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Sample records for main injector numi

  1. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x1031 cm-2 s-1 in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction

  2. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 1031 per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research

  3. FERMILAB: Main injector update

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is the centrepiece of Fermilab's initiative for the 1990s, known as Fermilab III. The goal of Fermilab III is to ensure discovery of the sixth 'top' quark in the present decade assuming our understanding of nature as described by the Standard Model is correct, to provide a factor of two increase in the mass scales characterizing possible extensions to the Standard Model, and to support new initiatives in neutral kaon and neutrino physics

  4. Main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Sonam Mahajan; Ashok Kumar; Rajendran Raja

    2012-11-01

    The main injector particle production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and antiproton with beam momenta of 5–90 GeV/c to measure particle production cross-sections of various nuclei including liquid hydrogen, MINOS target and thin targets of beryllium, carbon, bismuth and uranium. The physics motivation to perform such cross-section measurements is described here. Recent results on the analysis of NuMI target and forward neutron cross-sections are presented here. Preliminary cross-section measurements for 58 GeV/c proton on liquid hydrogen target are also presented. A new method is described to correct for low multiplicity inefficiencies in the trigger using KNO scaling.

  5. Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report

    This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

  6. The NuMI Neutrino Beam

    Adamson, P; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Anghel, I; Augustine, D; Aurisano, A; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Bernstein, R H; Biggs, J; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bourkland, K; Cao, S V; Castromonte, C M; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Cobb, J H; Corwin, L; Crane, D; Cravens, J P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Ducar, R J; de Jong, J K; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Garkusha, V; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Harding, D; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Hays, S; Heller, K; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Ibrahim, A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Johnstone, J; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Morfin, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Connor, J O; Oliver, W P; Olsen, M; Orchanian, M; Osprey, S; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Para, A; Patterson, R B; Patzak, T; Pavlovic, Z; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pfutzner, M; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Prieto, P; Pushka, D; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rameika, R A; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Reilly, R; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Sauer, L; Schneps, J; Schoo, D; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Stefanik, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tassotto, G; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Tinsley, D; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Trostin, I; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vaziri, K; Villegas, E; Viren, B; Vogel, G; Webber, R C; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Wong-Squires, M L; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Zarucheisky, V; Zwaska, R

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and operations of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab. It elaborates on the design considerations for the beam as a whole and for individual elements. The most important design details of individual components are described. Beam monitoring systems and procedures, including the tuning and alignment of the beam and NuMI long-term performance, are also discussed.

  7. Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector

    We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project

  8. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  9. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  10. Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

  11. Addendum to NuMI shielding assessment

    Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The original safety assessment and the Safety Envelope for the NuMI beam line corresponds to 400 kW of beam power. The Main Injector is currently capable of and approved for producing 500 kW of beam power2. However, operation of the NuMI beam line at 400 kW of power brings up the possibility of an occasional excursion above 400 kW due to better than usual tuning in one of the machines upstream of the NuMI beam line. An excursion above the DOE approved Safety Envelope will constitute a safety violation. The purpose of this addendum is to evaluate the radiological issues and modifications required to operate the NuMI beam line at 500 kW. This upgrade will allow 400 kW operations with a reasonable safety margin. Configuration of the NuMI beam line, boundaries, safety system and the methodologies used for the calculations are as described in the original NuMI SAD. While most of the calculations presented in the original shielding assessment were based on Monte Carlo simulations, which were based on the design geometries, most of the results presented in this addendum are based on the measurements conducted by the AD ES&H radiation safety group.

  12. Kaon Production at the Fermilab Main Injector

    Lindgren, Emily

    2013-04-01

    The kinematic behavior and production of Kaons is an important input to planning and design for future kaon experiments. The data for this study was collected by the MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The kaons were produced by 120 GeV energy proton beam incident on a Bismuth target. This study reports the rate of production and the kinematic distributions of particles that were identified as Kaons using particle identification techniques.

  13. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases

  14. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

  15. A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector

    Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

    2012-01-01

    Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

  16. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near 45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  17. Magnet end design: The Main Injector dipoles

    From the accelerator designer standpoint, one of the quantities of interest in a magnet is the axially integrated transverse field. It is easily shown that the latter satisfies the equations of 2D magnetostatics. This is the basic theoretical result needed to design accelerator magnet ends. Unfortunately, axially integrated fields must be obtained from accurate 3D field maps and magnets ends have historically been designed using a cut and try approach. To a certain extent, this remains true even today; however, the advent of reliable 3D magnet design codes now permits to substantially reduce the costs associated with the construction of various prototypes. In this paper, the theory of magnet end design is reviewed. The design of the end of the dipole magnets of the proposed Fermilab Main Injector is analyzed in a detailed manner using TOSCA, a well-established 3D finite element code. Provided the limitations of the code are well understood by the user, the integrated field profile is satisfactorily predicted

  18. Magnet end design: The main injector dipoles

    From the accelerator designer standpoint, one of the quantities of interest in a magnet is the axially integrated transverse field. It is easily shown that the latter satisfies the equations of 2D magnetostatics. This is the basic theoretical result needed to design accelerator magnet ends. Unfortunately, axially integrated fields must be obtained from accurate 3D field maps and magnets ends have historically been designed using a cut and try approach. To a certain extent, this remains true even today; however, the advent of reliable 3D magnet design codes now permits to substantially reduce the costs associated with the construction of various prototypes. In this paper, the theory of magnet end design is reviewed. The design of the end of the dipole magnets of the proposed Fermilab Main Injector is analyzed in a detailed manner using TOSCA, a well-established 3D finite element code. Provided the limitations of the code are well understood by the user, the integrated field profile is satisfactorily predicted

  19. Main Chamber Injectors for Advanced Hydrocarbon Booster Engines

    Long, Matthew R.; Bazarov, Vladimir G.; Anderson, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Achieving the highest possible specific impulse has long been a key driver for space launch systems. Recently, more importance has been placed on the need for increased reliability and streamlined launch operations. These general factors along with more specific mission requirements have provided a new focus that is centered on the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. Despite a history of use in Russia that extends back to the 1960's, a proven design methodology for ORSC cycle engines does not exist in the West. This lack of design expertise extends to the main chamber injector, a critical subcomponent that largely determines the engine performance and main chamber life. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The design of a baseline injector element, derived from information on Russian engines in the open literature, is presented. The baseline injector comprises a gaseous oxidizer core flow and an annular swirling fuel flow. Sets of equations describing the steady-state and the dynamic characteristics of the injector are presented; these equations, which form the basis of the design analysis methodology, will be verified in tests later this year. On-going cold flow studies, using nitrogen and water as simulants, are described which indicate highly atomized and symmetric sprays.

  20. Simulations of space charge in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-03-01

    The Fermilab Project X plan for future high intensity operation relies on the Main Injector as the engine for delivering protons in the 60-120 GeV energy range. Project X plans call for increasing the number of protons per Main Injector bunch from the current value of 1.0 x 10{sup 11} to 3.0 x 10{sup 11}. Space charge effects at the injection energy of 8 GeV have the potential to seriously disrupt operations. We report on ongoing simulation efforts with Synergia, MARYLIE/Impact, and IMPACT, which provide comprehensive capabilities for parallel, multi-physics modeling of beam dynamics in the Main Injector including 3D space-charge effects.

  1. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters

  2. Neutrino-Electron Scattering in MINERvA for Constraining the NuMI Neutrino Flux

    Park, Jaewon [U. Rochester

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is used as a reference process to constrain the neutrino flux at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam observed by the MINERvA experiment. Prediction of the neutrino flux at accelerator experiments from other methods has a large uncertainty, and this uncertainty degrades measurements of neutrino oscillations and neutrino cross-sections. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is a rare process, but its cross-section is precisely known. With a sample corresponding to $3.5\\times10^{20}$ protons on target in the NuMI low-energy neutrino beam, a sample of $120$ $\

  3. Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Brown, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  4. Field shape measurements of prototype Main Injector dipole endpacks

    Measurements of the transverse dependence of the flux on the symmetry plane were obtained on a series of endpacks mounted on a Main Injector prototype dipole. From these flux measurements, we determined the endfield shape, expressed in terms of normal harmonics, up to 14-pole. We describe the measurement and analysis procedure, and present the results for all endpacks that were tested. The final endpack (number 10) has a sextupole, normalized to the body, of +0.167 .072 units, and the relative field shape deviates by < 1.2 units relative to the on-axis field strength over the range |x| < 2.0 double-prime. These measurements indicate that Endpack 10 meets the requirements for the Main Injector dipole

  5. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  6. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel

    We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

  7. Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)

    Chou, W; Brown, B; Capista, D; Crisp, J; Di Marco, J; Fitzgerald, J; Glass, H; Harding, D; Johnson, D; Kashikhin, V; Kourbanis, I; Prieto, P; Robotham, W; Sager, T; Tartaglia, M; Valerio, L; Webber, R; Wendt, M; Wolff, D; Yang, M

    2008-01-01

    A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40pi to 60pi mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets.

  8. NuMI Proton Kicker Extraction System

    Jensen, C C

    2005-01-01

    This system extracts up to 9.6 us of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than ± 1% with a field rise time of 1.6 us. New kicker magnets were built based on the successful traveling wave magnets built for the Main Injector. Two of these magnets, which have a propagation time of 550 ns, are in series making the risetime of the pulser a serious constraint. A forced cooling system using Fluorinert® was designed for the magnet termination resistors to maintain the field flatness and amplitude stability. The system has been commissioned and early results will be presented.

  9. A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector

    In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay KL → π0ν anti ν decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K+ beam to produce a pure K0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare KS decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

  10. Beam-Based Alignment of the NuMI Target Station Components at FNAL

    Zwaska, R.; Bishai, M.; Childress, S.; Drake, G.; Escobar, C.; Gouffon, P.; Harris, D. A.; Hylen, J.; Indurthy, D.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S; Lucas, P; Marchionni, A.; Para, A.; Pavlovic, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional horn-focused neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos from a beam of mesons directed into a long evacuated decay volume. The relative alignment of the primary proton beam, target, and focusing horns affects the neutrino energy spectrum delivered to experiments. This paper describes a check of the alignment of these components using the proton beam.

  11. Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector

    Nigmanov, T S; Longo, M J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes, P D; Jr.,; Bergfeld, T; Bujak, A; Carey, D; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Gülmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Graf, N; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L; Hartouni, E; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Johnstone, C; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kostin, M; Lange, D; Lebedev, A; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K S; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Paley, J M; Park, H K; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Raja, R; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Seun, S; Solomey, N; Soltz, R; Swallow, E; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D; Wu, K

    2010-01-01

    We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as $A^(alpha)$ where $\\alpha$ is $0.46\\pm0.06$ for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54$\\pm$0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo.

  12. 2 MW upgrade of the Fermilab Main Injector

    In January 2002, the Fermilab Director initiated a design study for a high average power, modest energy proton facility. An intensity upgrade to Fermilab's 120-GeV Main Injector (MI) represents an attractive concept for such a facility, which would leverage existing beam lines and experimental areas and would greatly enhance physics opportunities at Fermilab and in the U.S. With a Proton Driver replacing the present Booster, the beam intensity of the MI is expected to be increased by a factor of five. Accompanied by a shorter cycle, the beam power would reach 2 MW. This would make the MI a more powerful machine than the SNS or the J-PARC. Moreover, the high beam energy (120 GeV) and tunable energy range (8-120 GeV) would make it a unique high power proton facility. The upgrade study has been completed and published. This paper gives a summary report

  13. The ecloud measurement setup in the Main Injector

    Tan, C.Y.; Backfish, M.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Ecloud has been observed in many high intensity accelerators which can limit the amount of current that can be stored in them. In particular, for ProjectX, the amount of beam current that will be stored in the MI (Main Injector) will be {approx}160 x 10{sup 12} protons while the present maximum intensity is {approx}45 x 10{sup 12} protons which is about 3.5x less beam. Although ecloud has been observed in the MI, it has not caused instabilities at the present running conditions. However, there is no guarantee that instabilities caused by ecloud will not be a problem at ProjectX intensities. Therefore, a program has been started to study the ecloud effects with both computer simulations and experiments. In this paper, we will be focusing our attention on how coatings can affect the production of secondary electrons. We have installed an ecloud measurement setup in a straight section of MI which consists of one coated and one uncoated beam pipe with the same physical dimensions and at the same location, together with four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) and three sets of beam position monitors (BPMs) which can be used for the microwave measurements. An ecloud measurement setup was installed in a straight section of the Main Injector in 2009. The goal of the setup was to compare the characteristics of different beam pipe coatings when subjected to proton beam. The setup consists of one coated and one uncoated beam pipe with the same physical dimensions installed at the same location. Four RFAs (retarding field analyzers) and three BPMs (beam position monitors) used for microwave measurements have been used to measure the ecloud densities. The RFAs have performed very well and have collected both the time evolution and energy distribution of the ecloud for bare and two types of beam pipe coatings.

  14. Survey and alignment overview: Fermilab main injector ring

    The purpose of the Fermilab main injector ring (FMI) is to replace and improve the performance of the existing main ring by simultaneously enhancing both Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI interacts with the Tevatron near the F-O straight section, and performs all the duties that currently the existing main ring does. The performance of the FMI as measured in terms of the protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron is expected to exceed twice or thrice of those of the main ring. In addition, the FMI provides high duty factor 120 GeV beam for the experimental areas. The design geometry of the FMI is described. In order to achieve the smooth and successful startup, the desired absolute and relative alignment tolerances for 208 quadrupole and 344 dipole magnets have been defined. Ten concrete pillar type monuments with forced centering devices constitute the framework for the surface control network. Regarding tunnel control system, geodetic considerations, monumentation, secondary tunnel constraint network and tunnel control network are described. Magnet fiduciarization and alignment are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Main Injector Lcw (low Conductivity Water) Control System

    Seino, K C

    2001-01-01

    There are six service buildings uniformly spaced along the perimeter of MI (Main Injector). A total of 18 LCW pumps were installed around the MI ring with 3 pumps per building. Approximately 8,000 GPM of LCW is required to cool magnets, bus and power supplies in the MI enclosure and service buildings. In each service building, a PLC control system controls pumps and valves, and it monitors pressures, flow, resistivities and temperatures. The PLC hardware system consists of a Gateway module and a variety of I/O modules, which are made by Sixnet of Clifton Park, NY. The control system communicates with other buildings including MCR (Main Control Room) via an Ethernet link and front-end computers. For more details of the MI LCW control system, refer to [1] and [2]. One of the key elements of the PLC software is called ISaGRAF workbench, which was created by CJ International of Seyssins, France. The workbench provides a comprehensive control-programming environment, where control programs can be written in five d...

  16. The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software

    Piccoli, Luciano; Foulkes, Stephen; Votava, Margaret; Briegel, Charles; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate, equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom made timing board and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron. The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation.

  17. Measurement of Pi-K Ratios from the NuMI Target

    Seun, Sin Man; /Harvard U.

    2007-07-01

    Interactions of protons (p) with the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) target are used to create the neutrino beam for the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) Experiment. Using the MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experimental apparatus, the production of charged pions and kaons in p+NuMI interactions is studied. The data come from a sample of 2 x 10{sup 6} events obtained by MIPP using the 120 GeV/c proton beam from the Main Injector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, USA. Pions and kaons are identified by measurement in a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. Presented are measurements of {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}/K{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}/K{sup -} production ratios in the momentum range p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c transversely and 20 GeV/c < p{sub z} < 90 GeV/c longitudinally. Also provided are detailed comparisons of the MIPP NuMI data with the MIPP Thin Carbon data, the MIPP Monte Carlo simulation and the current MINOS models in the relevant momentum ranges.

  18. Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector

    We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

  19. Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector

    Furman, M. A.; Kourbanis, I.; Zwaska, R. M.

    2009-05-04

    We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance.

  20. Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab

    As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within ± 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to ± 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

  1. NuMI proton kicker extraction magnet termination resistor system

    Reeves, S.R.; Jensen, C.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The temperature stability of the kicker magnet termination resistor assembly directly affects the field flatness and amplitude stability. Comprehensive thermal enhancements were made to the existing Main Injector resistor assembly design to satisfy NuMI performance specifications. Additionally, a fluid-processing system utilizing Fluorinert{reg_sign} FC-77 high-voltage dielectric was built to precisely control the setpoint temperature of the resistor assembly from 70 to 120F, required to maintain constant resistance during changing operational modes. The Fluorinert{reg_sign} must be continually processed to remove hazardous breakdown products caused by radiation exposure to prevent chemical attack of system components. Design details of the termination resistor assembly and Fluorinert{reg_sign} processing system are described. Early performance results will be presented.

  2. Installation Status of the Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Alvarez, M.; Fitzgerald, J.; Lundberg, C.; Prieto, P.; Roberts, M.; Zagel, J.; Blokland, W.

    2015-11-06

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and the installation of a similar device is underway in the Main Injector at Fermilab. The present installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Main Injector will be discussed together with some simulations and test stand results.

  3. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  4. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  5. Calculation of the Orbit Length Change of the Recycler Due to Main Injector Ramp

    Xiao Mei Qin

    2005-01-01

    Orbit length of beam in the Recycler changes during the Main Injector ramps. The unknown kicks from the effects generated by stray field are distributed around the ring. To estimate the changes, simulated virtual kicks are created around each lambson, C-magnet and bus cable of the Main Injector. The orbit lengths are calculated from measurements of evolution frequency and transverse beam positions. A BPM system distributed throughout the Recycler lattice in both Horizontal and vertical planes are used to take the closed orbit measurement during the ramps. The calculation method and the results of the orbit length changes and the strength of the simulated kicks are presented in this report.

  6. Tritium transport in the NuMI decay pipe region - modeling and comparison with experimental data

    The NuMI (Neutrinos at Main Injector) beam facility at Fermilab is designed to produce an intense beam of muon neutrinos to be sent to the MINOS underground experiment in Soudan, Minnesota. Neutrinos are created by the decay of heavier particles. In the case of NuMI, the decaying particles are created by interaction of high-energy protons in a target, creating mostly positive pions. These particles can also interact with their environment, resulting in production of a variety of short-lived radionuclides and tritium. In the NuMI beam, neutrinos are produced by 120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator which are injected into the NuMI beam line using single turn extraction. The beam line has been designed for 400 kW beam power, roughly a factor of 2 above the initial (2005-06) running conditions. Extracted protons are bent downwards at a 57mr angle towards the Soudan Laboratory. The meson production target is a 94 cm segmented graphite rod, cooled by water in stainless tubes on the top and bottom of the target. The target is followed by two magnetic horns which are pulsed to 200 kA in synchronization with the passage of the beam, producing focusing of the secondary hadron beam and its daughter neutrinos. Downstream of the second horn the meson beam is transported for 675 m in an evacuated 2 m diameter beam (''decay'') pipe. Subsequently, the residual mesons and protons are absorbed in a water cooled aluminum/steel absorber immediately downstream of the decay pipe. Some 200 m of rock further downstream ranges out all of the residual muons. During beam operations, after installation of the chiller condensate system in December 2005, the concentration of tritiated water in the MINOS sump flow of 177 gpm was around 12 pCi/ml, for a total of 0.010 pCi/day. A simple model of tritium transport and deposition via humidity has been constructed to aid in understanding how tritium reaches the sump water. The model deals with tritium transported as HTO, water in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced with tritium. Based on concepts supported by the modeling, a dehumidification system was installed during May 2006 that reduced the tritium level in the sump by a factor of two. This note is primarily concerned with tritium that was produced in the NuMI target pile, carried by air flow into the target hall and down the decay pipe passageway (where most of it was deposited). The air is exhausted through the existing air vent shaft EAV2 (Figure 1)

  7. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control

    Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  8. Coalescing at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Scott, D J; Chase, B; Dye, J; Kourbanis, I; Seiya, K; Yang, M -J

    2013-01-01

    For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 10**11 particles per bunch into the Main Injector. To prepare for this by studying the effects of higher intensity bunches in the Main Injector it is necessary to perform coalescing at 8 GeV. The results of a series of experiments and simulations of 8 GeV coalescing are presented. To increase the coalescing efficiency adiabatic reduction of the 53 MHz RF is required, resulting in ~70% coalescing efficiency of 5 initial bunches. Data using wall current monitors has been taken to compare previous work and new simulations for 53 MHz RF reduction, bunch rotations and coalescing, good agreement between experiment and simulation was found. Possible schemes to increase the coalescing efficiency and generate even higher intensity bunches are discussed. These require improving the timing resolution of the low level RF and/or tuning the adiabatic voltage reduction of the 53 MHz.

  9. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; /Fermilab; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; /Cornell U.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

  10. Comments on the behavior of α1 in main injector γt jump schemes

    Tracking studies of transition crossing in the Main Injector have shown that the Johnsen effect is the dominant cause of beam loss and emittance blow up. To suppress this effect one has to have control over α1 (dispersion of the momentum compaction factor α). Various γt jump configurations are examined and the resulting changes in α1 are assessed. These results are further validated by comparison between the simulation and simple analytic α1--formulas derived for a model FODO lattice with full chromaticity compensation in the presence of an eddy current sextupole component. A scheme involving the introduction of a dispersion wave in the arcs of the Main Injector, around transition time, seems to be promising if one regards the strength of the eddy current sextupole family as an external ''knob'' to control values of α1

  11. Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector

    To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements

  12. Narrowband beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector accelerating cavities

    Joseph E. Dey; John S. Reid and James Steimel

    2001-07-12

    A narrowband beam loading compensation system was installed for the Main Injector Accelerating Cavities. This feedback operates solely on the fundamental resonant mode of the cavity. This paper describes modifications to the high level Radio Frequency system required to make the system operational. These modifications decreased the effect of steady-state beam loading by a factor of 10 and improved the reliability of paraphasing for coalescing.

  13. Operational use of ionization profile monitors in the Fermilab Main Injector

    Morris, Denton K; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Meyer, Thomas; Seiya, Kiyomi; Slimmer, David; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zagel, James

    2012-01-01

    Ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are used in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) to monitor injection lattice matching by measuring turn-by-turn sigmas at injection and to measure transverse emittance of the beam during the acceleration cycle. The IPMs provide a periodic, non-destructive means of performing turn-by-turn emittance measurements where other techniques are not applicable. As Fermilab is refocusing its attention on the intensity frontier, non-intercepting diagnostics such as IPMs ar...

  14. Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; /Fermilab; Veitzer, Seth Andrew; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2009-04-01

    Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

  15. Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment

    Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

  16. Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector Tracking

    At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose we have used old Main Ping dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to us we have separated in our simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables us to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular we have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8.9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

  17. A dynamic dispersion insert in the Fermilab Main Injector for momentum collimation

    Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (MI) accelerator is designed as a FODO lattice with zero dispersion straight sections. A scheme will be presented that can dynamically alter the dispersion of one of the long straight sections to create a non-zero dispersion straight section suitable for momentum collimation. During the process of slip stacking DC beam is generated which is lost during the first few milliseconds of the ramp. A stationary massive primary collimator/absorber with optional secondary masks could be utilized to isolate beam loss due to uncaptured beam.

  18. Magnet reliability in the Fermilab Main Injector and implications for the ILC

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Blowers, J.; Capista, D.; Harding, D.J.; Kiemschies, O.; Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    The International Linear Collider reference design requires over 13000 magnets, of approximately 135 styles, which must operate with very high reliability. The Fermilab Main Injector represents a modern machine with many conventional magnet styles, each of significant quantity, that has now accumulated many hundreds of magnet-years of operation. We review here the performance of the magnets built for this machine, assess their reliability and categorize the failure modes, and discuss implications for reliability of similar magnet styles expected to be used at the ILC.

  19. Longitudinal bunch monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons

    Thurman-Keup, R; Blokland, W; Crisp, J; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Flora, R; Hahn, A; Hansen, S; Kiper, T; Para, A; Pordes, S; Tollestrup, A V

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the longitudinal behavior of the accelerated particle beams at Fermilab is crucial to the optimization and control of the beam and the maximizing of the integrated luminosity for the particle physics experiments. Longitudinal measurements in the Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons are based on the analysis of signals from resistive wall current monitors. This article describes the signal processing performed by a 2 GHz-bandwidth oscilloscope together with a computer running a LabVIEW program which calculates the longitudinal beam parameters.

  20. Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    G William Foster et al.

    2004-07-09

    A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described.

  1. Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector

    We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

  2. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11006

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

  3. Study of muon neutrino disappearance using the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam

    We report the results of a search for νμ disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search [D. G. Michael et al. (MINOS), Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191801 (2006).]. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27x1020 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336±14 νμ charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to |Δm2|=2.74-0.26+0.44x10-3 eV2/c4 and sin22θ>0.87 at 68% confidence level.

  4. Upgrade of the Minos+ Experiment Data Acquisition for the High Energy NuMI Beam Run

    Badgett, William; Torretta, Donatella; Meier, Jerry; Gunderson, Jeffrey; Osterholm, Denise; Saranen, David

    2015-01-01

    The Minos+ experiment is an extension of the Minos experiment at a higher energy and more intense neutrino beam, with the data collection having begun in the fall of 2013. The neutrino beam is provided by the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam-line at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). The detector apparatus consists of two main detectors, one underground at Fermilab and the other in Soudan, Minnesota with the purpose of studying neutrino oscillations at a base line of 735 km. The original data acquisition system has been running for several years collecting data from NuMI, but with the extended run from 2013, parts of the system needed to be replaced due to obsolescence, reliability problems, and data throughput limitations. Specifically, we have replaced the front-end readout controllers, event builder, and data acquisition computing and trigger processing farms with modern, modular and reliable devices with few single points of failure. The new system is based on gigabit Ethernet T...

  5. A preliminary assessment of the electron cloud effect for the FNAL main injector upgrade

    We present results from a preliminary assessment, via computer simulations, of the electron cloud density for the FNAL main injector upgrade at injection energy. Assuming a peak value for secondary emission yield (delta)max = 1.3, we find a threshold value of the bunch population, Nb,th ? 1.25 x 1011, beyond which the electron-cloud density ?e reaches a steady-state level that is ?104 times larger than for Nb b,th, essentially neutralizing the beam, and leading to a tune shift ?0.05. Our investigation is limited to a field-free region and to a dipole magnet, both of which yield similar results for both Nb,th and the steady-state value of ?e. Possible dynamical effects from the electron cloud on the beam, such as emittance growth and instabilities, remain to be investigated separately

  6. A preliminary assessment of the electron cloud effect for the FNAL main injector upgrade

    We present results from a preliminary assessment, via computer simulations, of the electron-cloud density for the FNAL main injector upgrade at injection energy. Assuming a peak value for secondary emission yield (delta)max = 1.3, we find a threshold value of the bunch population, Nb,th ? 1.25 x 1011, beyond which the electron-cloud density ?e reaches a steady-state level that is ? 104 times larger than for Nb b,th, essentially neutralizing the beam, and leading to a tune shift ? 0.05. Our investigation is limited to a field-free region and to a dipole magnet, both of which yield similar results for both Nb,th and the steady-state value of ?c. Possible dynamical effects from the electron cloud on the beam, such as emittance growth and instabilities, remain to be investigated separately

  7. Analog signal pre-processing for the Fermilab Main Injector BPM upgrade

    Saewert, A.L.; Rapisarda, S.M.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton, and 2.5 MHz anti-proton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages, and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware.

  8. Beam Tests of Beampipe Coatings for Electron Cloud Mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    Backfish, Michael; Tan, Cheng Yang; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparison between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and ...

  9. Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max is ∼> 1.4, and the average electron density is ne ∼> 1010 m-3 at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3

  10. Beam Tests of Beampipe Coatings for Electron Cloud Mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    Backfish, Michael [Fermilab; Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Tan, Cheng Yang [Fermilab; Zwaska, Robert [Fermilab

    2015-07-26

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparison between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the changes in these materials as a function of time and the number of absorbed electrons. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. We measure the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the stainless steel, titanium nitride and amorphous carbon beampipes. We find the electron cloud signal is highly sensitive to stray magnetic fields and bunch-length over the Main Injector ramp cycle. We conduct a complete survey of the stray magnetic fields at the test station and compare the electron cloud signal to that in a field-free region.

  11. Application of a new scheme for passing through transition energy to the Fermilab Main Ring and Main Injector

    In the vicinity of the transition energy of an ion synchrotron the longitudinal oscillation frequency drops and the motion becomes non-adiabatic; the result is emittance dilution. Furthermore, because the synchrotron oscillation is too slow to average particle energy gain, particles off the synchronous phase get too much or too little acceleration depending whether they lead or lag; therefore, momentum spread is increased. In this regime rf focusing degrades beam quality. To confront these effects directly the author has proposed eliminating the rf focusing near transition by flattening the rf waveform with a second or third harmonic component. The rf is phased so that all particles in the bunch are accelerated by the flattened portion, receiving just the acceleration required by the magnet cycle. The authors will show by concrete examples related to the Fermilab Main Ring (MR) and Main Injector (MI) that one can eliminate rf focusing sufficiently long before and after transition to reduce the maximum momentum spread and emittance growth significantly. Additionally, the bunch has its maximum phase spread at transition so the peak current and resulting microwave instability is mitigated, and bunch above transition becomes a satisfactory match to an accelerating bucket. The authors call this procedure the slide-under technique to distinguish it from the single-frequency duck-under technique and simultaneously to recognize that there are ideas in common

  12. Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam

    Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

    2008-05-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

  13. Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMI Facility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13 and September 30, 2006

    This report details the work done between June 13 and September 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, the facility produces (among other components) tritium in engineered materials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium is generated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to other regions within the facility, or be released to the environment

  14. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    Backfish, Michael

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab's Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  15. The Fermilab Main Injector dipole and quadrupole cooling design and bus connections

    The proposed system for connecting the low conductivity water (LCW) and the electrical power to the magnets is explained. This system requires minimum maintenance. Stainless steel headers supply LCW to local, secondary manifolds which regulate the flow to the dipole and to the copper bus which conduct both power and cooling water to the quadrupole. A combination of ceramic feedthroughs and thermoplastic hoses insulate the piping electrically from the copper bus system. The utilities for the Main Injector are grouped together at the outside wall of the tunnel leaving most of the enclosure space for servicing. Space above the headers is available for future accelerator expansion. The new dipoles have bolted electrical connections with flexible copper jumpers. Separate compression fittings are used for the water connections. Each dipole magnet has two water circuits in parallel designed to minimize thermal stresses and the number of insulators. Two electrical insulators are used in series because this design has been shown to minimize electrolyses problems and copper ion deposits inside the insulators. The design value of the temperature gradient of the LCW is 8 degrees C

  16. Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort (1). Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector (2-4). The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max, which we let vary in the range 1.2 (le) (delta)max (le) 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 ∼max ∼e. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency fRF = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population Ntot. The density ne goes through a clear threshold as a function of Ntot in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in Ntot is a factor ∼ 2 higher for fRF = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor ∼ 2 when Ntot is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed

  17. Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector

    Veitzer, S. A.; LeBrun, P.; Cary, J. R.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P. H.; Amundson, J. F.

    2009-07-01

    High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

  18. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  19. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

  20. Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector

    High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

  1. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

  2. Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector

    We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance. An upgrade to the MI is being considered that would increase the bunch intensity Nb, from the present ∼ 1 x 1011 to 3 x 1011, corresponding to a total pulse intensity Ntot = 16.4 x 1013, in order to generate intense beams for the neutrino program. Such an increase in beam intensity would place the MI in a parameter regime where other storage rings have seen a significant EC effect. Motivated by this concern, efforts have been undertaken over the recent past to measure and simulate the magnitude of the effect and to assess its operational implications on the proposed upgrade. We report here a summary of simulation results obtained with the code POSINST, and certain benchmarks against measurements. Unless stated otherwise, the simulation parameters used are shown in Tab. 1. Some of these represent a slightly simplified version of the MI operation.

  3. Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector

    Furman, Miguel .A.

    2008-08-25

    We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort [1]. Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector [2-4]. The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}, which we let vary in the range 1.2 {le} {delta}{sub max} {le} 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 {approx}< {delta}{sub max} {approx}< 1.35 at this location. From this piece of information we estimate features of the EC distribution for various fill patterns, including the average electron number density n{sub e}. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency f{sub RF} = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population N{sub tot}. The density n{sub e} goes through a clear threshold as a function of N{sub tot} in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in N{sub tot} is a factor {approx} 2 higher for f{sub RF} = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor {approx} 2 when N{sub tot} is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed.

  4. The Modeling of Time-Structured Multiturn Injection into Fermilab Main Injector (Microbunch Injection with Parasitic Longitudinal Painting)

    Yoon, Phil S; Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of time-structured multiturn injection for an upgraded Main Injector with the 8-GeV Superconducting RF proton driver, or an ILC-style linac, or a Project-X linac. The Radio-Frequency mismatch between a linac and the upgraded Main Injector will induce parasitic longitudinal painting in RF-phase direction. Several different scenarios with a choice of different RF parameters for single RF system and double RF system in the presence of longitudinal space charge have been investigated. From the studies of microbunch injection with the aid of ESME (2003) numerical simulations, it is found that the dual RF system with a choice of appropriate RF parameters allows us to overcome the space-charge limitation set by beam intensity during the multiturn-injection process. A double RF system with a harmonic ratio (R_H = H_2/H_1) of 2.0 and a voltage ratio (R_V = V_2/V_1) of 0.5 are most favored to reduce both longitudinal and transverse effects of space charge in the Main Injector.

  5. Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project

    The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here

  6. CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE MAIN INJECTOR PARTICLE PRODUCTION (FNAL-E907) EXPERIMENT AT 58 GEV ENERGY

    Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; /Iowa U.

    2009-12-01

    Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV {pi}, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary {pi}, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected {approx} 0.26 x 10{sup 6} events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

  7. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, April 1992 (Rev. 3.1)

    None

    1992-04-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The FMI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the FMI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the FMI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two-tothree. In addition the FMI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  8. Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC

    We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb = 25 ns or tb = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta)max. For tb = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta)max is below ? 1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

  9. Studies of e-cloud build up for the FNAL main injector and for the LHC

    We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb=19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb=25 ns or tb=75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) ?max. For tb=25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if ?max is below ?1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb=75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2. (author)

  10. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  11. Status of NuMI experiments: MINOS+ and NO$\

    Coelho, João A.B. [Tufts U.

    2015-03-01

    The NuMI beam at Fermilab has been upgraded and is now capable of producing a 700 kW neutrino beam. Two major long-baseline neutrino experiments, MINOS+ and NOνA, have started data collection in the new NuMI configuration. This paper describes the latest developments of MINOS+ and NOνA. MINOS+ constitutes a new phase of the MINOS experiment and will provide improved sensitivity to new physics phenomena with a higher energy beam. NOνA will take advantage of its off-axis position to deliver precise measurements of

  12. Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for νμ is given approximately by 1 - sin22θ23sin2(1.27Δm232L/E), whereθ23 and Δm232 are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV2/c4 between the mass eigenstates ν3 and ν2, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |Δm322| and sin22θ23 by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a νμ interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from νμ interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured νμ energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x1020 protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2±16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level α = 4.2 x 10-3. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |Δm232| = 2.32 ±1.060.75 x 10-3 eV2/c4 (stat+sys) and sin22θ23 > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |Δm232| = 2.74 ±0.440.26 x 10-3 eV2/c4 (stat+sys) and sin22θ23 > 0.87 (68% CL)

  13. Electron injector computer simulations

    The authors present contributions for electron injector computation and design, describing a simple but complete simulation code implemented on a personal computer, giving the main design choices taken for the BCMN and LEP high intensity injectors and for the ORION self-focussing injector. Electron dynamics are characterized by the predominant effect of the first ''accelerating'' cell, in contrast with proton dynamics. In this region shorter than an RF half-wavelength the non-linear bunching and acceleration can only be simulated in a step-by-step procedure. Analytical ''adiabatic'' approach cannot help the designer but he can take advantage of non-repetitive features to obtain radial RF self-focussing together with longitudinal bunching

  14. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; /Fermilab; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

    2009-12-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  15. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  16. CEBAF: Injector tunnel in action

    On 28 October, a 100 kV DC electron beam was generated in the injector tunnel at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) being constructed at Newport News, Virginia. In this first tunnel operation, the beam was transported from the electron gun via the room-temperature section to the injector's first superconducting section (5 MeV). The gun and beam steering subsystems behaved as designed, under control from the main control centre

  17. DAMAGES TO INJECTORS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    Piotr Ignaciuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes damages to high pressure injectors used in common rail injection systems. The conducted analysis of their causes includes the diagnosis of injectors on a test bench and the results of microscopic research of damaged components. The tribological damages of high pressure injectors are local and cavitations pitting. The place of cavitations pitting are mainly check valves, where the reduction in the quantity of injected fuel is forming.

  18. Groundwater protection for the NuMI project

    The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included

  19. The KEKB injector linac

    An 8-GeV electron/3.5-GeV positron injector for KEKB was completed in 1998 by upgrading the existing 2.5-GeV electron/positron linac. The main goals were to upgrade its accelerating energy from 2.5 to 8 GeV and to increase the positron intensity by about 20 times. This article describes not only the composition and features of the upgraded linac, but also how these goals were achieved, by focusing on an optics design and commissioning issues concerning especially high-intensity single-bunch acceleration to produce positron beams

  20. Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    McGowan, Aaron Michael; /Minnesota U.

    2007-08-01

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for {nu}{sub {mu}} is given approximately by 1 - sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}sin{sup 2}(1.27{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}L/E), where{theta}{sub 23} and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} between the mass eigenstates {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 2}, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a {nu}{sub {mu}} interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x10{sup 20} protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2{+-}16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level {alpha} = 4.2 x 10{sup -3}. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.32 {+-}{sup 1.06}{sub 0.75} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.74 {+-}{sup 0.44}{sub 0.26} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.87 (68% CL).

  1. The Heidelberg High Current Injector: A Versatile Injector for Storage Ring Experiments

    von Hahn, R.; Grieser, M.; Repnow, R.; Schwalm, D.; Welsch, C.

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Injector (HCI) was designed and built as a dedicated single turn injector for the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg to deliver mainly very high intensities of singly charged Li- and Be-ions for laser cooling experiments. After start of routine operation in 1999 the HCI delivered high quality beams for about 25% of the experiments with very high reliability. Due to the experimental requirements the HCI mutated from a specialized injector to a versatile multipurpose instrumen...

  2. Electron injector for UHF generator

    This invention concerns the techniques for injecting an electron beam into a cavity resonator or electromagnetic structure. It features an injector of simple construction for injecting a tubular beam of monokinetic electrons in a helical orbit and which, by a very easy adjustment, makes it possible to obtain at will annular beams of monokinetic electrons the thickness of which is variable at will in significant proportions and of which the slope angle of the helical trajectories of each electron in relation to the centre of the corresponding helix can reach high figures. This injector is of the kind that include an annular electron gun in an axisymmetrical vacuum vessel and having also as main characteristic electric coils able to create the cyclotron effect by a static magnetic field varying progressively and continuously according to the axis of the injector

  3. The ArgoNeuT Detector in the NuMI Low-Energy beam line at Fermilab

    Anderson, C; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Guenette, R; Haug, S; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lathrop, A; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Linden, S; McKee, D; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Rossi, B; Sanders, R; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Wongjirad, T; Zeller, G

    2012-01-01

    The ArgoNeuT liquid argon time projection chamber has collected thousands of neutrino and antineutrino events during an extended run period in the NuMI beam-line at Fermilab. This paper focuses on the main aspects of the detector layout and related technical features, including the cryogenic equipment, time projection chamber, read-out electronics, and o?-line data treatment. The detector commissioning phase, physics run, and first neutrino event displays are also reported. The characterization of the main working parameters of the detector during data-taking, the ionization electron drift velocity and lifetime in liquid argon, as obtained from through-going muon data complete the present report.

  4. Observation of Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam

    Michael, D.; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allison, W; Alner, G.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Arms, K.; Armstrong, R.; Arroyo, C.; Auty, D.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D.

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\pm 14.4 events. The...

  5. Neutrinos from the NuMI beamline in the MiniBooNE detector

    With the startup of the NuMI beamline early in 2005, the MiniBooNE detector has the unique opportunity to be the first user of an off-axis neutrino beam (110 mrad off-axis). MiniBooNE is assembling a rich sample of neutrino interactions from this source

  6. Design of new injector to RIKEN ring cyclotron

    Design study of a new injector to the RIKEN ring cyclotron is presented. This injector will be exclusively used for the RI-beam factory (RIBF), providing intense beams of medium charge state of heavy ions such as 84Kr13+, 136Xe20+ and 238U35+, while the present injector, RIKEN linear accelerator, is used for the research of the super heavy elements. Specifications of the main components of the new injector are shown, consisting of an ECR ion source, rf linacs and strong quadrupole magnets. (author)

  7. CEBAF: Injector in operation

    Extensive 45 MeV injector testing has validated the basic superconducting design of the 4 GeV accelerator at CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility under construction in Newport News, Virginia. The injector has met all beam performance objectives, using production hardware and software similar to that being installed in the recirculating accelerator, including 18 superconducting cavities in two and one-quarter cryomodules

  8. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  9. Particle injector for fluid systems

    Ruch, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    A particle injector device provides injection of particles into a liquid stream. The device includes a funnel portion comprising a conical member having side walls tapering from a top opening (which receives the particles) down to a relatively smaller exit opening. A funnel inlet receives a portion of the liquid stream and the latter is directed onto the side walls of the conical member so as to create a cushion of liquid against which the particles impact. A main section of the device includes an inlet port in communication with the exit opening of the funnel portion. A main liquid inlet receives the main portion of the liquid stream at high pressure and low velocity and a throat region located downstream of the main liquid inlet accelerates liquid received by this inlet from the low velocity to a higher velocity so as to create a low pressure area at the exit opening of the funnel portion. An outlet opening of the main section enables the particles and liquid stream to exit from the injector device. This invention is particularly concerned with particle injection in connection with the calibration of inline optical particle counters.

  10. The Heidelberg High Current Injector A Versatile Injector for Storage Ring Experiments

    Von Hahn, R; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Welsch, C P

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Injector (HCI) was designed and built as a dedicated injector for the Test Storage Ring in Heidelberg to deliver mainly singly charged Li- and Be-ions. After start for routine operation in 1999 the HCI delivered stable beams during the following years for about 50 % of the experiments with very high reliability. Due to the requirements from the experiment the HCI changed during that period from a machine for singly charged positive ions to an injector for a large variety of molecules as well as positively or negatively charged light ions. After successful commissioning of the custom built 18 GHz high power ECR-source at its present test location various modifications and additions were made in preparation of a possible conversion into an injector for highly charged heavy ions as a second phase. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained in the passed 5 years and presents the status of the upgrade of the HCI.

  11. The Injector Chain for the LHC

    Schindl, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    The LHC will be supplied with protons from the injector chain Linac2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS. These accelerators are being upgraded so as to meet the very demanding needs of the LHC: many high intensity bunches (25 ns spacing) with small emittances (transverse and longitudinal). The injector scheme which will satisfy these requirements is presented and the main challenges and problems for the machines are outlined. Some of the open issues which need further elaboration, such as tolerances on bunch intensity, are touched upon. The conversion of the PS complex enters its final phase and the first LHC-type beams have been delivered to the SPS. Finally, the Pb ion injector scheme is sketched and the promising outcome of a test campaign in LEAR is highlighted.

  12. A proposed injector for the LCLS linac

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will use the last portion of the SLAC accelerator as a driver for a short wavelength FEL. The injector must produce 1-nC, 3-ps rms electron bunches at a repetition rate of up to 120 Hz with a normalized rms emittance of about 1 mm-mrad. The injector design takes advantage of the photocathode rf gun technology developed since its conception in the mid 1980's, in particular the S-band rf gun developed by the SLAC/BNL/UCLA collaboration, and emittance compensation techniques developed in the last decade. The injector beamline has been designed using the SUPERFISH, POISSON, PARMELA, and TRANSPORT codes in a consistent way to simulate the beam from the gun up to the entrance of the main accelerator linac where the beam energy is 150 MeV. PARMELA simulations indicate that at 150 MeV, space charge effects are negligible

  13. Observation of Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam

    Michael, D. G.; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Arroyo, C.; Auty, D. J.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D. S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barker, M. A.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Beall, E.; Becker, B. R.; Belias, A.; Bergfeld, T.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bhattacharya, D.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bocean, V.; Bock, B.; Bock, G. J.; Boehm, J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Border, P. M.; Bower, C.; Boyd, S.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Bungau, C.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Cabrera, A.; Chapman, J. D.; Chase, T. R.; Cherdack, D.; Chernichenko, S. K.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Cobb, J. H.; Cossairt, J. D.; Courant, H.; Crane, D. A.; Culling, A. J.; Dawson, J. W.; de Jong, J. K.; Demuth, D. M.; de Santo, A.; Dierckxsens, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Dorman, M.; Drake, G.; Drakoulakos, D.; Ducar, R.; Durkin, T.; Erwin, A. R.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Fackler, O. D.; Falk Harris, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Felt, N.; Fields, T. H.; Ford, R.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gebhard, M.; Giurgiu, G. A.; Godley, A.; Gogos, J.; Goodman, M. C.; Gornushkin, Yu.; Gouffon, P.; Gran, R.; Grashorn, E.; Grossman, N.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Grzelak, K.; Guarino, V.; Habig, A.; Halsall, R.; Hanson, J.; Harris, D.; Harris, P. G.; Hartnell, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatcher, R.; Heller, K.; Hill, N.; Ho, Y.; Holin, A.; Howcroft, C.; Hylen, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Indurthy, D.; Irwin, G. M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jaffe, D. E.; James, C.; Jenner, L.; Jensen, D.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Kafka, T.; Kang, H. J.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kilmer, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; Kordosky, M.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kostin, M.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krakauer, D. A.; Kreymer, A.; Kumaratunga, S.; Ladran, A. S.; Lang, K.; Laughton, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, R.; Lee, W. Y.; Libkind, M. A.; Ling, J.; Liu, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longley, N. P.; Lucas, P.; Luebke, W.; Madani, S.; Maher, E.; Makeev, V.; Mann, W. A.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marshak, M. L.; Marshall, J. S.; Mayer, N.; McDonald, J.; McGowan, A. M.; Meier, J. R.; Merzon, G. I.; Messier, M. D.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, J. L.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mislivec, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Moore, C. D.; Morfn, J.; Morse, R.; Mualem, L.; Mufson, S.; Murgia, S.; Murtagh, M. J.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, C.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nezrick, F.; Nichol, R. J.; Nicholls, T. C.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oliver, J.; Oliver, W. P.; Onuchin, V. A.; Osiecki, T.; Ospanov, R.; Paley, J.; Paolone, V.; Para, A.; Patzak, T.; Pavlovi?, .; Pearce, G. F.; Pearson, N.; Peck, C. W.; Perry, C.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Ping, H.; Piteira, R.; Pittam, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Plunkett, R. K.; Price, L. E.; Proga, M.; Pushka, D. R.; Rahman, D.; Rameika, R. A.; Raufer, T. M.; Read, A. L.; Rebel, B.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reyna, D. E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Ruddick, K.; Ryabov, V. A.; Saakyan, R.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schneps, J.; Schoessow, P. V.; Schreiner, P.; Schwienhorst, R.; Semenov, V. K.; Seun, S.-M.; Shanahan, P.; Shield, P. D.; Smart, W.; Smirnitsky, V.; Smith, C.; Smith, P. N.; Sousa, A.; Speakman, B.; Stamoulis, P.; Stefanik, A.; Sullivan, P.; Swan, J. M.; Symes, P. A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Terekhov, A.; Tetteh-Lartey, E.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Tinti, G.; Trendler, R.; Trevor, J.; Trostin, I.; Tsarev, V. A.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vakili, M.; Vaziri, K.; Velissaris, C.; Verebryusov, V.; Viren, B.; Wai, L.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watabe, M.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; Wehmann, A.; West, N.; White, C.; White, R. F.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, Q. K.; Yan, W. G.; Yang, T.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yun, J. C.; Zheng, H.; Zois, M.; Zwaska, R.

    2006-11-01

    This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current ?? interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.271020 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 33614 events. The data are consistent with ?? disappearance via oscillations with |?m322|=2.74-0.26+0.4410-3eV2 and sin?2(2?23)>0.87 (68% C.L.).

  14. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.

    Michael, D G; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; de Jong, J K; DeMuth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlović, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Terekhov, A; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2006-11-10

    This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(mu) disappearance via oscillations with |Delta(m)2/32|=2.74 +0.44/-0.26 x10(-3)eV(2) and sin(2)(2theta(23))>0.87 (68% C.L.). PMID:17155614

  15. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  16. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NOνA will deliver about 18 x 1020 protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  17. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam

    Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

  18. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber

  19. Linac pre-injector

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  20. PLT neutral injector performance

    The experience with respect to beamline operation on PLT and on the Princeton test stand is reviewed. We discuss the performance of the injectors, beam energy distributions as measured by two techniques, beam-associated impurities, control of gas evolution in the drift duct by titanium evaporation, reionization in the drift duct, and the computer archiving and control system currently under development

  1. Tritium pellet injector results

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  2. MIMAS - Second Saturne injector

    After justifying the need to build a second MIMAS injector for Saturne, the problem raised by the vacuum specification is examined. A comparison is then made between the expected performance and that of other machines projected or in operation. The feasibility of MIMAS involves the study of some techniques of which the peculiarities are stressed: vacuum of 10-10 torr and very fast beam transfer mechanism

  3. Pellet injectors for JET

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  4. CTF3 Drive Beam Injector Optimisation

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082899; Doebert, S

    2015-01-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The main feasibility issues of the two-beam acceleration scheme are being demonstrated at CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). The CTF3 Drive Beam injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by the bunching system and two accelerating structures all embedded in solenoidal magnetic field and a magnetic chicane. Three sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB), a prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher constitute the bunching system. The phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system produces unwanted satellite bunches between the successive main bunches. The beam dynamics of the CTF3 Drive Beam injector is reoptimised with the goal of improving the injector performance and in particular decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and the beam emittance in transverse plane compare to the original model based on P. Ur...

  5. Neutrino Oscillations Experiments using Off-axis NuMI Beam

    Para, A

    2001-01-01

    NuMI neutrino beam is constructed to aim at the MINOS detector in Soudan mine. Neutrinos emitted at angles $10-20 mrad$ with respect to the beam axis create an intense beam with a well defined energy, dependent on the angle. Additional surface detectors positioned at the transverse distance of several kilometers from the mine offer an opportunity for very precise mesurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters. The mixing matrix element $|U_{e3}|^{2}$ can be measured down to a value of 0.0025 with the exposure of the order of $20 kton\\times years$.

  6. Testing CPT conservation using the NuMI neutrino beam with the MINOS experiment

    Auty, David John; /Sussex U.

    2010-05-01

    The MINOS experiment was designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters with muon neutrinos. It achieves this by measuring the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor composition of the man-made NuMI neutrino beam 1km after the beam is formed and again after 735 km. By comparing the two spectra it is possible to measure the oscillation parameters. The NuMI beam is made up of 7.0% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, which can be separated from the {nu}{sub {mu}} because the MINOS detectors are magnetized. This makes it possible to study {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations separately from those of muon neutrinos, and thereby test CPT invariance in the neutrino sector by determining the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters and comparing them with those for {nu}{sub {mu}}, although any unknown physics of the antineutrino would appear as a difference in oscillation parameters. Such a test has not been performed with beam {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} before. It is also possible to produce an almost pure {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam by reversing the current through the magnetic focusing horns of the NuMI beamline, thereby focusing negatively, instead of positively charged particles. This thesis describes the analysis of the 7% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} component of the forward horn current NuMI beam. The {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} of a data sample of 3.2 x 10{sup 20} protons on target analysis found 42 events, compared to a CPT conserving prediction of 58.3{sub -7.6}{sup +7.6}(stat.){sub -3.6}{sup +3.6}(syst.) events. This corresponds to a 1.9 {sigma} deficit, and a best fit value of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} = 18 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23} = 0.55. This thesis focuses particularly on the selection of {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} events, and investigates possible improvements of the selection algorithm. From this a different selector was chosen, which corroborated the findings of the original selector. The thesis also investigates how the systematic errors affect the precision of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}. Furthermore, it describes a study to determine the gains of the PMTs via the single-photoelectron spectrum. The results were used as a crosscheck of the gains determined at higher intensities by an LED-based light-injection system.

  7. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described.

  8. Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described

  9. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 are presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. 2012 MD will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided. (authors)

  10. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    Ling, Jiajie; /South Carolina U.

    2010-07-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |{Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}|, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 23}. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  11. The TESLA test facility linac injector

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) Linac is a 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting accelerator under construction at DESY (Hamburg) by an international collaboration. The linac is being built to demonstrate the viability of the superconducting RF approach to a future e+e- linear collider. Within the collaboration three participating French laboratories (LAL, IPN and DAPNIA) have undertaken the task of designing and constructing a phase 1 injector for TTF. We describe the studies towards the realisation of this 7 - 14 MeV, 8 mA high duty cycle (800 ?s pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate) injector. The front end of the injector will consist of a 250 keV electron gun, a 216.7 MHz sub-harmonic bunching cavity and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. This is followed by a beam analysis line and a transport section to match the beam from the capture cavity to the first cryomodule of the main linac. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. The light-ion injector

    In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

  13. Steam injectors modelling with CATHARE

    Among thermal-hydraulic passive systems, the Steam Injectors are one of the most interesting apparatus. In a Steam Injector (SI), steam is used as an energy source to pump low pressure and low temperature water. The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency Feed Water System (EFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The DEEPSSI program was supported by the European Commission in the framework of the 5th R and D program. The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative Steam Injector (SI) design. In the frame of the DEEPSSI project, the development of a specific 1D module of the CATHARE code for the Steam Injector has been achieved. A set of modified correlations - the interfacial friction and the bulk condensation rate in the mixing chamber is used in the presented studies. The first results have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE to well describe the studied steam injectors. The proposed SI modeling was qualified in different test conditions (different inlet vapor pressures, different liquid flow rates, different injectors: CLAUDIA, IETI, IMP-PAN) and it seems rather satisfactory. A simple model of closed circuit has been proposed. It proved the capability of the steam injector model for the CATHARE computer code to work in a closed circuit under relevant reactor conditions. (author)

  14. The SSRL injector kickers

    The kicker units for injection and ejection at the new SSRL Injector Synchrotron are built from two kicker modules driven by compact in-air delay line thyratron pulsers. The kickers have an aperture of 25 mm x 60 mm. The injection kicker is 60 cm long (30 cm each module) and bends the 150 MeV electron beam by 42 mrad during injection. The extraction kicker module is 120 cm long (60 cm each module) and bends the 3 GeV beam by 4 mrad for extraction. The pulsers produce current pulses in the order of 900 A with a fall time of 200 nsec for injection, a rise time of 260 nsec for extraction and a pulse length (rise plus flat top time) of 400 nsec

  15. The injector of the Utrecht en tandem

    Zwol, N.A. van; VAN DER BORG K.; de Haas, A. P.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.

    1984-01-01

    An injector has been built to obtain improved beam transmission through the EN tandem. The injector has been provided with a 90° analysing magnet, m/Δm = 300, and 130 kV preacceleration. Beam optics calculations have been made for the injector and tandem. The injector has been equipped with a fiber optics control and data acquisition system.

  16. Piezo inline injectors; Piezo-Inline-Injektoren

    Mattes, P.; Boecking, F.; Kampmann, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Fundamentals of piezo inline injectors are gased on the experience with conventional common rail injectors and with a mechatronic approach to injection system design. With the development of this injector family and its successful serial application in 2003, Robert Bosch GmbH provided the basis for an innovative concept of common rail injectors.

  17. High-brightness electron injectors

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  18. 2.5 MV, 4kA, 2?s Electron Beam Injector for DARHT

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Carlsten, B.

    1997-05-01

    An injector design for the long pulse option for the second axis of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT) has been studied. This design is based on the LBNL Heavy Ion Fusion Injector technology. The proposed injector consists of a single gap diode extracting electrons from a thermionic source and powered through a high voltage ceramic insulator column by a Marx generator. The key issues in the design are the control of beam quality to meet the DARHT 2nd axis final focus requirements, to minimize high-voltage breakdown risks, and to fit the injector structure within the available space. We will present the injector conceptual design as well as beam dynamics simulations in the diode and in the injector-main-accelerator interface.

  19. Request for a Test Exposure of OPERA Targets in the NuMI Beam

    We request to use the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam in the MINOS Near Detector Hall to produce neutrino interactions in two separate detector arrangements using prototype target bricks designed for the OPERA experiment. OPERA is scheduled to to begin taking data in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam in 2006. The proposed test set up would be located just upstream of the MINOS Near Detector. The data will be used to validate the OPERA analysis scheme and to study backward particle production in neutrino interactions, which is of interest to the OPERA collaboration as well as the neutrino community in general. In addition, we contend that the data taken in this exposure may also be useful to the MINOS collaboration as additional input to the understanding of the initial composition of the neutrino beam. Ideally, this exposure could take place in early to mid-2005, providing timely feedback to both the OPERA and MINOS collaborations.

  20. Proposal for continuously-variable neutrino beam energy for the NuMI facility

    Kostin, Mikhail; Kopp, Sacha; /Texas U.; Messier, Mark; /Harvard U.; Harris, Deborah A.; Hylen, Jim; Para, Adam; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The NuMI Facility was intended to be flexibly changed between 3 energies of beams, LE, ME, and HE. However, the changeover requires extensive downtime to move and realign horns and the target. We propose to implement a flexible arrangement where the target can be remotely moved in the beamline direction to change the beam energy and the horns remain fixed. In addition to having the attractive feature of keeping the horn optics fixed, the motion of the target can be performed more quickly and hence on a more frequent basis. We discuss potential increases in statistics in the high energy region, systematic cross-checks available, and the improved beam monitoring capabilities with such variable energy beams.

  1. Technical achievements in creation of intense classical type polarized particle injectors

    A review of achievements in the technique of intense polarized beam production is presented in connection with preparation for the KhFTI injector reconstruction. The main attention is given to the polarized particle source (PPS) assemblies of classical type. Effectiveness of contemporary PPS is compared with that of the KhFTI injector. 40 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tables. (author)

  2. Experimental characterization of CANDELA photo-injector

    Travier, C.; Devanz, G.; Leblond, B.; Mouton, B.

    1997-02-01

    CANDELA photo-injector is made of a 2-cell S-band RF gun, using a dispenser cathode illuminated by a Ti : sapphire laser. This electron source provides a single bunch (at 12.5 Hz), with a charge of 1 nC and an energy of 2 MeV. After recalling the experimental set-up, this paper presents some results concerning mainly energy and bunch length measurements, and also comparisons with simulations done with the PARMELA code. Measured pulse durations of less than 10 ps show for the first time that dispenser photocathodes are "fast response" cathodes.

  3. Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

    2003-12-01

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

  4. A new biolistic intradermal injector

    Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

  5. A new biolistic intradermal injector

    Brouillette, M.; Dor, M.; Hbert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Ct, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

    2013-07-01

    We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

  6. ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations

    Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

  7. Control system of pellet injector on the HT-7 tokamak

    The control system of the pellet injector is introduced in detail and the system mainly includes two parts: the present and the remote control system. The present control system controls the injector and provides the interface to the remote system. And the remote control system has a acquired present signals with analog input card and perform the actions through digit output card, it also has an interface for Windows programming easily used by the operator: when carrying out the pellet injection experiments. Through several HT-7 campaigns, the remote control system has been validated to be feasible and reliable and has made successful shots for studying the interactions between the pellets and plasma

  8. Report from the polarization group of the Fermilab injector workshop

    The group considered physics, accelerator, and polarized source issues. Most of the physics study was concerned with what significant and unique experiments could be done if polarized protons could be accelerated in the main injector and eventually in the Tevatron. 12 refs., 4 figs

  9. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  10. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  11. Necessary LIU studies in the injectors during 2012

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Machine Development (MD) time in the LHC injectors in 2011 was devoted to the study of the intensity limitations in the injectors (e.g. space charge effects in PS and SPS, electron cloud effects in the PS and SPS, single bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in PS and SPS, emittance preservation across the injector chain, etc.). The main results achieved in 2011 will be presented as well as the questions that still remain unresolved and are of relevance for the LIU project. 2012 MDs will also continue exploring the potential of scenarios that might become operational in the future, like the development of a low gamma transition optics in the SPS or alternative production schemes for the LHC beams in the PS. A tentative prioritized list of studies is provided.

  12. Shear coaxial injector spray characterization

    Kaltz, T.; Milicic, M.; Glogowski, M.; Micci, M. M.

    1993-06-01

    Analytical results on the injector response obtained from a linearized lumped-element model are presented as a function of temperature and frequency and compared to chamber high-frequency pressure measurements. LDV measurements in the recess region at the base of the LOX post show reverse flow indicative of recirculation region. Measurements of droplet size and velocity distributions based on a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer are presented for a coaxial injector element. The latter is similar to the SSME preburner element operating with water and air at atmospheric pressure and liquid and gaseous nitrogen at 20 bars.

  13. Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group

    We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

  14. INTOR neutral beam injector concept

    The US INTOR phase 1 effort in the plasma heating area is described. Positive ion based sources extrapolated from present day technology are proposed. These sources operate at 175 keV beam energy for 6 s. Five injectors - plus one spare - inject 75 MW. Beam energy, source size, interface, radiation hardening, and many other studies are summarized

  15. The FNAL Injector Upgrade Status

    The new FNAL H- injector upgrade is currently being tested before installation in the Spring 2012 shutdown of the accelerator complex. This line consists of an H- source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), 200 MHz RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Beam measurements have been performed to validate the design before installation. The results of the beam measurements are presented in this paper.

  16. Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions

    Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

    1979-01-01

    A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

  17. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  18. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single- stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. A new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  19. Fermilab Antiproton Source, Recycler Ring, and Main Injector

    Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, the Accumulator and the Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world's only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II, neutrino experiments using 8-GeV and 120-GeV proton beams, as well as a test beam facility and other fixed target experiments using 120-GeV primary proton beams. This paper provides a brief description of Fermilab accelerators as they operated at the end of the Collider Run II (2011).

  20. The main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab

    Rajendran Raja

    2006-11-01

    We describe the physics capabilities and status of the MIPP experiment which concluded its physics data taking run in March 2006. We show some preliminary results from this run and describe plans to upgrade the spectrometer.

  1. Pb injector at CERN

    For the CERN Lead Ion Accelerating Facility (achieved within a collaboration of several outside laboratories and with financial help of some member states) a new dedicated Linac has been built. This Linac has been installed in 1994 and served during two extended physics runs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of this machine and describes the first operational experience. Emphasis is put on new features of this accelerator, its associated equipment and on the peculiarities of heavy ions. (author)

  2. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  3. Centrifuge pellet injector for JET

    An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

  4. Investigations of injectors for scramjet engines

    Maddalena, Luca

    Three, coordinate experimental studies were undertakes. First, an experimental study of an aerodynamic ramp (aeroramp) injector was conducted at Virginia Tech. The aeroramp consisted of an array of two rows with two columns of flush-wall holes that induce vorticity and enhance mixing. The holes were spaced four diameters apart in the streamwise direction with two diameters transverse spacing between them. For comparison, a single-hole circular injector with the same area angled downstream at 30 degrees was also examined. Test conditions involved sonic injection of helium heated to 313 K, to safely simulate hydrogen into a Mach 4 air cross-stream with average Reynolds number 5.77 · 107 per meter at a jet to freestream momentum flux ratio of 2.1. Sampling probe measurements were utilized to determine the local helium concentration. Pitot and cone-static pressure probes and a diffuser thermocouple probe were employed to document the flow. The main results of this work was that the mixing efficiency value of this aeroramp design which was originally optimized at Mach 2.4 for hydrocarbon injectants was only slightly higher than that of the single-hole injector at these high Mach number flow conditions with a low molecular weight injectant. The mass-averaged total pressure loss parameter showed that the aero-ramp and single-hole injectors had the same overall losses. The natural extension of the investigation was then to look in detail at two major physical phenomena that occur in a complex injector design such the aeroamp as well as in Scramjet combustors in general: the jet-shock interaction and the interaction of the vortical structures produced by the jets injection into a supersonic cross flow with an added axial vortex. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the effects of impinging shocks on injection of heated helium into a Mach 4 crossflow. Helium concentration, Pitot pressure, total temperature and cone-static measurements were taken during the mixing studies. It was found that the addition of a shock behind gaseous injection into a Mach 4 crossflow enhances mixing only if the shock is closer to the injection point where the counter-rotating vortex pair (always associated with transverse injection in a crossflow) is not yet formed, and the deposition of baroclinic generated of vorticity is the highest. The final investigation was concerned with the interaction of the usual vortex structure produced by jet injection into a supersonic crossflow and an additional axial vortex typical of those that might be produced by the inlet of a scramjet or the forebody of a vehicle to be controlled by jet interaction phenomena. The cases treated are for sonic, heated Helium injection from a circular jet inclined at 30 degrees to a Mach 4 flow at high Reynolds number conditions. The additional axial vortices were generated by a strut-mounted, diamond cross-section wing mounted upstream of the injection location. The wing was designed to produce a tip vortex of a strength comparable to that of one of the typical counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) found in the plume of a jet in a crossflow. For this purpose a separate study of the detailed vortex structure produced by jet injection into a supersonic crossflow was conducted. The profound interaction of supersonic vortices supported by a quantitative description and characterization of the flowfield was been demonstrated. The results show an higher value of the helium maximum concentration in all the cases investigated, but also higher penetration with a wider fuel plume compared to the case without a vortex. The decrease in mixing is attributed to severe disruption of the usual counter-rotating vortex pair in a jet plume.

  5. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  6. Low emittance injector design for free electron lasers

    Bettoni, S.; Pedrozzi, M.; Reiche, S.

    2015-12-01

    Several parameters determine the performance of free electron lasers: the slice and the projected emittance, the slice energy spread, and the peak current are the most crucial ones. The peak current is essentially obtained by magnetic compression stages along the machine or occasionally assisted by velocity bunching at low energy. The minimum emittance and the alignment of the slices along the bunch are mainly determined in the low energy part of the accelerator (injector). Variations at the per-mille level of several parameters in this section of the machine strongly influence these quantities with highly nonlinear dynamic. We developed a numerical tool to perform the optimization of the injector. We applied this code to optimize the SwissFEL injector, assuming different gun designs, initial bunch lengths and intrinsic emittances. We obtained an emittance along the bunch of 0.14 mm mrad and around 0.08 mm mrad for the maximum and the minimum SwissFEL charges (200 and 10 pC, respectively). We applied the same tool to a running injector, where we automatized the optimization of the machine.

  7. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  8. Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector

    Highlights: ► JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ► Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ► ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ► Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times

  9. Flow and atomization in flashing injectors

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Rupprecht, S. D.; Chen, L.-D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Flashing injection involves expanding a fluid through an injector until a supersaturated state is reached, causing a portion of the fluid to flash to a vapor. This investigation considered the flow, atomization and spreading properties of flashing injectors with flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (Jet A/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon-11). The use of a two-stage expansion process, separated by an expansion chamber, was found to be beneficial for good atomization properties of flashing injection - particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, and to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angles of sprays from flashing injectors.

  10. Atomization and combustion properties of flashing injectors

    Solomon, A. S. P.; Rupprecht, S. D.; Chen, L.-D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flashing injection involves expanding a fluid through an injector until a supersaturated state is reached, causing a portion of the fluid to flash to a vapor. This investigation considered the flow, atomization and spreading properties of flashing injectors flowing liquids containing dissolved gases (Jet A/air) as well as superheated liquids (Freon 11). The use of a two stage expansion process, separated by an expansion chamber, was found to be beneficial for good atomization properties of flashing injection - particularly for dissolved gas systems. Both locally homogeneous and separated flow models provided good predictions of injector flow properties. Conventional correlations for drop sizes from pressure atomized and airblast injectors were successfully modified, using the separated flow model to prescribe injector exit conditions, to correlate drop size measurements. Additional experimental results are provided for spray angle and combustion properties of sprays from flashing injectors.

  11. Design of Injector Systems for LUX

    The LUX concept [1] for a superconducting recirculating linac based ultrafast x-ray facility features a unique high-brightness electron beam injector. The design of the injector complex that meets the baseline requirements for LUX is presented. A dual-rf gun injector provides both high-brightness electron beams to drive the cascaded, seeded harmonic generation VUV-soft x-ray FELs as well as the ultra- low-vertical emittance (''flat'') beams that radiate in hard x-ray spontaneous emission synchrotron beamlines. Details of the injector complex design and performance characteristics are presented. Contributions by the thermal emittance and optical pulse shaping to the beam emission at the photocathode and to the beam dynamics throughout the injector are presented. Techniques that seek to optimize the injector performance, as well as constraints that prevent straightforward optimization, are discussed

  12. Investigations of Injectors for Scramjet Engines

    Maddalena, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of Injectors for Scramjet Engines Luca Maddalena An experimental study of an aerodynamic ramp (aeroramp) injector was conducted at Virginia Tech. The aeroramp consisted of an array of two rows with two columns of flush-wall holes that induce vorticity and enhance mixing. For comparison, a single-hole circular injector with the same area angled downstream at 30 degrees was also examined. Test conditions involved sonic injection of helium heated to 313 K, to safely ...

  13. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  14. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of water jet in steam injector. 1. Performance of injector

    Characteristics of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam injector were examined. Two types of test section of a straight type and an injector type were used. Large waves were observed on the water jet. The waves showed the tendency to grow as proceeded downstream. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability predicted the water jet disruption conservatively. The conservatism became more prominent in the injector type. It was confirmed that the present design of the steam injector could pump up five times higher. (author)

  15. LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel

    Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

    2007-03-01

    A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

  16. Using Quasi-Elastic Events to Measure Neutrino Oscillations with MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam

    Watabe, Masaki; /Texas A& M University

    2010-05-01

    MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been designed to search for a change in the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as they travel between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Far Detector in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, 735 km from the target. The MINOS oscillation analysis is mainly performed with the charged current (CC) events and sensitive to constrain high-{Delta}m{sup 2} values. However, the quasi-elastic (QEL) charged current interaction is dominant in the energy region important to access low-{Delta}m{sup 2} values. For further improvement, the QEL oscillation analysis is performed in this dissertation. A data sample based on a total of 2.50 x 10{sup 20} POT is used for this analysis. In summary, 55 QEL-like events are observed at the Far detector while 87.06 {+-} 13.17 (syst.) events are expected with null oscillation hypothesis. These data are consistent with {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance via oscillation with {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.10 {+-} 0.37 (stat.) {+-} 0.24 (syst.) eV{sup 2} and the maximal mixing angle.

  17. Transient Beam Dynamics in the LBL 2 MV Injector

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 ? mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun preinjector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot aluminosilicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 (micro)s, and is reversed to turn-off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several (micro)s), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the Particle in Cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3d in a time dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation in WAIW3d of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented

  18. Electron gun for the injector of a free electron laser

    Design and experimental results obtained at the tetrode electron gun for the injector of a free electron laser are presented. The main parameters are: repetition rate range of electron bunches is 0-22.5 MHz, peak current is ? 1.8 A, pulse duration is 1.3 ns. Small emittance of the 300 keV electron beam is ensured by the cathode-grid unit of tetrode type. The measured instability of electron bunches is less than 50 ps

  19. Long multi-cell rf guns as full scale injectors

    The behavior of single particle beam dynamics in long rf guns is discussed, mainly concerning the effect of rf focusing, relevant in a high gradient standing wave structure. An analytical transport matrix is derived and compared to simulations, showing that it is possible to transport the beam through the gun up to full scale injector energy (1 GeV) without the need for any other external focusing. (orig.)

  20. Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes

    We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N2, H2) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x1018 to 1020 atoms. Both the scattering angle (∝1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 1016 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (≥85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

  1. Pellet injector development at ORNL

    Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

  2. Pneumatic pellet injector for JET

    Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

  3. Pellet injector research at ORNL

    Advanced plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement devices are under development a the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range 1-2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumataic-based pellet fueling systems for two of the world's largest tokamak experiments, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). A new versatile centrifuge type injector is being readied at ORNL for use on the Tore Supra tokamak. Also, a new simplified eight-shot injector design has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). In addition to these confinement physics related activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets have already been demonstrated. This paper describes these ongoing activities. 25 refs., 9 figs

  4. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  5. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed

  6. Intensity Upgrade Plans for CERN-LHC Injectors

    Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    With LHC coming into operation very soon an upgrade plan for the whole CERN accelerator complex has been proposed to allow full exploitation of the LHC potential in the future as well as giving increased support to traditional and possible new experiments at lower beam energies. This plan foresees replacing during the period 2011 - 2017 all the accelerators in the LHC injector chain (Linac2,Booster, PS) by new machines (Linac4, SPL and PS2) except for the last - the SPS. In this scenario the SPS should be able to reliably accelerate twice higher beam intensity than achieved so far and therefore significant improvements to the machine performance, in addition to the increased injection energy due to PS2, should be found and implemented at the same time scale. The present status of proposals and ongoing studies for all accelerator injector chain is described with main emphasis on the SPS challenges and upgrade plans.

  7. Synchronization of the 14 kTon NOνA neutrino detector with the Fermilab NuMI beam

    The NOνA experiment is a neutrino oscillation experiment designed to measure parameters related to the neutrino mixing matrix, mass hierarchy and CP violation. The experiment measures neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions from the NuMI beam line at Fermilab in a Near Detector and a Far Detector located 810 kilometers away. Making these measurements requires precise synchronization of 344,064 channels in the Far Detector to an absolute wall time with a channel to channel variation of less then 10 ns. The experiment must correlate the presence of the relatively narrow neutrino beam in the detector with data readout. This paper will discuss the performance of the NOνA timing system during the first few months of operation at the Far Detector.

  8. Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector

    Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

    2010-04-01

    Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 ?m and 733 ?m with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 ?m and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

  9. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

  10. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Angiographic injector and syringe. 870.1650... injector and syringe. (a) Identification. An angiographic injector and syringe is a device that consists of a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the...

  11. An injector of solid hydrogen pellets

    An injector of solid hydrogen pellets was designed for experiments at the T-10 and T-15 tokamak fusion reactors. The injector consists of a helium low-temperature vessel, a barrel, an electrodynamic valve, a hydrogen feed system, a monitoring system with a velocity meter, a PZT transducer, a low-temperature thermometer, and a photographic camera. The hydrogen for a pellet is condensed in the barrel. The injector uses a fast valve, yielding a velocity of 2.07 km/sec at a moderate pressure of 12 MPa, which exceeds that of other facilities with comparable characteristics

  12. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  13. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  14. Improved performance of the ATA injector

    During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emission cathodes is we have increased the injector brightness by a factor of ten above the level we were able to reach using the low density plasma cathodes

  15. Analytical study on large-scale steam injector to next-generation BWR

    A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive device for water injection, such as the Passive Core Injection System (PCIS) or the Primary Loop Recirculation System with SI Driven Jet Pumps (PLR with SIDJP). The system needs no large turbo-machinery such as the current PLR pumps used in a PCV. The energy to drive the steam injector (SIDJP) is recovered as enthalpy of the feed water of a core. This is one of the great advantages of SIDJP: none of the driving energy for the PLR escapes to sea water or to air through the main turbine condenser. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Analysis of characteristics of the steam injector was conducted for both small-scale and large-scale injectors using newly developed separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code. The models for analysis were examined with Toshiba's test data for the low-pressure visualized-model test and high-pressure small-size model test. The analysis results showed the SIDJP could not work in the high-pressure range over 7 MPa, and discharged over 12 MPa even at the large-scale rated-flow rate of 61.1 kg/s (220 t/h). (author)

  16. Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector

    Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  17. Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

  18. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  19. Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO)...

  20. Liquid atomization by coaxial rocket injectors

    Sankar, S. V.; Brena De La Rosa, A.; Isakovic, A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    The atomization characteristics of a scaled-down version of a coaxial rocket injector was investigated using a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The injector was operated in the conventional mode with liquid being injected through its inner orifice and gas being injected through its outer annulus. The shearing action occurring at the liquid-gas interface causes the liquid jet to atomize. In this study, two different liquid-air systems, namely a water-air system and a liquid nitrogen-gaseous nitrogen system, were chosen for detailed investigation. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of the coaxial injector under different flow and geometric conditions. Specifically, the effects of injection gas pressure and the injector cavity size on variables such as the mean particle diameter, Sauter mean diameter, number density, volume flux, and velocity have been presented.

  1. Atomization characteristics of swirl injector sprays

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    Stable combustion within rocket engines is a continuing concern for designers of rocket engine systems. The swirl-coaxial injector has demonstrated effectiveness in achieving atomization and mixing, and therefore stable combustion. Swirl-coaxial injector technology is being deployed in the American RL1OA rocket design and Russian engine systems already make wide spread use of this technology. The present requirement for swirl injector research is derived from NASA's current Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program. This report describes some of the background and literature on this topic including drop size measurements, comparison with theoretical predictions, the effect of surface tension on the atomization process, and surface wave characteristics of liquid film at the exit of the injector.

  2. Triaxial Swirler Liquid Injector Development Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sierra Engineering Inc. (Sierra) believes that the subject triaxial liquid propellant swirl injector has the potential to meet many of NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO)...

  3. An introduction to photo-injector design

    A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Beam acceleration test of the HIMAC injector

    A heavy-ion synchrotron dedicated to medical use is under construction at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The injector system, comprising a PIG source, an ECR source, an RFQ linac, and an Alvarez linac of 100MHz, accelerates heavy ions with a charge-to-mass ratio as small as 1/7, up to 6 MeV/u. First operation of the injector system has shown satisfactory performance. (author)

  5. The high charge state injector for GSI

    A new injector for acceleration of U28+ to 1.4 MeV/u was designed. It consists of a 14.5 GHz ECR source, a 108 MHz RFQ linac and an interdigital H-type accelerator. The installation of the new linac was completed in 1991. The commissioning and first operational experience confirmed the overall performance of the new injector. Remaining problems are discussed. (Author) 8 figs., tab., 12 refs

  6. Membrane injector for a portable mass spectrometer

    Paper describes a system for a membrane injection into a portable mass-spectrometer used to determine the concentration of organic components in complex composition mixtures. One measured spectra of samples containing saturated hydrocarbons ranging from methane up to hexane. One compared the analysis results derived using both membrane and diaphragm injectors. One showed the promising future of application of membrane injectors in portable mass-spectrometers designed for the ecological monitoring and control of industrial processes

  7. Numerical simulation of an accelerator injector

    Accelerator injector designs have been evaluated using two computer codes. The first code self consistently follows relativistic particles in two dimensions. Fields are obtained in the Darwin model which includes inductive effects. This code is used to study cathode emission and acceleration to full injector voltage. The second code transports a fixed segment of a beam along the remainder of the beam line. Using these two codes the effects of electrode configuration on emittance, beam quality and beam transport have been studied

  8. Pellet injectors for a steady state fuelling

    Repetitive injectors providing a steady state plasma fuelling by an unlimited number of pellets have been designed for fusion devices. Several thousands of hydrogen pellets of 2 mm diameter each were made and accelerated to 0.6-0.8 km/s at a rate of 1-5 Hz with an average reliability over 92% by an injector equipped with a screw extruder. The extruder had a 8 cm3 working volume and was used for a continuous extrusion of over 500 cm3 of solid hydrogen with an average production rate of 63 mm3/s. Another injector consisted of a pipe gun with a porous unit producing solid hydrogen pellets for 1-2 s without any movable parts. Over two thousand hydrogen pellets of 2.4 mm diameter were accelerated to 1 km/s in this injector. A two-stage pellet injector with a cryogenic piston formed from carbon dioxide inside a pump tube has been designed and tested. Helium gas compression of over 300 MPa inside the pump tube and cellular plastic pellet velocities of about 2.5 km/s have been achieved in initial experiments. The injector designs and experimental results are presented. (authors)

  9. A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST

    A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

  10. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  11. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  12. A study of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam

    Marshall, John Stuart; /Cambridge U.

    2008-06-01

    This thesis presents the results of an analysis of {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with the MINOS experiment, which studies the neutrino beam produced by the NuMI facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are measured in two similar detectors, located at distances of 1 km and 735 km along the NuMI beamline. The Near Detector provides accurate measurements of the initial beam composition and energy, while the Far Detector is sensitive to the effects of neutrino oscillations. The analysis uses data collected between May 2005 and March 2007, corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. As part of the analysis, sophisticated software was developed to identify muon tracks in the detectors and to reconstruct muon kinematics. Events with reconstructed tracks were then analyzed using a multivariate technique to efficiently isolate a pure sample of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} events. An extrapolation method was also developed, which produces accurate predictions of the Far Detector neutrino energy spectrum, based on data collected at the Near Detector. Finally, several techniques to improve the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement were implemented, and a full study of the systematic uncertainties was performed. Extrapolating from observations at the Near Detector, 733 {+-} 29 Far Detector events were expected in the absence of oscillations, but only 563 events were observed. This deficit in event rate corresponds to a significance of 4.3 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and clear distortion of the Far Detector energy spectrum is observed. A maximum likelihood analysis, which fully accounts for systematic uncertainties, is used to determine the allowed regions for the oscillation parameters and identifies the best fit values as {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.29{sub -0.14}{sup +0.14} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.953 (68% confidence level). The models of neutrino decoherence and decay are disfavored at the 5.0{sigma} and 3.2{sigma} levels respectively, while the no oscillation model is excluded at the 9.4{sigma} level.

  13. Development and design of railgun system to pellet injector

    In this paper, the railgun systems for the application of pellet injector are investigated and developed in the experimental stage. One of the main features of our railgun systems is to employ a pulse laser beam to induce the initial plasma armature between rails to be accelerated. This unique feature provides the reduction of the supplied voltage to the breakdown between the rails and to reduce the erosion of the rails. This paper presents the current results of a the authors' experimental and theoretical research progress, and introduces the design study for electromagnetic railgun based on our research progress

  14. Status of Resistive Magnets in the LHC Injectors Chain

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Bauche, J; Zickler, T; Newborough, A; Sgobba, S; Lopez, R

    2010-01-01

    About 4650 normal conducting magnets are presently installed in the CERN accelerators complex, more than 3000 of them belonging to the LHC injector chain and 163 installed in the LHC. The oldest magnets have been in operation for 50 years, and some of them are submitted to aggressive conditions, either in terms of radiation, extreme water cooling conditions or temperature. The smallest magnets in the linacs weigh a few kilograms, whilst each of the main magnets of the Proton Synchrotron weighs 33 tons. The paper reviews the status of these magnets and gives some examples of findings and relevant recent actions undertaken to ensure their reliable operation in the coming years.

  15. Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

  16. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

  17. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    Lee, Jin Wook [Korea Institue of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Doug [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images.

  18. LTP fibre injector qualification and status

    This paper presents the current state of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) fibre injector qualification project in terms of vibration and shock tests. The fibre injector is a custom built part and therefore must undergo a full space qualification process. The mounting structure and method for sinusoidal vibration and random vibration tests as well as shock tests will be presented. Furthermore a proposal will be presented to use the fibre injector pair qualification model to build an optical prototype bench. The optical prototype bench is a full-scale model of the flight model. It will be used for development and rehearsal of all the assembly stages of the flight model and will provide an on-ground simulator for investigation as an updated engineering model.

  19. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Thuillier, T., E-mail: thuillier@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Angot, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Sole, P. [LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Canet, C.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jardin, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Biarrotte, J. L. [IPN Orsay, Université Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Denis, J.-F.; Roger, A.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D. [Irfu, CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SACM, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  20. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Biarrotte, J. L.; Canet, C.; Denis, J.-F.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jacob, J.; Jardin, P.; Lamy, T.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Peaucelle, C.; Roger, A.; Sole, P.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D.

    2016-02-01

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ˜50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  1. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  2. The Long-Term Beam Losses in the CERN Injector Chain

    Gilardoni, Simone; Benedetto, Elena; Damerau, Heiko; Forte, Vincenzo; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Goddard, Brennan; Hancock, Steven; Hanke, Klaus; Huschauer, Alexander; Kowalska, Magdalena; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Metral, Elias; Mikulec, Bettina; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Rumolo, Giovanni; Sterbini, Guido; Wasef, Raymond; Arduini, Gianluigi; Meddahi, Malika; Chapochnikova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    For the production of the LHC type beams, but also for the high intensity ones, the budget allocated to losses in the CERN injector chain is maintained as tight as possi- ble, in particular to keep as low as possible the activation of the different machine elements. Various beam dynamics effects, like for example beam interaction with betatronic resonances, beam instabilities, but also reduced efficiency of the RF capture processes or RF noise, can produce losses even on a very long time scale. The main different mecha- nisms producing long term losses observed in the CERN injectors, and their cure or mitigation, will be revised.

  3. High voltage power supplies for the neutral beam injectors of the stellarator TJ-II

    Neutral beam injection will be available for the second experimental phase of TJ-II. Two injectors, set in co-counter configuration, will inject into the plasma two 40 keV H0 beams, each of up to 1 MW. The two high voltage power supplies to feed the acceleration grids of the injectors, described in this paper, are of the transformer-rectifier type, taking their primary energy from a pulsed flywheel generator, and are coupled to the acceleration grids through a switching device. This environment effectively sets the main operation limits and protection requirements of the power supplies

  4. High voltage power supplies for the neutral beam injectors of the stellarator TJ-II

    Alonso, J. E-mail: gozalo@ciemat.es; Liniers, M.; Martinez Laso, L.; Jauregi, E.; Lucia, C.; Valcarcel, F

    2001-10-01

    Neutral beam injection will be available for the second experimental phase of TJ-II. Two injectors, set in co-counter configuration, will inject into the plasma two 40 keV H{sup 0} beams, each of up to 1 MW. The two high voltage power supplies to feed the acceleration grids of the injectors, described in this paper, are of the transformer-rectifier type, taking their primary energy from a pulsed flywheel generator, and are coupled to the acceleration grids through a switching device. This environment effectively sets the main operation limits and protection requirements of the power supplies.

  5. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PII) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structure. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ≅ 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A>0.1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 30Si7+, 40Ar11+, 132Xe13+, and 208Pb24+. For all of these, transmission through the injector linac was ≅ 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ≅ 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time. (orig.)

  6. A high resolution AMS-injector for the Pelletron in Lund

    R Bellborg; S Bazhal; M Faarinen; K Håkansson; C-E Magnusson; P Persson; G Skog; K Stenström

    2002-12-01

    A high resolution injector system has recently been installed at the Lund 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The new injector, designed mainly for 26Al ions, will increase the experimental potential of the Lund AMS facility considerably. High quality energy- and mass-resolution is obtained by using a 90° spherical electrostatic analyzer followed by a 90° magnetic analyzer. The injector is equipped with a high intensity sputtering source with a spherical ionizer. A new analytical technique for acceptance calculations as well as PC-based computational methods have been used in the design of the ion optical system of the new injector. Compared to our old injector system which has a magnetic analyzer with a bending angle of only 15°, the new system has a more than ten times better resolution. The beam optics of the new system is also better designed to match the accelerator acceptance. In this way the ion transmission from the ion source to the detector, for different ions of interest in our AMS programme, has been increased.

  7. BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun

    The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 πmm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%. (authors)

  8. BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun

    Liu, Sheng-Guang; Huang, Tong-Ming; Xu, Jin-Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 πmm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%.

  9. Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks

    Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

    1981-02-01

    An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

  10. Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks

    An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

  11. Beam dynamics design of the Compact Linear Collider Drive Beam injector

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics of the Drive Beam injector has been studied in detail and optimized. The injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by a bunching system, some accelerating structures, and a magnetic chicane. The bunching system contains three sub-harmonic bunchers, a prebuncher, and a traveling wave buncher all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field. The main characteristic of the Drive Beam injector is the phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system operating at half the acceleration frequency. This process is essential for the frequency multiplication of the Drive Beam. During the phase coding process the unwanted satellite bunches are produced that adversely affects the machine power efficiency. The main challenge is to reduce the population of particles in the satellite bunches in the presence of strong space-charge forces due to the high beam current. The simulation of the beam dynamics has been carried out with PARMELA with the goal of optimizing the injector performance compared to the existing model studied for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The emphasis of the optimization was on decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and limiting the beam emittance growth in transverse plane

  12. Beam dynamics design of the Compact Linear Collider Drive Beam injector

    Hajari, Sh. Sanaye, E-mail: ssanayeh@cern.ch [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Shaker, H. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Doebert, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), BE Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics of the Drive Beam injector has been studied in detail and optimized. The injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by a bunching system, some accelerating structures, and a magnetic chicane. The bunching system contains three sub-harmonic bunchers, a prebuncher, and a traveling wave buncher all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field. The main characteristic of the Drive Beam injector is the phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system operating at half the acceleration frequency. This process is essential for the frequency multiplication of the Drive Beam. During the phase coding process the unwanted satellite bunches are produced that adversely affects the machine power efficiency. The main challenge is to reduce the population of particles in the satellite bunches in the presence of strong space-charge forces due to the high beam current. The simulation of the beam dynamics has been carried out with PARMELA with the goal of optimizing the injector performance compared to the existing model studied for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The emphasis of the optimization was on decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and limiting the beam emittance growth in transverse plane.

  13. NOvA Proposal to Build a 30 Kiloton Off-Axis Detector to Study Neutrino Oscillations in the Fermilab NuMI Beamline

    Ayres, D

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated version of the NOvA proposal. The detector is a 30 kiloton tracking calorimeter, 15.7 m by 15.7 m by 132 m long, with alternating horizontal and vertical rectangular cells of liquid scintillator contained in PVC extrusion modules. Light from each 15.7 m long cell of liquid scintillator filled PVC is collected by a wavelength shifting fiber and routed to an avalanche photodiode pixel. The reach of NOvA for sin^2(2_theta_13) and related topics is increased relative to earlier versions of the proposal with the assumption of increased protons available from the Fermilab Main Injector following the end of Tevatron Collider operations in 2009.

  14. TJ-II neutral beam injectors control and data acquisition system

    The Control and Data Acquisition System for the Neutral Beam Injectors of TJ-II are described in this paper. The DAQ and Control architecture is based on a distributed system including VME-OS9 real-time computers and personal computers (PCs) with Linux and Windows NT. One OS9-VME local computer located near each injector performs the timing, local signal processing, signal interlock, and operation of the injector mechanical and electrical components. A main OS9-VME interfaces and controls some peripheral systems, such as the high voltage power supplies, water cooling, safety and protection systems. Control is performed from the OS9-VME machines, in which the software elements are basically C/C++ programs performing real time processing and a web server enabling access to the HTML pages acting as user graphic interface

  15. Challenges and Plans for the Proton Injectors

    Garoby, R

    2015-01-01

    The flexibility of the LHC injectors combined with multiple longitudinal beam gymnastics have significantly contributed to the excellent performance of the LHC during its first run, delivering beam with twice the ultimate brightness with 50 ns bunch spacing. To meet the requirements of the High Luminosity LHC, 25 ns bunch spacing is required, the intensity per bunch at injection has to double and brightness shall almost triple. Extensive hardware modifications or additions are therefore necessary in all accelerators of the injector complex, as well as new beam gymnastics.

  16. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  17. HIV Prevalence and Risk among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Injectors in California

    Kral, Alex H.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; LEWIS, MEGAN A.; Orr, Alexander; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2011-01-01

    This CDC-funded study compares HIV prevalence and risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine (n=428) and non-methamphetamine (n=878) injectors in California, USA during 2001–2003. While HIV was not highly prevalent among methamphetamine injectors (3%), sexual and injection risk behaviors were highly prevalent (ranging from 21% to 72%). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine injectors had higher odds than non-methamphetamine injectors of unprotected vaginal intercourse and sex with fi...

  18. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  19. Sensitivity and alternative operating point studies on a high charge CW FEL injector test stand at CEBAF

    A high charge CW FEL injector test stand is being built at CEBAF based on a 500 kV DC laser gun, a 1500 MHz room-temperature buncher, and a high-gradient (∼10 MV/m) CEBAF cryounit containing two 1500 MHz CEBAF SRF cavities. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations show that this injector should be an excellent high-brightness electron beam source for CW UV FELs if the nominal parameters assigned to each component of the system are experimentally achieved. Extensive sensitivity and alternative operating point studies have been conducted numerically to establish tolerances on the parameters of various injector system components. The consequences of degraded injector performance, due to failure to establish and/or maintain the nominal system design parameters, on the performance of the main accelerator and the FEL itself are discussed

  20. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices 870.1670 Syringe actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical...

  1. Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors

    Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen

  2. Spray features in the near field of a flow-blurring injector investigated by high-speed visualization and time-resolved PIV

    Jiang, Lulin; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2015-05-01

    In a flow-blurring (FB) injector, atomizing air stagnates and bifurcates at the gap upstream of the injector orifice. A small portion of the air penetrates into the liquid supply line to create a turbulent two-phase flow. Pressure drop across the injector orifice causes air bubbles to expand and burst thereby disintegrating the surrounding liquid into a fine spray. In previous studies, we have demonstrated clean and stable combustion of alternative liquid fuels, such as biodiesel, straight vegetable oil and glycerol by using the FB injector without requiring fuel pre-processing or combustor hardware modification. In this study, high-speed visualization and time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are employed to investigate the FB spray in the near field of the injector to delineate the underlying mechanisms of atomization. Experiments are performed using water as the liquid and air as the atomizing gas for air to liquid mass ratio of 2.0. Flow visualization at the injector exit focused on a field of view with physical dimensions of 2.3 mm 1.4 mm at spatial resolution of 7.16 m per pixel, exposure time of 1 s, and image acquisition rate of 100 k frames per second. Image sequences illustrate mostly fine droplets indicating that the primary breakup by FB atomization likely occurs within the injector itself. A few larger droplets appearing mainly at the injector periphery undergo secondary breakup by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Time-resolved PIV is applied to quantify the droplet dynamics in the injector near field. Plots of instantaneous, mean, and root-mean-square droplet velocities are presented to reveal the secondary breakup process. Results show that the secondary atomization to produce fine and stable spray is complete within a few diameters from the injector exit. These superior characteristics of the FB injector are attractive to achieve clean combustion of different fuels in practical systems.

  3. Challenges and Plans for the Ion Injectors

    Manglunki, D

    2015-01-01

    We review the performance of the ion injector chain in the light of the improvements which will take place in the near future, and we derive the expected luminosity gain for PbPb collisions in the collider during the HL-LHC era.

  4. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  5. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  6. Pellet injector research and development at ORNL

    A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ∼1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

  7. Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters

    The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope

  8. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be rapidly scaled from small in-space applications [500-5,000 lbf (2.2 22.2 kN)] to large thrust engine applications [80,000 lbf (356 kN) and beyond]. The triaxial injector is also less sensitive to eccentricities, manufacturing tolerances, and gap width of many traditional coaxial and pintle injector designs. The triaxial-injector injection orifice configuration provides for high injection stiffness. The low parts count and relatively large injector design features are amenable to low-cost production.

  9. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the NuMI Beam with the NOvA Experiment

    Niner, Evan David [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two functionally identical detectors separated by 810 kilometers at locations 14 milliradians o -axis from the NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab. At these locations the beam energy peaks at 2 GeV. This baseline is the longest in the world for an accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment, which enhances the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering. The experiment studies oscillations of the muon neutrino and anti-neutrino beam that is produced. Both detectors completed commissioning in the summer of 2014 and continue to collect data. One of the primary physics goals of the experiment is the measurement of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam which yields measurements of the oscillation parameters sin213, δ , and the neutrino mass ordering within the standard model of neutrino oscillations. This thesis presents the analysis of data collected between February 2014 and May 2015, corresponding to 3.52 X 1020 protons-on-target. In this first analysis NOvA recorded 6 electron neutrino candidates which is a 3.3σ observation of electron neutrino appearance. The T2K experiment performs the same measurement on a baseline of 295 kilometers and has a 1 σ preference for the normal mass ordering over the inverted ordering over the phase space of the CP violating parameter δ , which is also weakly seen in the NOvA result. By the summer of 2016 NOvA will triple its statistics due to increased beam power and a completed detector. If electron neutrinos continue to be observed at the current rate NOvA will be able to establish a mass ordering preference at a similar con dence level to T2K.

  10. Transient beam dynamics in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 2 MV injector

    A driver-scale injector for the heavy ion fusion accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (above 2 MV), high current (more than 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (less than 1 ? mm mrad). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge-dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun pre-injector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot alumino-silicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and to avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 ?s, and is reversed to turn off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several microseconds), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the particle-in-cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3D in a time-dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation is WARP3D of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented. (orig.)

  11. Measurements of Inclusive Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged Current Differential Cross Sections on Argon in the NuMI Antineutrino Beam

    Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Hatcher, R; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

    2014-01-01

    The ArgoNeuT collaboration presents measurements of inclusive muon neutrino and antineutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon in the Fermilab NuMI beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum at a mean neutrino energy of 9.6 GeV (neutrinos) and 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos), in the range $0^\\circ < \\theta_\\mu < 36^\\circ$ and $0 < p_\\mu < 25$ GeV/$c$, for both neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  12. Performance potential of the injectors after LS1

    The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU Project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects etc. in the SPS. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons into the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160 MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB-PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than nominal luminosity in the LHC. (authors)

  13. Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector - Progress and prospect

    A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  14. Performance potential of the injectors after LS1

    Bartosik, H; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Mikulec, B; Raginel, V; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

    2012-01-01

    The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons in the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB to PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than no...

  15. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  16. SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors

    An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R and D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment.The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R and D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

  17. Initial Commissioning Results of the RTA Injector

    Eylon, Shmuel; Henestroza, Enrique; Lidia, Steve; Vanecek, David; Yu, Simon; Houck, Tim; Westenskow, Glenn

    1999-11-01

    The creation of the drive beam remains one of the most challenging technical endeavors in constructing two-beam accelerators. The RTA (Relativistic Klystron Two Beam Accelerator) test experiment will enable the study of the special drive beam issues. We have begun testing the 1.2-kA, 1.0-MeV electron induction injector for the RTA experiment. The electron source is a 3.5-inch diameter, thermionic, flat-surface dispenser cathode with a designed maximum shroud electrical field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. The pulse length of the injector is approximately 250 ns, with a 120-150-ns flattop region. We report here the performance of the pulsed power system and cathode. In particular, we present measurements of the perveance, emittance and current density profile.

  18. The ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector project

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions

  19. Computer controlled high-voltage injector

    Constantin, F.; Dumitru, M.; Korschinek, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the operation, under active computer control, of a high-voltage (400 kV) injector. The automation system uses a microcomputer placed on the high-voltage deck of the ion source, which takes over some of the process control decisions, and a master IBM-PC at ground potential. Various ion beams (p, H+2, H+3, d, He+, He2+) have been produced, proving the reliability of the system. A maximum value of 460 kV accelerating potential has been reached during the tests. The beam fulfills the requirements for the operation of a room-temperature IH linac. By using a modular expandable computer system the acceleration voltage is continuously adjusted keeping its standard error within 0.1%. A future enlargement of the injector has been taken into account and the upgrading of the control system for an electron cyclotron resonance ion source would be very simple.

  20. Flash X-Ray Injector Study

    Paul, A C

    2004-03-26

    The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

  1. LS1 Report: injectors 2.0

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

  2. Electron injector designs for light source

    This paper presents two electron linacs injectors with emphasis on the beam line designs. They make use of 100 MeV units each made of a 6 m TW accelerating waveguide powered by a 37 MW klystron. The high stored energy reduces the beam loading at short pulse duration. Overall length and cost are reduced. The first injector is part of a lithography source built for IBM. Its reliable design includes a subharmonic chopper/prebuncher. The second one will deliver more than 2.5 A in less than 2ns at 200 MeV within an energy spread of 1% for positrons production at ESRF. The designs aims to high currents at low emmitances. This may open in the future their uses for FEL

  3. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

  4. Adjustable Powder Injector For Vacuum Plasma Sprayer

    Burns, D. H.; Woodford, W. H.; Mckechnie, T. N.; Mcferrin, D. C.; Davis, W. M.; Beason, G. P., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Attachment for plasma spray gun provides four degrees of freedom for adjustment of position and orientation at which powder injected externally into plasma flame. Manipulator provides for adjustment of pitch angle of injection tube: set to inject powder at any angle ranging from perpendicular to parallel to cylindrical axis. Scribed lines on extension bar and manipulator indicate pitch angle of extension tube. Collar changed to adapt injector to different gun.

  5. The electron test accelerator beam injector

    A beam chopper and buncher system has been designed to improve the capture efficiency and reduce the beam spill in the Electron Test Accelerator. The buncher increases the dc beam capture from 30 to 70%. 100% beam transmission through the accelerator structures is obtained with the chopper. This report describes results of experimental tests with the beam injector. Results from computer modeling and from measurements with prototypes that have led to the design of the beam chopper and buncher system are discussed

  6. Quantum interference hybrid spin-current injector

    Giazotto, F.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a quantum interference spin-injector nanodevice consisting of a superconductor-normal metal hybrid loop connected to a superconductor- ferromagnet bilayer via a tunneling junction. We show that for certain values of the applied voltage bias across the tunnel barrier and the magnetic flux through the loop, the spin-current can be fully polarized. Moreover, by tuning the magnetic flux, one can switch the sign of the spin polarization. This operation can be performed at frequencies wi...

  7. Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors

    Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  8. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  9. 30 degree injectors at hypervelocity conditions

    Loomis, Mark P.; Zambrana, Horacio A.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Tam, Tim C.; Cavolowsky, John A.; Newfield, Mark E.; Bittner, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of the first high-speed propulsion-related experiments performed in the NASA-Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel, designed to simulate combustor inlet conditions at approximately Mach 14. Results demonstrate the capability of the tunnel for high-speed propulsion testing and yield data on the performance of 30-deg flush wall injectors tested in the tunnel. The experimental results are compared with those of a CFD analysis.

  10. The injector of the superconducting linac LISA

    The injector of the LNF project LISA (LInear Superconducting Accelerator) is a room temperature system, consisting of a 100 keV gun, a transport line with chopper and prebuncher systems, a capture section (a graded-β 2.5 GHz structure) which accelerates the beam to 1.1 MeV, and an isochronous and achromatic transport line which injects the beam into the SC-Linac after a π-bending. The status of the project is presented

  11. Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

    A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described

  12. Plans for ions in the injector complex

    The heavy ion beams required during the HL-LHC era will imply significant modifications to the existing injector chain. We review the various options, highlighting the importance of an early definition of the future needs and keeping in mind the compatibility with the rest of the future CERN physics programme. It appears that with the present injector complex, increasing the number of bunches seems to be the only route for a marginally higher luminosity, and at the expense of a longer LHC filling time. A solution exists to produce up to 3.5 times the current peak luminosity, i.e. about 7*1027 cm-2.s-1 at 7 ZTeV/c per beam, but it necessitates an upgrade of the beam production stage (ECR source and/or Linac3) and of the SPS injection kicker. If we are to implement the suggested improvements in order to reach the required Pb-Pb luminosity (provided the LHC can digest it), it is more than time to start the RnD on all parts of the injector chain. Ar and Xe will be available after LS1 (parameter list still to be defined and optimised) but other species, if desired, would come in addition, and require more studies, in particular a new source and pre-accelerator for deuterons, or safety and handling issues for Uranium

  13. Ramp injector scale effects on supersonic combustion

    Trebs, Adam

    The combustion field downstream of a 10 degree compression ramp injector has been studied experimentally using wall static pressure measurement, OH-PLIF, and 2 kHz intensified video filtered for OH emission at 320 nm. Nominal test section entrance conditions were Mach 2, 131 kPa static pressure, and 756K stagnation temperature. The experiment was equipped with a variable length inlet duct that facilitated varying the boundary layer development length while the injector shock structure in relation to the combustor geometry remained nearly fixed. As the boundary within an engine varies with flight condition and does not scale linearly with the physical scale of the engine, the boundary layer scale relative to mixing structures of the engine becomes relevant to the problem of engine scaling and general engine performance. By varying the boundary layer thickness from 40% of the ramp height to 150% of the ramp height, changes in the combustion flowfield downstream of the injector could be diagnosed. It was found that flame shape changed, the persistence of the vortex cores was reduced, and combustion efficiency rose as the incident boundary layer grew.

  14. RLIUP: Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans

    Zimmermann, F; RLIUP Workshop

    2014-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the "Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans" (RLIUP), held in the Centre de Convention, Archamps, France, 29–31 October 2013. The RLIUP examined the parameters of the LIU and HL-LHC projects following the experience and changes in the beam parameters experienced over the previous two years. It discussed which level of integrated luminosity will necessitate a replacement of the inner detectors and the insertions, the importance of reaching 3000 $fb^{-1}$ or the minimum integrated luminosity which would be tolerated. The main outcome of RLIUP is a staged path from the LHC performance at the end of 2012 to the required performance for the HL-LHC, along with a number of important recommendations on the work organization of the coming years.

  15. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    A Positive-Ion Injector (PH) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structures. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ∼ 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A > 0. 1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 3OSi7+, 40Arll+, 132Xe13+, and 208Pb24+. For all of these, transmission through the injecter linac was ∼ 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ∼ 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time

  16. An integrated aerodynamic-ramp-injector/plasma-torch-igniter for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels

    Jacobsen, Lance Steven

    The first integrated, flush-wall, aero-ramp-fuel-injector/plasma-torch igniter and flame propagation system for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels was developed and tested. The main goal of this project was to develop a device which could be used to demonstrate that the correct placement of a plasma-torch-igniter/flame-holder in the wake of the fuel jets of an aero-ramp injector array could make sustained, efficient supersonic combustion with low losses and thermal loading possible in a high enthalpy environment. The first phase of the research effort was conducted at Mach 3.0 at a static pressure and temperature of 0.19 atm and 101 K. This phase involved component analyses to improve on the designs of the aero-ramp and plasma-torch as well as address integration and incorporation difficulties. The information learned from these experiments lead to the creation of the first prototype integrated aero-ramp/plasma torch design featuring a new simplified four-hole aero-ramp design. The second phase of the project consisted of experiments at Mach 2.4 involving a cold-flow mixing evaluation of the new aero-ramp design and a resizing of the device for incorporation into a scramjet flow path test rig at the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL). Experiments were performed at a static pressure and temperature of 0.25 atm and 131 K, and at injector-jet to freestream momentum flux ratios ranging from 1.0 to 3.3. Results showed the aero-ramp to mix at a considerably faster rate than the injector used in the AFRL baseline combustor configuration due to high levels of vorticity created by the injector array. The last phase of the research involved testing the final device design in a cold-flow environment at Mach 2.4 with ethylene fuel injection and an operational plasma torch with methane, nitrogen, a 90-percent nitrogen 10-percent hydrogen (by volume) mixture, and air feedstock gases. Experiments were performed with injector jet to freestream momentum flux ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.3, and 1.2 with the plasma torch at a nominal power level 2000 watts. Overall, the final integrated design showed a high mixing efficiency and a higher potential for repeatable main fuel ignition and flame propagation with the plasma torch placed at the middle of the three downstream torch stations tested ( x/dinjector = 8 downstream from the center of the injector area), with nitrogen as the torch feedstock. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels

    Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an EulerianEulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

  18. Initial use of the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    The positive-ion injector of ATLAS consists of an ECR heavy-ion source coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac. The ECR source and a 3-MV version of the partially completed linac have been used to accelerate successfully several species of heavy ions. The operating experience is summarized, with emphasis on the excellent beam quality of beams from the new injector. Two new fast-timing detectors are described. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. 2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.

    2004-11-10

    High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

  20. RF Design of the TW Buncher for the CLIC Drive Beam Injector

    Shaker, H

    2015-01-01

    The CLIC is based on the two beams concept that one beam (drive beam) produces the required RF power to accelerate another beam (main beam). The drive beam is produced and accelerated up to 50MeV inside the CLIC drive beam injector. The drive beam injector main components are a thermionic electron gun, three sub harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher, a TW buncher, 13 accelerating structures and one magnetic chicane. This document is the first report of the RF structure design of the TW buncher. This design is based on the beam dynamic design done by Shahin Sanaye Hajari due to requirements mentioned in CLIC CDR. A disk-loaded tapered structure is chosen for the TW buncher. The axial electric field increases strongly based on the beam dynamic requirements. This report includes the design of the power couplers. The fundamental mode beam loading and higher order modes effect were preliminary studied.

  1. Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector

    A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m2) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m2), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

  2. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by these investigators to be very valuable for code validation because combustion kinetics, turbulence models and atomization models based on low pressure experiments of hydrogen air combustion do not adequately verify analytical or CFD submodels which are necessary to simulate rocket engine combustion. We wish to emphasize that the simulations which we prepared for this meeting are meant to test the accuracy of the approximations used in our general purpose spray combustion models, rather than represent a definitive analysis of each of the experiments which were conducted. Our goal is to accurately predict local temperatures and mixture ratios in rocket engines; hence predicting individual experiments is used only for code validation. To replace the conventional JANNAF standard axisymmetric finite-rate (TDK) computer code 2 for performance prediction with CFD cases, such codes must posses two features. Firstly, they must be as easy to use and of comparable run times for conventional performance predictions. Secondly, they must provide more detailed predictions of the flowfields near the injector face. Specifically, they must accurately predict the convective mixing of injected liquid propellants in terms of the injector element configurations.

  3. MAINE AQUIFERS

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  4. High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders

    The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with NB particles per bunch, spaced a distance SB apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed ?c, the luminosity is given by L = NB2?c/4??2SB, where ? is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity ? is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and ? is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of ? and SB, requires a large value for the ratio NB2/var-epsilon n, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed NB, the luminosity can be increased if var-epsilon n can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider

  5. Charge injectors of ALICE Silicon Drift Detector

    Large area, 7.25x8.76cm2, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) has been developed for the ALICE experiment at CERN [A. Vacchi, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 306 (1991) 187; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 461 (2001) 133-138; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 485 (2002) 54; P. Burger, C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Roncastri, A. Vacchi, INFN/TC-02/07; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, INFN/TC-02/08; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, D. Nouais, INFN/TC-00/04. C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Vacchi, ALICE-INT-2002-15, 2002; Inner Tracking System, CERN/LHCC, June 1999]. SDDs form two out of six cylindrical layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The 260 high-quality SDDs needed to equip these two layers have been selected. One of the detector design elements devoted to allow controlled operating conditions is the on-board arrays of point-like charge injectors [D. Nouais, et al., CERN-ALICE-PUB-99-31; V. Bonvicini, et al., Il Nuovo Cimento 112AN (1-2) (1999) 137-146]. In the case of an SDD they are essential to trace, with the required frequency and precision, the changes in drift velocity induced by temperature variations. In order to ensure operating stability during the 10 years of the ALICE experiment the bias scheme of the charge injectors exploits the electrical properties not only of a detector itself, but also those of the cables mounted onto it, thus constituting a module. Computer simulations of the equivalent circuit revealed a significant improvement of the injection efficiency. Subsequent experimental tests of the first assembled modules confirmed the predicted performances. We report the layout of the charge injectors integrated in the ALICE SDD, as well as test results

  6. Charge injectors of ALICE Silicon Drift Detector

    Rashevsky, A.; Batigne, G.; Beole, S.; Coli, S.; Crescio, E.; Deremigis, P.; Giraudo, G.; Mazza, G.; Prino, F.; Riccati, L.; Rivetti, A.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Vacchi, A.; Wheadon, R.; Zampa, G.

    2007-03-01

    Large area, 7.25×8.76 cm2, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) has been developed for the ALICE experiment at CERN [A. Vacchi, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 306 (1991) 187; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 461 (2001) 133-138; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 485 (2002) 54; P. Burger, C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Roncastri, A. Vacchi, INFN/TC-02/07; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, INFN/TC-02/08; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, D. Nouais, INFN/TC-00/04. C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Vacchi, ALICE-INT-2002-15, 2002; Inner Tracking System, CERN/LHCC, June 1999]. SDDs form two out of six cylindrical layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The 260 high-quality SDDs needed to equip these two layers have been selected. One of the detector design elements devoted to allow controlled operating conditions is the on-board arrays of point-like charge injectors [D. Nouais, et al., CERN-ALICE-PUB-99-31; V. Bonvicini, et al., Il Nuovo Cimento 112AN (1-2) (1999) 137-146]. In the case of an SDD they are essential to trace, with the required frequency and precision, the changes in drift velocity induced by temperature variations. In order to ensure operating stability during the 10 years of the ALICE experiment the bias scheme of the charge injectors exploits the electrical properties not only of a detector itself, but also those of the cables mounted onto it, thus constituting a module. Computer simulations of the equivalent circuit revealed a significant improvement of the injection efficiency. Subsequent experimental tests of the first assembled modules confirmed the predicted performances. We report the layout of the charge injectors integrated in the ALICE SDD, as well as test results.

  7. Charge injectors of ALICE Silicon Drift Detector

    Rashevsky, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: alexander.rashevsky@ts.infn.it; Batigne, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Beole, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Coli, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Crescio, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Deremigis, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Giraudo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Mazza, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Prino, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Riccati, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Rivetti, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Toscano, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Tosello, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Vacchi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Wheadon, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Zampa, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Trieste, Padriciano 99, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    Large area, 7.25x8.76cm{sup 2}, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) has been developed for the ALICE experiment at CERN [A. Vacchi, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 306 (1991) 187; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 461 (2001) 133-138; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 485 (2002) 54; P. Burger, C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Roncastri, A. Vacchi, INFN/TC-02/07; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, INFN/TC-02/08; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, D. Nouais, INFN/TC-00/04. C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Vacchi, ALICE-INT-2002-15, 2002; Inner Tracking System, CERN/LHCC, June 1999]. SDDs form two out of six cylindrical layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The 260 high-quality SDDs needed to equip these two layers have been selected. One of the detector design elements devoted to allow controlled operating conditions is the on-board arrays of point-like charge injectors [D. Nouais, et al., CERN-ALICE-PUB-99-31; V. Bonvicini, et al., Il Nuovo Cimento 112AN (1-2) (1999) 137-146]. In the case of an SDD they are essential to trace, with the required frequency and precision, the changes in drift velocity induced by temperature variations. In order to ensure operating stability during the 10 years of the ALICE experiment the bias scheme of the charge injectors exploits the electrical properties not only of a detector itself, but also those of the cables mounted onto it, thus constituting a module. Computer simulations of the equivalent circuit revealed a significant improvement of the injection efficiency. Subsequent experimental tests of the first assembled modules confirmed the predicted performances. We report the layout of the charge injectors integrated in the ALICE SDD, as well as test results.

  8. An induction linac injector for scaled experiments

    An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig

  9. Control system of SPring-8 injector LINAC

    In the present accelerators, it is necessary for us to construct the advanced control system. Because the beam specification is requested to get higher quality. The SPring-8 injector LINAC, will be completed in 1996, has also some requirements and future plans which except for the injection. Whatever requests, the control system have to keep up with a efficient improvement. It means that the control system must be constructed a flexible one. In this case, we have carried out the LINAC control system in accordance with the present state of the Software Technology. In this paper, the status of our software project which accord with the Software Technology is described. (author)

  10. Laser ignition in an LPP-injector

    El-Rabii, H.; Rolon, J.C.; Lacas, F. [Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. EM2C Grande Voie des Vignes; Zaehringer, K. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Stroemungstechnik

    2005-07-01

    Laser-induced spark ignition is an alternative way for ignition compared to conventional electrical spark ignition. The feasibility of laser spark ignition of a lean premixed prevaporized injector, similar to those used in low-NO{sub x} air jet engines is show in this paper. Liquid n-heptane is used as fuel in preheated air with a high level of turbulence. Starting form the theory of the ignition process, special attention is given to the minimal ignition energies for different positions in the combustion chamber. Shadowgraphy visualisation and spontaneous emission of ignition events is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  11. Fuel-injector/air-swirl characterization

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.; Russell, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on the characteristics of the spray produced by a gas-turbine engine airblast fuel injector are reported. The data acquired include the mass-flux distribution measured by use of a high-resolution spray patternator; the gas-phase velocity field measured by use of a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter, and the liquid droplet size and velocity distributions measured by use of a single-component phase-Doppler anemometer. The data are intended for use in assessments of two-phase flow computational methods as applied to combustor design procedures.

  12. The new-generation of solenoid injectors equipped with pressure-balanced pilot valves for energy saving and dynamic response improvement

    Highlights: • Distinct pilot-valve setups, typical of modern Common Rail injectors, are compared. • The analysis focuses on injector static leakages and the injector dynamic response. • Experimental results are integrated or explained by means of simulation data. - Abstract: A numerical–experimental analysis on a new generation of hydraulically controlled servo solenoid injectors for Euro 6 Diesel engine applications has been carried out. The main innovation of these high-pressure injectors is the replacement of the standard pilot-valve configuration with a pressure-balanced layout. The new setup is aimed at reducing clearance leakages and at improving the dynamic response of the needle to the electrical command. A previously developed advanced one-dimensional code for the simulation of Common Rail injection systems has been adapted to simulate the innovative injectors. In particular, electromagnetic, hydraulic and mechanical submodels have been set up for the pressure-balanced pilot-valve simulation. The validated numerical model of the injector has been applied to investigate the mechanics of the pressure-balanced pilot-valve and the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the needle to some of the innovative pilot-valve layout design parameters. Furthermore, the developed simulation tool has been used to examine the real impact that the replacement of the standard pilot-valve layout with a pressure-balanced one could have on the injected flow-rate performance. The comparative investigation between the standard and the innovative pilot-valve has been completed with an analysis of their experimental static leakages. A comparison has also been made with static leakages measured for hydraulically-controlled servo piezoelectric injectors. Finally, a simple and accurate thermodynamic flow model has been developed to predict static leakages in indirect-acting solenoid and piezoelectric injectors. This model has pointed out the significant dependence of static leakages on temperature and pressure

  13. Main Facilities

    This chapter discuss on main nuclear facilities available in the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). As a national research institute whose core activities are nuclear science and technology, MINT are made up of main commercializable radiation irradiators, pilot plant and fully equipped laboratories. Well elaboration on its characteristics and functions explain for RTP (PUPSPATI TRIGA reactors), Cobalt-60 gamma irradiator, electron beam accelerators, and radioactive waste management center

  14. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  15. Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Multi-beam injector development at LBL

    LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

  17. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Richard C Pardo; J Bogaty; B E Clifft; S Sherementov; P Strickhorn

    2002-12-01

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PII has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted rf bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission-line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  18. Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Kugel, H W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M; Blanchard, W; Bush, C; Gernhardt, R; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Majeski, R; Menard, J; Provost, T; Sichta, P; Raman, R

    2005-09-30

    A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 10{sup 21} particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5{sup o}-25{sup o} have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis.

  19. Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling

    A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 1021 particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5o-25o have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis

  20. Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance

    Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4+, Ne 3+, and He 2+ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4+ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 π cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary RF bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic RF bucket. Total capture and transport through the PII has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted RF bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission-line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38. (author)

  2. Study on mechanism of condensation heat transfer of water jet in steam injector. Radiation between waves on the jet surface and heat transfer

    Characteristics of a steam injector and steam condensation phenomena on water jet surface in the steam injector were experimentally examined. In visual experiments of behavior of the water jet in the steam injector, many large waves were observed on the water jet surface. The waves showed the tendency to grow as those proceeded downstream. Direct steam condensation on to the water jet surface in the steam injector was mainly controlled by radial heat transport in the water jet. The radial heat transport in the water jet was considerably more effective than that in the usual turbulent heat transport in a pipe. It was pointed out that this highly effective radial heat transport mechanism was created by local circulation in the water jet that was produced by waves on the water jet surface. Waves on the jet surface ware examined. Based on it, the heat transfer correlation of the jet flow accompanying the direct condensation of steam on the surface was proposed. (author)

  3. Letter of intent to build an off-axis detector to study νμ ---> νe oscillations with the NuMI neutrino beam

    The NuMI neutrino beam line and the MINOS experiment represent a major investment of US High Energy Physics in the area of neutrino physics. The forthcoming results could decisively establish neutrino oscillations as the underlying physics mechanism for the atmospheric νμ deficit and provide a precise measurement of the corresponding oscillation parameters, dmsq23 and sinsq2t23 neutrino sector may well be within our reach. The full potential of the NuMI neutrino beam can be exploited by complementing the MINOS detector, under construction, with a new detector(s) placed at some off-axis position and collecting data in parallel with MINOS. The first phase of the proposed program includes a new detector, optimized for νe detection, with a fiducial mass of the order of 20 kton and exposed to neutrino and antineutrino beams. In a five year run its sensitivity to the numutonue oscillations will be at least a factor of ten beyond the current limit. The future direction of the program will depend on the results of this first phase, but it is very likely that it will be a combination of a significant increase of the neutrino beam intensity via an upgraded proton source and an increase of the detector mass by a factor of five or so. Depending on the circumstances, the goals of Phase II may be a further increase of the sensitivity of a search for numutonue oscillations, or, perhaps, a measurement of the CP violating phase δ in the lepton sector

  4. Development of a high average current rf linac thermionic injector

    Gold, S. H.; Ting, A.; Jabotinski, V.; Zhou, B.; Sprangle, P.

    2013-08-01

    Thermionic electron guns are capable of operating at high average currents in a variety of vacuum electronic applications, including conventional microwave tubes, but have been replaced by laser photocathode injectors for most applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. However, while laser photocathode guns are capable of providing the very high-brightness beams, they provide an increased level of system complexity and do not extrapolate well to injectors for high average current applications requiring high beam quality. We are developing a 714 MHz injector based on a gridded thermionic electron gun for these applications. This paper presents an experimental study, computer simulations, and analysis of the performance of an existing gridded thermionic electron gun as an injector prototype, and a design concept for an improved injector configuration based on these results.

  5. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

  6. Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?

    The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities. (authors)

  7. Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies.

    Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H; Doak, R B

    2012-03-01

    We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 ?m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented. PMID:22462961

  8. Coaxial injector spray characterization using water/air as simulants

    Zaller, Michelle M.; Klem, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is required to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability of liquid propellant rocket engines. An experimental program is being conducted at NASA-Lewis to measure the drop size and velocity distributions in shear coaxial injector sprays. A phase/Doppler interferometer is used to obtain drop size data in water air shear coaxial injector sprays. Droplet sizes and axial component of droplet velocities are measured at different radii for various combinations of water flow rate, air flow rate, injector liquid jet diameter, injector annular gap, and liquid post recess. Sauter mean diameters measured in the spray center 51 mm downstream of the liquid post tip range from 28 to 68 microns, and mean axial drop velocities at the same location range from 37 to 120 m/s. The shear coaxial injector sprays show a high degree of symmetry; the mean drop size and velocity profiles vary with liquid flow rate, post recess, and distance from the injector face. The drop size data can be used to estimate liquid oxygen/hydrogen spray drop sizes by correcting property differences between water-air and liquid oxygen/hydrogen.

  9. Injector Research at the Advanced Photon Source

    Lewellen, John

    2003-04-01

    During the past several years, various techniques for improving the operational capabilities of high-brightness electron beam sources have been explored at the Advanced Photon Source. Areas of particular emphasis include novel methods of longitudinal phase space control, reduced emittance via blunt-needle cathodes, and alternate cavity geometries for improved source reliability and fabrication. To date most of this work has been computationally based, and a sampling of the results is presented. The APS injector test stand, now undergoing commissioning, will allow the experimental exploration of these and other aspects of high-brightness beam production and preservation. The capabilities of the test stand, along with an initial experimental schedule, will also be presented.

  10. The JET multi-pellet injector launcher

    Under a collaborative agreement between the Joint European Torus JET and the United States Department of Energy US DOE, JET and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) jointly built a multi-pellet injector for fuelling and re-fuelling of the JET plasma. A three-barrel repetitive pneumatic pellet Launcher - built by ORNL - is attached to a JET pellet launcher-machine interface (in short: Pellet Interface) which is the subject of this paper. The present Launcher-Interface combination provides deuterium or hydrogen injection at moderate pellet speeds for the next two operational periods on JET. The Pellet Interface, however, takes into account the future requirements of JET. It was designed to allow the attachment of the high speed pellet launchers now under development at JET and complies with the requirements of remote handling and tritium operation. In addition, the use of tritium pellets is being considered

  11. Injector upgrade for the S-DALINAC

    The injector section of the S-DALINAC currently delivers beams of up to 10 MeV w ith a current of up to 60?A. The upgrade aims to increase both parameters to 14 MeV and 150?A in order to allow more demanding experiments. Therefor e, a modified cryostat module equipped with two new cavities is required. Due to an increase in rf power to 2 kW the old coaxial rf input couplers, being design ed for a maximum power of 500 W, have to be replaced by new waveguide couplers. We review the design principles and report on the fabrication of the cavities an d the whole module

  12. Injector for LISA [LInear Superconducting Accelerator

    The injector of the LNF project LISA (LInear Superconducting Accelerator) is a room temperature system, consisting of a transport line for the beam at 100 KeV, of a capture section (a graded-β 2.5 GHz structure) which accelerates the beam to 1 MeV, and of an isochronous and achromatic transport line which injects the beam into the SC-Linac after a π-bending. The 100 keV beam delivered by the gun is composed of 1ms long macropulses. It is then chopped by a system of double choppers (50 and 500 MHz) which selects about 1% of the total beam, and bunched by a 500 MHz prebuncher which squeezes the bunch length to about 2 mm in order to obtain the peak current required by the FEL. 7 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  13. ATLAS positive-ion injector proposal

    The ATLAS facility will provide beams of heavy-ions through approximately mass 130. Energies provided will range from over 20 MeV/A for lighter ions down to approximately 5 MeV/A for mass 130. In discussions with our user group concerning future program needs, two major areas of focus emerged. The first was a desire to increase the beam intensities available by approximately a factor of ten beyond what is possible from our present negative-ion source and tandem injector for all ion species. The second was to obtain beams of at least 10 MeV/A energy for all possible masses through uranium. These features were desired without compromising the presnt qualities of the ATLAS facility: good beam quality, ease of operation, and continuous (DC) operation. The facility which has been proposed to address these goals consists of replacing the negative-ion injector and FN tandem with a positive-ion source and a superconducting linac of a new design which makes use of the high field gradients possible with superconducting structures. The positive-ion source proposed is an electron cyclotron resonance source mounted on a high-voltage platform, providing a 350-kV potential for preacceleration of the ions. This will produce, for example, uranium ions of 7 MeV with a velocity of .008c, assuming a charge state of 20+. The ions will be bunched in a two stage bunching system providing a pulsed beam with a time width of better than 0.4 ns for injection into the linac

  14. Performance reach of the injector complex in 2012

    Steerenberg, R; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Manglunki, D; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Wenninger, J

    2012-01-01

    At the start of the 2011 physics run quite some margin in the performance of the injectors was available and identified. Following the fast increase of the performance of the LHC itself during 2011, these margins have very much been exploited and some have even been pushed further. In view of further increase in the LHC luminosity, the 2012 performance reach of the injectors will be reviewed. One of the arising topics is satellite bunches from the injectors. Until now concerted effort went into supressing satellite bunches to a minimum, but a recent successful test with "controlled" satellites might make their routine production and characterisation an important topic in 2012.

  15. Evaluation Methods for Coolant Injector Performances and Severe Accident Phenomena

    This report provides the numerical simulation methods of the coolant injector in the direct cooling type core catcher, and evaluation methods of the severe accident phenomena. Firstly, the numerical simulation method for two-phase flow behaviour inside coolant injectors is established. Installation of the coolant injectors in the direct cooling type core catcher is one of the concepts to deliver cooling water mixed with inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent steam explosion while effectively cooling down the corium by direct heat transfer. Secondly, the evaluation tools of the severe accident phenomena such as in-vessel accident scenario, the DCH, steam explosion, MCCI, and containment pressurization are surveyed and discussed

  16. Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit

    Viniar, I. [Saint-Petersburg State Technical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sudo, S.

    1997-07-01

    New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

  17. Pressure injectors for radiologists: A review and what is new

    Inna K Indrajit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure Injectors are used routinely in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Advances in medical science and technology have made it is imperative for both diagnostic as well as interventional radiologists to have a thorough understanding of the various aspects of pressure injectors. Further, as many radiologists may not be fully conversant with injections into ports, central lines and PICCs, it is important to familiarize oneself with the same. It is also important to follow stringent operating protocols during the use of pressure injectors to prevent complications such as contrast extravastion, sepsis and air embolism. This article aims to update existing knowledge base in this respect.

  18. Pressure injectors for radiologists: A review and what is new.

    Indrajit, Inna K; Sivasankar, Rajeev; D'Souza, John; Pant, Rochan; Negi, Raj S; Sahu, Samresh; Hashim, Pi

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Injectors are used routinely in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Advances in medical science and technology have made it is imperative for both diagnostic as well as interventional radiologists to have a thorough understanding of the various aspects of pressure injectors. Further, as many radiologists may not be fully conversant with injections into ports, central lines and PICCs, it is important to familiarize oneself with the same. It is also important to follow stringent operating protocols during the use of pressure injectors to prevent complications such as contrast extravastion, sepsis and air embolism. This article aims to update existing knowledge base in this respect. PMID:25709157

  19. Computation of Cavitating Flows in a Diesel Injector

    Echouchene, F; Belmabrouk, H, E-mail: frchouchene@yahoo.fr, E-mail: hafedh.belmabrouk@fsm.rnu.t [Laboratoire d' electronique et de microelectronique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 (Tunisia)

    2010-11-15

    The flow inside Diesel injectors is important because of its effect on the spray and the atomization process in the combustion chamber. Due to huge stress at the orifice entrance, cavitation occurs in high-pressure Diesel injectors. In this study, we investigate numerically the cavitating steady flow in a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid and the standard k-e turbulence model are used to simulate the multiphase turbulent flow. The effects of some geometrical parameters on both the discharge coefficient and the vapor fraction are presented.

  20. Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors

    The authors have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced

  1. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  2. Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector

    A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

  3. Numerical and experimental study of the beam dynamics of CANDELA photo-injector and associated instrumentation

    Laser triggered radiofrequency guns are the most luminous electron sources allowing to reach the performances requested by highly demanding applications like the e+/e-linear colliders and the short wave free electron lasers. CANDELA is a band S photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. It allows reaching peak currents of hundred of amperes at average energies higher than 2 MeV. The original concept of two accelerating cavities aims at minimizing the transverse and longitudinal emittances following the Gao's principles. From practical reasons the operating parameters, particularly the laser pulse duration, do not correspond to those considered in the design. Hence, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the gun's performances in experimental environment. The study of a stabile injector operation resulted in evolutions with consequences in the phase control systems implying the laser and the HF (Hyper Frequency) source. The beam transverse and longitudinal characteristics have been measured as a function of the main parameters i.e., the beam charge and the phase shift between the laser and the HF wave. Measurements of the transverse emittance energy dispersion and wave packed duration are presented for several injector configurations. The systems of existing beam measurements have been studied to determine the resolution and the experimental conditions to fulfill, in order to suggest improvements for the CANDELA beam. The experiments with the beam have been compared with numerical simulations. Agreement was obtained within wide ranges of parameters for most of the characteristic beam quantities

  4. Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing Cyclotron), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48MHz 4-rod RFQ accelerates ion beam from 4keV/u to 300keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with 3.07m long vanes. The phase advance has been taken into account to analysis the error tolerance, and parametric resonance have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. KONUS IH-DTLs, which follow the RFQ, accelerate the ions up to the energy of 7.272MeV/u and inject into HIRFL-CSRm. Th...

  5. New injector cryostat module based on 3 GHz SRF cavities for the S-Dalinac

    Kuerzeder, Thorsten; Conrad, Jens; Eichhorn, Ralf; Hug, Florian; Richter, Achim; Sievers, Sven

    2012-06-01

    Each cryostat module of the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC houses two 20 cell elliptical niobium cavities cooled by a helium bath at 2 K. They are operated at a frequency of 3 GHz and used to accelerate electron beams with gradients up to 5 MV/m. The accelerator itself consists of an injector and four main linac cryostats. A new cryostat module has been built to replace the actual injector module. It features a new waveguide transition line and will be operated with new cavities in order to increase the beam current and energy for nuclear physics experiments behind the injector section of the S-DALINAC. In addition, the frequency tuner for the cavities will be equipped with piezoelectric actuators, which will replace the current magnetostrictive fine tuner. We review the latest changes in the design of the module and its RF transition line and present some findings from the production of new cavities. The results of a measurement in liquid helium at 2 K with the piezoelectric actuators in our vertical test cryostat will be shown.

  6. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  7. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline

  8. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  9. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

  10. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  11. Integrated numerical modeling of a laser gun injector

    CEBAF is planning to incorporate a laser gun injector into the linac front end as a high-charge cw source for a high-power free electron laser and nuclear physics. This injector consists of a DC laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. The performance of the injector is predicted based on integrated numerical modeling using POISSON, SUPERFISH and PARMELA. The point-by-point method incorporated into PARMELA by McDonald is chosen for space charge treatment. The concept of ''conditioning for final bunching'' is employed to vary several crucial parameters of the system for achieving highest peak current while maintaining low emittance and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies show that the design will perform beyond the specifications for FEL operations aimed at industrial applications and fundamental scientific research. The calculation also shows that the injector will perform as an extremely bright cw electron source

  12. Radiation Environments and their Impact at the CERN's Injector Chain

    De Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    Mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its Injector Chain are responsible for failures on electronic devices located in the vicinity of the accelerator beam lines. These radiation effects on electronics and, more generally, the overall radiation damage issues have a direct impact on component and system lifetimes, as well as on maintenance requirements and radiation exposure to personnel who have to intervene and fix the faults. This note describes the different radiation environments present along the CERN’s Injector Chain and the expected evolution over the next years with the ongoing LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. The available dosimetry and beam monitoring systems used to assess radiation levels are presented, outlining their respective pros and cons. The interplay between Monte Carlo simulations and the available radiation monitoring in the Injectors is also presented.

  13. Candela photo-injector experimental results with a dispenser photocathode

    Travier, C.; Leblond, B.; de Bernard, M; Cayla, J. N.; Thomas, P.

    1995-01-01

    The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The dispenser photocathode is illuminated by a 500 fs pulse from a frequency-tripled Ti:sapphire laser. In this paper we report charge measurements showing that the dispenser photocathode has a quantum efficiency as high as 10-3. This efficiency decreases with a lifetime of 12 hours, but can be recovered by heating the cathode for 5 minutes

  14. Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule

    Rathke, John; Bluem, Hans; Campisi, Isidoro E; Cole, Michael; Daly, Edward; Hogan, John; Mammosser, John; Neil, George R; Peterson, Ed; Preble, Joseph P; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Todd, Alan M M; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

  15. Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule

    Rathke; A. Ambrosio; M. Cole; E. Peterson; T. Schultheiss; H. Bluem; A.M.M. Todd; I. Campisi; E. Daly; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; G. Neil; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; C. Rode; J. Sekutowicz; T.Whitlatch; M. Wiseman

    2005-05-16

    Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

  16. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  17. A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples

    Weierstall, U.; Doak, R. B.; Spence, J. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and...

  18. Buncher-cavities for the MYRRHA injector LINAC

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is currently being designed as an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for demonstrating the feasibility of transmutation of high level nuclear waste. The MAX project (MYRRHA Accelerator eXperiment and development) is the corresponding R and D programme for the designated proton driver, which should provide the spallation target with a continuous wave proton beam of 600 MeV and 4 mA. The current layout of the injector design includes a 2-gap as well as a 5-gap room temperature rebunching structure operating at 176,1 MHz with total effective voltages of 116 kV and 270 kV, respectively, which both are being designed at IAP. For maximum power efficiency the 2-gap structure is going to be implemented as a quarter-wave coaxial resonator whereas the 5-gap structure will be a CH cavity, for which a prototype was already built within the scope of FRANZ. In order to optimize the performance and to provide a reliable cooling system and mechanical stability, RF, thermal and structural mechanics simulations are done mainly using CST Studio. Also the beam dynamics is going to be investigated using a new particle in cell tracking code called BENDER, which was developed at IAP.

  19. Buncher-cavities for the MYRRHA injector LINAC

    Koser, Daniel; Basten, Markus; Maeder, Dominik; Noll, Daniel; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Schwarz, Malte; Seibel, Anja; Vossberg, Markus [Institute for Applied Physics IAP, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is currently being designed as an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for demonstrating the feasibility of transmutation of high level nuclear waste. The MAX project (MYRRHA Accelerator eXperiment and development) is the corresponding R and D programme for the designated proton driver, which should provide the spallation target with a continuous wave proton beam of 600 MeV and 4 mA. The current layout of the injector design includes a 2-gap as well as a 5-gap room temperature rebunching structure operating at 176,1 MHz with total effective voltages of 116 kV and 270 kV, respectively, which both are being designed at IAP. For maximum power efficiency the 2-gap structure is going to be implemented as a quarter-wave coaxial resonator whereas the 5-gap structure will be a CH cavity, for which a prototype was already built within the scope of FRANZ. In order to optimize the performance and to provide a reliable cooling system and mechanical stability, RF, thermal and structural mechanics simulations are done mainly using CST Studio. Also the beam dynamics is going to be investigated using a new particle in cell tracking code called BENDER, which was developed at IAP.

  20. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  1. The DEEPSSI project, design and modelling of steam injectors

    The DEEPSSI project is supported by the European commission in the frame of the 5th R and D framework programme. DEEPSSI is a research programme dealing with steam injectors. Among thermalhydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific thermal-hydraulic quantities (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved : CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics

  2. The DEEPSSI project, design and modelling of steam injectors

    Dumaz, P.; Geffraye, G.; Verloo, E. [CEA Cadarache, St Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    The DEEPSSI project is supported by the European commission in the frame of the 5{sup th} R and D framework programme. DEEPSSI is a research programme dealing with steam injectors. Among thermalhydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific thermal-hydraulic quantities (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved : CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics.

  3. The DEEPSSI project, design, testing and modeling of steam injectors

    The DEEPSSI project is a steam injector research programme. Among thermal-hydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific characteristics (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved: CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics

  4. Liquid Methane/Oxygen Injector Study for Mars Ascent Engines

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the advancing technology of the cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars exploration mission, this effort aims at evaluating propellant injection concepts for liquid methane/liquid oxygen (LOX) rocket engines. Split-triplet and unlike impinging injectors were selected for this study. A total of four injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows, at MSFC. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure ranging from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were conducted. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability. Initial assessments of the test results showed that the injectors provided stable combustion and there were no injector face overheating problems under all operating conditions. The Raman scattering signal measurement method was successfully demonstrated for the hydrocarbon/oxygen reactive flow field. The near-injector face flow field was visually observed through the use of an infrared camera. Chamber wall temperature, high frequency chamber pressure, and average throat section heat flux were also recorded throughout the test series. Assessments of the injector performance are underway.

  5. Main findings

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required. Managing concomitant construction of new galleries with continuing operation and/or closure in the existing galleries remains as another challenge. There is a need, during the project, to address targets very different in nature and which may potentially compete with each other. Alternative solutions are typically compared and evaluated with a view to lower potential impacts and risks to workers, people and the environment in the short and the long term to as low as reasonably practicable. This is often called 'radiological optimisation'. In repository development, the set of target functions can be much broader, blurring the meaning of 'optimisation'. The visibility and importance to optimisation for licensing varies from country to country, and it may take different names

  6. Multi-injector modeling of transverse combustion instability experiments

    Shipley, Kevin J.

    Concurrent simulations and experiments are used to study combustion instabilities in a multiple injector element combustion chamber. The experiments employ a linear array of seven coaxial injector elements positioned atop a rectangular chamber. Different levels of instability are driven in the combustor by varying the operating and geometry parameters of the outer driving injector elements located near the chamber end-walls. The objectives of the study are to apply a reduced three-injector model to generate a computational test bed for the evaluation of injector response to transverse instability, to apply a full seven-injector model to investigate the inter-element coupling between injectors in response to transverse instability, and to further develop this integrated approach as a key element in a predictive methodology that relies heavily on subscale test and simulation. To measure the effects of the transverse wave on a central study injector element two opposing windows are placed in the chamber to allow optical access. The chamber is extensively instrumented with high-frequency pressure transducers. High-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to model the experiment. Specifically three-dimensional, detached eddy simulations (DES) are used. Two computational approaches are investigated. The first approach models the combustor with three center injectors and forces transverse waves in the chamber with a wall velocity function at the chamber side walls. Different levels of pressure oscillation amplitudes are possible by varying the amplitude of the forcing function. The purpose of this method is to focus on the combustion response of the study element. In the second approach, all seven injectors are modeled and self-excited combustion instability is achieved. This realistic model of the chamber allows the study of inter-element flow dynamics, e.g., how the resonant motions in the injector tubes are coupled through the transverse pressure waves in the chamber. The computational results are analyzed and compared with experiment results in the time, frequency and modal domains. Results from the three injector model show how applying different velocity forcing amplitudes change the amplitude and spatial location of heat release from the center injector. The instability amplitudes in the simulation are able to be tuned to experiments and produce similar modal combustion responses of the center injector. The reaction model applied was found to play an important role in the spatial and temporal heat release response. Only when the model was calibrated to ignition delay measurements did the heat release response reflect measurements in the experiment. While insightful the simulations are not truly predictive because the driving frequency and forcing function amplitude are input into the simulation. However, the use of this approach as a tool to investigate combustion response is demonstrated. Results from the seven injector simulations provide an insightful look at the mechanisms driving the instability in the combustor. The instability was studied over a range of pressure fluctuations, up to 70% of mean chamber pressure produced in the self-exited simulation. At low amplitudes the transverse instability was found to be supported by both flame impingement with the side wall as well as vortex shedding at the primary acoustic frequency. As instability level grew the primary supporting mechanism shifted to just vortex impingement on the side walls and the greatest growth was seen as additional vortices began impinging between injector elements at the primary acoustic frequency. This research reveals the advantages and limitations of applying these two modeling techniques to simulate multiple injector experiments. The advantage of the three injector model is a simplified geometry which results in faster model development and the ability to more rapidly study the injector response under varying velocity amplitudes. The possibly faster run time is offset though by the need to run multiple cases to calibrate the model to the experiment. The model is also limited to studying the central injector effect and lacks heat release sources from the outer injectors and additional vortex interactions as shown in the seven injector simulation. The advantage of the seven injector model is that the whole domain can be explored to provide a better understanding about influential processes but does require longer development and run time due to the extensive gridding requirement. Both simulations have proven useful in exploring transverse combustion instability and show the need to further develop subscale experiments and companions simulations in developing a full-scale combustion instability prediction capability.

  7. Recent progress in photo-injectors

    In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed

  8. Preparation of the SPS as LHC injector

    Collier, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A major project (SLI) for the preparation the SPS in its role as the final link in the injector chain to the LHC was launched one year ago [1,2]. The major areas of work include the upgrade of the RF and the injection systems, together with the provision of a new extraction channel to serve ring 2 of the LHC. In addition, studies have been made on the ability of the SPS to meet the stringent trans verse and longitudinal beam requirements of the LHC. This has lead to several other programmes of work including upgrades to the beam instrumentation, the transverse damper and the shielding of over 8 00 inter-magnet pumping ports to reduce the impedance of the machine. The planning of the project is influenced by the continued operation of LEP and the proposed new long base-line neutrino facility (NGS). In addition, during the machine upgrades, the SPS must continue to deliver high quality proton beams to the fixed-target experimental community and for an extensive range of experimental detect or test beams. The ma...

  9. An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS

    Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

  10. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  12. Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael David (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

  13. Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector

    The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet's energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots

  14. Experimental study of neutrino interactions with the ArgoNeuT liquid-argon Tcp exposed to the NuMI beam

    Liquid-Argon Time Projection Chamber (L Ar-Tpc) technology provides unique features in event imaging and calorimetric resolution. These characteristics, combined with a good rejection power and a (virtually) unlimited active mass, make this technology one of the best candidates for the next generation of long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The ArgoNeuT detector, a small L Ar-Tpc (0.24 on of active mass) exposed to the NuMI beam at Fermilab and currently producing the fist low-energy neutrino events in a L Ar-Tpc, is the first step of a staged US program to realize and operate a massive L Ar-Tpc detector for ν physics. This paper describes design details, experimental goals and current status of the experiment and reports a first example of quasi-elastic νμ charged-current event reconstruction, including a first evidence of nuclear effects in the region surrounding the interaction vertex.

  15. Impact of palm biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    Highlights: • 250 h Endurance test on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and PB20. • Visual inspection of injectors running on DF and PB20 showed deposit accumulation. • SEM and EDS analysis showed less injector deposits for DF compared to PB20 blend. • Engine oil analysis showed higher value of wear particles for PB20 compared to DF. - Abstract: During short term engine operation, renewable fuels derived from vegetable oils, are capable of providing good engine performance. In more extended operations, some of the same fuels can cause degradation of engine performance, excessive carbon and lacquer deposits and actual damage to the engine. Moreover, temperatures in the area of the injector tip due to advanced diesel injection systems may lead to particularly stubborn deposits at and around the injector tip. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline and PB20 (20% palm biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single cylinder CI engine. The effects of DF and PB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors during running on both fuels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for PB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations, decreased viscosity and increased density values when the engine was fuelled with PB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and NOx emissions, and lower HC and CO emissions, for the PB20 blend compared to DF

  16. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6-7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45 kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena.

  17. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160 MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5 kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5 kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45 kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena. (paper)

  18. General layout of the 17 MeV injector for MYRRHA

    Podlech, Holger; Amberg, Michael; Klein, Horst; Mäder, Dominik; Busch, Marco; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Schempp, Alwin; Tiede, Rudolf; Vossberg, Markus; Zhang, Chuansheng

    2011-01-01

    The MYRRHA Project (Multi Purpose Hybrid Reactor for High Tech Applications) at Mol/belgium will be a user facility with emphasis on research with neutron generated by a spallation source. One main aspect is the demonstration of nuclear waste technology using an accelerator driven system. A superconducting linac delivers a 4 mA, 600 MeV proton beam. The first accelerating section is covered by the 17 MeV injector. It consists of a proton source, an RFQ, two room temperature CH cavities and 4 ...

  19. Beam Tests of Beampipe Coatings for Electron Cloud Mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    Backfish, Michael; Eldred, Jeffrey; Tan, Cheng Yang; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the ...

  20. Conceptual SPL RF Main Power Coupler design

    Montesinos, Eric

    2011-01-01

    While the upgrade plans of the LHC injectors had to be reduced in scope in 2010, the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) remains a fundamental element of plans for a possible future neutrino facility. Prototyping work is therefore continuing at CERN and the current focus is on the test of a first four cavity SPL-like cryomodule with full power. This report summarizes the parameters for the Main Power Coupler design as discussed and approved within the Review of SPL RF power couplers, held at CERN in March 2010.

  1. Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-02-01

    The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time.

  2. Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-15

    The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D{sup +} ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D{sup +} beam that passed through the {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16{pi} mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

  3. A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

    Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on 'pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable

  4. How far from correct is the use of adrenaline auto-injectors? A survey in Italian patients.

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Bonzano, Laura; Savi, Eleonora; Peveri, Silvia; Costantino, Maria Teresa; Crivellaro, Mariangiola; Manzotti, Giuseppina; Lombardi, Carlo; Caminati, Marco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico

    2015-12-01

    Self-administered adrenaline through an auto-injector is the main out-of-hospital treatment for anaphylaxis, and patients should be trained to promptly and correctly use the device. The aim of the study was to verify the proper use of the device and the correct drug administration, and to identify possible misuse by patients. In seven Italian Allergy clinics, patients who were previously provided with self-injectable adrenaline were recruited at the follow-up visit required for the renewal of their prescription. All patients completed a questionnaire covering details of their allergic reactions, and knowledge of the device. The correct use was verified by the physician using a trainer with a four-step examination. 242 patients were included; 46 patients (18 %) did not always carry the auto-injector, and 35 patients (14 %) reported situations in which they were doubtful about whether to use adrenaline. Only 39 % of patients properly managed the device, while some patients (6 %) failed in all four steps. The majority of patients considered it appropriate to use adrenaline at the onset of respiratory symptoms (56 %). The factor most closely related to proper use of the device was the education of the patient (p = 0.03), while age and the time from first prescription did not affect the ability to properly use the auto-injector. Even though accurate training is conducted, many patients are still unable to properly use the adrenaline auto-injector in case of anaphylaxis. Allergists should review the instructions provided to the patients every time a renewal of the auto-injector is prescribed. PMID:25990486

  5. Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector

    The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-3. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

  6. First operation of the ATLAS positive-ion injector

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate that all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system. (Author) 5 refs., tab., fig

  7. The design and simulation of Injector Ⅱ in China ADS

    ADS projects undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences is to study how to use nuclear energy safely and effectively. The project includes high current proton accelerator as driven device, spallation target and reactor. The high current proton accelerator is being developed as a key technology. The accelerator includes two injectors. Injector Ⅱ whose frequency is 162. 5 MHz, including the ion source whose output energy is 30 keV, low energy transmission section. RFQ which accelerates proton from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV, the middle energy transmission section and the Superconducting Section accelerating proton to 10 MeV. This paper describes the design and simulation results of the injector Ⅱ. (authors)

  8. A high peak current source for the CEBAF injector

    The CEBAF accelerator can drive high power IR and UV FELs, if a high peak current source is added to the existing front end. We present a design for a high peak current injector which is compatible with simultaneous operation of the accelerator for cw nuclear physics (NP) beam. The high peak current injector provides 60 A peak current in 2 psec long bunches carrying 120 pC charge at 7.485 MHz. At 10 MeV that beam is combined with 5 MeV NP beam (0.13 pC, 2 psec long bunches at 1497 MHz) in an energy combination chicane for simultaneous acceleration in the injector linac. The modifications to the low-energy NP transport are described. Results of optical and beam dynamics calculations for both high peak current and NP beams in combined operation are presented. (Author) 7 refs., 6 figs

  9. Electron injectors for next-generation x-ray sources

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing

  10. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    Marcuzzi, D.; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M.; Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Choi, C. H.; Marti, M.; Roux, K.; Singh, M. J.; Masiello, A.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Tobari, H.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Muvvala, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  11. A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples

    Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and an in-vacuum microscope allows observation of the liquid jet for diagnostics while it is being exposed to the X-ray beam. A fiber optically coupled pump laser illuminating the jet is incorporated for pump-probe experiments. First results with this injector system have been obtained at the LCLS.

  12. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design

  13. First operation of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector

    The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate tat all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system

  14. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  15. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation

  16. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    Hong, In-Seok, E-mail: ishong@ibs.re.kr; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  17. A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam

    Finley, D.; Jensen, D.; Jostlein, H.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; /Fermilab; Bromberg, C.; /Michigan State U.; Lu, C.; McDonald, T.; /Princeton U.; Gallagher,; Mann, A.; Schneps, J.; /Tufts U.; Cline, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Wang, H.; /UCLA; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; /Yale U.; Menary, S.; /York U., Canada

    2005-09-01

    Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) [2], which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in {nu}{sub e} charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for {nu}{sub e} appearance searches from neutral current events with a {pi}{sup 0} are reduced well below the {approx} 0.5-1.0% {nu}{sub e} contamination of the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam [3]. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC [4], a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept [5] based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded) [6]. Continuing R&D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. Efforts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K [7]. The 2005 APS neutrino study [1] recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term R&D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our R&D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics.

  18. A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam

    Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in νe charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for νe appearance searches from neutral current events with a π0 are reduced well below the ∼ 0.5-1.0% νe contamination of the νμ beam. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC, a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded). Continuing Rand D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. E.orts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K. The 2005 APS neutrino study recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term Rand D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our Rand D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics

  19. High-speed gas injector for powerful plasma dynamic systems

    The paper describes the design features of gas injectors for the axial (parallel to the axis of the accelerator) and radial (perpendicular to the axis of the accelerator) working gas supply into the accelerator channel. The results of gas-dynamic studies of the injectors are presented. The amount of the working gas inlet was investigated as a function of gas pressure under the blocking valve element. A strong dependence of the amount of the injected working gas on the current value in the control coil was found

  20. Summary, Working Group 1: Electron guns and injector designs

    Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: ilan@bnl.gov; Bazarov, I.V. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2006-02-01

    We summarize the proceedings of Working Group 1 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Workshop. The subject of this working group, the electron gun and injector design, is arguably the most critical part of the ERL as it determines the ultimate performance of this type of accelerators. Working Group 1 dealt with a variety of subjects: The technology of DC, normal-conducting RF and superconducting RF guns; beam dynamics in the gun and injector; the cathode and laser package; modeling and computational issues; magnetized beams and polarization. A short overview of these issues covered in the Working Group is presented in this paper.

  1. SLC injector end to end simulation for high charge transport

    The authors describe the end-to-end simulation of the SLC injector from the Gun through the first accelerating section. The purpose of these simulations is to aid the injector tuning for high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a 3 dimensional ray trace code with a two dimensional space charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The results from POISSON and SUPERFISH are used in PARMELA to simulate and prescribe experimental parameters

  2. The Berkeley 2 MV heavy ion fusion injector

    This paper is an update on the development of the 500 mA per beam sixteen beam injector being built at LBL. An inductively graded Marx bank provides the acceleration potential on the electrostatic column. A carbon arc source provides the pulsed current for the injector. We report recent results on extracted beam parameters, column performance, the generator performance, and system design changes. The carbon ion beam is diagnosed with Faraday cups and with a double slit emittance measurement system. Controls for the final machine are also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  3. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  4. Injector modeling and achievement/maintenance of high brightness

    Viewgraphs for the workshop presentation are given. The presentation has three fundamental parts. In part one the need for numerical calculations is justified and the available computer codes are enumerated. The capabilities and features of the DPC computer code are the focal point in this section. In part two the injector design issues are discussed. These issues include such things as the beam optics and magnetic field profile. In part three the experimental results of two injector designs are compared with DPC predictions. 8 figs

  5. Injector Control Unit for 750 keV DC accelerator

    The unit is designed for the supply of power to electron-gun of the 750 keV DC accelerator, floating at a potential of -750 kV w.r.t. earth. The filament current value is set by the beam current stabilizing unit located at ground potential. The stimulus signal is transmitted to the injector control unit through an optical communication link. The injector control unit generates a signal whose pulse-width is proportional to the filament current. This signal is then transmitted to the current stabilizing unit through another optical link where it is processed to realize a feedback signal for the filament current. (author)

  6. An EBIS-based heavy ion injector for the AGS

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Raparia, D.

    1994-09-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS), followed by a heavy ion RFQ and superconducting linac, can be considered as a heavy ion injector for high energy accelerators, such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A test EBIS, on long term loan from Sandia National Laboratory, is presently being commissioned at BNL. Experiments on this source will be used in evaluating the parameters for an EBIS-based RHIC injector. Some results of this commissioning, as well as the conceptual designs of the RFQ and linac, are presented.

  7. Design of a premixed gaseous rocket engine injector for ethylene and oxygen

    Dausen, David F.

    2006-01-01

    A premixed gaseous rocket injector was designed and successfully operated over a limited range of fuel-rich operating conditions for the purpose of soot modeling for ethylene and oxygen mixtures. The injector had the advantage of delivering a homogenous mixture to the combustion chamber, lower soot production, and higher performance potential by removing the fuel atomization process which affects the combustion process and is inherent for non-premixed injectors. The premixed injector was oper...

  8. Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines

    Filipović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions. The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely avoid a use of the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. At the same time, semi-empirical expressions have the universal constant that does not depend on the injector design.

  9. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  10. Influence of fuel injector position of port-fuel injection retrofit-kit to the performances of small gasoline engine

    Hushim, M. F.; Alimin, A. J.; Rashid, L. A.; Chamari, M. F.

    2012-06-01

    Fuel efficiency and emission characteristics are two main concerns that must be addressed. Fuelling system is one of the crucial variables that must be focused on. Fuel injection system has a long term potential as a medium to supply suppressed fuel because of its high fuel delivery efficiency, low emission characteristics and fuel economy. Fuel injector angle plays an important role in achieving quality combustion. In this study the influences of the injector angle to engine performances and emission characteristics were investigated. Experimental works comprised one throttle opening position with various dynamometer loads for two angles: 48° and 68°. From this study, the result shows that 68° was the optimum angle, which produced high brake power, high brake mean effective pressure, low brake specific fuel consumption and low hydrocarbon emission.

  11. Development of H2 pellet injectors for industrial marketing

    1. Discussion of the construction of injector installation at ETA-BETA II. 2. Production and experience with two different ''pipe-guns''. One for large pellets, diameter/length = 4.5-5 mm/8-20 mm and one for small pellets, diameter/length = 2 mm/3-4 mm. (author) 27 ills., 39 refs

  12. Single-element coaxial injector for rocket fuel

    Larson, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved injector for oxygen difluoride and diborane has better mixing characteristics and is able to project fuel onto the wall of the combustion chamber for better cooling. It produces an essentially conical, diverging, continuous sheet of propellant mixture formed by similarly shaped and continuously impinging sheets of fuel and oxidant.

  13. Deflecting cavity for beam diagnostics at Cornell ERL injector

    Belomestnykh, Sergey, E-mail: s.belomestnykh@cornell.ed [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bazarov, Ivan; Shemelin, Valery; Sikora, John; Smolenski, Karl; Veshcherevich, Vadim [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A single-cell, 1300-MHz, TM110-like mode vertically deflecting cavity is designed and built for beam slice emittance measurements, and to study the temporal response of negative electron affinity photocathodes in the ERL injector at Cornell University. We describe the cavity shape optimization procedure, RF and mechanical design, its performance with beam.

  14. A triple-isotope injector for accelerator mass spectrometry

    Performance of the newly installed 40 keV negative ion injector for the three isotopes (masses 12, 13 and 14) of natural carbon is discussed. A cesium sputter ion source and an achromatic arrangement of four dipole magnets with two electric slot lenses is being used, to achieve minimal aberrations for the injected beam into a tandem

  15. Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector

    Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper

  16. Characteristics of modified CT injector for JFT-2M

    The HIT-CTI mark II compact toroid (CT) injector employed for the JFT-2M tokamak facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been upgraded to improve injection performance. The nozzle of the mark III injector now has a linear tube in place of the original focus cone to avoid rapid focus and deceleration, and the tapered outer electrode has been replaced with more gentle taper in the compression section in order to facilitate gradual compression. The dependence of CT velocity and electron density on poloidal bias flux and trigger time of CT acceleration have been investigated in the operable range of 70-230 km/s average CT velocity and electron density of 0.1-1.0 x 1022 m-3 at an accelerator bank voltage of 25 kV. The operation window is broader than that of the mark II injector. Emission of a CT plasmoid from the injector, and transport to the flux conserver as a high-density spheromak magnetic structure have also been confirmed

  17. Drift velocity monitoring of SDDs using MOS charge injectors

    We report results of drift velocity monitoring in silicon drift detectors, obtained in beam test conditions using MOS charge injectors. We are able to correct velocity variations as small as 0.1% due to temperature variations of the order of 0.1 K and consequently maintain an optimal space resolution

  18. Drift velocity monitoring of SDDs using MOS charge injectors

    Nouais, D. E-mail: nouais@to.infn.it; Boetti, N.; Bonvicini, V.; Cerello, P.; Giubellino, P.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Mazza, G.; Nissinen, J.; Rashevsky, A.; Rivetti, A.; Tosello, F.; Vacchi, A

    2000-08-11

    We report results of drift velocity monitoring in silicon drift detectors, obtained in beam test conditions using MOS charge injectors. We are able to correct velocity variations as small as 0.1% due to temperature variations of the order of 0.1 K and consequently maintain an optimal space resolution.

  19. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. The injector resistance can have a significant influence on the chamber normal mode shape, and hence on the system stability.

  20. Beam quality of the ATA [Advanced Test Accelerator] injector

    The beam quality of the ATA injector has been experimentally measured using a magnetic collimator. These measurements have been performed for a variety of magnetic field profiles, including field strengths where the collimator is shorter than a cyclotron wavelength. The experimental currents transmitted through the collimator have been predicted numerically. The numerical predictions and experimental data are in good agreement

  1. Development and validation of a railgun hydrogen pellet injector model

    A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model is presented and its predictions are compared with the experimental data. High-speed hydrogenic ice injection is the dominant refueling method for magnetically confined plasmas used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. As experimental devices approach the scale of power-producing fusion reactors, the fueling requirements become increasingly more difficult to meet since, due to the large size and the high electron densities and temperatures of the plasma, hypervelocity pellets of a substantial size will need to be injected into the plasma continuously and at high repetition rates. Advanced technologies, such as the railgun pellet injector, are being developed to address this demand. Despite the apparent potential of electromagnetic launchers to produce hypervelocity projectiles, physical effects that were neither anticipated nor well understood have made it difficult to realize this potential. Therefore, it is essential to understand not only the theory behind railgun operation, but the primary loss mechanisms, as well. Analytic tools have been used by many researchers to design and optimize railguns and analyze their performance. This has led to a greater understanding of railgun behavior and opened the door for further improvement. A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model has been developed. The model is based upon a pellet equation of motion that accounts for the dominant loss mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. The model has been validated using railgun pellet injectors developed by the Fusion Technology Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

  2. Development and validation of a railgun hydrogen pellet injector model

    King, T.L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Zhang, J.; Kim, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model is presented and its predictions are compared with the experimental data. High-speed hydrogenic ice injection is the dominant refueling method for magnetically confined plasmas used in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. As experimental devices approach the scale of power-producing fusion reactors, the fueling requirements become increasingly more difficult to meet since, due to the large size and the high electron densities and temperatures of the plasma, hypervelocity pellets of a substantial size will need to be injected into the plasma continuously and at high repetition rates. Advanced technologies, such as the railgun pellet injector, are being developed to address this demand. Despite the apparent potential of electromagnetic launchers to produce hypervelocity projectiles, physical effects that were neither anticipated nor well understood have made it difficult to realize this potential. Therefore, it is essential to understand not only the theory behind railgun operation, but the primary loss mechanisms, as well. Analytic tools have been used by many researchers to design and optimize railguns and analyze their performance. This has led to a greater understanding of railgun behavior and opened the door for further improvement. A railgun hydrogen pellet injector model has been developed. The model is based upon a pellet equation of motion that accounts for the dominant loss mechanisms, inertial and viscous drag. The model has been validated using railgun pellet injectors developed by the Fusion Technology Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  3. Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector

    Abe, Yutaka, E-mail: abe@kz.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shibayama, Shunsuke

    2014-03-15

    Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper.

  4. Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector

    Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

  5. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    2010-10-01

    ... delivery systems required. Each steam locomotive must be equipped with at least two means of delivering water to the boiler, at least one of which is a live steam injector. (b) Maintenance and testing... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers...

  6. ALS LOX/H2 subscale coaxial injector testing

    Dexter, Carol E.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a 40K subscale LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector conducted without injector or chamber degradation are reported. Chamber pressures ranged from 1572 to 2355 psia with overall mixture ratios from 5.04 to 6.39. The highest characteristic velocities were measured when the mixture ratio across the injector face was uniform. Scarfing of the outer row LOX posts had the largest effect on chamber heating rates. As a result of the tests, the LSI design was modified to arrange the outer row LOX posts in a circular pattern, eliminate O/F biasing and fuel film cooling, and modify the interpropellant plate to allow for larger pressure differentials during the start and cutoff transients. Testing of a 100 K LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector involved chamber pressure ranging from 700 to 2500 psia with overall mixture ratios from 3.2 to 8.8. Stable combustion was observed to a fuel temperature of 90R and characteristic velocity efficiencies were good.

  7. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    This paper reports on the TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1-to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC)

  9. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  10. Magnetic shielding considerations for the ITER neutral beam injectors

    As a possible means for heating and current drive, negative ion based neutral beam injection is envisaged for ITER. In order to make the overall volume of the tritium containment as small as possible, the neutral beam injectors have to be placed close to the machine. In this region, the magnetic stray field from the tokamak is rather high (> 1 kG). It has to be shielded to less than 1 G in the source and neutraliser region of the injector. To achieve this reduction, the magnetic shield has to consist of three parts: Several tens of cms thick iron walls on both sides of the injector have to reduce the field by a factor of 2 to 3. A double walled screen of very soft iron around the injector vessel, again with a thickness of tens of cms, reduces the field to less than 10 G. This residual field can be compensated with actively controlled coils. The disturbance of the ITER magnetic field due to this shielding is less than 0.3 %, within the accuracy of the present calculations. (orig.)

  11. The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: Design and operating experience

    The recently completed Positive-Ion Injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed

  12. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    Wang, Yan [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Hofler, Alicia S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Kazimi, Reza [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are describe in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  14. Impact of biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation

    Continued legislative pressure to reduce exhaust emissions from CI (compression ignition) has resulted in the development of advanced fuel injection equipment. This advanced injection system produces higher temperatures and pressures at the injector tip, where deposit formation is initiated. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline fuel and JB20 (20% jatropha biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single-cylinder CI engine. The effects of JB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated during the endurance test. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors for both fuel samples. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for JB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations and decreased viscosity values when the engine was fueled with JB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and NOx emissions, and lower HC (hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, for the JB20 blend compared to DF. - Highlights: • Endurance test for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and JB20. • Investigation on effects of JB20 on the injector deposits and exhaust emissions. • Lubricating oil analysis during endurance test. • SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. • EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis

  15. Study liquid length penetration results obtained with a direct acting piezo electric injector

    Highlights: ► A direct acting injector capable of controlling needle lift has been used to determine liquid phase penetration. ► The influence of injection pressure, chamber density and chamber temperature have been measured. ► When needle lift is reduced the stabilized liquid length is shortened. ► The relationship between needle lift and liquid length makes needle lift as a new way to control the injection event. - Abstract: A state of the art prototype common rail injector featuring direct control of the needle by means of a piezo stack (direct acting) has been tested. Liquid phase penetration of the sprays in diesel engine-like conditions has been studied via imaging technique in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). This state of the art injector fitted with a 7-hole nozzle, allows a fully flexible control on the nozzle needle movement, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. The temporal evolution of the seven sprays has been studied recording movies of the injection event in evaporative conditions via Mie scattering imaging technique and using a high speed camera. The results showed a strong influence of needle position on the stabilized liquid length while the effect of the injection pressure is negligible: the decrease of the needle lift causes a pressure drop in the needle seat and thus a reduction in the effective pressure upstream of the orifices (in the nozzle sac). According to known literature the stabilized liquid-length depends mainly on effective diameter, spray cone-angle and fuel/air properties and does not depend on fuel velocity at the orifice outlet. Therefore, due to small change in the spray cone-angle, higher injection pressures give slightly lower liquid length. However, partial needle lifts has an opposite effect: when needle is partially lifted a dramatic increase of the spray cone-angle and a consequent reduction of the liquid length are observed. A deeper analysis revealed that low charges are linked also to higher hole to hole dispersion and flow instabilities. Needle vibrations caused by the fuel-needle interactions with fuel flow at partial needle lift and the onset of cavitation in the needle seat are likely the causes of this unexpected behavior. Finally, the effect of injection rate shaping on the transient liquid penetration is presented, showing the capability of the injector to control the liquid length along the injection event. This feature, when applied in a real engine, yields to develop new injection strategies to avoid fuel wall impingement

  16. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  17. Expected performance in the injectors at 25 ns without and with Linac4

    Rumolo, G; Damerau, H; Findlay, A; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Oeftiger, A

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the 25ns beams that can be delivered at the LHC injection is determined by the injection process into the PSB, as well as by space charge, collective interactions, electron cloud and RF power limitations in the PS and SPS. Using the information available from our present experience, the main goal of this paper is twofold: (1) to assess the intensity and brightness reach of the 25ns beams produced by the LHC injector chain with the two main schemes, before and after the connection of the PSB to Linac 4; and (2) to identify which bottlenecks will be likely to limit the performance with Linac 4. A few options to maximize the potential of the increased brightness provided by Linac 4, based on flattened bunch profiles at the PS injection or the use of alternative optics configurations, will be included in the analysis.

  18. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an 40Ar12+ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 π keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs

  19. Low-Cost Approach to the Design and Fabrication of a LOX/RP-1 Injector

    Shadoan, Michael D.; Sparks, Dave L.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has designed, built, and is currently testing Fastrac, a liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP-1 fueled 60K-lb thrust class rocket engine. One facet of Fastrac, which makes it unique is that it is the first large-scale engine designed and developed in accordance with the Agency's mandated "faster, better, cheaper" (FBC) program policy. The engine was developed under the auspices of MSFC's Low Cost Boost Technology office. Development work for the main injector actually began in 1993 in subscale form. In 1996, work began on the full-scale unit approximately 1 year prior to initiation of the engine development program. In order to achieve the value goals established by the FBC policy, a review of traditional design practices was necessary. This internal reevaluation would ultimately challenge more conventional methods of material selection. design process, and fabrication techniques. The effort was highly successful. This "new way" of thinking has resulted in an innovative injector design, one with reduced complexity and significantly lower cost. Application of lessons learned during this effort to new or existing designs can have a similar effect on costs and future program successes.

  20. A proposed alternative for protecting ion sources of neutral injectors against damage from high voltage sparking

    Grid structures of ion sources for neutral injectors are frequently subject to high voltage breakdowns leading to deconditioning and/or permanent damage, if the energy deposited in the spark exceeds a limit in the order of 5 to 10 Joules. Besides interrupting the main current path by a series path tube within microseconds other measures have to be taken to limit the remaining stored energy (i.e. designing with respect to minimize the stray capacitance of the ion source, cable and auxiliaries) and to add other components in the electrical network feeding the ion source, which have to absorb most of this energy (e.g. core snubbers). In the protection system proposed the neutral injector is supplied by a HV transmission line with a ferromagnetic conductor of special design which is able to absorb a high amount of energy stored in the line, when a breakdown between the grids occurs. The design principle is discussed and results of a model experiment are presented. (author)

  1. Self-heat generation in piezoelectric stack actuators used in fuel injectors

    Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are used in fuel injectors due to their quick response, high efficiency, accuracy, low power consumption, and excellent repeatability. Experimental results for soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack actuators have shown that a significant amount of heat is generated when they are driven under high frequency and/or high electric-field magnitudes, both of which occur in fuel injectors. Self-heat generation in these actuators, mainly caused by losses, can significantly affect their reliability and piezoelectric properties, and may also limit their application. Other studies have demonstrated that at large unipolar electric-field magnitudes, displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis) shows a direct relation with polarization–electric-field loss (dielectric hysteresis). In this paper, a simplified analytical self-heating model is presented. The model directly relates self-heating in multilayer piezoelectric actuators to displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis). The model developed is based on the first law of thermodynamics, and accounts for different parameters such as geometry, magnitude and frequency of applied electric field, duty cycle percentage, fuel type, and environmental properties. The model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results at low and high electric-field magnitudes

  2. Development and beam tests of a new 20 MeV injector microtron for Indus

    Development of a new 20 MeV, 30 mA injector microtron with improved engineering design is reported in this paper. The improvements were incorporated based on engineering studies and operational experiences of the injector microtron. The design was done at RRCAT and industry was involved in the fabrication of major microtron assembly including main dipole magnet and its multifunction vacuum chamber. Some of the important improvements include increased precision of magnet assembly under repetitive assembly, provision to view and inspect cathode during operation for condition monitoring, use of very low permeability stainless steel for vacuum chamber, extra low carbon steel for magnet assembly and improved vacuum design. The technical specifications and quality conformance plan included prototyping, hold points, material and geometrical inspection of components, process and assembly. The large dipole magnet coils were developed with internal water cooling. The magnet power supply of RRCAT was integrated, tuned and load tested for functionality. Extensive magnetic mapping was carried out which demonstrated highly uniform magnetic field under repetitive assembly

  3. The MINOS Detectors

    Grashorn, A H E W

    2005-01-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of 3D Needle Movement on Cavitation and Spray Formation in a Diesel Injector

    Mandumpala Devassy, B.; Edelbauer, W.; Greif, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation.

  5. Digital holographic diagnostics of near-injector region

    Lee, Jaiho

    Study of primary breakup of liquid jets is important because it is motivated by the application to gas turbine fuel injectors, diesel fuel injectors, industrial cleaning and washing machine, medical spray, and inkjet printers, among others. When it comes to good injectors, a liquid jet has to be disintegrated into a fine spray near injector region during primary breakup. However the dense spray region near the injectors is optically obscure for Phase Doppler Interferometer like Phase Doppler Particle Analyzers (PDPA). Holography can provide three dimensional image of the dense spray and eliminate the problem of the small depth of focus associated with shadowgraphs. Traditional film-based holographic technique has long been used for three dimensional measurements in particle fields, but it is time consuming, expensive, chemically hazardous. With the development of the CCD sensor, holograms were recorded and reconstructed digitally. Digital microscopic holography (DMH) is similar to digital inline holography (DIH) except that no lens is used to collimate the object beam. The laser beams are expanded with an objective lens and a spatial filter. This eliminates two lenses from the typical optical path used for in-line holography, which results in a much cleaner hologram recording. The DMH was used for drop size and velocity measurements of the breakup of aerated liquid jets because it is unaffected by the non-spherical droplets that are encountered very close to the injector exit, which would cause problems for techniques such as Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, otherwise. Large field of view was obtained by patching several high resolution holograms. Droplet velocities in three dimensions were measured by tracking their displacements in the streamwise and cross-stream direction and by tracking the change in the plane of focus in the spanwise direction. The uncertainty in spanwise droplet location and velocity measurements using single view DMH was large at least 33%. This large uncertainty in the spanwise direction, however, can be reduced to 2% by employing double view DMH. Double view DMH successfully tracked the three dimensional bending trajectories of polymer jets during electrospinning. The uncertainty in the spatial growth measurements of the bending instability was reduced using orthogonal double view DMH. Moreover, a commercial grade CCD was successfully used for single- and double-pulsed DMH of micro liquid jet breakup. Using a commercial grade CCD for the DMH, the cost of CCD sensor needed for recording holograms can be reduced.

  6. Combustion Stability Characteristics of the Project Morpheus Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Main Engine

    Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The Project Morpheus liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines demonstrated acousticcoupled combustion instabilities during sea-level ground-based testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC). High-amplitude, 1T, 1R, 1T1R (and higher order) modes appear to be triggered by injector conditions. The instability occurred during the Morpheus-specific engine ignition/start sequence, and did demonstrate the capability to propagate into mainstage. However, the instability was never observed to initiate during mainstage, even at low power levels. The Morpheus main engine is a JSC-designed 5,000 lbf-thrust, 4:1 throttling, pressure-fed cryogenic engine using an impinging element injector design. Two different engine designs, named HD4 and HD5, and two different builds of the HD4 engine all demonstrated similar instability characteristics. Through the analysis of more than 200 hot fire tests on the Morpheus vehicle and SSC test stand, a relationship between ignition stability and injector/chamber pressure was developed. The instability has the distinct characteristic of initiating at high relative injection pressure drop (dP) at low chamber pressure (Pc); i.e., instabilities initiated at high dP/Pc at low Pc during the start sequence. The high dP/Pc during start results during the injector /chamber chill-in, and is enhanced by hydraulic flip in the injector orifice elements. Because of the fixed mixture ratio of the existing engine design (the main valves share a common actuator), it is not currently possible to determine if LOX or methane injector dP/Pc were individual contributors (i.e., LOX and methane dP/Pc typically trend in the same direction within a given test). The instability demonstrated initiation characteristic of starting at or shortly after methane injector chillin. Colder methane (e.g., sub-cooled) at the injector inlet prior to engine start was much more likely to result in an instability. A secondary effect of LOX sub-cooling was also possibly observed; greater LOX sub- cooling improved stability. Some tests demonstrated a low-amplitude 1L-1T instability prior to LOX injector chill-in. The Morpheus main engine also demonstrated chug instabilities during some engine shutdown sequences on the flight vehicle and SSC test stand. The chug instability was also infrequently observed during the startup sequence. The chug instabilities predictably initiated at low dP/Pc at low Pc. The chug instabilities were always self-limiting; startup chug instabilities terminated during throttle-up and shutdown chug instabilities decayed by shutdown termination.

  7. Equipment of the accelerator and injector

    Investigations are being done to understand the failure mechanism of insulating links from the laddertron. Several improvements were brought to the accelerator: new controls for the main pumping units allow automatic re-start; a shaft encoder was provided for the source wheel of ORION; an X steerer is available in the terminal; focusing of cluster ion beams is performed by an electrostatic quadrupole doublet. (authors)

  8. Progress report on the BRC photo-injector

    Free-electron lasers impose severe requirements for the production of high-current high brightness electron beams; these are expected to be fulfilled with a photo-injector. The high brightness photo-injector developed for the high-peak power FEL under construction at Bruyeres-le-Chatel is under test now. The RF gun cavity has a much lower frequency (144 MHz) than others. Therefore, longer bunches can be handled. Up to 22 nC bunches have been produced by CsK2Sb photocathodes and accelerated to 1 MeV; experiments are under way to measure electron bunch characteristics as a function of charge. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Status of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector Project

    The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

  10. Neutral beam injectors for the Big Dee vessel

    The four neutral beam injectors built for Doublet III will be modified to reoptimize beam transmission into the Big Dee vessel. All beamline components will be remounted 900 to their original position in the cylindrical vacuum vessel. This will permit optimum alignment with the available port opening. While these modifications are being incorporated into the disassembled injectors, it is planned that improvements and upgrading features will be added at the least possible cost. The calorimeter will be replaced by two independently driven calorimeters, thus decoupling the operation of the two ion sources. The beam path is being opened up to accommodate a long pulse (cw) source and all beam absorbing surfaces are being increased in size to withstand up to 5 s of operation with heat fluxes up to 700 W/cm2. By opening up the apertures along the beam trajectory, an increase in power transmission into the plasma of 33% is realized compared with the present Doublet III performance

  11. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching signi?cantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the ?rst part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  12. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  13. Fuel Injector Design Optimization for an Annular Scramjet Geometry

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A four-parameter, three-level, central composite experiment design has been used to optimize the configuration of an annular scramjet injector geometry using computational fluid dynamics. The computational fluid dynamic solutions played the role of computer experiments, and response surface methodology was used to capture the simulation results for mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery within the scramjet flowpath. An optimization procedure, based upon the response surface results of mixing efficiency, was used to compare the optimal design configuration against the target efficiency value of 92.5%. The results of three different optimization procedures are presented and all point to the need to look outside the current design space for different injector geometries that can meet or exceed the stated mixing efficiency target.

  14. Pernifer 36 Z for actuator casings in piezo injectors

    Gehrmann, B. [R and D, ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The ThyssenKrupp VDM material Pernifer 36 Z was developed for the production of an actuator sleeve as a part of a piezo injector used in the latest automotive engine technology. The sleeve material has a very low thermal expansion in the temperature range -60 to +200 C which matches the expansion characteristics of the piezo actuator both in terms of magnitude and temperature dependence. Only an actuator sleeve with very low thermal expansion within the very narrowly specified tolerance window guarantees the required functionality of the injector. In order to set the thermal expansion and mechanical properties to the exact requirements, in addition to the chemical composition, the complete process path from melting to rolling and annealing the strip, as well as the annealing of the actuator sleeve, was optimized with respect to the necessary process parameters. (orig.)

  15. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed.

  16. Numerical investigation of a laser gun injector at CEBAF

    A laser gun injector is being developed based on the superconducting rf technologies established at CEBAF. This injector will serve as a high charge cw source for a high power free electron laser. It consists of a dc laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. Its space-charge-dominated performance has been thoroughly investigated using the time-consuming but more appropriate point-by-point space charge calculation method in PARMELA. The notion of ''conditioning for final bunching'' will be introduced. This concept has been built into the code and has greatly facilitated the optimization of the whole system to achieve the highest possible peak current while maintaining low emittance and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies have shown that the design will perform better than the specifications. (orig.)

  17. High-current injector for the proposed SLAC linear collider

    A new, high-current injector has been designed to yield the 7.5 x 1010e- per S-band bunch necessary for the proposed linear collider. The injector consists of two prebunchers at the 16th subharmonic, a 0.75 c traveling wave buncher, and a three-meter velocity of light traveling wave structure. The e- beam is confined by a solonoidal magnetic field in the buncher and capture regions. A computer simulation similar to that used by Mavrogenes et al., has been used to calculate the bunching. The calculation indicates it is possible to achieve approx. 1 x 1011e- in 160 of S-band from a 15 amp gun pulse of 1.5 nsec duration

  18. Performance reach of the injector complex in 2012

    The operational beam performance in the injector chain has evolved considerably since the 2010 run and is much better than ever anticipated. Available margins have been well exploited and leave little room for further performance increases, unless changes as foreseen by the LIU project are implemented. The best operational performance to the LHC in 2011 was a beam with a bunch intensity of 1.5*1011 protons in 1.9 ?m 1? normalized, resulting in a beam brightness of 7.9*1010 p/b/?m. After careful adjustments of the beam in the injector chain the anticipated operational performance to the LHC in 2012 is a beam with a bunch intensity of 1.6*1011 protons in 2 ?m 1? normalized, resulting in a beam brightness of 8*1010 p/b/?m

  19. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector

    Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed.

  20. Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector

    Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

  1. Fast Beam Current Transformer Software for the CERN Injector Complex

    Andersen, M

    2011-01-01

    The fast transfer-line Beam Current Transformers(BCTs) in the CERN injector complex are undergoing a complete consolidation to eradicate obsolete, maintenance intensive hardware. The corresponding low-level software has been designed to minimise the effect of identified error sources while allowing remote diagnostics and calibration facilities. This paper will present the front-end and expert application software with the results obtained.

  2. Fast Beam Current Transformer Software for the CERN Injector Complex

    Andersen, M

    2011-01-01

    The fast transfer-line Beam Current Transformers (BCTs) in the CERN injector complex are undergoing a complete consolidation to eradicate obsolete, maintenance intensive hardware. The corresponding low-level software has been designed to minimise the effect of identified error sources while allowing remote diagnostics and calibration facilities. This paper will present the front-end and expert application software with the results obtained.

  3. Fast beam current transformer software for the CERN injector complex

    The fast transfer-line Beam Current Transformers (BCTs) in the CERN injector complex are undergoing a complete consolidation to eradicate obsolete, maintenance intensive hardware. The corresponding low-level software has been designed to minimise the effect of identified error sources while allowing remote diagnostics and calibration facilities. This paper will present the front-end and expert application software with the results obtained. (authors)

  4. Ignition sequence of an annular multi-injector combustor

    Philip, Maxime; Vicquelin, Ronan; Schmitt, Thomas; Durox, Daniel; Bourgoin, Jean-Franois; Candel, Sbastien

    2013-01-01

    Ignition is a critical process in combustion systems. In aeronautical combustors, altitude relight capacities are required in case of accidental extinction of the chamber. A simultaneous study of light-round ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor has been performed on the experimental and numerical sides. This effort allows a unique comparison to assess the reliability of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in such a configuration. Results are presented in fluid dynamics videos.

  5. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  6. RF drivers for the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifiers

    A 200Mhz intermediate power amplifier system, comprised of four separate chassis or cavity amplifiers is being developed as a driver stage for the Bevalac injector final RF amplifiers. These amplifiers are in to upgrade and replace the present systems with an expected increase in the available RF output power and the system reliability while reducing the associated operating costs. The system construction, design, and initial high power test results are presented

  7. Development of gateway system using EPICS for KEKB injector linac

    EPICS gateway has been developed for the control system of the KEKB injector linac. EPICS clients can monitor the device status through this gateway with EPICS channel access network protocol. This system provides information of following devices: klystron, beam position monitor, vacuum, interlock and beam switch. These data are accumulated in Channel Archiver, which is one of EPICS clients, and are displayed by a Web browser. The gateway has a capability to treat over 4900 transactions per second practically. (author)

  8. Design of an injector for the ERL test facility

    Research and development towards an ERL light source is conducted by collaboration team of JAEA and KEK. In this paper, we present a design study of an injector for the ERL test facility, where critical technologies required for a future ERL light source will be demonstrated. Using a particle tracking simulation in combination with optimization routines, we can find an optimum design to produce an electron beam of 0.1 mm-mrad emittance. (author)

  9. LFI: A Practical and General Library-Level Fault Injector

    MARINESCU Paul; Candea, George

    2009-01-01

    Fault injection, a critical aspect of testing robust systems, is often overlooked in the development of general-purpose software. We believe this is due to the absence of easy-to-use tools and to the extensive manual labor required to perform fault injection tests. This paper introduces LFI (Library Fault Injector), a tool that automates the preparation of fault scenarios and their injection at the boundary between shared libraries and applications. LFI extends prior work by automatically pro...

  10. Synchrotron injectors based on high charge state ion sources

    The performance of any injector contemplated to replace the electrostatic tandem accelerators some time in the future should evidently match or surpass the characteristics of the tandems. It is a fortunate coincidence that the performance of the BNL tandem satisfies in most respects the requirements of the proposed collider, although originally tandems were not built with this application in mind. Requests for heavy ion beams with parameters suitable for injection into the rings of a heavy ion collider have appeared rather recently, at a stage when the high charge state ion sources, which in principle are capable of producing many ion species, have not yet reached such a level of performance. Therefore, consideration of such sources as part of a future injector replacing the tandem accelerators will have to rely on the extrapolation of results from existing models, developed for a different purpose. At the same time, present and future collider requirements for heavy ion beams should serve as a stimulus for the development of sources producing ions with adequate charge states and intensities. Injectors based on such sources may present a better alternative than the tandem accelerators because a higher charge-to-mass ratio of ions from the source results in a more efficient and less costly accelerator. In this report, two candidates for a high charge state, heavy ion source will be considered: an EBIS and an ECR. Other approaches, e.g. laser ion sources, are much further away in the development of a device to be used in a synchrotron injector. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Glatz, J.; Selph, F.B.; Fahmie, M.P.; Ritchie, A.L.; Keith, S.R.; Stover, G.R.; Besse, L.J.

    1979-09-01

    A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures.

  12. Neutral beam injectors for the Big Dee vessel

    The four neutral beam injectors built for Doublet III will be modified to reoptimize beam transmission into the Big Dee vessel. All beamline components will be remounted 900 to their original position in the cylindrical vacuum vessel. This will permit optimum alignment with the available port opening. While these modifications are being incorporated into the disassembled injectors, it is planned that improvements and upgrading features will be added at the least possible cost. The calorimeter will be replaced by two independently driven calorimeters, thus decoupling the operation of the two ion sources. The beam path is being opened up to accommodate a long pulse (cw) source and all beam absorbing surfaces are being increased in size to withstand up to 5 s of operation with heat fluxes up to 700 W/cm2. By opening up the apertures along the beam trajectory, an increase in power transmission into the plasma of 33% is realized compared with the present Doublet III performance. In addition to improving the performance of the present system, this modification allows for the simple replacement of the present field free sources with larger cw sources to be developed and available at a later date. Ultimately, the four injectors will be capable of delivering up to 16 MW of heating into the Big Dee for up to 5-second pulses

  13. Understanding and improving the neutral beam injector conditioning problem

    The occurrence of high voltage electrical breakdowns between the ion beam extraction grids of a high-power neutral beam injector is one of the major factors that determine the performance of an injector. The tedious procedure of 'conditioning' the electrodes in up to several thousand shots and the stressing of electrical supplies by the fast transients are two examples illustrating the need for more understanding of the actual origins of the high-voltage breakdown and the desire to reduce their frequency, thereby shortening the down-times on an injector. This report is an attempt to systematically address these questions. It starts with a survey of the relevant literature relevant to gap breakdown in the extraction optics system. Considering the various possible reasons for breakdowns, different methods for conditioning are discussed as to their potential effectiveness and with respect to the necessary effort. The proposed experimental work to improve the conditioning time will then be described. Finally the results so far obtained will be reported. (orig.)

  14. Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U

    For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D2 cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x1020 atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D? intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

  15. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    Westenskow, Glen; Grote, D P; Halaxa, Erni; Kwan, Joe W

    2005-01-01

    To provide compact high-brightness heavy-ion beams for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm2 was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. More than 90% of the ions were in the Ar+ state, and the energy spread from charge exchange was found to be small. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of a 61-beamlet injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We will report on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, the test will be carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We will measure the beam’s emittance after the beamlets are merged and have bee...

  16. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  17. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  18. Simulation for a New Polarized Electron Injector (SPIN) for the S-DALINAC

    Steiner, Bastian; Grf, Hans Dieter; Richter, Achim; Roth, Markus; Weiland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting DArmstdter LINear ACcelerator (S-DALINAC) is a 130 MeV recirculating electron accelerator serving several nuclear and radiation physics experiments. For future tasks, the 250 keV thermal electron source should be completed by a 100 keV polarized electron source. Therefore a new low energy injection concept for the S-DALINAC has to be designed. The main components of the injector are a polarized electron source, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter spin-rotator and a Mott polarimeter. In this paper we report over the first simulation and design results. For our simulations we used the TS2 and TS3 modules of the CST MAFIA (TM) programme which are PIC codes for two and three dimensions and the CST PARTICLE STUDIO (TM).

  19. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2003-07-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

  20. Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs

  1. Determination of the longitudinal phase space distribution produced with the TTF photo injector

    The longitudinal phase space distribution of the beam produced with the rf photo injector of the TESLA Test Facility at DESY is mainly determined by the longitudinal laser pulse shape and the compression due to the rf acceleration field in the rf gun. The longitudinal electron distribution is measured with a high resolution streak camera using synchrotron radiation at the spectrometer dipole (E - 200 MeV). The same streak camera is used to measure the UV laser pulse shape. The longitudinal distribution of the laser and the electron beam can alternatively be determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy. The energy spread of the beam is determined by measuring the beam profile in the dispersive section using optical transition radiation. Dephasing of the superconducting accelerating cavities and variation of bunch compression parameters allow further measurements of the longitudinal phase space distribution. (authors)

  2. The detection of back-to-back proton pairs in Charged-Current neutrino interactions with the ArgoNeuT detector in the NuMI low energy beam line

    Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

    2014-01-01

    Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (NN SRC) carry important information on nuclear structure and dynamics. NN SRC have been extensively probed through two-nucleon knock- out reactions in both pion and electron scattering experiments. We report here on the detection of two-nucleon knock-out events from neutrino interactions and discuss their topological features as possibly involving NN SRC content in the target argon nuclei. The ArgoNeuT detector in the Main Injector neutrino beam at Fermilab has recorded a sample of 30 fully reconstructed charged current events where the leading muon is accompanied by a pair of protons at the interaction vertex, 19 of which have both protons above the Fermi momentum of the Ar nucleus. Out of these 19 events, four are found with the two protons in a strictly back-to-back high momenta configuration directly observed in the final state and can be associated to nucleon Resonance pionless mechanisms involving a pre-existing short range correlated np pair in the nu...

  3. Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer

    Choong Hoon Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accurately caught the timing of the injector needle lift and return for a single-injection pattern, but it could not for the second or third injection when multiple injections occurred. Only the first needle lift timing of the injector was caught with the injection rate shape obtained from the Bosch method, however, this method cannot identify any other lift or return timing values after the first lift timing.

  4. Study on biodiesel heat transfer through self-temperature limit injector during vehicle cold start

    Wang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of Self-Temperature Limit-Injector (STL- injector is proposed to reduce the biodiesel consumption and emission in vehicle cold start process. The STL-injector is capable of fast raising fuel temperature, which helps improve the quality of diesel spray and its combustion efficiency. A STL-injector model is established with consideration of electro-mechanic coupling and fluid-structure interaction. A transient simulation is conducted using dynamic grid technology. The results show that STL-injector can effectively raise biodiesel temperature to 350K from 300K in 32 seconds. That is to say, adding STL-injector to existing biodiesel combustion system is an environment-friendly solution due to improving atomization and spray quality quickly.

  5. Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring

    Bhat, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron.

  6. Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring

    This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron

  7. Injection Performance of a Gas-Solid Injector Based on the Particle Trajectory Model

    Daolong Yang; Jianping Li; Changlong Du; Hongxiang Jiang; Kehong Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Gas-solid injectors are widely used feeding equipment in pneumatic conveying systems. The performance of a gas-solid injector has a significant influence on the type of application it can be employed for. To determine the key factors influencing the injection performance and address clogging problems in a gas-solid injector during a pneumatic conveying process, the particle trajectory model has been utilised as a means to perform simulations. In the particle trajectory model, the gas phase is...

  8. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of water jet in steam injector. 2. Heat transfer mechanism of water jet

    Characteristics of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam injector were examined. Analyses by using the STAR-CD code were also performed. Direct-Contact steam condensation heat transfer on a water jet was mainly controlled by the radial heat and the momentum transport in the water jet. The heat transfer in the water jet was considerably more effective than that in the usual turbulent heat transfer in a pipe. This highly effective transport mechanism was created by local circulation in the water jet that was produced by waves on the water jet surface. (author)

  9. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (11) Visualization Study on the Start-Up of the Steam Injector

    The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384 x 180 pixel resolution with 30,000 fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300 mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000 fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected. (authors)

  10. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (5) operating characteristics of center water jet type supersonic steam injector

    Next-generation reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. A steam injector has a function of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery, and has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation reactor. Its performance as a pump depends on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. As previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about formulation of operating characteristic of steam injector and analysis of jet structure in steam injector by Narabayashi etc. And as previous studies of the direct contact condensation, there is the study about the direct contact condensation in steam atmosphere. However the study about the turbulent heat transfer under the great shear stress is not enough investigated. Therefore it is necessary to examine in detail about the operating characteristic of the steam injector. The present paper reports the observation results of the water jet behavior in the super sonic steam injector by using the video camera and the high-speed video camera. And the measuring results of the temperature and the pressure distribution in the steam injector are reported. From observation results by video camera, it is cleared that the water jet is established at the center of the steam injector right after steam supplied and the operation of the steam injector depends on the throat diameter. And from observation results by high-speed video camera, it is supposed that the columned water jet surface is established in the mixing nozzle and the water jet surface movement exists. And from temperature measuring results, it is supposed that the steam temperature at the mixing nozzle is changed between about 80 degree centigrade and about 60 degree centigrade. Then from the pressure measuring results, it is confirmed that the pressure at the diffuser depends on each the throat diameter and the steam supply area. (authors)

  11. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Injectors for Potential Future Mars Ascent Engines

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary mission studies for human exploration of Mars have been performed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These studies indicate that for chemical rockets only a cryogenic propulsion system would provide high enough performance to be considered for a Mars ascent vehicle. Although the mission is possible with Earth-supplied propellants for this vehicle, utilization of in-situ propellants is highly attractive. This option would significantly reduce the overall mass of launch vehicles. Consequently, the cost of the mission would be greatly reduced because the number and size of the Earth launch vehicle(s) needed for the mission would decrease. NASA/Johnson Space Center has initiated several concept studies of in-situ propellant production plants. Liquid oxygen (LOX) is the primary candidate for an in-situ oxidizer. In-situ fuel candidates include methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), and methanol (CH3OH). MSFC initiated a technology development program for a cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars human exploration mission in 1998. One part of this technology program is the effort described here: an evaluation of propellant injection concepts for a LOX/liquid methane Mars Ascent Engine (MAE) with an emphasis on light-weight, high efficiency, reliability, and thermal compatibility. In addition to the main objective, hot-fire tests of the subject injectors will be used to test other key technologies including light-weight combustion chamber materials and advanced ignition concepts. This paper will address the results of the liquid methane/LOX injector study conducted at MSFC. A total of four impinging injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure varied from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were performed. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability.

  12. Using one-dimensional modeling to analyse the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Detailed injection system model

    Highlights: ► One-dimensional model of a solenoid injection system has been developed in AmeSim. ► Complete characterization of the injector elements has been carried out. ► Experimental mass flow rate results have been used for validating the model widely. - Abstract: A combined experimental and computational investigation has been performed in order to evaluate the influence of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-direct injection system with second generation solenoid injectors. For that purpose, after a complete characterization of the system, which involved mechanical and hydraulic characterization, a one-dimensional model has been obtained and extensively validated. Simulations have then been performed with a standard diesel and a 100% rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel which allowed a comparison and analysis of the dynamic response of the injector to be done. Different injection strategies involving main injection and main plus post-injection have been used to explore the impact of the use of biodiesel on the performance and stability of solenoid injectors. As far as the dynamic response of the injector is concerned, the results obtained have clearly shown that the use of biodiesel affects the dynamic response of the needle, especially at low injection pressures. The behavior of the system under multi-injection strategies (main plus post-injection) has been also evaluated determining for different operating conditions (injection pressures and backpressures) the minimum dwell time between injections to assure a stable behavior in the injection process (mass flow rate). Important differences have been found between biodiesel and standard diesel in this critical parameter at low injection pressures, becoming less important at high injection pressure. Finally, a modification on the injector hardware has been proposed in order to compensate these differences.

  13. IONS FOR LHC STATUS OF THE INJECTOR CHAIN

    Manglunki, Django; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Fowler, T; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Jowett, John M; Kchler, D; Mahner, E; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pasinelli, S; Raich, U; Rey, A; Royer, J-P; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Tranquille, G; Vallet, J L; Vandorpe, B

    2007-01-01

    The LHC will, in addition to proton runs, be operated with Pb ions and provide collisions at energies of 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair, i.e. more than 1.1 PeV per event, to experiments. The transformation of CERN's ion injector complex (Linac3-LEIR-PS-SPS) to allow collision of ions in LHC in 2008 is well under way. The status of these modifications and the latest results of commissioning will be presented. The remaining challenges are reviewed.

  14. Time resolved cryogenic cooling analysis of the Cornell Injector Cryomodule

    Eichhorn, R.; Markham, S.; Smith, E.; Quigley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Managing parallel cryogenic flows has become a key challenge in designing efficient and smart cryo-modules for particle accelerators. In analysing the heating dynamics of the Cornell high current injector module a computational tool has been set-up allowing time resolved analysis and optimization. We describe the computational methods and data sets we have used, report the results and compare them to measured data from the module being in good agreement. Mitigation strategies developed on basis of this model have helped us in pushing the operational limitations.

  15. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    P. Sichta; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; G. Gettelfinger; H. Kugel

    2003-10-27

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI.

  16. Amplitude and phase stability studies in a DC superconducting injector

    Wang, Fang; Lin, Lin; Zhang, He; Hao, Jian-Kui; Zhang, Bao-Cheng; Liu, Ke-Xin

    2011-09-01

    The DC superconducting injector will be used in the PKU-THz facility which consists of a DC-gun and a 3+1/2-cell superconducting cavity. The cavity must accelerate the electron beam to 5.82 MeV which is susceptible to perturbations because of its narrow bandwidth. In this paper, the sources and influences of the perturbations in the 3+1/2-cell cavity are discussed. It is shown that the control system is essential for the cavity. The design of a feedback based digital RF low level control system for the 3+1/2-cell cavity is accomplished.

  17. Large aperture S-band structures in KEK injector linac

    Upgrade of KEKB Injector Linac is ongoing for super KEKB project. The positron beam intensity is required to be 4nC per bunch. Use of the flux concentrator and the large aperture S-band structures (LAS) in the positron capture system can give us four times larger population of positrons than that of our previous system. Ten LAS are set in the downstream of the positron target. The new system starts its first operation with positron generation in this spring (2014). In the present paper the system design is briefly reviewed and the operation of LAS is reported. (author)

  18. Microtron-injector for booster synchrotron of SR facility

    This paper describes the design features of a 20 MeV, 30 mA microtron to be used as injector to the 700 MeV booster synchrotron of synchrotron radiation (SR) facility. The microtron was designed and developed at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT). All the components and systems were made indigenously except microwave components such as a 5.0 MW klystron and circulators which were imported. The paper also highlights the microtron development project at CAT. (author). 1 fig

  19. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  20. Support of accelerator section of KEK injector linac

    The reexamination of the support of accelerator section is required for the recovery from the damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th, March, 2011. The general idea of KEK injector linac support has the feature of flexible structure, and these were not able to sustain under the shake of lower-6th on the Japanese intensity scale. We investigated the vibration characteristic aiming at the more rigid structure. Furthermore, some new supports were installed on the beamline for positron capture section of SuperKEKB. This report describes the two types of supports of accelerator section. (author)

  1. Remote maintenance of FED neutral-beam injectors

    The FED Remote Maintenance Equipment Workshop was held to establish the characteristics of major remote equipment items, and this was done during the first session which was held in January, 1981. A list of general purpose and special purpose equipment was established. The second session, held in March, developed more detailed concepts for maintenance of specific reactor components. The details of an investigation into neutral beam injector remote handling are presented herein. The baseline concept for FED auxiliary heating uses radio frequency waves: electron cyclotron resonance heating for plasma formation and ion cyclotron resonance heating for additional heating to ignition temperature. The alternate concept uses neutral beam injection for ignition heating

  2. Passive heat removal system with injector-condenser

    The system described in this paper is a passive system for decay heat removal from WWERs. It operates off the secondary side of the steam generators (SG). Steam is taken from the SG to operate a passive injector pump which causes secondary fluid to be pumped through a heat exchanger. Variants pass either water or steam from the SG through the heat exchanger. There is a passive initiation scheme. The programme for experimental and theoretical validation of the system is described. (author). 8 figs

  3. Considerations on collective ion acceleration as an intense ion injector

    A virtual cathode collective acceleration configuration is examined for use as a pulsed, intense ion injector. Numerical calculations of the collective acceleration have shown peak ion energies of several times that of the electron beam energy. This is consistent with a variety of experiments. The late time behavior is to accelerate ions to lower energies but at a higher current. This is characteristic of a reflex ion triode, which produces an ion beam largely charged but not current neutralized. Dynamic neutralization must be achieved if accelerator applications requiring transport and focusing are to be realized. Representative applications have been simulated and are discussed. 10 refs., 6 figs

  4. An electron gun for high brightness FEL injector

    The design and performance of an electron gun with high repetition rate, intensive beam current for CIAE-FEL injector is presented in this paper. Tested results are as follows: pulse beam current is 5.8 A, pulse width (FWHM) is 2.2 ns and pulse repetition rate is 2.16 MHz. In order to lower the trigger pulse voltage and make it operate at the high repetition rate, the cathode-grid assembly a with distance of 0.15 mm between cathode and grid was used

  5. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI

  6. Hyperion II: a heavy ion pre-injector for Saturne

    Since 1978, the 3GeV synchrotron Saturne is routinely operated with proton, deuteron, helium beams and, since 1981 with polarized protons and deuterons. Heavy ions are expected in 1983 by using a new pre-injector presently under construction. The marriage of an EBIS and an RFQ can be looked upon generally as a very good means of production of heavy ion beams at low energy. In the first paragraph, the cryogenic version of EBIS, called CRYEBIS, is described, while the RFQ design is studied in detail in paragraph two. The construction status is given in a third paragraph

  7. PICs in the injector complex - what are we talking about?

    Hanke, K

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will identify PIC activities for the LHC injector chain, and point out borderline cases to pure consolidation and upgrade. The most important PIC items will be listed for each LIU project (PSB, PS, SPS) and categorized by a) the risk if not performed and b) the implications of doing them. This will in particular address the consequences on performance, schedule, reliability, commissioning time, operational complexity etc. The additional cost of PICs with regard to pure consolidation will be estimated and possible time lines for the implementation of the PICs will be discussed. In this context, it will be evaluated if the PICs can be implemented over several machine stops.

  8. Neutral beam injector research and development work in the USA

    We describe neutral beam injector research and development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. All neutral beam systems for present and near-term applications are based on the acceleration and neutralization of positive ions. The research and development is carried out at LBL/LLL and ORNL. Present emphasis at LBL/LLL is on 80 to 120 kV systems for the mirror program and for the TFTR and D III tokamaks. Present emphasis at ORNL is on 40 to 80 kV systems for the PLT, ISX, and PDX, and 80 to 200 kV systems for LPTT and TNS tokamaks. Injectors for the future experiments and reactors may operate at energies of 200 keV or higher, especially for mirror machine applications, where positive-ion-based efficiencies will be very low, assuming no energy recovery. Research on negative-ion-based systems with potentially high efficiencies is carried out at BNL and at LBL/LLL and ORNL. The first demonstration of a high-power neutral beam based on negative ions is planned for 1980

  9. Development of repetitive type pellet injector with improved thermal insulation

    In this report a repetitive type pellet injector has been developed and some improvements of thermal insulation are evaluated. The injector is an extruder type and its cylindrically shaped pellets have a 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, and a maximum velocity of 1.6 km/s. A single shot test showed that most of the excessive thermal energy for the cryogenic block comes from the propellant gas itself. A push-pull type fast-opening/closing valve has been developed for gas reduction. The opening and closing times are both within 0.8 ms, and the gas release is cut in half compared with the case using a usual valve. A double-layered tube is used for connection between the valve and cryogenic block, and it can stop most of the thermal flow from the propellant gas. For repetitive operation, in addition to thermal conduction of the propellant gas, thermal conduction from the external field becomes responsible. Polyimide tubes were used for the insulation inside the block and, with a vacuum tank of 0.7m3, the steady-state condition of solid hydrogen is achieved for the repetition rate of 1Hz and more than a 10 s operation time can be achieved for 5 Hz. This would be raised to 10 Hz with a larger pumping speed of about 5000 m3/s

  10. Linac4, a New Injector for the CERN PS Booster

    Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Pasini, M; Rossi, C; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2006-01-01

    The first bottle-neck towards higher beam brightness in the LHC injector chain is due to space charge induced tune spread at injection into the CERN PS Booster (PSB). A new injector called Linac4 is proposed to remove this limitation. Using RF cavities at 352 and 704 MHz, it will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2, and deliver a 160 MeV, 40 mA H- beam. The higher injection energy will reduce space charge effects by a factor of 2, and charge exchange will drastically reduce the beam losses at injection. Operation will be simplified and the beam brightness required for the LHC ultimate luminosity should be obtained at PS ejection. Moreover, for the needs of non-LHC physics experiments like ISOLDE, the number of protons per pulse from the PSB will increase by a significant factor. This new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios. It is also designed to become the low energy part of a future 3.5 GeV, multi-megawatt superconducting linac (SPL). The present desig...

  11. LINAC4, A New $H^{-}$ Linear Injector at CERN

    Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2004-01-01

    Linac2, the present injector of the CERN PS Booster, limits the performance of the proton accelerator complex because of its low output energy (50 MeV). To remove this bottleneck, a higher energy linac is proposed (called â€ワLinac4†) which will double the brightness and the intensity of the beam delivered by the PSB and ensure the â€ワultimate” beam is available for LHC. Linac4 will deliver H- ions at a kinetic energy of 160 MeV. It is designed to be usable as the front-end of a future multi-GeV multi-MW linear accelerator, the â€ワSuperconducting Proton Linac” (SPL). R&D for Linac4 is now actively taking place with the support of the European Union through the Joint Research Activity HIPPI (â€ワHigh Intensity Pulsed Proton Injectors”), and of three ISTC projects involving three major Russian laboratories (BINP, IHEP and ITEP) and two nuclear centres (VNIIEF and VNIITF). The design of this new accelerator and the on-going developments are described.

  12. A control system upgrade of the spear synchrotron and injector

    The SPEAR electron synchrotron is an old and venerable facility with a history of great physics. When this storage ring was converted to serve as a full-time synchrotron light source, it was evident that the facility was due for an overhaul of its control system. Outdated hardware interfaces, custom operator interfaces, and the control computer itself were replaced with off-the-shelf distributed intelligent controllers and networked X-workstations. However, almost all applications and control functions were retained by simply rewriting the layer of software closest to each new device. The success of this upgrade prompted us to do a similar upgrade of our Injector system. Although the Injector was already running an X-windows based control system, it was non-networked and Q-bus based. By using the same Ethernet based controllers that were used at SPEAR, we were able to integrate the two systems into one that resembles the ''standard model'' for control systems, and at the same time preserve the applications software that has been developed over the years on both systems

  13. Heavy ion upgrade of the Bevatron local injector

    A new heavy ion injector system for the Bevatron, consisting of a PIG ion source, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, is nearing completion. It will make available to the Bevatron a source of ions up to mass 40 independent of the SuperHILAC, enhancing the operational flexibility of the Bevalac complex. The RFQ accelerator, made operational in mid 1983, accelerates ions with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 to 200 keV/n. The RFQ is followed by a new 200 MHz Alvarez linac operating in the 2βlambda mode which further accelerates the ions to 800 keV/n. This linac is followed by a foil stripper and a portion of the old injector linac, rebuilt to accelerate beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.35 to 5 MeV/n in the 2βlambda mode. Details are given of the configuration, equipment modifications, and project status

  14. Cavitation Inside High-Pressure Optically Transparent Fuel Injector Nozzles

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nozzle-orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on primary breakup of sprays. For this reason, a number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles so that orifice flow cavitation can be examined directly. Many of these studies use injection pressures scaled down from realistic injection pressures used in modern fuel injectors, and so the geometry must be scaled up so that the Reynolds number can be matched with the industrial applications of interest. A relatively small number of studies have shown results at or near the injection pressures used in real systems. Unfortunately, neither the specifics of the design of the optical nozzle nor the design methodology used is explained in detail in these papers. Here, a methodology demonstrating how to prevent failure of a finished design made from commonly used optically transparent materials will be explained in detail, and a description of a new design for transparent nozzles which minimizes size and cost will be shown. The design methodology combines Finite Element Analysis with relevant materials science to evaluate the potential for failure of the finished assembly. Finally, test results imaging a cavitating flow at elevated pressures are presented.

  15. Developments of repetitive pneumatic pipe-gun pellet injector

    Sudo, Shigeru [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Viniar, I.

    1997-05-01

    A pellet injector of repetitive pneumatic pipe-gun type has been designed for advanced plasma fueling applications. This new concept is estimated to be able to reduce the time for pellet formation by an in situ technique from 3 - 5 minutes to 2 - 10 seconds. The basic idea of the new approach to pellet formation is to supply a hydrogen isotope pellet through a copper porous unit into a pipe-gun-type barrel. Two modes are possible: (1) to push liquid hydrogen isotope through a porous unit and re-freezing inside of the barrel, (2) to push solid hydrogen isotope through a porous unit to the inside of the barrel. This principle provides a continuous injection of an unlimited amount of pellets. For demonstration of the proof-of-principle, several experiments have been carried out. Hydrogen pellets of 3 mm in diameter and 3 to 10 mm in length were accelerated to 1.2 km/s at a rate of 1 pellet per 10 - 34 s with a manually controlled injector operation. (author)

  16. Dipole light monitor system for the ESRF injector

    The visible part of the synchrotron radiation produced in a total of 9 dipoles of the ESRF injector is now extracted to obtain simultaneously images of the electron beam profile at these locations. This at each injection and in a non-destructive way to the electron beam. The first transfer line (180 MeV) contains 3 monitors on the 2 dipoles (0.38 T) and the injection septum magnet. The Booster accelerator has one monitor that allows the profile measurement at any moment in its 50 ms acceleration cycle by timing the internal camera shutter. In order to equip each of the 5 dipoles (0.9 T) in the second transfer line (6 GeV) with such a monitor, a compact and low-cost light extraction system was added at the end of the (non-modified) dipole vacuum chamber. All systems use low-cost commercial CCD cameras, sufficient light is produced at beam-currents a factor about 100 below nominal values. The video images are displayed to the control room operator at each injection, giving a quick and complete view of injection conditions all along the injector path. In comparison to traditional screen monitors this non-destructive feature does not only allow this simultaneous data acquisition but also avoids the local generation of radiation from beam interception. In terms of sensitivity and resolution the system is also of superior performance

  17. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    Cianfarani, Cesidio; Cisbani, Evaristo; Orlandi, Gianluca; Frullani, Salvatore; Picardi, Luigi; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2006-06-01

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode—injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode—generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 μs, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  18. Travelling wave chopper for the high current injector at IUAC

    IUAC is developing High Current Injector (HCI) accelerator as an alternative injector for the existing superconducting linear accelerator. The HCI project was envisaged to overcome the low current limitation of the Pelletron Accelerator and to provide varieties of ion species like nobel gases etc. which are not possible with existing Pelletron Accelerator. The LEBT (low energy beam transport) section of HCI consists of various beam dynamics components like GP Tubes, Diagnostic Box, Chopper and TWD, Multi Harmonic Buncher (MHB), Vacuum System, Magnetic Quadruple, and Fast Faraday Cup etc. A Chopper and Travelling Wave Deflector (TWD) is required to provide the chopped beam with various repetition rate to IUAC experimental facilities ego NAND, HYRA, HlRA, INGA etc. The proposed MHB in the LEBT section of HCI, is having 60 ns linear portion in its saw tooth wave form. The requirement of the repetition rate for the experimental facilities are 250ns, 500ns, 1μs, 2μs, 4μs and 8μs. It was decided that output of chopper must have 60 ns pulse length with maximum current and TWD must provide the various repetition rate as mentioned above. In this paper we will present the details of the design and fabrication of prototype

  19. Developments of repetitive pneumatic pipe-gun pellet injector

    A pellet injector of repetitive pneumatic pipe-gun type has been designed for advanced plasma fueling applications. This new concept is estimated to be able to reduce the time for pellet formation by an in situ technique from 3 -5 minutes to 2 - 10 seconds. The basic idea of the new approach to pellet formation is to supply a hydrogen isotope pellet through a copper porous unit into a pipe-gun-type barrel. Two modes are possible: (1) to push liquid hydrogen isotope through a porous unit and re-freezing inside of the barrel, (2) to push solid hydrogen isotope through a porous unit to the inside of the barrel. This principle provides a continuous injection of an unlimited amount of pellets. For demonstration of the proof-of-principle, several experiments have been carried out. Hydrogen pellets of 3 mm in diameter and 3 to 10 mm in length were accelerated to 1.2 km/s at a rate of 1 pellet per 10 - 34 s with a manually controlled injector operation. (author)

  20. Energy-Spread-Feedback System for the KEKB Injector Linac

    Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    New energy-spread feedback system using nondestructive energy-spread monitors have been developed in order to control and stabilize the energy spreads of single-bunch electron and positron beams in the KEKB injector linac. The well-controlled feedback systems of the injector linac are successfully working in dairy operation not only for keeping the injection rate higher along with the beam-orbit and energy feedback systems but also for reducing a background level to the high-energy B-factory experiment. The energy spreads of the injection beams are well stabilized within 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.3% for the electron beam, the positron beam, and the high-current primary electron beam for positron production, respectively, through the energy-spread feedback system under the nominal operation condition. In this paper, we will report in detail the energy-spread feedback system using the nondestructive energy-spread monitors with multi-strip-line electrodes and their performance in the KEKB operation.