

1994-01-01

186

Status and performance of PF injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

187

Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

Kim, J; Stewart, L D

1980-01-01

188

Performance of the injectors with ions after LS1  

CERN Document Server

We review the performance of the ion injector chain at the light of the improvements which will take place during LS1, and we derive the expected luminosity gain for Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions in the LHC. We suggest a baseline plan of upgrades that will allow the requirements of the ALICE experiment after LS2 to be reached. An alternative plan is also presented. Finally, we examine the possibility for different ions species for which some of the other experiments have expressed an interest. The main outcomes of the presentation ‘Work effort in the injector complex (including the Linac4 connection)’ will be reminded with emphasis on their consequences on the ion operations.

Manglunki, D

2014-01-01

189

The advanced test accelerator (ATA) injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October, 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

190

Pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement devices are under development a the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range 1-2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumataic-based pellet fueling systems for two of the world's largest tokamak experiments, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). A new versatile centrifuge type injector is being readied at ORNL for use on the Tore Supra tokamak. Also, a new simplified eight-shot injector design has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). In addition to these confinement physics related activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets have already been demonstrated. This paper describes these ongoing activities. 25 refs., 9 figs

191

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactors. The proposed ITER fueling system will use a combination of deuterium- tritium (D-T) gas puffing and pellet injection to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. The pellet injection system will have to provide D-T fueling for much longer pulse lengths (up to ?1000 s) than present day applications (typically limited to less than several seconds). In this paper, we describe the ongoing pellet injector development activities at ORNL, including the following three in direct support of ITER: (1) an improved pellet feed system for the centrifuge injector, (2) a steady-state extruder feed system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. In addition to the major activities, a repeating two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection (?2.5 km/s) has been developed in a collaboration with ENEA Frascati; also, the production of impurity pellets (Ne, Ar, and Kr) has been demonstrated using the DIII-D and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor pneumatic pellet injection system

192

Analytical study on large-scale steam injector to next-generation BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive device for water injection, such as the Passive Core Injection System (PCIS) or the Primary Loop Recirculation System with SI Driven Jet Pumps (PLR with SIDJP). The system needs no large turbo-machinery such as the current PLR pumps used in a PCV. The energy to drive the steam injector (SIDJP) is recovered as enthalpy of the feed water of a core. This is one of the great advantages of SIDJP: none of the driving energy for the PLR escapes to sea water or to air through the main turbine condenser. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Analysis of characteristics of the steam injector was conducted for both small-scale and large-scale injectors using newly developed separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code. The models for analysis were examined with Toshiba's test data for the low-pressure visualized-model test and high-pressure small-size model test. The analysis results showed the SIDJP could not work in the high-pressure range over 7 MPa, and discharged over 12 MPa even at the large-scale rated-flow rate of 61.1 kg/s (220 t/h). (author)

193

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (1) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (2) a centrifuge pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (3) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper

194

Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

2013-06-01

195

Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 ?m and 733 ?m with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 ?m and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

2010-04-01

196

Hydrodynamics of shear coaxial liquid rocket injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodynamic instabilities within injector passages can couple to chamber acoustic modes and lead to unacceptable levels of combustion instabilities inside liquid rocket engines. The instability of vena-contracta regions and mixing between fuel and oxidizer can serve as a fundamental source of unsteadiness produced by the injector, even in the absence of upstream or downstream pressure perturbations. This natural or "unforced" response can provide valuable information regarding frequencies where the element could conceivably couple to chamber modes. In particular, during throttled conditions the changes in the injector response may lead to an alignment of the injector and chamber modes. For these reasons, the basic unforced response of the injector element is of particular interest when developing a new engine. The Loci/Chem code was used to perform single-element, 2-D unsteady CFD computations on the Hydrogen/Oxygen Multi-Element Experiment (HOMEE) injector which was hot-fire tested at Purdue University. The Loci/Chem code was used to evaluate the effects of O/F ratio, LOX post thickness, recess length and LOX tube length on the hydrodynamics of shear co-axial rocket injectors.

Tsohas, John

197

Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ? Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ? Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization

198

High-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High brightness electron sources have been one of the driving forces behind the spectacular results achieved in the last decade by accelerator-based applications. Indeed, X-Ray FELs, with their 10-fold orders of magnitude increase in peak brightness, probably represent the best example of it. New ambitious proposals for X-ray FELs and ERLs, as well as inverse Compton sources for X- or gamma-ray production, are now requiring operation at MHz-GHz repetition rates. In response to that, a number of groups around the world have been actively working in developing high-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors capable of driving such machines. The high repetition rate requirement cannot be met by the existing low-repetition rate high-brightness injector schemes, and new technologies are under investigation. This paper includes a description of the requirements for such injectors, an overview of the pursued technologies and schemes, a description of the main beam dynamics issues associated with the different choices, and a number of examples of the results obtained so far by the groups active in the field.

Sannibale, Fernando, E-mail: fsannibale@lbl.gov

2014-03-11

199

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

200

Maintenance of neutral beam injectors for ITER (Japanese proposal)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concepts and scenarios of maintenance for ITER neutral beam injectors are proposed. Main features of the proposal are as follows: (1) Structures made of concrete are employed to support the weight of the injectors; (2) each injector can be separated into two units: Ion source unit and beamline unit; (3) since the ion source is considered to require frequent maintenance, each ion source unit can be removed independently of the other ion source units, by means of rail-and-truck system; (4) double door concept is adopted in two large gate valves to prevent spreading of the radioactivated contamination; (5) laser welding/cutting technique and shape memory alloy are utilized to ease connection/disconnection of pipes, cables, etc.; (6) if any failure occurrs in an ion source unit or a beamline unit, the unit will be transferred to a hot cell. Then the unit will be disassembled and the failed components will be repaired in the cell. Considering these concepts, maintenance scenarios are worked out for four cases; ion source unit disassembly/assembly, and beamline unit disassembly/assembly. (orig.)

201

High-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High brightness electron sources have been one of the driving forces behind the spectacular results achieved in the last decade by accelerator-based applications. Indeed, X-Ray FELs, with their 10-fold orders of magnitude increase in peak brightness, probably represent the best example of it. New ambitious proposals for X-ray FELs and ERLs, as well as inverse Compton sources for X- or gamma-ray production, are now requiring operation at MHz-GHz repetition rates. In response to that, a number of groups around the world have been actively working in developing high-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors capable of driving such machines. The high repetition rate requirement cannot be met by the existing low-repetition rate high-brightness injector schemes, and new technologies are under investigation. This paper includes a description of the requirements for such injectors, an overview of the pursued technologies and schemes, a description of the main beam dynamics issues associated with the different choices, and a number of examples of the results obtained so far by the groups active in the field

202

Injector AVF cyclotron at RIKEN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on a K70 AVF cyclotron under construction to be used as an injector of light and light heavy ions for the K540 Riken Ring Cyclotron (RRC). The AVF cyclotron has four spiral sectors and two RF dees with an angle of 85 degrees. The extraction radius and acceleration harmonics were chosen to be 714 mm and 2, respectively. Ions from external ion sources consisting of a duoplasmatron, an ECR source and a polarized 3He ion source (in the stage of conceptual design) are axially injected into the cyclotron and led onto the median plane with a spiral inflector. This cyclotron can accelerate ions whose m/q value is up to 4. If an 40Ar11+ ion is accelerated with this cyclotron, for example, the final beam energy from RRC reaches up to 95 MeV/u

203

Internal baffling for fuel injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

2014-08-05

204

Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

2015-01-01

205

Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2006-11-21

206

Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

2015-01-01

207

A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. locity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

208

Space transportation booster engine thrust chamber technology, large scale injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the Large Scale Injector (LSI) program was to deliver a 21 inch diameter, 600,000 lbf thrust class injector to NASA/MSFC for hot fire testing. The hot fire test program would demonstrate the feasibility and integrity of the full scale injector, including combustion stability, chamber wall compatibility (thermal management), and injector performance. The 21 inch diameter injector was delivered in September of 1991.

Schneider, J. A.

1993-02-01

209

Laser injector of multiple charged ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of a laser source of multicharqed ions are presented and possibilities of using it as an injector of multicharged ions for accelerator facilities (synchrotron, cyclotron, linear accelerator) are pointed out

210

Cryopumping system for TFTR neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cryocondensation pumping system for the TFTR neutral beam injectors is described. Topics include hardware design, differential pumping and beam loss, operational modes, and response to massive vacuum breaks

211

Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

Loyd, R. W.

1980-02-12

212

Injector Layout and Beam Injection into Solaris  

OpenAIRE

The Solaris synchrotron radiation storage ring to be built in Krakow, Poland is based on the MAX IV 1.5 GeV design. The injector will be a linear accelerator and its components identical to those for the MAX IV project, however, injection is not at full energy and the injector layout is different. The linac and transfer line layout, optics and injection scheme into the storage ring is presented and an analysis of accumulation before energy ramping is discussed.

Wawrzyniak, Adriana; Bocchetta, Carlo; Leemann, Simon; Thorin, Sara

2011-01-01

213

Calculation of steam-water injector properties  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of this article is a calculation of steam-water injector properties using simplified one dimensional global model. In this case the injector is used as combined mixing heat exchanger and water pump. It mixes steam with water and inject water into an area with a set back-pressure. At the exit only liquid phase is present, which is caused by a shock wave which occurs in highly wet steam.

Pavlicek, Petr; Linhart, Jiri

2014-08-01

214

The high charge state injector for GSI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new injector for acceleration of U28+ to 1.4 MeV/u was designed. It consists of a 14.5 GHz ECR source, a 108 MHz RFQ linac and an interdigital H-type accelerator. The installation of the new linac was completed in 1991. The commissioning and first operational experience confirmed the overall performance of the new injector. Remaining problems are discussed. (Author) 8 figs., tab., 12 refs

215

An introduction to photo-injector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

216

Quantifying diesel injector coking with computer vision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetable oils fuels and high viscous petroleum fuels cause injector nozzle coking when burned in diesel engines. A technique has been developed to use computer vision to quantify the amount of carbon accumulated on injectors by measuring the net carbon profile around each orifice. Various fuel formulations produced carbon shadows that differed by more than 4600 pixel counts, while the vision system could measure carbon shadows to within 50 pixel counts.

Reid, J.F.; Goering, C.E. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Hansen, A.C. (Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Univ. of Natal, Pietermarizburg (ZA))

1989-09-01

217

A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

218

RF system of the photon factory injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rf system of the Photon Factory 2.5 GeV injector electron linac now under construction is described. The rf system is composed of four stages: a master oscillator, a main booster amplifier (cw, 476 MHz), sub-booster amplifiers (pulse, 2856 MHz) and fourty-two high power klystrons. The output rf power of the klystrons is 30 MW and the rf power of each klystron is split and fed into four accelerator guides composing one acceleration unit. Almost all of the rf equipment and components have been installed in their positions and are in the final adjustment stage

219

Status of Resistive Magnets in the LHC Injectors Chain  

CERN Document Server

About 4650 normal conducting magnets are presently installed in the CERN accelerators complex, more than 3000 of them belonging to the LHC injector chain and 163 installed in the LHC. The oldest magnets have been in operation for 50 years, and some of them are submitted to aggressive conditions, either in terms of radiation, extreme water cooling conditions or temperature. The smallest magnets in the linacs weigh a few kilograms, whilst each of the main magnets of the Proton Synchrotron weighs 33 tons. The paper reviews the status of these magnets and gives some examples of findings and relevant recent actions undertaken to ensure their reliable operation in the coming years.

Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Bauche, J; Zickler, T; Newborough, A; Sgobba, S; Lopez, R

2010-01-01

220

Development and design of railgun system to pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the railgun systems for the application of pellet injector are investigated and developed in the experimental stage. One of the main features of our railgun systems is to employ a pulse laser beam to induce the initial plasma armature between rails to be accelerated. This unique feature provides the reduction of the supplied voltage to the breakdown between the rails and to reduce the erosion of the rails. This paper presents the current results of a the authors' experimental and theoretical research progress, and introduces the design study for electromagnetic railgun based on our research progress

221

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H{sup -} ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne; Holmes, S.D.; Kephart, R.D.; Kerby, J.S.; Lebedev, V.A.; Mishra, C.S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Solyak, N.; Stanek, R.P.; /Fermilab; Li, D.; /LBL, Berkeley

2012-05-01

222

The LHC Lead Injector Chain  

CERN Document Server

A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

2004-01-01

223

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

224

The tomographic diagnostic of ITER neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two-dimensional (2D) density distribution of a particle beam can be reconstructed using a diagnostic based on tomographic techniques, which measures the D? light. This paper presents investigations and tests concerning the reliability of such a diagnostic, applied to the beam produced in MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement) the full-size prototype of the neutral beam injector, which will be used for additional heating on ITER. It aims at developing the technologies to guarantee the correct operation of the injectors to be installed in ITER. The main target of the tomographic diagnostic is the measurement of the beam uniformity with sufficient contrast and spatial resolution, and of its evolution throughout the pulse duration. In particular the ITER beam uniformity is required to be within 10%, thus the error of the tomographic reconstruction has to be lower than this value. The conceptual design of the diagnostic is presented, with a description of the layout and main components. The portholes around the vessel and the geometry of the lines of sight are arranged so as to cover the whole area of the beam. A tomographic algorithm based on the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) is developed to reconstruct the beam intensity profile. Phantoms reproducing different experimental beam configurations are simulated and reconstructed with this technique. The role of noise in the line-integrated signals is studied and its ef-integrated signals is studied and its effect on the reconstructed emission is investigated. The unsatisfactory results suggested the introduction of a regularization algorithm, to reduce the effect of the noise in the beam reconstruction. In this way, the simulated phantoms are correctly reconstructed and their 2D spatial non-uniformity is correctly estimated, up to a noise level of 10%. (paper)

225

Error analysis and lattice improvement for the C-ADS Injector-I  

OpenAIRE

The injector (Scheme-I) of the C-ADS linac is a 10-mA 10-MeV proton linac working in CW mode. It is mainly comprised of a 3.2-MeV room-temperature 4-vane RFQ and twelve superconducting single-spoke cavities housed in a long cryostat. Error analysis including alignment and field errors, static and dynamic ones for the injector are presented. Based on detailed numerical simulations, an orbit correction scheme has been designed. It shows that with correction the rms residual or...

Meng, Cai; Li, Zhihui; Tang, Jingyu

2013-01-01

226

ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline  

CERN Document Server

Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

Söderberg, M

2009-01-01

227

Coaxial Injectors for Liquid Oxygen/Methane (LOX/CH4) Technology Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Since late 2005, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and demonstrating technology for liquid oxygen and methane (LOX/CH4) engine designs. Efforts were undertaken to help advance technology that might benefit NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The propellant combination has gained interest as a potential option for the ascent stage main propulsion system on the Altair lunar lander vehicle. The propellants are also attractive for eventual Mars missions in future development activities. MSFC s efforts focus on evaluating the performance potential of both liquid and gaseous methane for specific injector designs. Previous JANNAF papers reported the performance observed for LOX and methane with an impinging injector. More recent efforts have focused on testing coaxial injector designs. Hot-fire testing performed at MSFC with thrust levels close to 5000 lbf demonstrated high performance with coaxial injectors of different element densities and various fuel film cooling levels. Test data provided results on performance, chamber wall compatibility, and heat flux profiles for different injectors. A variety of igniters were also demonstrated, including a torch igniter and a microwave (or plasma) igniter.

Elam, Sandra; Osborne, Robin; Protz, Christopher

2010-01-01

228

BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 ?mm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%. (authors)

229

Modeling of classical swirl injector dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

The knowledge of the dynamics of a swirl injector is crucial in designing a stable liquid rocket engine. Since the swirl injector is a complex fluid flow device in itself, not much work has been conducted to describe its dynamics either analytically or by using computational fluid dynamics techniques. Even the experimental observation is limited up to date. Thus far, there exists an analytical linear theory by Bazarov [1], which is based on long-wave disturbances traveling on the free surface of the injector core. This theory does not account for variation of the nozzle reflection coefficient as a function of disturbance frequency, and yields a response function which is strongly dependent on the so called artificial viscosity factor. This causes an uncertainty in designing an injector for the given operational combustion instability frequencies in the rocket engine. In this work, the author has studied alternative techniques to describe the swirl injector response, both analytically and computationally. In the analytical part, by using the linear small perturbation analysis, the entire phenomenon of unsteady flow in swirl injectors is dissected into fundamental components, which are the phenomena of disturbance wave refraction and reflection, and vortex chamber resonance. This reveals the nature of flow instability and the driving factors leading to maximum injector response. In the computational part, by employing the nonlinear boundary element method (BEM), the author sets the boundary conditions such that they closely simulate those in the analytical part. The simulation results then show distinct peak responses at frequencies that are coincident with those resonant frequencies predicted in the analytical part. Moreover, a cold flow test of the injector related to this study also shows a clear growth of instability with its maximum amplitude at the first fundamental frequency predicted both by analytical methods and BEM. It shall be noted however that Bazarov's theory does not predict the resonant peaks. Overall this methodology provides clearer understanding of the injector dynamics compared to Bazarov's. Even though the exact value of response is not possible to obtain at this stage of theoretical, computational, and experimental investigation, this methodology sets the starting point from where the theoretical description of reflection/refraction, resonance, and their interaction between each other may be refined to higher order to obtain its more precise value.

Ismailov, Maksud M.

230

Development of steam injector feedwater heater system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to realize the simplified BOP system of BWR plant, the authors developed the basic designs of feedwater system simplified by application of Steam Injector. Basic specification of simplified steam injector feedwater heater system (SI-FWH) was developed based on system designs and thermal efficiency evaluation. Test facility was constructed based on system specification selected in accordance with analysis results of plant thermal efficiency. The steam pressures used in the selected best system for low pressure feed water heaters are 0.05 MPa, 0.10 MPa, 0.21 MPa and 0.40 MPa are almost the same pressures as the current ABWR's. Improved steam injectors for feedwater heater system were studied by thermal hydraulic analyses and the test model attained the 1st and 2nd stage specifications. The 3rd and 4th stage injectors succeeded in raising the water temperature to 136degC. The parallel multistage steam injectors rationalize the feedwater system by eliminating the twelve neck-heaters, and prevent the chrome ion, which is dissolved from the stainless steel heater tube, introducing into the RPV. (author)

231

The Superconducting solution for the EURISOL Post Accelerator Injector  

CERN Document Server

In the framework of EURISOL design study*, the superconducting solution for the Post-Accelerator injector foresees the use of two RFQs, one Super Conducting and one Normal Conducting, both operating CW at 88 MHz. After the multiple ionization in the ECR breeder on low voltage platform, the rare ions beam (3 ? A/q ? 7) is bunched at the main frequency by the NC RFQ without both losses and transverse emittance increase and accelerated afterwards through the SC RFQ up to 560 keV/u. A 8.8 MHz pulsed beam can be delivered to experiments placing a 3 harmonic buncher before the NC RFQ with overall beam losses lower than 25%. The beam dynamics results of the study of this solution as well as the main RF design and construction analysis of the main components are presented.

Posocco, P.A; Palmieri, A; Bisoffi, G

232

49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Injectors and feedwater pumps must be kept in good condition...are delivering water to the boiler. Boiler checks, delivery pipes, feed water pipes, tank hose and...Bracing. Injectors, feedwater pumps, and all associated...

2010-10-01

233

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

1981-02-01

234

Dispersion ring reduces injector orifice-to-orifice flow variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Technique substantially reduces machine complexity, improves injector performance and is useful for products mixed or homogenized by injector process. Method is applicable to pharmaceutical, food, dairy and petrochemical industries.

Garber, R. L.; Jaqua, V. W.

1972-01-01

235

Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01

236

HIV Prevalence and Risk among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Injectors in California  

OpenAIRE

This CDC-funded study compares HIV prevalence and risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine (n=428) and non-methamphetamine (n=878) injectors in California, USA during 2001–2003. While HIV was not highly prevalent among methamphetamine injectors (3%), sexual and injection risk behaviors were highly prevalent (ranging from 21% to 72%). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine injectors had higher odds than non-methamphetamine injectors of unprotected vaginal intercourse and sex with ...

Kral, Alex H.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; Lewis, Megan A.; Orr, Alexander; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

2011-01-01

237

Oxygen-hydrogen injector performance and compatibility with ablative chambers  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation was conducted to develop a high-thrust, high-performance, concentric tube injector element for use with near liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. A parallel tube coaxial injector yielded 98 percent theoretical characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency. Installation of swirlers in the oxidizer tube improved performance but caused high ablative erosion near the injector. Film cooling significantly reduced ablative erosion near the injector but did not completely alleviate gouging adjacent to each outer injection element.

Wanhainen, J. P.

1972-01-01

238

First results on LELIA induction injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LELIA accelerator is a test bed for induction technology; it will also serve as a driver for microwave FEL experiments. In a first step an 1.5 MeV induction injector driven by a high voltage pulse generator was constructed and tested. The beam transport along the injector was also measured, and its energy spectra and whole emittance were determined. The final objective is to produce a high current (1-3 kA) and high brightness electron beam with an energy of 3 MeV. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 4 figs

239

Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

240

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, R.G.

1984-08-31

241

Development of a non-engine fuel injector deposit test for alternative fuels (ENIAK-project)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deposit formation in and on the injectors of diesel engines may lead to injector malfunction, resulting in a loss in power, rough engine operation and poor emission levels. Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, good housekeeping when using biodiesel is required, and all additives have to pass a no-harm test concerning injector fouling. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: The XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine and cannot reproduce internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 1 per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The ENIAK-Project is funded by the FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources) and conducted in cooperation with AGQM, ASG and ERC. Its main goal is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses a complete common rail system. The injection takes place in a self-designed reactor instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle, leading to a low amount of fuel required. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. (orig.)

Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel Waerme Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

2013-06-01

242

SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R and D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment.The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R and D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

243

Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope

244

Tokamak de Varenne's diagnostic neutral beam injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A fully automated and remote controlled neutral beam injector has been designed, built, and characterized on a test stand for use as a diagnostic aid on Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV). The injector has a duoPIGatron ion source with a LaB6 coaxial cathode. A cusped magnetic field surrounding the plasma chamber is used to enhance the plasma confinement. The beam current is modulated by switching the arc current, and it has a 70 ?s rise time. Two, in-house-built, titanium sublimation pumps provide up to 16 000 l s-1 pumping capacity for differential pumping between the source and the tokamak. The injector operates with its source at ground potential, and its neutralizer canal at a negative potential |Vb|?40 kV. An electrostatic trap biased to -6 kV with respect to the neutralizer canal retains the electrons in the neutralizer. The residual ions are collected on an ion collector that is biased to -5 kV. The design of the extraction system and the electrostatic trap was optimized with a numerical code. The injector has been operated with hydrogen and helium beams. A multi-aperture three-grid extraction system provides up to 2.4 A of proton or 1.2 A of He+ current. The maximum average proton current density extracted from the 19 extraction holes was 650 mA cm-2 at 35 kV extraction voltage, which was obtained with 60 A of arc current.

Sarkissian, A. H.

1998-02-01

245

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ?1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

246

Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector - Progress and prospect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

247

Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector: Progress and prospect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

248

Performance potential of the injectors after LS1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU Project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects etc. in the SPS. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons into the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160 MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB-PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than nominal luminosity in the LHC. (authors)

249

Performance potential of the injectors after LS1  

CERN Document Server

The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons in the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB to PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than no...

Bartosik, H; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Mikulec, B; Raginel, V; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

2012-01-01

250

A study of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the results of an analysis of {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with the MINOS experiment, which studies the neutrino beam produced by the NuMI facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are measured in two similar detectors, located at distances of 1 km and 735 km along the NuMI beamline. The Near Detector provides accurate measurements of the initial beam composition and energy, while the Far Detector is sensitive to the effects of neutrino oscillations. The analysis uses data collected between May 2005 and March 2007, corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. As part of the analysis, sophisticated software was developed to identify muon tracks in the detectors and to reconstruct muon kinematics. Events with reconstructed tracks were then analyzed using a multivariate technique to efficiently isolate a pure sample of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} events. An extrapolation method was also developed, which produces accurate predictions of the Far Detector neutrino energy spectrum, based on data collected at the Near Detector. Finally, several techniques to improve the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement were implemented, and a full study of the systematic uncertainties was performed. Extrapolating from observations at the Near Detector, 733 {+-} 29 Far Detector events were expected in the absence of oscillations, but only 563 events were observed. This deficit in event rate corresponds to a significance of 4.3 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and clear distortion of the Far Detector energy spectrum is observed. A maximum likelihood analysis, which fully accounts for systematic uncertainties, is used to determine the allowed regions for the oscillation parameters and identifies the best fit values as {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.29{sub -0.14}{sup +0.14} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.953 (68% confidence level). The models of neutrino decoherence and decay are disfavored at the 5.0{sigma} and 3.2{sigma} levels respectively, while the no oscillation model is excluded at the 9.4{sigma} level.

Marshall, John Stuart; /Cambridge U.

2008-06-01

251

Using one-dimensional modeling to analyze the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Results of the simulations and discussion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Effect of using diesel or biodiesel on injector hydraulic behavior has been analyzed. ? Single and main + post injections have been studied for different injection pressures. ? Higher viscosity affects needle dynamics, especially for low injection pressure. ? The post injection masses are lower for biodiesel fuel despite its higher density. ? Modified injector has been proposed to compensate the differences between the fuels. - Abstract: The influence of using biodiesel fuels on the hydraulic behavior of a solenoid operated common rail injection system has been explored by means of a one-dimensional model. This model has been previously obtained, including a complete characterization of the different components of the injector (mainly the nozzle, the injector holder and the electrovalve), and extensively validated by means of mass flow rate results under different conditions. After that, both single and multiple injection strategies have been analyzed, using a standard diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as working fluids. Single long injections allowed the characterization of the hydraulic delay of the injector, the needle dynamics and the discharge capability of the couple injector-nozzle for the two fuels considered. Meanwhile, the effect of biodiesel on main plus post injection strategies has been evaluated in several aspects, such as the separation of the two injections or the effect of the main injection on the post injection fuelction on the post injection fueling. Finally, a modification in the injector hardware has been proposed in order to have similar performances using biodiesel as the original injector configuration using standard diesel fuel.

252

NOvA Proposal to Build a 30 Kiloton Off-Axis Detector to Study Neutrino Oscillations in the Fermilab NuMI Beamline  

CERN Document Server

This is an updated version of the NOvA proposal. The detector is a 30 kiloton tracking calorimeter, 15.7 m by 15.7 m by 132 m long, with alternating horizontal and vertical rectangular cells of liquid scintillator contained in PVC extrusion modules. Light from each 15.7 m long cell of liquid scintillator filled PVC is collected by a wavelength shifting fiber and routed to an avalanche photodiode pixel. The reach of NOvA for sin^2(2_theta_13) and related topics is increased relative to earlier versions of the proposal with the assumption of increased protons available from the Fermilab Main Injector following the end of Tevatron Collider operations in 2009.

Ayres, D

2005-01-01

253

Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab  

CERN Document Server

At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

2014-01-01

254

Design calculation of the ion beam system for HL-2 neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In fusion research, the neutral beam injection has become an efficient method for heating plasma. A key part of the neutral beam injector is ion beam system, whose property defines the efficiency and effect of the neutral beam injector. Design calculation method about main work parameters of the ion source and the ion extraction-acceleration system for high power neutral beam injectors are described and the calculated results of the ion beam system for HL-2 neutral beam injector are given. In the numerical calculation code about optical property of the high current ion beam extraction-acceleration systems, the effects of ion source plasma parameters, plasma stray electron and space charge effect inside the ion beam on beam optical property are taken into account. The calculation shows for the determinate 55 keV, 80 A ion beam systems, the match current densities of H and D ion beams are 0.22 A · cm-2 and 0.155 A · cm-2, respectively. (1 tab., 4 figs.)

255

First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Positive-Ion Injector (PH) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structures. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ? 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A > 0. 1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 3OSi7+, 40Arll+, 132Xe13+, and 208Pb24+. For all of these, transmission through the injecter linac was ? 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ? 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time

256

Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fusion reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium. Tritium experiments will be carried out at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

257

Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

258

Flash X-Ray Injector Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

Paul, A C

2004-03-26

259

LS1 Report: injectors 2.0  

CERN Multimedia

Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2014-01-01

260

Operation of the Pulselac injector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 10 ohm pulse power source has been added to the Pulselac C accelerator. The system includes a 10 ohm, 60 ns water blumlein, 2-20 ohm oil transmission lines and a Metglas core inductive cavity to supply over 1.0 MV to the Pulselac injector diode. Preliminary experiments on a PI 110 have been performed to determine the expected operating conditions in the diode. Spacecharge neutralization and magnetic insulation studies on this machine are presented. Operation of the new injector is described including pulse power, metglas cores, diode operation, beam divergence measurements, and diode efficiency. The field coil geometry has been altered to achieve magnetic field lines at the cathode surface which provide electrostatic focusing of the injected beam

261

Operation of the Pulselac injector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new 1.0 MV, 10 ohm pulse power source has been added to the Pulselac C accelerator. The system includes a 10 ohm, 60 ns water blumlein, 2-20 ohm oil transmission lines and a Metglas core inductive cavity to supply over 1.0 MV to the Pulselac injector diode. Preliminary experiments on a PI 110 have been performed to determine the expected operating conditions in the diode. Space charge neutralization and magnetic insulation studies on this machine will be presented. Operation of the new injector will be described including pulse power, metglas cores, diode operation, beam divergence measurements, and diode efficiency. The field coil geometry has been altered to achieve magnetic field lines at the cathode surface which provide electrostatic focusing of the injected beam. The new geometry is modeled after the Proto I and Nereus field coil configurations using stainless steel volumes to shape the field as desired. Magnetic field simulations of the new geometry are presented

262

The injector of the storage ring ANKA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector of the ANKA storage ring should create a beam of electrons and accelerate them to 500 MeV ready to be injected into the storage ring. This is accomplished with a combination of a microtron and a booster synchrotron, which we call the injector system of ANKA. The microtron delivers a pulse of 1 ?sec length with a current of 10 mA. The energy of the electrons when leaving the microtron is 53 MeV. The injection transfer line transports this beam to the booster synchrotron where the electron beam is accelerated to 500 MeV. At 500 MeV another transfer line, the so called extraction transfer line transports the beam to the storage ring. The repetition rate is 1 Hz. (orig.)

263

Compact and stable multibeam fiber injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact and stable 20-beam injector was built for launching laser light into fibers for Fabry Perot velocity measurements of shock-driven surfaces. The fiber injector uses commercial mounts on mini-rails. Dielectric-coated beamsplitters provide accurate amplitude division. Minimal adjustments for stable operation are permitted by the use of a real-time video- viewer. The video system includes a non-linear camera for CW alignment and a linearized camera with a frame grabber for pulsed measurement and analysis. All 20-injection points are displayed on a single monitor. Optical requirements are given for image relay and magnification. Stimulated Brillouin scattering limitations on high-power are quantified.

Collins, Leland F.

1998-10-01

264

The atlas positive-ion injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make beams of essentially all elements including uranium available at ATLAS. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides ions of high charge states at microampere currents, and rf superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. (orig.)

265

Comissioning Of The Linear Accelerator-injector Of Tnk Facility  

CERN Document Server

The industrial storage facility has been developed and manufactured at Budker INP SB RAS. It contains an 80 MeV electron linear accelerator-injector and two electron storage rings: the lesser 450 MeV booster ring and the main 2.5 GeV storage ring. In 2002, the work on the accelerator assembling was begun. On December, 25 of this year the accelerator was started up, and the current at the linear accelerator output was obtained. The linear accelerator schematic together with a description of the 6 meter long accelerating DAW structure which operates at 2.8 GHz, are presented in the paper. The first results of the accelerator start-up are as follows: the accelerated electron current of ~50 mA with the energy of ~55-60 MeV.

Zagorodnikov, E I; Chernov, K N; Churkin, I N; Dolgov, A M; Filiptchenko, A V; Grachev, N N; Khramtsov, V P; Kildisheva, O E; Kokin, E N; Korchuganov, V N; Krylov, Yu V; Matveev, Yu G; Matyash, N V; Medvedko, A S; Odintsov, D G; Ostreiko, G N; Repkov, V V; Ruvinsky, S I; Serdobintsev, G V; Shvedov, D A; Sinyatkin, S V; Spinko, N V; Steshov, A G; Tararyshkin, S V; Ushakov, V A; Valentinov, A G; Yudin, V D; Yupinov, Yu L

2004-01-01

266

Beam Dynamics Studies for a High Current Ion Injector  

CERN Document Server

Recent ion source developments resulted in the generation of high brilliance, high current beams of protons and light ions. After extraction and transport the beams with large internal space charge forces have to be captured, bunched and preaccelerated for the injection into the following driver part of a new generation of high intensity beam facilities for neutron sources, energy production, transmutation e.g. A combination of RFQ and DTL is considered to be a good solution for such a high current ion injector. Some preliminary beam dynamics layouts have been investigated by multiparticle simulations. Basic parameters like frequency, ion energy and sparking have been varied for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) scenario as an example. The main interest was directed to high transmission, low losses and emittance conservation. The beam matching to the RFQ is shortly discussed as well as the matching between RFQ and DTL.

Sauer, A; Klein, H

2000-01-01

267

RLIUP: Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans  

CERN Document Server

This report contains the Proceedings of the "Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans" (RLIUP), held in the Centre de Convention, Archamps, France, 29–31 October 2013. The RLIUP examined the parameters of the LIU and HL-LHC projects following the experience and changes in the beam parameters experienced over the previous two years. It discussed which level of integrated luminosity will necessitate a replacement of the inner detectors and the insertions, the importance of reaching 3000 $fb^{-1}$ or the minimum integrated luminosity which would be tolerated. The main outcome of RLIUP is a staged path from the LHC performance at the end of 2012 to the required performance for the HL-LHC, along with a number of important recommendations on the work organization of the coming years.

Zimmermann, F; RLIUP Workshop

2014-01-01

268

The S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the superconducting 130 MeV Darmstadt electron linac S-DALINAC a source of polarized electrons has been installed. Pulsed Ti:Sapphire and diode lasers illuminate a superlattice-GaAs cathode, producing polarized electrons preaccelerated to 100 keV. A Wien filter and Mott polarimeter are used for spin manipulation and polarization measurement. Downstream of the superconducting injector linac a 5-10 MeV Mott polarimeter has been installed. A Moeller polarimeter behind the main linac has been designed for energies between 50 and 130 MeV, and additional Compton-transmission polarimeters will be installed for online polarization monitoring. Photo-fission measurements of different uranium isotopes have been carried out and an active target setup is under investigation. We report on the status and performance of the source of polarized electrons and currently planned experiments with polarized beams.

269

Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Argonne Tandem uses Pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ?E?t of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the negative-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam dissociation, and stripper-foil uniformity. This paper discusses these beam-degrading effects

270

Low loss injector for liquid propellant rocket engines  

Science.gov (United States)

A low pressure loss injector element is disclosed for the main combustion chamber of a rocket engine which includes a lox post terminating in a cylindrical barrel. Received within the barrel is a lox plug which is threaded in the lox post and includes an interchangeable lox metering sieve which meters the lox into an annular lox passage. A second annular gas passage is coaxial with the annular lox passage. A cylindrical sleeve surrounds the annular gas passage and includes an interchangeable gas metering seive having metering orifices through which a hot gas passes into the annular passage. The jets which emerge from the annular lox passage and annular gas passage intersect in a recessed area away from the combustion area. Thus, mixing and combustion stability are enhanced.

Vonpragenau, G. L. (inventor)

1986-01-01

271

BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well. The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring, which requires an injected beam with low emittance, low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics, which are described in this study. (nuclear physics)

272

BEPCII injector linac upgrade and beam instabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The upgrade project of the Beijing electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well. The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring, which requires an injected beam with low emittance, low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics, which are described in this study. (authors)

273

The injector of the superconducting linac LISA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector of the LNF project LISA (LInear Superconducting Accelerator) is a room temperature system, consisting of a 100 keV gun, a transport line with chopper and prebuncher systems, a capture section (a graded-? 2.5 GHz structure) which accelerates the beam to 1.1 MeV, and an isochronous and achromatic transport line which injects the beam into the SC-Linac after a ?-bending. The status of the project is presented

274

Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

1991-05-01

275

New Results with the Ignitor Pellet Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ignitor Pellet Injector (IPI) has been developed in collaboration between ENEA and ORNL to provide greater control over the density time evolution and the density peaking in plasmas produced by the Ignitor device. The four barrel, two stage injector has been designed to reach speeds up to 4 km/s, for effective low field side injection into ignited plasmas (TeTi11 keV). The present arrangement accomodates both a two-stage gun and a standard propellant valve on each barrel, allowing seamless switching between standard and high speed operation on any or all gun barrels. The cryostat is actively cooled by a pulse tube refrigerator, equipped with supplemental cooling from a liquid He dewar. The injector has shown very good repeatability; however, intact pellets were not observed over 2 km/s, possibly due to a spinning effect on the pellets at higher speed. The cross sections of the guiding tubes have been increased and other design improvements have been implemented, aimed in particular at reducing leak rates and reducing the dispersion of the pellet trajectories, in preparation of the experimental campaign reported here.

Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Podda, S.; Bombarda, F.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C. R.; Meitner, S.; Fehling, D.; Roveta, G.

2011-11-01

276

Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

277

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements.

Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Karpenko, V.; Sangster, T.C.

2000-07-24

278

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

279

RF design of the TW buncher for the CLIC drive beam injector  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the first report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This report includes the design of the power couplers. The fundamental mode beam loading and higher order modes effect were preliminary studied.

AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)641892

2015-01-01

280

The control and diagnostics system for the CEBAF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present the first experience with the CEBAF injector control and diagnostics system. The computer architecture of the control system has been described elsewhere. The injector system is a model for the CEBAF controls. A computer system controls the gun, the steering magnets, and the focusing elements, and in the near future also the injector rf system. The beam parameters such as current, position, and emittance are measured by various monitors and are automatically analyzed by the computer. 5 refs., 11 figs

281

Photographic characterization of spark-ignition engine fuel injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifold port fuel injectors suitable for use in general aviation spark-ignition engines were evaluated qualitatively on the basis of fuel spray characteristics. Photographs were taken at various fuel flow rates or pressure levels. Mechanically and electronically operated pintle injectors generally produced the most atomization. The plain-orifice injectors used on most fuel-injected general aviation engines did not atomize the fuel when sprayed into quiescent air.

Evanich, P. L.

1978-01-01

282

An injector to the 33 MHz 4-rod RFQ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ion injector has been designed and assembled for the 33 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac. This injector comprises of a Freeman type ion source, a 90 degree analyzing magnet, and magnetic quadrupole lenses. An emittance measurement gear and a Faraday cup are also installed between the injector and the RFQ. Beam optics calculation is done up to the second order using TRANSPORT and the results are reflected in the design of the magnetic optical components. (author)

283

Development of 4-shot pellet injector for JET-2M  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pneumatic 4 pellet injector has been constructed for JFT-2M. The performance tests have proved high performance and reliability of the injector. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in hydrogen pellet tests is 1.4km sec. The device is now in use for JFT-2M in a place of a previous single pellet injector, contributing to plasma studies. In this paper the outline of features and performance of the device is presented

284

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

2004-11-10

285

2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.

2004-11-10

286

2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector

287

Cybele: A large size ion source of modular construction for the Tore-Supra diagnostic injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE and charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra tokamak. This injector routinely operates with a large size ion source (the so-called Pagoda ion source) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiments. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objectives are a high accelerated proton fraction (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm2, and uniform illumination of the extraction surface (within ±5%) for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). The main particularity of Cybele is the modular construction; it is composed of five, vertically juxtaposed modules, geometrically arranged to fit the curved extraction surface of the injector, which ensures the geometrical focusing of the neutral beam 7 m downstream, at the entrance to the tokamak. Cybele will be tested first for positive-ion production for the Tore-Supra injector and later in negative-ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity over the very large extraction surface (?1 m2) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A prototype module (the Drift source) has already been developed and optimized [A. Simomin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4542 (1999)] both for positive- and negative-ion productions. It has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D- cequirements in terms of D- current density (200 A/m2), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity, and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW)

288

Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m2) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m2), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

289

Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm{sup 2} within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m{sup 2}) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m{sup 2}), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

Simonin, A.; Garibaldi, P

2005-07-01

290

Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160?MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5?kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5?kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45?kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena.

Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

2014-12-01

291

First coupled CH power cavity for the FAIR proton injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The main acceleration of this room temperature linac will be provided by six CH cavities operated at 325 MHz. Each cavity will be powered by a 2.5 MW Klystron. For the second acceleration unit from 11.5 MeV to 24.2 MeV a 1:2 scaled model has been built. Low level RF measurements have been performed to determine the main parameters and to prove the concept of coupled CH cavities. In Summer 2012, the assembly and tuning of the first power prototype was finished. Until then, the cavity was tested with a preliminary aluminum drift tube structure, which was used for precise frequency and field tuning. Before Spring 2013 the final drift tube structure will be welded inside the main tanks and the preparation for copper plating will take place. This paper reports on the main tuning and commissioning steps towards that novel type of DTL and it shows the latest results measured on a fully operational CH proton cavity.

292

Measurements of Inclusive Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged Current Differential Cross Sections on Argon in the NuMI Antineutrino Beam  

CERN Document Server

The ArgoNeuT collaboration presents measurements of inclusive muon neutrino and antineutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon in the Fermilab NuMI beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum at a mean neutrino energy of 9.6 GeV (neutrinos) and 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos), in the range $0^\\circ < \\theta_\\mu < 36^\\circ$ and $0 < p_\\mu < 25$ GeV/$c$, for both neutrinos and antineutrinos.

Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Hatcher, R; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01

293

Study on mechanism of condensation heat transfer of water jet in steam injector. Radiation between waves on the jet surface and heat transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of a steam injector and steam condensation phenomena on water jet surface in the steam injector were experimentally examined. In visual experiments of behavior of the water jet in the steam injector, many large waves were observed on the water jet surface. The waves showed the tendency to grow as those proceeded downstream. Direct steam condensation on to the water jet surface in the steam injector was mainly controlled by radial heat transport in the water jet. The radial heat transport in the water jet was considerably more effective than that in the usual turbulent heat transport in a pipe. It was pointed out that this highly effective radial heat transport mechanism was created by local circulation in the water jet that was produced by waves on the water jet surface. Waves on the jet surface ware examined. Based on it, the heat transfer correlation of the jet flow accompanying the direct condensation of steam on the surface was proposed. (author)

294

Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15

295

Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm3), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented

296

CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by these investigators to be very valuable for code validation because combustion kinetics, turbulence models and atomization models based on low pressure experiments of hydrogen air combustion do not adequately verify analytical or CFD submodels which are necessary to simulate rocket engine combustion. We wish to emphasize that the simulations which we prepared for this meeting are meant to test the accuracy of the approximations used in our general purpose spray combustion models, rather than represent a definitive analysis of each of the experiments which were conducted. Our goal is to accurately predict local temperatures and mixture ratios in rocket engines; hence predicting individual experiments is used only for code validation. To replace the conventional JANNAF standard axisymmetric finite-rate (TDK) computer code 2 for performance prediction with CFD cases, such codes must posses two features. Firstly, they must be as easy to use and of comparable run times for conventional performance predictions. Secondly, they must provide more detailed predictions of the flowfields near the injector face. Specifically, they must accurately predict the convective mixing of injected liquid propellants in terms of the injector element configurations.

Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

297

Charge injectors of ALICE Silicon Drift Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large area, 7.25x8.76cm2, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) has been developed for the ALICE experiment at CERN [A. Vacchi, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 306 (1991) 187; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 461 (2001) 133-138; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 485 (2002) 54; P. Burger, C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Roncastri, A. Vacchi, INFN/TC-02/07; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, INFN/TC-02/08; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, D. Nouais, INFN/TC-00/04. C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Vacchi, ALICE-INT-2002-15, 2002; Inner Tracking System, CERN/LHCC, June 1999]. SDDs form two out of six cylindrical layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The 260 high-quality SDDs needed to equip these two layers have been selected. One of the detector design elements devoted to allow controlled operating conditions is the on-board arrays of point-like charge injectors [D. Nouais, et al., CERN-ALICE-PUB-99-31; V. Bonvicini, et al., Il Nuovo Cimento 112AN (1-2) (1999) 137-146]. In the case of an SDD they are essential to trace, with the required frequency and precision, the changes in drift velocity induced by temperature variations. In order to ensure operating stability during the 10 years of the ALICE experiment the bias scheme of the charge injectors exploits the electrical properties not only of a detector itself, but also those of the cables mounted onto it, thus constituting a module. Computer simulations of the equivalent circuit revealed a significant imuivalent circuit revealed a significant improvement of the injection efficiency. Subsequent experimental tests of the first assembled modules confirmed the predicted performances. We report the layout of the charge injectors integrated in the ALICE SDD, as well as test results

298

Charge injectors of ALICE Silicon Drift Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large area, 7.25x8.76cm{sup 2}, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) has been developed for the ALICE experiment at CERN [A. Vacchi, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 306 (1991) 187; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 461 (2001) 133-138; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 485 (2002) 54; P. Burger, C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Roncastri, A. Vacchi, INFN/TC-02/07; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, INFN/TC-02/08; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, D. Nouais, INFN/TC-00/04. C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Vacchi, ALICE-INT-2002-15, 2002; Inner Tracking System, CERN/LHCC, June 1999]. SDDs form two out of six cylindrical layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The 260 high-quality SDDs needed to equip these two layers have been selected. One of the detector design elements devoted to allow controlled operating conditions is the on-board arrays of point-like charge injectors [D. Nouais, et al., CERN-ALICE-PUB-99-31; V. Bonvicini, et al., Il Nuovo Cimento 112AN (1-2) (1999) 137-146]. In the case of an SDD they are essential to trace, with the required frequency and precision, the changes in drift velocity induced by temperature variations. In order to ensure operating stability during the 10 years of the ALICE experiment the bias scheme of the charge injectors exploits the electrical properties not only of a detector itself, but also those of the cables mounted onto it, thus constituting a module. Computer simulations of the equivalent circuit revealed a significant improvement of the injection efficiency. Subsequent experimental tests of the first assembled modules confirmed the predicted performances. We report the layout of the charge injectors integrated in the ALICE SDD, as well as test results.

Rashevsky, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: alexander.rashevsky@ts.infn.it; Batigne, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Beole, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Coli, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Crescio, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Deremigis, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Giraudo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Mazza, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Riccati, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Rivetti, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Toscano, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Tosello, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Vacchi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Wheadon, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Zampa, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

2007-03-01

299

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) has been designed and is being fabricated. The injector will be installed on the STOR-M tokamak (R = 0.46 m, a = 0.12 m) to study CT injection into tokamak discharges. The injector is of coaxial configuration consisting of formation, compression and acceleration sections. Discharge of a 500 ?F (2 kV) capacitor bank through a solenoid is capable of inducing a quasi-steady magnetic flux up to 1 mWb. Four fast-acting gas puffing valves inject up to 4 x 1019 hydrogen particles within 100 ?sec into the formation region. Two 20 ?F (20 kV) capacitor banks are used for the formation, compression and acceleration of a CT. High density tungsten coating, ac glow discharge cleaning and on-line baking are among the efforts to produce high quality CTs with low impurity contents. The envisaged CT parameters are: ro (outer radius) ? 0.05 m, ri (inner radius) ? 0.018 m, L (length) ? 0.15 m, n (density) ? 4 x 1021 m-3 and v (velocity) ? 400 km/sec. CT with these parameters should be able to penetrate 1 Tesla magnetic field in the STOR-M tokamak. Magnetic probes and He-Ne laser interferometer will be used to measure the CT velocity, density, magnetic field, and length. Spectroscopic measurements will be performed to investigate impurity contents in the CT. The CT parameters, especially its particle inventory, are designed to allow disruption-free CT injection intruption-free CT injection into the STOR-M tokamak. The emphasis of this research program is to study physics involved in tokamak plasma refueling by CT injection. Feasibility of plasma heating and current drive will also be investigated. In particular, the dependence of injection processes on the injection angle (130 degree to 40 degree with respect to the plasma current direction) will be studied in detail

300

Laser ignition in an LPP-injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser-induced spark ignition is an alternative way for ignition compared to conventional electrical spark ignition. The feasibility of laser spark ignition of a lean premixed prevaporized injector, similar to those used in low-NO{sub x} air jet engines is show in this paper. Liquid n-heptane is used as fuel in preheated air with a high level of turbulence. Starting form the theory of the ignition process, special attention is given to the minimal ignition energies for different positions in the combustion chamber. Shadowgraphy visualisation and spontaneous emission of ignition events is presented and discussed. (orig.)

El-Rabii, H.; Rolon, J.C.; Lacas, F. [Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. EM2C Grande Voie des Vignes; Zaehringer, K. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Stroemungstechnik

2005-07-01

301

Numerical analysis of coaxial swirl injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing recognition exists in the United States that injector dynamics play a pivotal role in the combustion instabilities of some Liquid Rocket Engines (LREs). Russian researchers believe injector dynamics can lead to unsteady mass flow from the injector to the combustion chamber resulting in unsteady heat release. Unsteady heat release coupled with the chamber modes, could cause combustion instability and the destruction of the rocket. The research described herein focused on the use of computational fluid dynamics to describe the frequency and amplitude of unsteady mass flow rate from a gas-centered coaxial swirl injector with varying geometries and fluid properties. An incompressible model, therefore, was utilized to investigate the effects of density ratio, liquid swirl velocity, liquid film thickness, collar thickness, and recess length. Present findings showed that the frequency at which the liquid film oscillates increases as the density ratio and collar thickness increase, decreases as the film thickness and liquid swirl velocity increases, and is unaffected by the recess length. Thus, the frequency seems dependent on the behavior of the vortex shedding/reattachment from the collar and the dynamic pressure imbalance on the liquid surface. The vortex behavior has been included as an important parameter for determining the behavior of the film given that the collar thickness affects the frequency. Since these studies lead to the belief that the vortex dynamics aft of the collar are important, a more fundamental study concerning the vortex dynamics behind a splitter plate/post was undertaken. For this study a compressible model was utilized to investigate the effects of momentum ratio, axisymmetry, the presence of a wall near the splitter, and swirl. Shedding frequency was found to increase as the momentum ratio varies from unity. Furthermore, axisymmetry reduced the shedding frequency over all momentum ratios. The presence of a wall near the splitter, in contrast, increased the shedding frequency when the higher momentum stream was adjacent to the wall. Finally, swirl caused complex interactions aft of the splitter rendering distinct trends in shedding frequency difficult to discern for high amounts of swirl.

Canino, James Vincent

302

Injector for RFQ using electrostatically focused transport and matching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the principles and performance of a new type of high- current H- injector for RFQs. The distinguishing feature of our injector is that we replace the conventional gas-neutralized transport and matching units by electrostatic focusing units. Our system prevents plasma formation along the beam instead of utilizing it. Some advantages of this approach are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs

303

Pellet injector systems for plasma refueling on LHD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen pellet injection is one of the leading candidates for a refueling to magnetic confined fusion plasmas, since it can provide particles directly to core plasma. In order to investigate appropriateness of the pellet injection as a plasma refueling method, two types of solid hydrogen pellet injector systems have been developed and plasma experiments with pellet injection have been carried out on LHD (Large Helical Device). One is an in-situ pipe gun type pellet injector, which is the simplest of all pellet injector concepts. The in-situ pipe gun injector has 10 independent controlled barrels and each barrel can inject 3 mm? x 3 mml pellets with a velocity of ?1200 m/s. The other is a repetitive pellet injector with a screw extruder. The screw extruder can form 2.5 mm? solid hydrogen rod continuously at a extruding rates of ?35 mm/s and, therefore, the repetitive pellet injector can inject pellets in infinitum with repetitive rate of 10 Hz. Common feature of these injectors is employing a compact cryocooler to solidify hydrogen and, therefore, these injectors can be operated with just electricity instead of liquid helium supply system. (author)

304

Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs

305

Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

306

NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner  

Science.gov (United States)

The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

1996-01-01

307

The injector of high power electron linac for industrial application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper the results of the experimental study on forming the electron bunches in the injector of a high current S-band linac are presented. The injector consists of a low voltage electron gun, bunching cavity and accelerating cavity. The influence of different factors on the beam spatial and energy characteristics is analyzed

308

Error analysis and lattice improvement for the C-ADS Injector-I  

CERN Document Server

The injector (Scheme-I) of the C-ADS linac is a 10-mA 10-MeV proton linac working in CW mode. It is mainly comprised of a 3.2-MeV room-temperature 4-vane RFQ and twelve superconducting single-spoke cavities housed in a long cryostat. Error analysis including alignment and field errors, static and dynamic ones for the injector are presented. Based on detailed numerical simulations, an orbit correction scheme has been designed. It shows that with correction the rms residual orbit errors can be controlled within 0.3 mm and a beam loss rate of 1.7*10^-6 is obtained. To reduce the beam loss rate further, an improved lattice design for the superconducting spoke cavity section has been studied.

Meng, Cai; Tang, Jingyu

2013-01-01

309

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive steam jet pump for water injection or the primary loop recirculation system. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Visualized fundamental tests were conducted in order to develop separate two-phase flow models to be installed in the PHOENICS code. The models were verified by using high-pressure steam test data, as well as the visualized data. Then the large-scale injectors analyses were conducted using the newly developed models. The analysis results showed that the large-scale steam injector could work in the high-pressure range and discharged over 12 MPa, even at the rated flow rate of 61 kgs-1 (220 ton h-1). (orig.)

310

Injector design guidelines for gas/liquid propellant systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Injector design guidelines are provided for gas/liquid propellant systems. Information was obtained from a 30-month applied research program encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination studied was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ ambient temperature gaseous methane. Design criteria that provide for simultaneous attainment of high performance and chamber compatibility are presented for both injector types. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular coaxial and like-doublet injectors that operate with design parameters similar to those employed. However, caution should be exercised when applying these data to propellant combinations whose elements operate in ranges considerably different from those employed in this study.

Falk, A. Y.; Burick, R. J.

1973-01-01

311

SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional ray-trace code with a two-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model.

Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

1992-08-01

312

Performance of a CW RFQ Injector for the IUCF Cyclotron  

CERN Document Server

A 750 keV RFQ proton pre-injector was installed in place of a 600 keV Cockroft-Walton high voltage terminal for the IUCF k220 Cyclotron.* The pre-injector consists of a 20 keV microwave ion source and LEBT, a unique design 750 keV CW RFQ, and a short transfer beam line to the k15 injector cyclotron center region.** This pre-injector system was installed and commissioned in June of 2003 and is now in routine service as the sole injection system to the cyclotrons. This contribution will discuss the performance of the CW RFQ pre-injector and the transmission properties of the beam through the cyclotrons.

Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; East, Gary W; Friesel, Dennis; Hamm, Robert W; Jones, William P; Staples, John W

2005-01-01

313

Testing of a fuel injector in a supersonic air stream  

Science.gov (United States)

The new idea of liquid fuel (kerosene) aeroramp injector/plasma igniter was tested in cold flow using a supersonic wind tunnel at Mach 2.4. The liquid fuel (kerosene) injector is flush wall mounted and consists of a 2 hole aeroramp array of impinging jets that are oriented in a manner to improve mixing and atomization of the liquid jets. The two jets are angled downstream at 40 degrees and have a toe-in angle of 60 degrees. The plasma torch used nitrogen and air as feedstocks and was placed downstream of the injector as an ignition aid. First, schlieren and shadowgraph photographs were taken of the injector flow to study the behavior of the jets, shape of the plume, and penetration of the liquid jet. The liquid fuel aeroramp was found to have better penetration than a single, round jet at 40 degrees. The Sauter mean droplet diameter distribution was measured downstream of the injector.

Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Calimanescu, Ioan; Buzbuchi, Nicolae

2009-01-01

314

Development of a high average current rf linac thermionic injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermionic electron guns are capable of operating at high average currents in a variety of vacuum electronic applications, including conventional microwave tubes, but have been replaced by laser photocathode injectors for most applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. However, while laser photocathode guns are capable of providing the very high-brightness beams, they provide an increased level of system complexity and do not extrapolate well to injectors for high average current applications requiring high beam quality. We are developing a 714 MHz injector based on a gridded thermionic electron gun for these applications. This paper presents an experimental study, computer simulations, and analysis of the performance of an existing gridded thermionic electron gun as an injector prototype, and a design concept for an improved injector configuration based on these results.

Gold, S. H.; Ting, A.; Jabotinski, V.; Zhou, B.; Sprangle, P.

2013-08-01

315

Multi-beam injector development at LBL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

316

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4+, Ne 3+, and He 2+ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4+ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ? cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

317

Improved brightness of the ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the ATA injector using the low density plasma cathode (flashboard cathode) have shown that the brightness of the injector was being limited by the non-uniform emission of the cathode surface. To avoid this difficulty, we rearranged the cathode-anode geometry to accommodate field shaping surfaces and a field emission cathode. Computer simulations of the cathode-anode geometry using the EBQ code led us to try a 5.5 cm radius cathode with an A-K gap of about 13 cm. There was no grid used during the experiment. The cathode was surrounded by a Pierce correcting shroud and the typical gap voltage was about 2.5 MeV. Our initial tests of the field emission cathodes were done using a woven carbon yarn that was laced through a fine mesh screen and then trimmed to a uniform height. Using these ''tufted'' cathodes, it was easy to vary the number of emission sites per square centimeter. We also varied the geometry of these cathodes by giving the screen a slight convex shape so that the center of the cathode was about 1 cm closer to the anode plane than the edge of the cathode. At the suggestion of R. Adler of MRC, we also tested commerically available velvet cloth. This was done by epoxying the cloth to the cathode surface using a conducting silver epoxy. We tested the velvet cathodes in both the flat and convex configurations to compare with the tufted carbon yarn cathodes

318

Pneumatic pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced pneumatic-injector-based pellet fueling systems are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range from 1 to 2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumatic-based pellet fueling systems for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET), and a new simplified eight-shot injector has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These long-pulse devices operate reliably at up to 1.5 km/s with pellet sizes ranging between 1 and 6 mm. In addition to these activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies such as the electrothermal gun and the two-stage light-gas gun to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets to 1.4 km/s were recently demonstrated. 27 refs., 10 figs

319

Multi-injector modeling of transverse combustion instability experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Concurrent simulations and experiments are used to study combustion instabilities in a multiple injector element combustion chamber. The experiments employ a linear array of seven coaxial injector elements positioned atop a rectangular chamber. Different levels of instability are driven in the combustor by varying the operating and geometry parameters of the outer driving injector elements located near the chamber end-walls. The objectives of the study are to apply a reduced three-injector model to generate a computational test bed for the evaluation of injector response to transverse instability, to apply a full seven-injector model to investigate the inter-element coupling between injectors in response to transverse instability, and to further develop this integrated approach as a key element in a predictive methodology that relies heavily on subscale test and simulation. To measure the effects of the transverse wave on a central study injector element two opposing windows are placed in the chamber to allow optical access. The chamber is extensively instrumented with high-frequency pressure transducers. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to model the experiment. Specifically three-dimensional, detached eddy simulations (DES) are used. Two computational approaches are investigated. The first approach models the combustor with three center injectors and forces transverse waves in the chamber with a wall velocity function at the chamber side walls. Different levels of pressure oscillation amplitudes are possible by varying the amplitude of the forcing function. The purpose of this method is to focus on the combustion response of the study element. In the second approach, all seven injectors are modeled and self-excited combustion instability is achieved. This realistic model of the chamber allows the study of inter-element flow dynamics, e.g., how the resonant motions in the injector tubes are coupled through the transverse pressure waves in the chamber. The computational results are analyzed and compared with experiment results in the time, frequency and modal domains. Results from the three injector model show how applying different velocity forcing amplitudes change the amplitude and spatial location of heat release from the center injector. The instability amplitudes in the simulation are able to be tuned to experiments and produce similar modal combustion responses of the center injector. The reaction model applied was found to play an important role in the spatial and temporal heat release response. Only when the model was calibrated to ignition delay measurements did the heat release response reflect measurements in the experiment. While insightful the simulations are not truly predictive because the driving frequency and forcing function amplitude are input into the simulation. However, the use of this approach as a tool to investigate combustion response is demonstrated. Results from the seven injector simulations provide an insightful look at the mechanisms driving the instability in the combustor. The instability was studied over a range of pressure fluctuations, up to 70% of mean chamber pressure produced in the self-exited simulation. At low amplitudes the transverse instability was found to be supported by both flame impingement with the side wall as well as vortex shedding at the primary acoustic frequency. As instability level grew the primary supporting mechanism shifted to just vortex impingement on the side walls and the greatest growth was seen as additional vortices began impinging between injector elements at the primary acoustic frequency. This research reveals the advantages and limitations of applying these two modeling techniques to simulate multiple injector experiments. The advantage of the three injector model is a simplified geometry which results in faster model development and the ability to more rapidly study the injector response under varying velocity amplitudes. The possibly faster run time is offset though by the need to run multiple cases to calibrate the

Shipley, Kevin J.

320

Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

321

Progress in the study and construction of the tesla test facility injector  

OpenAIRE

A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector, having an energy of 8-14 MeV and an intensity of 8 mA with a high duty cycle (800 microseconds, 10 Hz repetition rate), consists of a 250 keV electron gun, a 216.7 MHz subharmonic buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, e...

Chehab, R.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J. C.; Garvey, T.; Jacquemard, B.; Mencik, M.; Mouton, B.; Omeich, M.; Rodier, J.; Roudier, P.; Saury, J. L.; Thiery, Y.; Aune, B.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.

1995-01-01

322

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2014-02-15

323

Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 ?m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B.

2012-03-01

324

Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator systems, and the technical issues involved are summarized

325

Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platfrom and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector linac will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator system, and the technical issues involved are summarized

326

Physics design on C-ADS injector-1 RFQ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The linear accelerator for C-ADS includes two injectors with the output energy of 10 MeV and the beam cur- rent of 10 mA. In order to safeguard the stability, reliability and availability of the linac, as one injector is in operation, the other is at hot stand-by spare. The injectors consist of a electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton ion source with the output energy of 35 keV, a low energy transport line (LEBT), a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and a superconducting accelerator with the output energy of 10 MeV. In order to research and develop the physics and technology of the injector, the working frequencies for injector-1 and injector-2 are chosen to 325 MHz and 162.5 MHz, respectively. The structures for the superconducting accelerator are also chosen differently as the spoke cavity and the half wave resonator, respectively. Here, only the physics design on C-ADS injector-1 RFQ is presented in detail. (authors)

327

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

328

Maine Ingredients  

Science.gov (United States)

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

329

Performance monitoring and analysis of injector microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 MeV classical microtron is the injector to booster synchrotron of electron storage rings Indus-l and Indus-2. It delivers a current of 25 mA in pulses of 1 ?s duration at a pulse repetition rate of 1 Hz. The acceleration occurs in a type-II RF cavity energized by a 5 MW pulsed klystron at 2856 MHz in a magnetic field of 0.18T. A directly heated single crystal of LaB6 of diameter 3 mm is used as electron emitter. The 20 MeV, 25 mA, 1 ?s beam-pulse extracted from the microtron, is transported to the synchrotron. The variation in the operational parameters and possible interpretation of variations are essential for performance improvement. (author)

330

Emittance compensation for an SRF photo injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a superconducting photo injector is an ongoing challenge at the HZDR in Dresden. Several milestones like the first operation of a half cell niobium cavity in 2002 and the worldwide first beam transfer from a 3 1/2-cell SRF gun into an actual accelerator structure have already been accomplished. Nevertheless, as superconducting electron sources are of great interest for future ERL or cw operated FEL projects, studies to improve their output parameters and stability continue to get them on the same level as their normal conducting counterparts. The talk discusses several of the current approaches to reduce the transversal emittance of the next 3 1/2-cell cavity at the HZDR including the installation of a superconducting solenoid within the gun's cryostat.

331

Injector for LISA [LInear Superconducting Accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector of the LNF project LISA (LInear Superconducting Accelerator) is a room temperature system, consisting of a transport line for the beam at 100 KeV, of a capture section (a graded-? 2.5 GHz structure) which accelerates the beam to 1 MeV, and of an isochronous and achromatic transport line which injects the beam into the SC-Linac after a ?-bending. The 100 keV beam delivered by the gun is composed of 1ms long macropulses. It is then chopped by a system of double choppers (50 and 500 MHz) which selects about 1% of the total beam, and bunched by a 500 MHz prebuncher which squeezes the bunch length to about 2 mm in order to obtain the peak current required by the FEL. 7 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

332

Status of injector AVF cyclotron at RIKEN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A K70 AVF cyclotron, which is used as an injector of the K540 RIKEN Ring Cyclotron (RRC) for light and light heavy ions, was completed at the end of March 1989. The first beam of 14N5+ ion with 7 MeV/u, the designed maximum energy, was successfully extracted from the cyclotron in April. The beam was injected into RRC and the 14N7+ beam of 135 MeV/u corresponding to the maximum magnetic rigidity of RRC was extracted in July. The cyclotron is now satisfactorily in routine operation. A brief description of the cyclotron is given and some operational experiences obtained in the last half-year operation are presented. (author)

333

Performance of the ASDEX neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first of two neutral beam injectors for the ASDEX tokamak has been put into operation. The design value of 1.25 mw neutral power into ASDEX was obtained within a few weeks of operation; the injection system was found to work quite reliably. Beam power mesurements have shown a transmission of total power to the beamline calorimeter of 70%, a neutralization efficiency of 60 %, reionization losses between magnet and torus of less than 10 %, and geometric losses within the duct of a few percent, resulting in a neutral power offered to the plasma between 35 % and 40 % of the drain power. Measurements have been performed concerning the properties of the Ti-evaporator pumping system. The results are compared with beamline code calculations

334

Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D. W.

1993-05-01

335

Neutral-beam injectors for 1990 and 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anticipated developments in neutral-beam technology are described. Particular attention is given to gas efficiency, power efficiency, beam optics, and injector size. It is concluded that negative-ion sources can be made to operate with gas efficiencies in excess of 10%, while negative-ion neutral-beam injectors, using D2 gas stripping cells, will operate at power efficiencies of roughly 50% in ten years. Twenty-five years from now, negative-ion neutral-beam injectors, using photodetachment, will operate at efficiencies approaching 70%

336

Pressure injectors for radiologists: A review and what is new.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure Injectors are used routinely in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Advances in medical science and technology have made it is imperative for both diagnostic as well as interventional radiologists to have a thorough understanding of the various aspects of pressure injectors. Further, as many radiologists may not be fully conversant with injections into ports, central lines and PICCs, it is important to familiarize oneself with the same. It is also important to follow stringent operating protocols during the use of pressure injectors to prevent complications such as contrast extravastion, sepsis and air embolism. This article aims to update existing knowledge base in this respect. PMID:25709157

Indrajit, Inna K; Sivasankar, Rajeev; D'Souza, John; Pant, Rochan; Negi, Raj S; Sahu, Samresh; Hashim, Pi

2015-01-01

337

FEL injector control system on the base of EPICS  

CERN Document Server

The control system of the 1.5 MeV FEL injector is built on the base of ported EPICS. It uses low-cost hardware: personal computers with the processor Intel x86 and CAMAC equipment produced by our institute. At present time, the distributed control system includes one Pentium at OPerator Interface (OPI) level and two IOC (Input Output Controllers) under supervision of the real time operating system LynxOS/x86 at the low-level. Each IOC is used for monitoring of autonomous parts of the injector. The first IOC operates the Radio Frequency (RF) system. The second IOC operates the injector equipment

Salikova, T V; Kurkin, G Ya; Oreshkov, A D; Scheglov, M A; Tribendis, A G

2001-01-01

338

Construction of injector cryomodule for c-ERL project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compact energy-recovery linac (cERL) is under construction at KEK. In the injector cryomodule, electron beams of 10 mA are accelerated from the beam energy of 500 keV to 5 MeV. The injector cryomodule consists of three 2-cell cavity systems, and each cavity is driven by two input couplers. The design features, component test results and assembly status of the injector cryomodule for the cERL are described in this paper. (author)

339

Evaluation Methods for Coolant Injector Performances and Severe Accident Phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides the numerical simulation methods of the coolant injector in the direct cooling type core catcher, and evaluation methods of the severe accident phenomena. Firstly, the numerical simulation method for two-phase flow behaviour inside coolant injectors is established. Installation of the coolant injectors in the direct cooling type core catcher is one of the concepts to deliver cooling water mixed with inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent steam explosion while effectively cooling down the corium by direct heat transfer. Secondly, the evaluation tools of the severe accident phenomena such as in-vessel accident scenario, the DCH, steam explosion, MCCI, and containment pressurization are surveyed and discussed

340

ATLAS positive-ion injector proposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS facility will provide beams of heavy-ions through approximately mass 130. Energies provided will range from over 20 MeV/A for lighter ions down to approximately 5 MeV/A for mass 130. In discussions with our user group concerning future program needs, two major areas of focus emerged. The first was a desire to increase the beam intensities available by approximately a factor of ten beyond what is possible from our present negative-ion source and tandem injector for all ion species. The second was to obtain beams of at least 10 MeV/A energy for all possible masses through uranium. These features were desired without compromising the presnt qualities of the ATLAS facility: good beam quality, ease of operation, and continuous (DC) operation. The facility which has been proposed to address these goals consists of replacing the negative-ion injector and FN tandem with a positive-ion source and a superconducting linac of a new design which makes use of the high field gradients possible with superconducting structures. The positive-ion source proposed is an electron cyclotron resonance source mounted on a high-voltage platform, providing a 350-kV potential for preacceleration of the ions. This will produce, for example, uranium ions of 7 MeV with a velocity of .008c, assuming a charge state of 20+. The ions will be bunched in a two stage bunching system providing a pulsed beam with a time width of better than 0.4 ns for injection into the linac

341

A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current

342

Design of the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector: From Physics Analysis to Engineering Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: For ITER heating and current drive, two neutral beam injectors (NBIs) are planned, delivering a total of 33 MW in stationary conditions up to one hour; each injector will accelerate a 40 A negative deuterium ion current up to 1 MV. Such requirements have never been achieved simultaneously. Hence the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) facility is under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padua, Italy. PRIMA will include a test bed named MITICA (Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement), with the aim of meeting the ITER beam requirements in terms of negative ion yield, beam uniformity, high voltage holding, operation of beam line components and power supplies, overall reliability of the NBI. The present contribution describes the current status of numerical simulations, devoted to the optimisation of MITICA, providing the main inputs for the design of accelerator, beam line components, diagnostics and power supplies. Physics and engineering aspects include: beam optics, dumping of co-extracted and stripped electrons, thermo-mechanical behaviour of grids and beam line components during long pulse operation, voltage holding capabilities. The optimised geometry of the accelerator is characterised by equal acceleration gaps (increased voltage holding capability) and a combination of horizontal and vertical magnetic fields in the accelerator (reducing heat loads and electrons exiting the accelerator); the gas pressure profile is also simulated in the accelerator and in the injector. The design of the accelerator power supplies has been supported by simulations of static and dynamic performances, including the investigation of overvoltages by a sophisticated fast transient model and the modelling of matching network and RF systems. Moreover the signals expected from the diagnostic systems have been simulated, with realistic beam features, providing prescriptions for the design of diagnostics, like beam emission spectroscopy, beam tomography and neutron diagnostic. Most of the design of MITICA plants and components are well developed and close to finalisation. 550 Poster. (author)

343

Diesel Engine Injector Faults Detection Using Acoustic Emissions Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of the method of identifying injector faults in a JCB 444T2 diesel engine using acoustic emission (AE technique. Different kinds of injector faults were seeded in the four-cylinder, four-stroke, and turbo-engine. Then, faulty injectors are tested to evaluate AE based injection fault detection. The AE signals recorded from the tests were processed in the angular, frequency and joint angular-frequency domain. The results from joint angular-frequency analysis have shown that AE can clearly monitor the changes in the combustion process due to its high signal to noise ratio, where other vibro-acoustic sources have little influence. Using features in the AE signal, faults of injector can be identified during the operation of the engine.

F. Elamin

2010-08-01

344

21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector...syringe is powered by a cartridge containing pressurized carbon dioxide which provides the pressure to force the...

2010-04-01

345

Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

346

Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

347

Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

2001-05-01

348

The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System  

CERN Document Server

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

MacLean, J F

2001-01-01

349

Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

350

Review of LHC and injector upgrade plans - Summary  

CERN Document Server

From 29 to 31 October 2013 the Review of the LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans (RLIUP) took place in Archamps (Haute Savoie). This paper summarizes the RLIUP conclusions, which were presented at CERN on 8 November 2013.

Myers, S

2014-01-01

351

The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

352

Injector design for high-current CW proton linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an injector design for high-power cw proton linacs with particular emphasis on intense neutron-spallation sources. Long-term operational reliability and availability dominate over specific beam parameters for these accelerators. We discuss technical requirements for the ion source and low-energy beam transport line and compare different options. A prototype design for a 75-kV, 110-mA cw proton injector is presented

353

A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the ...

Weierstall, U.; Doak, R. B.; Spence, J. C. H.

2011-01-01

354

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule  

CERN Document Server

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

Rathke, John; Bluem, Hans; Campisi, Isidoro E; Cole, Michael; Daly, Edward; Hogan, John; Mammosser, John; Neil, George R; Peterson, Ed; Preble, Joseph P; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Todd, Alan M M; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark

2005-01-01

355

Three-barrell injector of solid-hydrogen pellets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system for generating and injecting solid-hydrogen pellets is described and was used to generate solid-hydrogen pellets in a three-barrel injector. The injector is based on using a free-flow heat-exchanger. The authors obtained stable thermal operation which generates hydrogen pellets with uniform physical properties. The system produces a train of three pellets each of which contains (2-5) x 1019 hydrogen molecules and travels at 700-900 m/sec

356

Liquid Monopropellant Injector Development for High Power Electrodeless Plasma Thruster  

OpenAIRE

The thesis work aims at developing a liquid monopropellant injector for a high power electrodeless plasma thruster. The feasibility of using a chemical monopropellant for electric propulsion is investigated. After a design phase, the injector is put to the test with a simulant to the real liquid monopropellant in a simulated environment. Theoretical models are created to predict the power needed to vaporize a mass flow of the monopropellant without decomposing the heavy molecules. Testing has...

Linde, Robin

2012-01-01

357

The DEEPSSI project, design and modelling of steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DEEPSSI project is supported by the European commission in the frame of the 5th R and D framework programme. DEEPSSI is a research programme dealing with steam injectors. Among thermalhydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific thermal-hydraulic quantities (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved : CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics

358

The effects of diesel injector needle motion on spray structure.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal structure of diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the steady-state fuel distribution within the spray. However, little experimental or computational work has been performed on the dynamics of fuel injectors. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the injector nozzle, and to track changes in that geometry as the needle opens and closes in real time. This has enabled the dynamics of the injector to be compared with the dynamics of the spray, and allows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to use realistic time-dependent flow passage geometries. In this study, X-ray phase-enhanced imaging has been used to perform time-resolved imaging of the needle seat area in several common-rail diesel injection nozzles. The fuel distributions of the sprays emitted by these injectors were also studied with fast X-ray radiography. Correlations between eccentric motions of the injector needle valve and oscillations in the fuel density as it emerges from the nozzle are examined. CFD modeling is used to interpret the effect of needle motion on fuel flow.

Powell, C. F.; Kastengren, A. L.; Liu, Z.; Fezzaa, K. (Energy Systems); ( XSD)

2011-01-01

359

Measuring of a fuel injector in a supersonic air stream  

Science.gov (United States)

The new idea of liquid fuel (kerosene) aeroramp injector/plasma igniter was tested in cold flow using a supersonic wind tunnel at Mach 2.4. The liquid fuel (kerosene) injector is flush wall mounted and consists of a 2 hole aeroramp array of impinging jets that are oriented in a manner to improve mixing and atomization of the liquid jets. The two jets are angled downstream at 40 degrees and have a toe-in angle of 60 degrees. The plasma torch used nitrogen and air as feedstocks and was placed downstream of the injector as an ignition aid. First, schlieren and shadowgraph photographs were taken of the injector flow to study the behavior of the jets, shape of the plume, and penetration of the liquid jet. The liquid fuel aeroramp was found to have better penetration than a single, round jet at 40 degrees. The Sauter mean droplet diameter distribution was measured downstream of the injector. The droplet diameter was found to vary from 21 to 37 microns and the atomization of the injector does not appear to improve beyond 90 effective jet diameters from the liquid fuel aeroramp.

Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Calimanescu, Ioan; Buzbuchi, Nicolae

2009-01-01

360

PHIN photo-injector as the CLIC drive beam source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study proposes a multi-TeV, high luminosity, electron-positron linear collider in order to fulfill the current need for a lepton collider. The study has been started in the late 80s at CERN and currently is a joint effort with a collaboration of 40 institutes. An innovative scheme of high peak RF power production for the high accelerating gradient has been proposed for CLIC. The so called 'two-beam scheme' consists of two beams that are running parallel to each other. One of the beams is to be accelerated for the collision experiments and called the main beam. The second beam of the CLIC scheme is 'the drive beam' and will be employed for the power production. The quality of the main beam acceleration depends on the stability of the power that is generated by the drive beam. Therefore, the optimization of the drive beam production with the proper time structure and within the required beam dynamics tolerances is one of the most important accelerator physics aspects of the project. Currently in the conceptual level, the baseline design of the drive beam injector consists of a thermionic gun. This electron source has to be combined with a sub-harmonic bunching system in order to provide the required time structure of the drive beam. However, a big disadvantage of this scheme is the parasitic satellite bunches that are produced due to the sub-harmonic bunching system. PHIN photoinjector has been raised as another ophotoinjector has been raised as another option in order to replace the existing thermionic gun of CLIC test facility (CTF3) and to form the bases of a source for the CLIC drive beam. The PHIN project is in the framework of the European CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) program.

361

PHIN photo-injector as the CLIC drive beam source  

Science.gov (United States)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study proposes a multi-TeV, high luminosity, electron-positron linear collider in order to fulfill the current need for a lepton collider. The study has been started in the late 80s at CERN and currently is a joint effort with a collaboration of 40 institutes. An innovative scheme of high peak RF power production for the high accelerating gradient has been proposed for CLIC. The so called "two-beam scheme" consists of two beams that are running parallel to each other. One of the beams is to be accelerated for the collision experiments and called "the main beam". The second beam of the CLIC scheme is "the drive beam" and will be employed for the power production. The quality of the main beam acceleration depends on the stability of the power that is generated by the drive beam. Therefore, the optimization of the drive beam production with the proper time structure and within the required beam dynamics tolerances is one of the most important accelerator physics aspects of the project. Currently in the conceptual level, the baseline design of the drive beam injector consists of a thermionic gun. This electron source has to be combined with a sub-harmonic bunching system in order to provide the required time structure of the drive beam. However, a big disadvantage of this scheme is the parasitic satellite bunches that are produced due to the sub-harmonic bunching system. PHIN photoinjector has been raised as another option in order to replace the existing thermionic gun of CLIC test facility (CTF3) and to form the bases of a source for the CLIC drive beam. The PHIN project is in the framework of the European CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) program.

Chevallay, Eric; Csatari, Marta; Dabrowski, Anne; Doebert, Steffen; Egger, Daniel; Fedosseev, Valentine; Mete, Oznur; Olvegaard, Maja; Petrarca, Massimo

2012-02-01

362

An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

2007-03-14

363

Streamlined Darwin methods for particle beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physics issues that involve inductive effects, such as beam fluctuations, electromagnetic (EM) instability, or interactions with a cavity require a time-dependent simulation. The most elaborate time-dependent codes self-consistently solve Maxwell's equations and the force equation for a large number of macroparticles. Although these full EM particle-in-cell (PIC) codes have been used to study a broad range of phenomena, including beam injectors, they have several drawbacks. In an explicit solution of Maxwell's equations, the time step is restricted by a Courant condition. A second disadvantage is the production of anomalously large numerical fluctuations, caused by representing many real particles by a single computational macroparticle. Last, approximate models of internal boundaries can create nonphysical radiation in a full EM simulation. In this work, many of the problems of a fully electromagnetic simulation are avoided by using the Darwin field model. The Darwin field model is the magnetoinductive limit of Maxwell's equations, and it retains the first-order relativistic correction to the particle Lagrangian. It includes the part of the displacement current necessary to satisfy the charge-continuity equation. This feature is important for simulation of nonneutral beams. Because the Darwin model does not include the solenoidal vector component of the displacement current, it cannot be used to study high-frequency phenomena or effects caused by rapid current changes. However, because wave motion is not followed, the Courant condition of a fully electromagnetic code can be exceeded. In addition, inductive effects are modeled without creating nonphysical radiation

364

Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

365

Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael David (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

366

Impact of palm biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • 250 h Endurance test on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and PB20. • Visual inspection of injectors running on DF and PB20 showed deposit accumulation. • SEM and EDS analysis showed less injector deposits for DF compared to PB20 blend. • Engine oil analysis showed higher value of wear particles for PB20 compared to DF. - Abstract: During short term engine operation, renewable fuels derived from vegetable oils, are capable of providing good engine performance. In more extended operations, some of the same fuels can cause degradation of engine performance, excessive carbon and lacquer deposits and actual damage to the engine. Moreover, temperatures in the area of the injector tip due to advanced diesel injection systems may lead to particularly stubborn deposits at and around the injector tip. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline and PB20 (20% palm biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single cylinder CI engine. The effects of DF and PB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors during running on both fuels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for PB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations, decreased viscosity and increased density values when the engine was fuelled with PB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and NOx emissions, and lower HC and CO emissions, for the PB20 blend compared to DF

367

Inherent stability of central element coaxial liquid-liquid injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Most TRW liquid bi-propellant rocket engines built over the past thirty-plus years have employed a central element coaxial pintle injector and have operated with liquid/liquid propellant injection. This injector is a patented design exclusive to TRW and has unique features that make the rocket engine combustion characteristics different from those of other types of injector engine designs. Its many benefits include excellent combustion performance, efficient deep throttling, adaptability to low cost manufacturing, and high reliability. Approximately 200 pintle injector engines of various sizes and operating on a variety of propellants have been flown without a single inflight failure. An especially important feature of the pintle injector engine is its apparent inherent combustion stability. In over thirty years of development, testing, and production, TRW has never experienced combustion instability in any of its pintle injector engine designs. This has been true of engines operating over a range of thrust from 5 to 250,000 lbs. on earth-storable hypergolic propellants and a large number of smaller engines operating on a variety of propellants (21 combinations) in long duration-firing, pulsing (down to 2 msec), and deep throttling (as much as 19:1) modes. Operating chamber pressures have ranged from 10 to 3,500 psia. This record is particularly impressive given that typical TRW design practice does not consider combustion instability as an issue and no pintle engine has ever employed stability-enhancing features, such as baffles or acoustically resonant chambers. In spite of this, TRW engines have operated stably in regimes not possible with other types of injectors. Various physical explanations and combustion process models for this favorable stability characteristic have been postulated. However, a definitive study that unequivocally establishes the important stabilizing mechanisms still remains to be conducted.

Stoddard, Frank J.

1993-11-01

368

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)

369

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D{sup +} ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D{sup +} beam that passed through the {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16{pi} mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2012-02-15

370

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D+ ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D+ beam that passed through the ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16? mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

371

A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on 'pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable

372

Simplified feedwater heater system by multi-stage steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to realize the simplified BOP (balance of plant) system of BWR plant, the authors developed the basic designs of feedwater system simplified by application of steam injector. Basic specification of simplified steam injector feedwater heater system (SI-FWH) was developed based on system designs and thermal efficiency evaluation. Test facility was constructed based on system specification selected in accordance with analysis results of plant thermal efficiency. The steam pressures used in the selected best system for low pressure feed water heaters are 0.05 MPa, 0.10 MPa, 0.21 MPa and 0.40 MPa are almost the same pressures as the current ABWR's. Improved steam injectors for feedwater heater system were studied by thermal hydraulic analyses and the test model attained the 4-stage specifications. The 4-stage injectors succeeded in raising the water temperature to 143degC. The parallel multistage steam injectors rationalize the feedwater system by eliminating the twelve neck-heaters, and prevent the chrome ion, which is dissolved from the stainless steel heater tube, introducing into the RPV (reactor pressure vessel). (author)

373

Diagnjstjc injectors of fast hydrogen atom beams - DINA-6 and DINA-7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic injectors DINA-6 and DINA-7 are developed and tested for plasma diagnostics in medium-size tokamaks and open traps.The working cycle of the injectors consists of a series of millisecond pulses with intervals

374

Development of the platelet micro-orifice injector. [for liquid propellant rocket engines  

Science.gov (United States)

For some time to come, liquid rocket engines will continue to provide the primary means of propulsion for space transportation. The injector represents a key to the optimization of engine and system performance. The present investigation is concerned with a unique injector design and fabrication process which has demonstrated performance capabilities beyond that achieved with more conventional approaches. This process, which is called the 'platelet process', makes it feasible to fabricate injectors with a pattern an order of magnitude finer than that obtainable by drilling. The fine pattern leads to an achievement of high combustion efficiencies. Platelet injectors have been identified as one of the significant technology advances contributing to the feasibility of advanced dual-fuel booster engines. Platelet injectors are employed in the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. Attention is given to injector design theory as it relates to pattern fineness, a description of platelet injectors, and test data obtained with three different platelet injectors.

La Botz, R. J.

1984-01-01

375

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80 pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5 nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 3{1}/{2} cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5 MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity.

Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

2007-07-01

376

Cryopump design for the ITER heating neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) is developing the cryopumps for the ITER neutral beam injectors (NBI). The cryopumps are pumping all gas fluxes from the ion beam source and the beam line components. The main gas source of all beam line components is the neutralizer with a protium flow of 25.4 Pa m3s-1 next to the smaller gas flows from beam source and the residual ion dump. The cryopumps are based on sorption pumping by charcoal coated cryopanels at a temperature between 4.5K and 6.5K. During detailed investigations of the gas dynamics in the Neutral Beam System it showed up that in the close geometry of the beam line design a cryopump with a gas capture probability of at least 30% is needed to cover the needed low pressures. Therefore, a novel cryopump has been developed which is characterised by an increase in capture probability of 50% which could be achieved at a corresponding increase of the heat load of only 20% compared to a classical cryopump. The new cryopump design is now the reference design for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam System and the mechanical engineering has been started to come up with the detailed design in terms of a CATIA5 model. Two of these cryopumps will be integrated in the beam line vessel, each of them 8 m long and 2.8 m high resulting in an overall pumping speed for hydrogen of 5000 m3 s-1. We discuss the investigations on the gas dynamic calculations for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam system afor the ITER Heating Neutral Beam system and we summarize the resulting requirements to cover the needed gas profile. The development of the cryopump design is presented in detail accompanied by the results of calculated pumping properties and an outlook to the future work. (author)

377

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-3. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

378

The design and simulation of Injector ? in China ADS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ADS projects undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences is to study how to use nuclear energy safely and effectively. The project includes high current proton accelerator as driven device, spallation target and reactor. The high current proton accelerator is being developed as a key technology. The accelerator includes two injectors. Injector ? whose frequency is 162. 5 MHz, including the ion source whose output energy is 30 keV, low energy transmission section. RFQ which accelerates proton from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV, the middle energy transmission section and the Superconducting Section accelerating proton to 10 MeV. This paper describes the design and simulation results of the injector ?. (authors)

379

Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

2001-10-01

380

Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

2011-11-01

381

Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

382

A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples  

CERN Document Server

We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and an in-vacuum microscope allows observation of the liquid jet for diagnostics while it is being exposed to the X-ray beam. A fiber optically coupled pump laser illuminating the jet is incorporated for pump-probe experiments. First results with this injector system have been obtained at the LCLS.

Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H

2011-01-01

383

Front-end simulation of injector for terawatt accumulator.  

Science.gov (United States)

A terawatt accumulator (TWAC) accelerator/storage ring complex with the laser ion source is in progress at ITEP. The new injector I4 based on the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and interdigital H-mode (IH) linear accelerator is under construction. The front end of the new TWAC injector consists of a laser ion source, an extraction system, and a low energy beam transport (LEBT). The KOBRA3-INP was used for the simulation and optimization of the ion source extraction system. The optimization parameter is the maximum brightness of the beam generated by the laser ion source. Also the KOBRA3-INP code was used for LEBT investigation. The LEBT based on electrostatic grid lenses is chosen for injector I4. The results of the extraction system and LEBT investigations for ion beam matching with RFQ are presented. PMID:18315213

Kropachev, G N; Balabin, A I; Kolomiets, A A; Kulevoy, T V; Pershin, V I; Shumshurov, A V

2008-02-01

384

An electron beam injector for pulse compression experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the physics of longitudal pulse compression in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction linac module. It produces a 50 ns, 40 mA electron pulse with a 2.5 to 7.5 keV, quadratically time-dependent energy shear. This beam will be injected into the existing 5-m long periodic transport channel with 38 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions the pulse will be compressed by a factor of 4 to 5 before reaching the end of the existing solenoid channel. This paper reports on the design features and the measured general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties

385

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6

386

Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

Bieniosek, F.M. E-mail: fmbieniosek@lbl.gov; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C

2001-05-21

387

Injector modeling and achievement/maintenance of high brightness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Viewgraphs for the workshop presentation are given. The presentation has three fundamental parts. In part one the need for numerical calculations is justified and the available computer codes are enumerated. The capabilities and features of the DPC computer code are the focal point in this section. In part two the injector design issues are discussed. These issues include such things as the beam optics and magnetic field profile. In part three the experimental results of two injector designs are compared with DPC predictions. 8 figs

388

Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

2000-03-17

389

Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

Bieniosek, F. M.; Kwan, J. W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

2001-05-01

390

PERFORMANCE OF THE PHIN HIGH CHARGE PHOTO INJECTOR  

OpenAIRE

The high charge PHIN photo injector is studied at CERN as an electron source for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) drive beam as an alternative to the present thermionic gun. The objective of PHIN is to demonstrate the feasibility of a laser-based electron source for CLIC. The photo injector operates with a 2.5 cell, 3 GHz RF gun using a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated by UV laser pulses generated by amplifying and frequency quadrupling the signal from a Nd:YLF oscillator running at 1.5GHz. The ch...

Egger, Daniel; Mete, O?znur

2010-01-01

391

Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01

392

The BOEING double subharmonic electron injector - performance measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two stage subharmonic injector has been installed and tested on the Boeing S band linac. The injector is designed as a prototype front end for a high voltage linac for free electron laser research. This accelerator will require long macropulse trains of widely spaced high current micropulses. Single micropulse output beams of 1-2 nC, 10 ps width, 1% full width energy spread and normalized emittance of epsilon /SUB n/ = ???r/phi/ = 0.01 cm-rad have been measured. The data are in good agreement with model predictions

393

Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injector  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the development and testing of an intense lithium ion source and injector for an ion induction accelerator designed for warm, dense matter target heating experiments. The source is a 10.9-cm diameter aluminosilicate emitter on a porous tungsten substrate. For an injector voltage pulse of 120 kV, pulse duration of 1.0-?s FWHM, and an operating temperature of 1250°C, the source emits 35 mA of Li+ ions. The results follow experimental studies with much smaller sources. The key challenges included beam quality, source lifetime, and heat management.

Seidl, P. A.; Greenway, W. W.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lidia, S. M.; Roy, P. K.; Takakuwa, J.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.

2012-04-01

394

The Berkeley 2 MV heavy ion fusion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an update on the development of the 500 mA per beam sixteen beam injector being built at LBL. An inductively graded Marx bank provides the acceleration potential on the electrostatic column. A carbon arc source provides the pulsed current for the injector. We report recent results on extracted beam parameters, column performance, the generator performance, and system design changes. The carbon ion beam is diagnosed with Faraday cups and with a double slit emittance measurement system. Controls for the final machine are also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

395

Proposed FNAL 750 KeV Linac Injector Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present FNAL linac H- injector has been operational since 1978 and consists of a magnetron H- source and a 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerator. The proposed upgrade to this injector is to replace the present magnetron source having a rectangular aperture with a circular aperture, and to replace the Cockcroft-Walton with a 200 MHz RFQ. Operational experience at other laboratories has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable and require less manpower than the present system

396

Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as ? = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.)

397

Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS

398

Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operationexclamation

399

Preliminary Biofuel Treatment in Injector Bodies of Diesel Engines  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses possibilities of increasing the performance parameters of a diesel engine and decreasing the emission of toxic compounds contained in exhaust gases by using preliminary catalytic treatment of biofuel, executed directly in the injector body. In order to enhance the impact of the catalyst on the flowing fuel the author proposes to utilize the phenomenon of turbulization in injector passages. The results of tests on a 359 type engine have shown an improvement of operational parameters and a decrease of toxic emission in exhaust gases.

Klyus, Oleh

2012-03-01

400

Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

401

Conceptional design of a heavy ion linac injector for HIRFL-CSRm  

Science.gov (United States)

A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10–100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 m long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.

Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue-Jun; Du, Heng; Li, Zhong-Shan

2014-10-01

402

LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”  

CERN Multimedia

The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

2014-01-01

403

Development of long pulse neutral beam injector system for the east tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutral beam injector (NBI) was considered to be developed in ASIPP to support the EAST physical research. It is mainly used for the plasma heating and current driving. The NBI system mainly consists of high current ion source, neutralizer, bending magnet, calorimeter, ion dump, vacuum vessel and power supply system, control system. It can provides a neutral beam with beam energy of 50-80 keV, beam power of 2-4 WM, and beam pulse of 10-100 s. The development of NBI system is a complicated and difficult mission, and the key components design such as ion sources, bending magnet, calorimeter, etc are ongoing. The development of the NBI system will be completed in 4 years. (authors)

404

Mixing characteristics of injector elements in liquid rocket engines - A computational study  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational study has been performed to better understand the mixing characteristics of liquid rocket injector elements. Variations in injector geometry as well as differences in injector element inlet flow conditions are among the areas examined in the study. Most results involve the nonreactive mixing of gaseous fuel with gaseous oxidizer but preliminary results are included that involve the spray combustion of oxidizer droplets. The purpose of the study is to numerically predict flowfield behavior in individual injector elements to a high degree of accuracy and in doing so to determine how various injector element properties affect the flow.

Lohr, Jonathan C.; Trinh, Huu P.

1992-01-01

405

Initial operation of the new Bevatron local injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV dc platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2?lambda mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A greater than or equal to 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the SuperHILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs. 5 refs

406

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

407

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1-to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC)

408

An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Miller, Roger H.

2001-01-23

409

An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Braun, H; Rinolfi, Louis; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, A D

2000-01-01

410

Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper.

Abe, Yutaka, E-mail: abe@kz.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shibayama, Shunsuke

2014-03-15

411

Development and validation of a railgun hydrogen pellet injector model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model is presented and its predictions are compared with the experimental data. High-speed hydrogenic ice injection is the dominant refueling method for magnetically confined plasmas used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. As experimental devices approach the scale of power-producing fusion reactors, the fueling requirements become increasingly more difficult to meet since, due to the large size and the high electron densities and temperatures of the plasma, hypervelocity pellets of a substantial size will need to be injected into the plasma continuously and at high repetition rates. Advanced technologies, such as the railgun pellet injector, are being developed to address this demand. Despite the apparent potential of electromagnetic launchers to produce hypervelocity projectiles, physical effects that were neither anticipated nor well understood have made it difficult to realize this potential. Therefore, it is essential to understand not only the theory behind railgun operation, but the primary loss mechanisms, as well. Analytic tools have been used by many researchers to design and optimize railguns and analyze their performance. This has led to a greater understanding of railgun behavior and opened the door for further improvement. A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model has been developed. The model is based upon a pellet equation of motion that accounts for the dominant loss mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. Th mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. The model has been validated using railgun pellet injectors developed by the Fusion Technology Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

412

Development and validation of a railgun hydrogen pellet injector model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model is presented and its predictions are compared with the experimental data. High-speed hydrogenic ice injection is the dominant refueling method for magnetically confined plasmas used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. As experimental devices approach the scale of power-producing fusion reactors, the fueling requirements become increasingly more difficult to meet since, due to the large size and the high electron densities and temperatures of the plasma, hypervelocity pellets of a substantial size will need to be injected into the plasma continuously and at high repetition rates. Advanced technologies, such as the railgun pellet injector, are being developed to address this demand. Despite the apparent potential of electromagnetic launchers to produce hypervelocity projectiles, physical effects that were neither anticipated nor well understood have made it difficult to realize this potential. Therefore, it is essential to understand not only the theory behind railgun operation, but the primary loss mechanisms, as well. Analytic tools have been used by many researchers to design and optimize railguns and analyze their performance. This has led to a greater understanding of railgun behavior and opened the door for further improvement. A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model has been developed. The model is based upon a pellet equation of motion that accounts for the dominant loss mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. The model has been validated using railgun pellet injectors developed by the Fusion Technology Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

King, T.L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Zhang, J.; Kim, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1995-12-31

413

Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

Badgley, P.R.

1992-09-01

414

Beam quality of the ATA [Advanced Test Accelerator] injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beam quality of the ATA injector has been experimentally measured using a magnetic collimator. These measurements have been performed for a variety of magnetic field profiles, including field strengths where the collimator is shorter than a cyclotron wavelength. The experimental currents transmitted through the collimator have been predicted numerically. The numerical predictions and experimental data are in good agreement

415

Outline design of a neutral beam injector for ITER EDA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self consistent physics design for a 50 MW 1 MeV negative-ion based injector has been produced which forms the basis of a preliminary engineering design. Neutronics calculations show that radiation damage to insulators and nuclear heating of cryogenic components does not present any major problem. A detailed report is being issued at NET [1]. (orig.)

416

An injector for the CLIC test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Rinolfi, L; Pittin, R; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, D

2008-01-01

417

Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper

418

Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

419

Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

420

Self-heat generation in piezoelectric stack actuators used in fuel injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are used in fuel injectors due to their quick response, high efficiency, accuracy, low power consumption, and excellent repeatability. Experimental results for soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack actuators have shown that a significant amount of heat is generated when they are driven under high frequency and/or high electric-field magnitudes, both of which occur in fuel injectors. Self-heat generation in these actuators, mainly caused by losses, can significantly affect their reliability and piezoelectric properties, and may also limit their application. Other studies have demonstrated that at large unipolar electric-field magnitudes, displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis) shows a direct relation with polarization–electric-field loss (dielectric hysteresis). In this paper, a simplified analytical self-heating model is presented. The model directly relates self-heating in multilayer piezoelectric actuators to displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis). The model developed is based on the first law of thermodynamics, and accounts for different parameters such as geometry, magnitude and frequency of applied electric field, duty cycle percentage, fuel type, and environmental properties. The model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results at low and high electric-field magnitudes

421

Self-heat generation in piezoelectric stack actuators used in fuel injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are used in fuel injectors due to their quick response, high efficiency, accuracy, low power consumption, and excellent repeatability. Experimental results for soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack actuators have shown that a significant amount of heat is generated when they are driven under high frequency and/or high electric-field magnitudes, both of which occur in fuel injectors. Self-heat generation in these actuators, mainly caused by losses, can significantly affect their reliability and piezoelectric properties, and may also limit their application. Other studies have demonstrated that at large unipolar electric-field magnitudes, displacement-electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis) shows a direct relation with polarization-electric-field loss (dielectric hysteresis). In this paper, a simplified analytical self-heating model is presented. The model directly relates self-heating in multilayer piezoelectric actuators to displacement-electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis). The model developed is based on the first law of thermodynamics, and accounts for different parameters such as geometry, magnitude and frequency of applied electric field, duty cycle percentage, fuel type, and environmental properties. The model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results at low and high electric-field magnitudes.

Senousy, M. S.; Rajapakse, R. K. N. D.; Mumford, D.; Gadala, M. S.

2009-04-01

422

Final steps towards cool-down of the new injector module for the S-DALINAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The S-DALINAC is a superconducting electron accelerator, operated at the Technical University Darmstadt since 1991. In a CEBAF like design it delivers electron beams up to 130 MeV, provided by a 10 MeV injector and a 40 MeV main linac, accelerating the electrons up to 3 times by recirculation. Currently, the injector of the S-DALINAC delivers electron beams with a current of up to 60 ?A. This limit arises from the RF feed-through allowing only 500 W per cavity. With the new cryostat-module an increase in energy ranging to 14 MeV and in current of up to 250 ?A are projected. To accommodate the increased power demand the RF has to be supplied by a WR-284 transition line which is connected to the resonator by a new waveguide-to-coax power coupler. We report the latest qualification measurements and the final mounting steps allowing the first cool-down shortly. (author)

423

Beam dynamics simulations of high current injector of IUAC using track code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high current injector being developed at IUAC consists of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRIS), 48.5 MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) and 97 MHz drift tube linac (DTL). This will act as an alternate injector to superconducting linac (SC-LINAC). The ions of mass to charge (A/q) ratio 6 extracted from HTS-ECRIS will be accelerated by electrostatic column to 8 keV/u followed by RFQ to 180 keV/u and finally by DTL to 1.8 MeV/u. The beam transport system consists of three sections mainly the low energy beam transport section (LEBT), medium energy beam transport (MEBT) section (RFQ to DTL) and a high energy beam transport section (HEBT). The detailed beam optics analysis has been carried out using TRANSPORT, GICOSY and TRACE 3D codes. This paper describes a possible design to optimize the transport of the beam from exit of HTS-ECRIS to the entrance of SC-LINAC. The beam optics has been optimized by considering geometrical constraints and radiation safety issues. The growth of emittance, beam loss and flexibility in transverse and longitudinal beam optics are studied using multi particle beam dynamics simulation code TRACK. (author)

424

Development of steam injector analysis method using two fluid model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In case of transient or accident condition of NPP's, conventionally cooling water is injected from the lower pressure reservoir to the higher pressure system using an active system. In this case there is a possibility that an active system is failed to operate due to the component failures or loss of power. But steam injectors do not use electric power to operate, and do not contain any moving components, so component failure probability is very low, and can get very high pressure head which enables cooling water to inject just when it is needed. Recently, the steam injector concept is actively studied by many researchers to enhance the safety and the reliability of the water injection system, but by far the analysis method for steam injector is not completely developed. Steam injector is composed of three components, i.e, a steam nozzle, a water nozzle, and a mixing nozzle. In this paper, a mixing nozzle is analyzed by using the five equation two fluid model and SIMPLE algorithm, upwind shceme, a staggered grid mesh. And a steam nozzle is analyzed by using the three equation homogeneous model and a Maccormack's technique, a shock capturing method with conservation form of governing equations. Sensitivity studies are performed to determine the order of importance of several parameters for the dischange pressure calculation. It shows that the steam nozzle discharge velocity is the most important paramter for accurate predictions of the discharge pressure. Calculated dis of the discharge pressure. Calculated discharge pressures are compared against the steam injectors experiments of ANL. Developed method predicts the discharge pressure with very high accuracy compared with the conventional control volume approach

425

Effect of injector geometry on the performance of an internally mixed liquid atomizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of injector's geometry on the performance of an internally mixed, air-assisted, liquid injector. In this type of injector a small amount of air is injected into a liquid stream within the injector. The interaction of the liquid with the atomizing air inside the injector induces atomization. The results presented in this paper show that the size of the droplets produced by the investigated injector decreases with a decrease in the air injection area. This is due to the increase in atomizing air injection velocity that accompanies the decrease in the air injection area, which improves atomization. This study also shows that the droplet sizes decrease with an increase in the injector's length, which is attributed to the increase in total interactive force. (author)

Kushari, A.

2010-11-15

426

Effects of fuel-injector design on ultra-lean combustion performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions data were obtained for six fuel injector configurations tested with ultra lean combustion. Fuel injectors included three multiple source designs and three configurations using a single air assist injector. Only the multiple source fuel injectors provided acceptable emissions. Values of 16g CO/kg fuel, 1.9g HC/kg fuel, and 19.g NO2/kg fuel were obtained for the combustion temperature range of 1450 to 1700 K for both a high blockage 19 source injector and a low blockage 41 source injector. It was shown that high fuel injector pressure drop may not be required to achieve low emissions performance at high inlet air temperature when the fuel is well dispersed in the airstream.

Anderson, D. N.

1981-01-01

427

Use of a fully automated injector for self-administration of follitropin alpha in an IVF/ICSI programme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant FSH (r-FSH) used for ovarian stimulation can currently be self-administered either by a conventional syringe or by a pen device. This randomized controlled trial compares the efficacy and convenience of a new, more sophisticated and fully automated injection device (Softinject(trade mark)) with the conventional syringe for r-FSH self-administration. A total of 300 women needing ovarian stimulation for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were randomized to the automated injector or the conventional syringe group. Patients of both groups had ovarian stimulation with follitropin alpha after pituitary desensitization with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist. State anxiety score, overall pain score and pregnancy rate were chosen as the main outcome measures. Patients in the automated injector group showed lower state anxiety (P < 0.01) and overall pain (P < 0.01) scores and a comparable pregnancy rate per started cycle as compared with the conventional syringe group. They needed lower doses of r-FSH (P < 0.05) and their stimulation was shorter (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of a fully automated injector for r-FSH self-administration reduces pain and stress as compared with the conventional syringe. This device can be used for any subcutaneously administered drug employed in ovarian stimulation. PMID:16274597

Greco, E; Polonio-Balbi, P; Ferrero, S; Baroni, E; Ubaldi, F; Rienzi, L; Tesarik, J

2005-10-01

428

Digital holographic diagnostics of near-injector region  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of primary breakup of liquid jets is important because it is motivated by the application to gas turbine fuel injectors, diesel fuel injectors, industrial cleaning and washing machine, medical spray, and inkjet printers, among others. When it comes to good injectors, a liquid jet has to be disintegrated into a fine spray near injector region during primary breakup. However the dense spray region near the injectors is optically obscure for Phase Doppler Interferometer like Phase Doppler Particle Analyzers (PDPA). Holography can provide three dimensional image of the dense spray and eliminate the problem of the small depth of focus associated with shadowgraphs. Traditional film-based holographic technique has long been used for three dimensional measurements in particle fields, but it is time consuming, expensive, chemically hazardous. With the development of the CCD sensor, holograms were recorded and reconstructed digitally. Digital microscopic holography (DMH) is similar to digital inline holography (DIH) except that no lens is used to collimate the object beam. The laser beams are expanded with an objective lens and a spatial filter. This eliminates two lenses from the typical optical path used for in-line holography, which results in a much cleaner hologram recording. The DMH was used for drop size and velocity measurements of the breakup of aerated liquid jets because it is unaffected by the non-spherical droplets that are encountered very close to the injector exit, which would cause problems for techniques such as Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, otherwise. Large field of view was obtained by patching several high resolution holograms. Droplet velocities in three dimensions were measured by tracking their displacements in the streamwise and cross-stream direction and by tracking the change in the plane of focus in the spanwise direction. The uncertainty in spanwise droplet location and velocity measurements using single view DMH was large at least 33%. This large uncertainty in the spanwise direction, however, can be reduced to 2% by employing double view DMH. Double view DMH successfully tracked the three dimensional bending trajectories of polymer jets during electrospinning. The uncertainty in the spatial growth measurements of the bending instability was reduced using orthogonal double view DMH. Moreover, a commercial grade CCD was successfully used for single- and double-pulsed DMH of micro liquid jet breakup. Using a commercial grade CCD for the DMH, the cost of CCD sensor needed for recording holograms can be reduced.

Lee, Jaiho

429

A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in ?e charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for ?e appearance searches from neutral current events with a ?0 are reduced well below the ? 0.5-1.0% ?e contamination of the ?? beam. While the ICARUS co>? beam. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC, a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded). Continuing Rand D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. E.orts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K. The 2005 APS neutrino study recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term Rand D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our Rand D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics

430

Mini-LANNDD T40: A detector to measure the neutrino-argon cross section and the electron-neutrino contamination in the off-axis NuMI beam  

OpenAIRE

We describe a preliminary study of a 40-ton liquid argon TPC based on the ICARUS method to use in the NuMI near region in line with the LANNDD project. This reduced-scale detector, called ``Mini-LANNDD T40'', is designed for R&D purposes and systematic measures on its response. Safety concerns are a key issue, which will be discussed as well as a preliminary design of the detector. Adapted as a near or vertex detector in a neutrino beam, the Mini-LANNDD T40 is capable of obs...

Cline, David B.; Seo, Youngho; Sergiampietri, Franco

2003-01-01

431

LIL, one of the LEP injectors  

CERN Multimedia

The linear accelerator for LEP (LIL) was used to provide electrons and positrons at an energy of 600 MeV for the acceleration chain while the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was running at CERN between 1989 and 2000. Most of the accelerators at CERN are circular synchrotrons that can store beams for a long time. LINACS are used mainly for injecting beams as a first stage in a chain of accelerators.

1993-01-01

432

LIL, one of the LEP injectors  

CERN Multimedia

The linear accelerator for LEP (LIL) was used to provide electrons and positrons at an energy of 600 MeV for the acceleration chain while the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was running at CERN between 1989 and 2000. Most of the accelerators at CERN are circular synchrotrons that can store beams for a long time. LINACS are used mainly for injecting beams as a first stage in a chain of accelerators.

1986-01-01

433

Therminoic gun control system for the CEBAF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

434

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticid [...] es chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de, Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira, Silvério; Antônio Augusto, Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de, Queiroz.

435

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de Pinho

2012-01-01

436

Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

2004-08-03

437

High-current injector for the proposed SLAC linear collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new, high-current injector has been designed to yield the 7.5 x 1010e- per S-band bunch necessary for the proposed linear collider. The injector consists of two prebunchers at the 16th subharmonic, a 0.75 c traveling wave buncher, and a three-meter velocity of light traveling wave structure. The e- beam is confined by a solonoidal magnetic field in the buncher and capture regions. A computer simulation similar to that used by Mavrogenes et al., has been used to calculate the bunching. The calculation indicates it is possible to achieve approx. 1 x 1011e- in 160 of S-band from a 15 amp gun pulse of 1.5 nsec duration

438

The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.  

CERN Document Server

The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

2010-01-01

439

5th CTF3 Collaboration Meeting : Festschrift CTF3 injector  

CERN Document Server

SLAC and LAL collaborators, together with CERN people made a review of the work done on the beam dynamics and on the design of several components. The latter includes the thermionic gun, the bunching system and the solenoids. The workshop treated the possibility to increase both the beam current and the repetition rate. Both have direct consequences on the injector. A higher beam current would allow implementing a new mode of CTF3 to generate 30 GHz RF power at the end of the Drive Beam Accelerator. A higher repetition rate would ease the RF conditioning of the 30 GHz accelerating structures. The buncher designs being on the critical path will be finished mid-February 2001, while the final injector design will be finished in June 2001.

2000-01-01

440

Performance reach of the injector complex in 2012  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operational beam performance in the injector chain has evolved considerably since the 2010 run and is much better than ever anticipated. Available margins have been well exploited and leave little room for further performance increases, unless changes as foreseen by the LIU project are implemented. The best operational performance to the LHC in 2011 was a beam with a bunch intensity of 1.5*1011 protons in 1.9 ?m 1? normalized, resulting in a beam brightness of 7.9*1010 p/b/?m. After careful adjustments of the beam in the injector chain the anticipated operational performance to the LHC in 2012 is a beam with a bunch intensity of 1.6*1011 protons in 2 ?m 1? normalized, resulting in a beam brightness of 8*1010 p/b/?m

441

Ion source and injector experiments at the HIF/VNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy-ion fusion program is conducting several ion source and injector experiments to support ongoing HIF beam transport experiments and to develop new injector concepts for future fusion drivers. In the area of large diameter surface source, we studied the beam optics, experimented with aperturing, and benchmarked the computer simulation code. Steady progress was made in the merging beamlet experiment. The RF plasma source was optimized to produce high current density beamlets. Computer simulation of merging beamlets had produced a design and the hardware is being fabricated. We are examining a new concept based on accel-decel injection to produce super-high line charge density for application in driving targets for high energy density physics studies. Since trapping of secondary electrons in high current positive ion beams is still a concern for HIF, we consider a backup option using negative ion beams

442

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

443

Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs

444

Initial commissioning of high power, long pulse klystrons for SSC injector linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

H- ions are injected into the SSC boosters and main ring at a energy of 600 MeV by means of a three stage injector. It is composed of a RF quadrupole, a drift tube Linac, both operated in UHF-band, and a coupled cavity Linac operated in L-band at the third harmonic of the two first stages. These Linacs are powered by two types of klystron, and their procurement contracts were awarded to Thomson Tubes Electroniques in October 1991. A design review held in January 1992 finalized the proposed design and fixed the final details concerning the operation and specifications of the tubes optimized for SSC requirements. Since November 1992, the commissioning of both type of klystrons has been underway and several tubes of each type have so far been accepted in accordance with the tight contractual schedule. It is expected that all deliveries will be completed by the end of 1993

445

Merits of D--based neutral beam injectors for tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model-based efficiencies and costs of D+ and D- neutral beam systems are presented and compared. The results of modeling of the heating and the current driving by D- generated neutral beams are presented. PLT experimental data on heating as a function of beam penetration are presented and discussed. Efficiencies, costs, heating, and current driving are combined to derive the merits of D--based neutral beam injector for tokamaks

446

Synchrotron injectors based on high charge state ion sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of any injector contemplated to replace the electrostatic tandem accelerators some time in the future should evidently match or surpass the characteristics of the tandems. It is a fortunate coincidence that the performance of the BNL tandem satisfies in most respects the requirements of the proposed collider, although originally tandems were not built with this application in mind. Requests for heavy ion beams with parameters suitable for injection into the rings of a heavy ion collider have appeared rather recently, at a stage when the high charge state ion sources, which in principle are capable of producing many ion species, have not yet reached such a level of performance. Therefore, consideration of such sources as part of a future injector replacing the tandem accelerators will have to rely on the extrapolation of results from existing models, developed for a different purpose. At the same time, present and future collider requirements for heavy ion beams should serve as a stimulus for the development of sources producing ions with adequate charge states and intensities. Injectors based on such sources may present a better alternative than the tandem accelerators because a higher charge-to-mass ratio of ions from the source results in a more efficient and less costly accelerator. In this report, two candidates for a high charge state, heavy ion source will be considered: an EBIS and an ECR. Other approaches, e.g. laser ion sources, are much further away in the development of a device to be used in a synchrotron injector. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

447

Space-Charge Compensation Options for the LHC Injector Complex  

CERN Document Server

Space-charge effects have been identified as the most serious intensity limitation in the CERN PS and PS Booster, on the way towards ultimate LHC performance and beyond. We here explore the application of several previously proposed space-charge compensation methods to the two LHC pre-injector rings, and the challenges which need to be overcome. The methods considered include the reduction of tune shift and resonance strengths via octupoles, pole-face windings, electron lenses, or neutralisation.

Aiba, M; Dorda, U; Franchetti, G; Garoby, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martini, M; Métral, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Scandale, Walter; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

2007-01-01

448

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

OpenAIRE

Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1....

Gevany Paulino de Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira Silvério; Antônio Augusto Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz

2012-01-01