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1

Main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main injector particle production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and antiproton with beam momenta of 5-90 GeV/c to measure particle production cross-sections of various nuclei including liquid hydrogen, MINOS target and thin targets of beryllium, carbon, bismuth and uranium. The physics motivation to perform such cross-section measurements is described here. Recent results on the analysis of NuMI target and forward neutron cross-sections are presented here. Preliminary cross-section measurements for 58 GeV/c proton on liquid hydrogen target are also presented. A new method is described to correct for low multiplicity inefficiencies in the trigger using KNO scaling. (author)

2

Operation of the NuMI beam monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system is four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation.

Zwaska, Robert M.; Indurthy, Dharma; Keisler, Ryan; Kopp, Sacha; Mendoza, Steven; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Viren, Brett; Harris,; Marchionni, Alberto; Morfin, Jorge; McDonald, Jeffrey; Naples, Donna; Northacker, David; Erwin, Albert; Ping, Huican; Velissaris, Cristos; /Texas U. /Brookhaven

2006-06-01

3

Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics

4

Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project

5

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

6

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

NONE

1997-12-01

7

Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as A{sup a} where a is 0.46 {+-} 0.06 for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54 {+-} 0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo. The MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experiment (FNAL E907) [1] acquired data in the Meson Center beam line at Fermilab. The primary purposes of the experiment were to investigate scaling laws in hadron fragmentation [2], to obtain hadron production data for the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector [3]) target to be used for calculating neutrino fluxes, and to obtain inclusive pion, neutron, and photon production data to facilitate proton radiography [4]. While there is considerable data available on inclusive charged particle production [5], there is little data on neutron production. In this article we present results for forward neutron production using proton beams of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, bismuth, and uranium targets, and compare these data with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

Nigmanov, T.S.; /Michigan U.; Rajaram, D.; /Michigan U.; Longo, M.J.; /Michigan U.; Akgun, U.; /Iowa U.; Aydin, G.; /Iowa U.; Baker, W.; /Fermilab; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bergfeld, T.; /South Carolina U.; Bujak, A.; /Purdue U.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab; Dukes, E.C.; /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

2010-10-01

8

Operation of the NuMI Beam Monitoring System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system consists of four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation

9

Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

10

Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

11

A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

2012-01-01

12

Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

13

Intensity Limitations in Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design beam intensity of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) is 3 x 10{sup 13} ppp. This paper investigates possible limitations in the intensity upgrade. These include the space charge, transition crossing, microwave instability, coupled bunch instability, resistive wall, beam loading (static and transient), rf power, aperture (physical and dynamic), coalescing, particle losses and radiation shielding, etc. It seems that to increase the intensity by a factor of two from the design value is straightforward. Even a factor of five is possible provided that the following measures are to be taken: an rf power upgrade, a {gamma}{sub t}-jump system, longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, rf feedback and feedforward, stopband corrections and local shieldings.

Chan, W.

1997-06-01

14

The Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI Facility at Fermilab provides an extremely intense beam of neutrinos making it an ideal place for the study of neutrino oscillations as well as high statistics (anti)neutrino-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiments. The MINOS neutrino oscillation ?? disappearance experiment is currently taking data and has published first results. The NO?A ?e appearance experiment is planning to begin taking data at the start of the next decade.For the study of neutrino scattering, the MINER?A experiment at Fermilab is a collaboration of elementary-particle and nuclear physicists planning to use a fully active fine-grained solid scintillator detector. The overall goals of the experiment are to measure absolute exclusive cross-sections, nuclear effects in ? - A interactions, a systematic study of the resonance-DIS transition region and the high-xBj - low Q2 DIS region

15

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY v...

Scott, D. J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K. L.; Zwaska, R. M.; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T. P.; Palmer, M. A.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

2013-01-01

16

Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C

2013-01-01

17

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

Scott, D J; Duel, K L; Zwaska, R M; Greenwald, S; Hartung, W; Li, Y; Moore, T P; Palmer, M A; Kirby, R; Pivi, M; Wang, L

2013-01-01

18

Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)  

CERN Document Server

A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40pi to 60pi mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets.

Chou, W; Brown, B; Capista, D; Crisp, J; Di Marco, J; Fitzgerald, J; Glass, H; Harding, D; Johnson, D; Kashikhin, V; Kourbanis, I; Prieto, P; Robotham, W; Sager, T; Tartaglia, M; Valerio, L; Webber, R; Wendt, M; Wolff, D; Yang, M

2008-01-01

19

FNAL Main Injector ?t Transition Jump Beamtube Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of the FNAL Main Injector ?_t-jump system calls for a special beamtube that is to be placed inside the pulsed magnets. The requirements are: an elliptical shaped tube that mates with the existing vacuum system, high electrical resistivity for reducing the eddy current effects, high strength for withstanding the vacuum load, simple fabrication and installation processes and low cost. Inconel 718 was selected to meet these criteria. Results obtained from analytical calculations, 2-D and 3-D finite element modeling, and testing of actual prototypes were in general agreement.

Leibfritz, J.

1997-05-01

20

Beam-based alignment of the NuMI target station components at FNAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional horn-focused neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos from a beam of mesons directed into a long evacuated decay volume. The relative alignment of the primary proton beam, target, and focusing horns affects the neutrino energy spectrum delivered to experiments. This paper describes a check of the alignment of these components using the proton beam

 
 
 
 
21

Secondary beam monitors for the NuMI facility at FNAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos by focusing a beam of mesons into a long evacuated decay volume. We have built four arrays of ionization chambers to monitor the position and intensity of the hadron and muon beams associated with neutrino production at locations downstream of the decay volume. This article describes the chambers' construction, calibration, and commissioning in the beam

22

Beam-Based Alignment of the NuMI Target Station Components at FNAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional horn-focused neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos from a beam of mesons directed into a long evacuated decay volume. The relative alignment of the primary proton beam, target, and focusing horns affects the neutrino energy spectrum delivered to experiments. This paper describes a check of the alignment of these components using the proton beam.

Zwaska, R.; /Argonne; Bishai, M.; Childress, S.; Drake, G.; Escobar, C.; Gouffon, P.; Harris, D.A.; Hylen, J.; Indurthy, D.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; /Argonne /Brookhaven

2006-09-01

23

Secondary beam monitors for the NuMI facility at FNAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos by focusing a beam of mesons into a long evacuated decay volume. We have built four arrays of ionization chambers to monitor the position and intensity of the hadron and muon beams associated with neutrino production at locations downstream of the decay volume. This article describes the chambers construction, calibration, and commissioning in the beam.

Kopp, S.; Bishai, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Diwan, M.; Erwin, A.R.; Harris, D.A.; Indurthy, D.; Keisler, R.; Kostin, M.; Lang, M.; MacDonald, J.; /Brookhaven /Fermilab

2006-07-01

24

A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay KL ? ?0? anti ? decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K+ beam to produce a pure K0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare KS decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

25

Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as $A^(alpha)$ where $\\alpha$ is $0.46\\pm0.06$ for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54$\\pm$0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo.

Nigmanov, T S; Longo, M J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes, P D; Jr.,; Bergfeld, T; Bujak, A; Carey, D; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Gülmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Graf, N; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L; Hartouni, E; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Johnstone, C; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kostin, M; Lange, D; Lebedev, A; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K S; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Paley, J M; Park, H K; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Raja, R; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Seun, S; Solomey, N; Soltz, R; Swallow, E; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D; Wu, K

2010-01-01

26

Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

1991-01-01

27

Survey and alignment overview: Fermilab main injector ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Fermilab main injector ring (FMI) is to replace and improve the performance of the existing main ring by simultaneously enhancing both Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI interacts with the Tevatron near the F-O straight section, and performs all the duties that currently the existing main ring does. The performance of the FMI as measured in terms of the protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron is expected to exceed twice or thrice of those of the main ring. In addition, the FMI provides high duty factor 120 GeV beam for the experimental areas. The design geometry of the FMI is described. In order to achieve the smooth and successful startup, the desired absolute and relative alignment tolerances for 208 quadrupole and 344 dipole magnets have been defined. Ten concrete pillar type monuments with forced centering devices constitute the framework for the surface control network. Regarding tunnel control system, geodetic considerations, monumentation, secondary tunnel constraint network and tunnel control network are described. Magnet fiduciarization and alignment are reported. (K.I.)

28

Survey and alignment overview: Fermilab main injector ring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Fermilab main injector ring (FMI) is to replace and improve the performance of the existing main ring by simultaneously enhancing both Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI interacts with the Tevatron near the F-O straight section, and performs all the duties that currently the existing main ring does. The performance of the FMI as measured in terms of the protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron is expected to exceed twice or thrice of those of the main ring. In addition, the FMI provides high duty factor 120 GeV beam for the experimental areas. The design geometry of the FMI is described. In order to achieve the smooth and successful startup, the desired absolute and relative alignment tolerances for 208 quadrupole and 344 dipole magnets have been defined. Ten concrete pillar type monuments with forced centering devices constitute the framework for the surface control network. Regarding tunnel control system, geodetic considerations, monumentation, secondary tunnel constraint network and tunnel control network are described. Magnet fiduciarization and alignment are reported. (K.I.)

Bocean, V.; Oshinowo, B.; Sager, T.M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1996-01-01

29

Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the value (and Q{sup 2} dependence) of R{sub QCD} = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}. A Main Injector experiment will check the scaling violation of the theory and provide solid measurements of the gluon distributions.

Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

1991-01-01

30

Physics design for the C-ADS main linac basing on two different injector design schemes  

CERN Document Server

The China ADS (C-ADS) project is proposed to build a 1000 MW Accelerator Driven sub-critical System around 2032. The accelerator will work in CW mode with 10 mA in beam current and 1.5 GeV in final beam energy. The linac is composed of two major sections: the injector section and the main linac section. There are two different schemes for the injector section. The Injector-I scheme is based on a 325-MHz RFQ and superconducting spoke cavities of same RF frequency and the Injector-II scheme is based on a 162.5-MHz RFQ and superconducting HWR cavities of same frequency. The main linac design will be different for different injector choice. The two different designs for the main linac have been studied according to the beam characteristics from the different injector schemes.

Yan, Fang; Meng, Cai; Tang, Jing-Yu

2013-01-01

31

Tevatron energy and luminosity upgrades beyond the main injector  

CERN Document Server

The Fermilab Tevatron will be the world's highest energy hadron collider until the LHC is commissioned, it has the world's highest energy fixed target beams, and Fermilab will be the leading high energy physics laboratory in the US for the foreseeable future. Following the demise of the SSC, a number of possible upgrades to the Tevatron complex, beyond construction of the Main Injector, are being discussed. Using existing technology, it appears possible to increase the luminosity of the \\bar{p}p Collider to at least 10^{33}cm^{-2}sec^{-1} (Tevatron-Star) and to increase the beam energy to 2 TeV (DiTevatron). Fixed target beam of energy about 1.5 TeV could also be delivered. Leaving the existing Tevatron in the tunnel and constructing bypasses around the collider halls would allow simultaneous 800 GeV fixed target and \\sqrt{s} = 4 TeV collider operation. These upgrades would give Fermilab an exciting physics program which would be complementary to the LHC, and they would lay the groundwork for the construction...

Amidei, D; Foster, G W; Jackson, G P; Kamon, T; López, J L; McIntyre, P; Strait, J B; White, J

1996-01-01

32

Barrier RF system and applications in Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel broadband RF system--the barrier RF--has been designed, fabricated and installed in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). It uses nanocrystal magnetic alloy called Finemet and high voltage fast MOSFET switches. The system delivers {+-}10 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. It can stack two proton batches injected from the Booster and squeeze them into the size of one so that the bunch intensity is increased. The high intensity beams have been successfully accelerated to 120 GeV with small losses. The problem of large longitudinal emittance growth is under investigation. A second system will be installed during the fall shutdown and be tested for the so-called fast stacking scheme to continuously stack up to 12 Booster batches in the MI. This system is also used for cleaning up the leaking-out dc beams from slip stacking to reduce beam loss. This work is part of the US-Japan collaborative agreement.

Chou, W.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab; Takagi, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Zheng, H.; /Caltech

2005-05-01

33

Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that inst the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

34

Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; /Fermilab; Veitzer, Seth A.; Stoltz, Peter; /Tech-X, Boulder; Spentzouris, Panagiotis G.; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2011-05-01

35

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

36

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

CERN Document Server

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

Dey, J

2012-01-01

37

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

38

Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within ± 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to ± 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

39

Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within {+-} 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to {+-} 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

Bocean, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1999-07-01

40

The structural dynamics analysis of the main injector LOX inlet tee and its redesign  

Science.gov (United States)

A ground test of a specially instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) revealed excessively high strains in the high pressure Liquid Oxygen (LOX) inlet line which carries LOX to the Main Injector. The inlet tee acts as a manifold which utilizes two splitter vanes to direct the flow of LOX into the main injector. When the high strains were discovered, it was thought that these splitter vanes, coupled with high energy flow was the source. This resulted not only in high strains in the LOX inlet tee, but excessive vibration at a frequency of 4000 Hz located at the gimbal bearing, and at the main injector. This was later to be known as The 4kHz Phenomenon. The dynamic analysis which was used to predict the response due to the 4kHz phenomenon and the analysis used to aid in the design modification required to the hardware to reduce or eliminate the phenomenon is examined.

Romano, E.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Impedance budget and beam stability analysis of the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impedance budget of the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) is estimated, which includes the contributions from the resistive walls, bellows, rf cavities, steps, Lambertsons, etc. Beam stability during ramping and bunch coalescence is analyzed. The transverse resistive-wall coupled bunch growth is found to be somewhat worse than the situation in the Main Ring (MR)

42

Calculation of the Orbit Length Change of the Recycler Due to Main Injector Ramp  

CERN Document Server

Orbit length of beam in the Recycler changes during the Main Injector ramps. The unknown kicks from the effects generated by stray field are distributed around the ring. To estimate the changes, simulated virtual kicks are created around each lambson, C-magnet and bus cable of the Main Injector. The orbit lengths are calculated from measurements of evolution frequency and transverse beam positions. A BPM system distributed throughout the Recycler lattice in both Horizontal and vertical planes are used to take the closed orbit measurement during the ramps. The calculation method and the results of the orbit length changes and the strength of the simulated kicks are presented in this report.

Xiao Mei Qin

2005-01-01

43

Design considerations and prototype performance of the Fermilab Main Injector dipole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Main Injector project at Fermilab requires a dipole with good field quality from 0.1 T to 1.73 T with ramps to full field at up to 2.4 T/s over an aperture of 10 x 5 cm. Operation of this magnet for the variety of purposes proposed for the Main Injector results in a design with low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction. The resulting design is presented, along with measurement results of a prototype magnet emphasizing the field uniformity. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

44

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2010-05-01

45

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

46

Low loss injector for Space Shuttle main engine. Center director's discretionary fund  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient propellant injection method to raise the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) thrust and payload is discussed. Relatively large diameter injector elements with low pressure loss are recommended for the main combustion chamber and the pre-burners. Smaller losses admit more propellant flow which then raises thrust. Payload is not only gained by specific impulse but also by thrust. The chamber pressure is stabilized by selecting the proper cavity size for the injector elements while reducing the injection pressure loss which normally is kept high for stability. The rather large injector element recesses provide acoustic damping which makes baffles and acoustic absorbers unnecessary. A tenfold reduction of flow induced stresses which are rather high in the present design is shown. Relaxed tolerances, fewer elements, and better maintenance are offered. The study was conducted under a center director discretionary fund assignment.

Vonpragenau, G. L.

1984-01-01

47

Pbar deceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector: Tune-Up studies with proton beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report we present the results of beam dynamics simulations as well as experiments with protons for deceleration from 150 GeV to 8.9 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). The simulations are carried out on two different deceleration schemes: dece...

C. M. Bhat

2001-01-01

48

Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements

49

The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

50

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; /Fermilab; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; /Cornell U.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

2012-05-01

51

Comments on the behavior of ?1 in Main Injector ?t jump schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracking studies of transition crossing in the Main Injector have shown that the Johnsen effect is the dominant cause of beam loss and emittance blow up. To suppress this effect one has to have control over ?1 (dispersion of the momentum compaction factor ?). Various ?t jump configurations are examined and the resulting changes in ?1 are assessed. These results are further validated by comparison between the simulation and simple analytic ?1-formulas derived for a model FODO lattice with full chromaticity compensation in the presence of an eddy current sextupole component. A scheme involving the introduction of a dispersion wave in the arcs of the Main Injector, around transition time, seems to be promising if one regards the strength of the eddy current sextupole family as an external 'knob' to control values of ?1

52

Comments on the behavior of ?1 in main injector ?t jump schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracking studies of transition crossing in the Main Injector have shown that the Johnsen effect is the dominant cause of beam loss and emittance blow up. To suppress this effect one has to have control over ?1 (dispersion of the momentum compaction factor ?). Various ?t jump configurations are examined and the resulting changes in ?1 are assessed. These results are further validated by comparison between the simulation and simple analytic ?1--formulas derived for a model FODO lattice with full chromaticity compensation in the presence of an eddy current sextupole component. A scheme involving the introduction of a dispersion wave in the arcs of the Main Injector, around transition time, seems to be promising if one regards the strength of the eddy current sextupole family as an external ''knob'' to control values of ?1

53

Narrowband beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector accelerating cavities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A narrowband beam loading compensation system was installed for the Main Injector Accelerating Cavities. This feedback operates solely on the fundamental resonant mode of the cavity. This paper describes modifications to the high level Radio Frequency system required to make the system operational. These modifications decreased the effect of steady-state beam loading by a factor of 10 and improved the reliability of paraphasing for coalescing

54

Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

55

Orbit centering studies of the IUCF injector and main stage cyclotrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IUCF cyclotrons accelerate a variety of light ion beams over a wide energy range (20 to 200 MeV protons for example) for research purposes. The beams are accelerated in three stages by a DC ion source pre-injector terminal, a small (K = 15) separated sector cyclotron, and a larger (K = 200) cyclotron of similar design. Because the research program requires a flexible machine operating schedule with between two and three energy or particle changes per week, the efficiency of these machine changes can have a significant impact on the amount of useable beam time delivered in a year of operation. The design and operation of a simple beam profile monitor to observe the outer 8 cm of the radial turn structure in both the injector and main stage cyclotrons is described. Some results of the orbit centering studies performed with the scanners are also presented

56

GeV-scale dark matter: production at the Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Assuming that dark matter particles interact with quarks via a GeV-scale mediator, we study dark matter production in fixed target collisions. The ensuing signal in a neutrino near detector consists of neutral-current events with an energy distribution peaked at higher values than the neutrino background. We find that for a $Z'$ boson of mass around a few GeV that decays to dark matter particles, the dark matter beam produced by the Main Injector at Fermilab allows the exploration of a range of values for the gauge coupling that currently satisfy all experimental constraints. The NO$\

Dobrescu, Bogdan A

2014-01-01

57

Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

58

53 MHz beam loading compensation for slip stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently In-Phase and Quadrature (I and Q) was added to both the 53 MHz Feedback and Feedforward Beam Loading Compensation for Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector. With 53 MHz Feedback, we can now turn the 18 Radio Frequency (RF) Stations off down to below 100 V. In using I and Q on Feedforward, beam loading compensation to the beam on both the upper and lower frequencies of Slip Stacking can be applied as we slip the beam. I and Q theory will be discussed

59

53 MHZ Feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

53 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation is crucial to all operations of the Main Injector. Recently a system using a fundamental frequency down converter mixer, a digital bucket delay module and a fundamental frequency up converter mixer were used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the cavities to cancel the transient beam induced voltage. During operation they have shown consistently over 20 dB reduction in side-band voltage around the fundamental frequency during Proton coalescing and over 14 dB in multi-batch antiproton coalescing

60

Longitudinal bunch monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons  

CERN Document Server

The measurement of the longitudinal behavior of the accelerated particle beams at Fermilab is crucial to the optimization and control of the beam and the maximizing of the integrated luminosity for the particle physics experiments. Longitudinal measurements in the Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons are based on the analysis of signals from resistive wall current monitors. This article describes the signal processing performed by a 2 GHz-bandwidth oscilloscope together with a computer running a LabVIEW program which calculates the longitudinal beam parameters.

Thurman-Keup, R; Blokland, W; Crisp, J; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Flora, R; Hahn, A; Hansen, S; Kiper, T; Para, A; Pordes, S; Tollestrup, A V

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Design and multiparticle simulation of the half integer slow extraction system for the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the roles of the new Main Injector ring, in the second phase of the Fermilab upgrade, is to deliver all year around the slow extracted 120 GeV test beams. The half-integer slow extraction system design and results from a Monte-Carlo simulation of fast spill are presented. The simulation was performed with a computer tracking program based on the TEVLAT program with a large number of particles (up to 1000). Particle tracking included the systematic errors produced by the magnetic multipoles within the dipoles and quadrupoles as well as random multipole errors.

Trbojevic, D.; Harrison, M.

1991-05-01

62

Simulations of Electron Cloud Effects on the Beam Dynamics for theFNAL Main Injector Upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab main injector (MI) is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort. This upgrade will involve a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value. Such an increase will place the MI in a regime in which electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. We have used the electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP, recently augmented with new modeling capabilities and simulation techniques, to study the dynamics of beam-electron cloud interaction. This work in progress involves a systematic assessment of beam instabilities due to the presence of electron clouds.

Sonnad Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine M.; Grote, David

2006-04-15

63

The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11006

2011-01-01

64

Ion Chambers for Monitoring the NuMI Neutrino Beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline will deliver an intense muon neutrino beam by focusing a beam of mesons into a long evacuated decay volume. The beam must be steered with 1-mRad angular accuracy toward the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. We have built 4 arrays of ionization chambers to monitor the neutrino beam direction and quality. The arrays are located at 4 stations downstream of the decay volume, and measure the remnant hadron beam and tertiary muons produced along with neutrinos in meson decays. We review how the monitors will be used to make beam quality measurements, and as well review chamber construction details, radiation damage testing, calibration, and test beam results

65

Ion Chambers for Monitoring the NuMI Neutrino Beam at FNAL  

CERN Document Server

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline will deliver an intense muon neutrino beam by focusing a beam of mesons into a long evacuated decay volume. The beam must be steered with 1 mRad angular accuracy toward the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. We have built 4 arrays of ionization chambers to monitor the neutrino beam direction and quality. The arrays are located at 4 stations downstream of the decay volume, and measure the remnant hadron beam and tertiary muons produced along with neutrinos in meson decays. We review how the monitors will be used to make beam quality measurements, and as well we review chamber construction details, radiation damage testing, calibration, and test beam results.

Indurthy, D; Kopp, S; Mendoza, S; Proga, M; Pavlovich, Z; Zwaska, R; Harris, D; Marchionni, A; Morfin, J; Erwin, A R; Ping, H; Velissaris, C; Naples, D; Northacker, D; McDonald, J; Diwan, M

2004-01-01

66

Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMI Facility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13 and September 30, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report details the work done between June 13 and September 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, the facility produces (among other components) tritium in engineered materials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium is generated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to other regions within the facility, or be released to the environment

67

Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

2008-05-01

68

2.5 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are five 2.5 MHz ferrite cavities (h = 28) in the Main Injector with an R/Q of 500 that are presently used for coalescing for the Tevatron. For use with the Fermilab Recycler, feedforward (FF) beam loading compensation (BLC) is required on these cavities because they will be required to operate at a net of 2 kV. Under current Recycler beam conditions, the beam-induced voltage is of this order. Recently a system using a digital bucket delay module operating at 53 MHz (h = 588) was used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the 2.5 MHz cavities to cancel the beam induced voltage. During current operation they have shown consistently to operate with over a 20 dB reduction in beam loading

69

Analog Signal Pre-Processing For The Fermilab Main Injector BPM Upgrade  

Science.gov (United States)

An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency-selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton and 2.5 MHz antiproton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware.

Saewert, A. L.; Rapisarda, S. M.; Wendt, M.

2006-11-01

70

Analog Signal Pre-Processing For The Fermilab Main Injector BPM Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency-selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton and 2.5 MHz antiproton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware

71

Analog signal pre-processing for the Fermilab Main Injector BPM upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton, and 2.5 MHz anti-proton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages, and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware.

Saewert, A.L.; Rapisarda, S.M.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

72

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

73

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2011-01-01

74

Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance. An upgrade to the MI is being considered that would increase the bunch intensity Nb, from the present ? 1 x 1011 to 3 x 1011, corresponding to a total pulse intensity Ntot = 16.4 x 1013, in order to generate intense beams for the neutrino program. Such an increase in beam intensity would place the MI in a parameter regime where other storage rings have seen a significant EC effect. Motivated by this concern, efforts have been undertaken over the recent past to measure and simulate the magnitude of the effect and to assess its operational implications on the proposed upgrade. We report here a summary of simulation results obtained with the code POSINST, and certain benchmarks against measurements. Unless stated otherwise, the simulation parameters used are shown in Tab. 1. Some of these represent a slightly simplified version of the MI operation.

75

An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

D.A. Edwards

1998-11-01

76

Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

77

CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE MAIN INJECTOR PARTICLE PRODUCTION (FNAL-E907) EXPERIMENT AT 58 GEV ENERGY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV {pi}, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary {pi}, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected {approx} 0.26 x 10{sup 6} events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; /Iowa U.

2009-12-01

78

Measurement of Charged Pion Production Yields off the NuMI Target  

CERN Document Server

The fixed-target MIPP experiment, Fermilab E907, was designed to measure the production of hadrons from the collisions of hadrons of momenta ranging from 5 to 120 GeV/c on a variety of nuclei. These data will generally improve the simulation of particle detectors and predictions of particle beam fluxes at accelerators. The spectrometer momentum resolution is between 3 and 4%, and particle identification is performed for particles ranging between 0.3 and 80 GeV/c using $dE/dx$, time-of-flight and Cherenkov radiation measurements. MIPP collected $1.42 \\times10^6$ events of 120 GeV Main Injector protons striking a target used in the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The data have been analyzed and we present here charged pion yields per proton-on-target determined in bins of longitudinal and transverse momentum between 0.5 and 80 GeV/c, with combined statistical and systematic relative uncertainties between 5 and 10%.

Paley, J M; Raja, R; Akgun, U; Asner, D M; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes,, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bhatnagar, V; Choudhary, B; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Graf, N; Gronberg, J; Gulmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Hartouni, E P; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kumar, A; Lange, D J; Lebedev, A; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Mahajan, S; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Singh, A; Solomey, N; Soltz, R A; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K

2014-01-01

79

Beam loading compensation requirement for multibatch coalescing in Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab collider Run IIa requires 36 proton bunches with intensities 270E9ppb and 36 antiproton bunches with intensities 40-70E9ppb[1]. Currently the proton bunches are produced by coalescing 5-7 53MHz bunches into one 53MHz bunch and repeating this process a total of 36 times. It is necessary to coalesce each group of 5-7 bunches (called a ''batch'') on independent cycles mainly because of beam loading. The beam loading requirements that would allow us to coalesce 4 proton batches at a time are presented

80

Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

Backfish, Michael

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

82

Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

83

Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

84

Studies of Muon-Induced Radioactivity at NuMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HPGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

85

Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; /Fermilab; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

2009-12-01

86

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included.

Wehmann, A.; Smart, W.; Menary, S.; Hylen, J.; Childress, S.

1997-10-01

87

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included

88

Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for {nu}{sub {mu}} is given approximately by 1 - sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}sin{sup 2}(1.27{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}L/E), where{theta}{sub 23} and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} between the mass eigenstates {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 2}, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a {nu}{sub {mu}} interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x10{sup 20} protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2{+-}16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level {alpha} = 4.2 x 10{sup -3}. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.32 {+-}{sup 1.06}{sub 0.75} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.74 {+-}{sup 0.44}{sub 0.26} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.87 (68% CL).

McGowan, Aaron Michael; /Minnesota U.

2007-08-01

89

MINERvA: A Dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment.

McFarland, Kevin S.; /Rochester U.

2006-05-01

90

Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) being built at SLAC will integrate the new technologies of X-band Accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider, demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of higher-order deflecting modes, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. The current injector being constructed for phase 1 of the NLCTA tests is a simple injector consisting of a gun with a 150 ns long pulse and X-band bunching and accelerating system. While the injector will provide average currents comparable to what is needed for NLC it will not provide the bunch structure since every X-band RF bucket will be filled. The injector upgrade will produce a similar bunch train as planned for NLC mainly a train of bunches 1.4 ns apart with 3 nC in each bunch up to 50 to 60 MeV. The bunching system for the upgrade is more elaborate than the current injector and the plan is to produce a bunch train right at the gun. The difference between the NLCTA injector upgrade and the planned injector for NLC is that the NLCTA injector will not have polarized beam and the accelerator sections are X-band rather than S-band. If the authors are able to produce beams comparable to the NLC requirements with the X-band injector then it should be easier to do with the S-band

91

Measurement of charged pion production yields off the NuMI target  

Science.gov (United States)

The fixed-target Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment, Fermilab E907, was designed to measure the production of hadrons from the collisions of hadrons of momenta ranging from 5 to 120 GeV/c on a variety of nuclei. These data will generally improve the simulation of particle detectors and predictions of particle beam fluxes at accelerators. The spectrometer momentum resolution is between 3% and 4%, and particle identification is performed for particles ranging between 0.3 and 80 GeV/c using dE/dx, time-of-flight, and Cherenkov radiation measurements. MIPP collected 1.42×106 events of 120 GeV Main Injector protons striking a target used in the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermilab. The data have been analyzed and we present here charged pion yields per proton on target determined in bins of longitudinal and transverse momentum between 0.5 and 80 GeV/c, with combined statistical and systematic relative uncertainties between 5% and 10%.

Paley, J. M.; Messier, M. D.; Raja, R.; Akgun, U.; Asner, D. M.; Aydin, G.; Baker, W.; Barnes, P. D.; Bergfeld, T.; Beverly, L.; Bhatnagar, V.; Choudhary, B.; Dukes, E. C.; Duru, F.; Feldman, G. J.; Godley, A.; Graf, N.; Gronberg, J.; Gülmez, E.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Gustafson, H. R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hanlet, P.; Heffner, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kamaev, O.; Klay, J.; Kumar, A.; Lange, D. J.; Lebedev, A.; Ling, J.; Longo, M. J.; Lu, L. C.; Materniak, C.; Mahajan, S.; Meyer, H.; Miller, D. E.; Mishra, S. R.; Nelson, K.; Nigmanov, T.; Norman, A.; Onel, Y.; Penzo, A.; Peterson, R. J.; Rajaram, D.; Ratnikov, D.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H.; Seun, S.; Singh, A.; Solomey, N.; Soltz, R. A.; Torun, Y.; Wilson, K.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, Q. K.; MIPP Collaboration

2014-08-01

92

Liquid rocket engine injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The injector in a liquid rocket engine atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion that will provide the required thrust without endangering hardware durability. Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the rocket engine combustion chamber, and have varied from a few inches to more than a yard in diameter. This monograph treats specifically bipropellant injectors, emphasis being placed on the liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors that have been developed for and used in flight-proven engines. The information provided has limited application to monopropellant injectors and gas/gas propellant systems. Critical problems that may arise during injector development and the approaches that lead to successful design are discussed.

Gill, G. S.; Nurick, W. H.

1976-01-01

93

NuMI proton beam diagnostics and control: achieving 2 megawatt capability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI proton beam at Fermilab currently delivers 120 GeV protons to the neutrino production target with design beam power capability to 400 kW. Upgrade capability to 700 kW is being prepared, with planning toward delivering 2.3 MW beam provided by the Project X accelerator upgrade plan. We report on the system of beam diagnostics and control used in operation of the NuMI beam. Also considered are the steps to provide a robust system for transport and targeting beam of 2 MW and beyond

94

The electron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron injector with an electron gun type-M-24, received from Leningrad (USSR) and mounted in the accelerators division is described. The operation processes such as: evacuation of the injector volume, decomposition and activation of the cathode and calibration of the filament power are also discussed. The primary examination of the injector at 67 KV extraction voltage, and 560 pulse/sec, gave 780 ?A average emission current and 460 ?A average injector current, collected at a Faraday cup. From the results obtained, the efficiency coefficient is calculated and the beam distribution is predicted

95

Modification of the Ganil injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the upgrading project of the GANIL accelerator complex, we have modified the two injector cyclotrons in order to increase their energy, which implies a larger extraction radius and a change of the harmonic mode operation from 4 to 3. The main consequence of this last point is to compel us to use a 1800C dee and to double the number of turns (N=25) which leads to replace the flat poles by spiraled sector poles and to redesign the central and extraction regions with the new isochronous field topology. Beam orbit dynamics computation results are presented. The first injector is now coupled to the present axial injection beam line (23 kV) with a CAPRICE ECR source. The second cyclotron, nearly identical to the first one, will be connected to the future 100 kV axial injection line (described in this conference). This implies a new inflector and a new central region

96

Design of new injector to RIKEN ring cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design study of a new injector to the RIKEN ring cyclotron is presented. This injector will be exclusively used for the RI-beam factory (RIBF), providing intense beams of medium charge state of heavy ions such as 84Kr13+, 136Xe20+ and 238U35+, while the present injector, RIKEN linear accelerator, is used for the research of the super heavy elements. Specifications of the main components of the new injector are shown, consisting of an ECR ion source, rf linacs and strong quadrupole magnets. (author)

97

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(mu) disappearance via oscillations with |Delta(m)2/32|=2.74 +0.44/-0.26 x10(-3)eV(2) and sin(2)(2theta(23))>0.87 (68% C.L.). PMID:17155614

Michael, D G; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; de Jong, J K; DeMuth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Terekhov, A; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-11-10

98

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-01-01

99

Beam Dynamics Optimization for the Xfel Photo Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The main challenge for the European XFEL photo injector is the production of 1 nC electron beams with a normalized transverse emittance of 0.9 mm mrad. The photo injector setup consists of a 1.5-cell L-band rf gun cavity supplied with solenoids for beam focusing and emittance compensation and the first accelerating section with 8 TESLA superconducting cavities. The first 4 cavities are used as a booster to provide by proper choice of its position, gradient and phase matching conditions for the emittance conservation. For optimization of the beam dynamics in the photo injector, a staged algorithm, based on ASTRA simulations, has been developed. The first stage considers the emission of electrons from a photo cathode. The cathode laser energy and its transverse parameters are adjusted to produce a bunch charge of 1 nC in presence of space charge forces (including image charge at the cathode) and Schottky-like effects. The second stage contains rf gun cavity and solenoid optimization. The booster position, gradient and initial phase are optimized at the third stage yielding the minimum emittance at the photo injector exit. Results of the XFEL photo injector optimization will be presented. Besides simulations experimental studies towards XFEL photo injector are carried out. The photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) develops photo injectors for FELs, including FLASH and the European XFEL. A thorough comparison of measured data with results of beam dynamics simulations is one of the main PITZ goals. Detailed experimental studies on photo emission processes, thermal emittance, transverse and longitudinal phase space of the electron beam are being performed together with beam dynamics simulations. This aims to result in better understanding of beam dynamics in high brightness photo injectors. Experimentally obtained photo injector characteristics (like thermal emittance) have to be used in an additional optimization of the photo injector resulting in more realistic beam dynamics simulations. Results of these studies will be reported as well.

Krasilnikov, Mikhail

100

Linac LU-20 as injector of Nuclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The linac LU-20 created as an injector of Synchrophasotron and Nuclotron is described. Tables of main parameters and beam intensities are included. The functional diagram of LU-20 is shown. Injection channels, diagnostic and control systems are described also. The scheme of beam transport line is also provided. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

PLT neutral injector performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience with respect to beamline operation on PLT and on the Princeton test stand is reviewed. We discuss the performance of the injectors, beam energy distributions as measured by two techniques, beam-associated impurities, control of gas evolution in the drift duct by titanium evaporation, reionization in the drift duct, and the computer archiving and control system currently under development

102

Tritium pellet injector results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

103

Pellet injectors for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

104

Study of pre-injector linac for SPring-8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pre-injector section of the injector linac for SPring-8 has been tested at Tokai establishment of JAERI, and achieved the generation of 1ns single pulse of up to 15 Amps. We represent the present status of this section and the results of detail investigation of our electron gun. It is shown that the cathode impedance mainly depends on the heater power. (author)

105

NLC electron injector beam dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) being designed at SLAC requires a train of 90 electron bunches 1.4 ns apart at 120 Hz. The intensity and emittance required at the interaction point, and the various machine systems between the injector and the IP determine the beam requirements from the injector. The style of injector chosen for the NLC is driven by the fact that the production of polarized electrons at the IP is a must. Based on the successful operation of the SLC polarized electron source a similar type of injector with a DC gun and subharmonic bunching system is chosen for the NLC

106

Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described

107

Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described.

Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

2013-10-15

108

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

109

The TESLA test facility linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) Linac is a 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting accelerator under construction at DESY (Hamburg) by an international collaboration. The linac is being built to demonstrate the viability of the superconducting RF approach to a future e+e- linear collider. Within the collaboration three participating French laboratories (LAL, IPN and DAPNIA) have undertaken the task of designing and constructing a phase 1 injector for TTF. We describe the studies towards the realisation of this 7 - 14 MeV, 8 mA high duty cycle (800 ?s pulse, 10 Hz repetition rate) injector. The front end of the injector will consist of a 250 keV electron gun, a 216.7 MHz sub-harmonic bunching cavity and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. This is followed by a beam analysis line and a transport section to match the beam from the capture cavity to the first cryomodule of the main linac. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

110

Request for a Test Exposure of OPERA Targets in the NuMI Beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We request to use the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam in the MINOS Near Detector Hall to produce neutrino interactions in two separate detector arrangements using prototype target bricks designed for the OPERA experiment. OPERA is scheduled to to begin taking data in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam in 2006. The proposed test set up would be located just upstream of the MINOS Near Detector. The data will be used to validate the OPERA analysis scheme and to study backward particle production in neutrino interactions, which is of interest to the OPERA collaboration as well as the neutrino community in general. In addition, we contend that the data taken in this exposure may also be useful to the MINOS collaboration as additional input to the understanding of the initial composition of the neutrino beam. Ideally, this exposure could take place in early to mid-2005, providing timely feedback to both the OPERA and MINOS collaborations.

111

The PEANUT experiment in the NuMI beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PEANUT experiment was designed to study neutrino interactions in the few GeV range using the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The detector uses a hybrid technique, being made of nuclear emulsions and scintillator trackers. Emulsion films act as a tracking device and they are interleaved with lead plates used as neutrino targets. The detector is designed to reconstruct the topology of neutrino interactions at the single particle level. We present here the full reconstruction and analysis of a sample of 147 neutrino interactions that occurred in the PEANUT detector and the measurement of the quasielastic, resonance and deep-inelastic contributions to the total charged-current cross section. This technique could be applied for the beam monitoring at future neutrino facilities.

112

The light-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

113

The injector of the Utrecht EN tandem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector has been built to obtain improved beam transmission through the EN tandem. The injector has been provided with a 900 analysing magnet, m/?m=300, and 130 kV preacceleration. Beam optics calculations have been made for the injector and tandem. The injector has been equipped with a fiber optics control and data acquisition system. (orig.)

114

Heavy Ion Fusion Injector Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program is underway to construct a 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion. The Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector configuration consists of a zeolite source, a diode of up to 1 MV, together with several electrostatic quadrupole units to simultaneously focus and accelerate the beam to 2 MV. The key issues of source technology, high voltage breakdown, beam aberrations, and transient effects will be discussed. Results from ongoing experiments and simulations will be presented

115

Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

2003-12-01

116

Steady state neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >105 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m2, frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

117

Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, re on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

118

Swirl injectors for oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle engines and hypergolic propellants  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented here are two efforts concerning the application of swirl injectors to rocket engine main chamber injectors. The first study was undertaken to develop a liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with new hypergolic propellants in conjunction with KB Sciences and China Lake. The second study focuses on gas/liquid swirl injectors typically used for main chamber elements in oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines. The design, development and testing of hypergolic liquid/liquid bi-centrifugal swirl injector for use with rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) and non-toxic hypergolic miscible fuels (NHMF) are discussed first. Cold flow tests were conducted to measure the spray cone angle and discharge coefficient of the injector, and allow for comparison with theoretical predictions to evaluate the design model. The goal of this effort was to establish a method to design swirl injectors operating in a thrust regime of 35 lbf, characteristic lengths of 30 in, and c* efficiencies above 90%. A literature review of existing inviscid swirl models is provided. The bi-centrifugal swirler design process is described, along with the design features of the series of bicentrifugal swirl injectors that were built. Results from cold flow experiments are compared to the theoretical predictions of the models reviewed. Characteristic velocity (c*) efficiencies of 70-92% were measured. Next an introduction will be made to the transition of the study into the research regarding swirl injectors for the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The derivation of the baseline operating conditions is discussed. The liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LOX/H2) preburner and GOX/RP-1 injector design and hardware are detailed. Two alternative injector designs chosen to explore the stability margins of this type of injector and give a quantitative comparison of the dynamic response to the baseline injector geometry are presented. The hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter with established heritage used in the preburner is briefly discussed. Finally, the results of igniter and preburner testing are presented.

Long, Matthew R.

119

ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

2007-08-29

120

Shear coaxial injector instability mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no definitive knowledge of which of several concurrent processes ultimately results in unstable combustion within liquid rocket chambers employing shear coaxial injectors. Possible explanations are a detrimental change in the atomization characteristics due to a decrease in the gas-to-liquid velocity ratio, a change in the gas side injector pressure drop allowing acoustic coupling to the propellant feed system or the disappearance of a stabilizing recirculation region at the base of the LOX post. The aim of this research effort is to investigate these proposed mechanisms under conditions comparable to actual engine operation. Spray characterization was accomplished with flash photography and planar laser imaging to examine the overall spray morphology and liquid jet breakup processes and with a PDPA to quantify the spatial distribution of droplet size and mean axial velocity. A simplified stability model based on the Rayleigh criterion was constructed for the flow dynamics occurring within the chamber and injector to evaluate the potential coupling between the chamber and injector acoustic modes and was supported by high frequency measurements of chamber and injector pressure oscillations. To examine recirculation within the LOX post recess, velocity measurements were performed in the recess region by means of LDV. Present experiments were performed under noncombusting conditions using LOX/GH2 stimulants at pressures up to 4 MPa.

Puissant, C.; Kaltz, T.; Glogowski, M.; Micci, M.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors  

CERN Document Server

Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

Suberlucq, Guy

2004-01-01

122

Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL); Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Lee, Chien-Chang (Rochester Hills, MI); Miller, Charles R. (Metamora, IL)

2002-01-01

123

Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

Wiebe, David J.

2012-10-09

124

INTOR neutral beam injector concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US INTOR phase 1 effort in the plasma heating area is described. Positive ion based sources extrapolated from present day technology are proposed. These sources operate at 175 keV beam energy for 6 s. Five injectors - plus one spare - inject 75 MW. Beam energy, source size, interface, radiation hardening, and many other studies are summarized

125

First studies of ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operational characteristics of the 10 kA, 60 ns, 2.5 MeV ATA injector are presented. Studies of beam emittance, beam profile, rf spectrum and other aspects of beam dynamics were performed, as was a detailed study of the operation and interaction of the plasma cathode and the extraction grid

126

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single- stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. A new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capabilityovide full tritium pellet capability

127

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

128

The Main Injector Particle Production experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MIPP experiment at Fermilab measures particle production cross sections for a broad range of studies including a general scaling law of inclusive cross sections, meson spectroscopy, and topics in nuclear physics (y-scaling, flavor propagation in nuclei, etc.). It uses a large acceptance, open geometry detector system to measure momenta and identity of all charged particles produced in the reactions of proton, pion, kaon, and anti-proton beams from 5 to 85 GeV/c and 120 GeV/c protons on cryogenic hydrogen, various nuclei, and composite accelerator neutrino experiment targets. This paper describes detector and beam-line performance during the 2005 physics run, outlines the potential of an upgraded MIPP, and presents results from short test runs at momenta from 1 GeV/c to 5 GeV/c

129

Fermilab Antiproton Source, Recycler Ring, and Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, the Accumulator and the Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world's only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II, neutrino experiments using 8-GeV and 120-GeV proton beams, as well as a test beam facility and other fixed target experiments using 120-GeV primary proton beams. This paper provides a brief description of Fermilab accelerators as they operated at the end of the Collider Run II (2011).

Nagaitsev, Sergei

2014-01-01

130

Pb injector at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the CERN Lead Ion Accelerating Facility (achieved within a collaboration of several outside laboratories and with financial help of some member states) a new dedicated Linac has been built. This Linac has been installed in 1994 and served during two extended physics runs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of this machine and describes the first operational experience. Emphasis is put on new features of this accelerator, its associated equipment and on the peculiarities of heavy ions. (author)

131

Spray characteristics of a gasoline direct injector injector with short durations of injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The sprays into atmosphere from a GDI injector were visualised and the velocity and droplet characteristics measured at an injection pressure of 50bar and at different injection durations, with emphasis on short injection periods. The images show that the initial and closing delay times were 0.225 and 0.2ms, respectively, and that the cone angle increased with injection duration to a constant value of 62° at 0.5ms. They also revealed large droplets ahead of the main spray with its smaller droplets. An injection duration of 0.15ms led to fuel leaving the injector with little atomisation, but a 30% increase led to the formation of the cone, which was present for times greater than 0.5ms. The poor atomisation associated with short injection durations and the initial phase of longer injections, was due to low swirl velocities. The droplet velocities were higher in the initial phase of injection than in the main phase, with values up to 50m/s. The Sauter mean diameters of the initial and main-spray droplets were approximately 55 and 35?m respectively and with a tendency to decrease with time from the start of injection.

Nouri, J. M.; Whitelaw, J. H.

132

The ATLAS positive ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

133

Injector for Hyogo hadrontherapy facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyogo Hadrontherapy Center is a cancer therapy facility which is being constructed in Harima Garden City by the Hyogo Prefectural Government. The therapy system, which accelerates proton and helium beams up to 230 MeV/nucleon and a carbon beam to 320 MeV/nucleon, consists of an injector, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system. The injector accelerates ion beams of H2+, He2+ and C4+ to 5 MeV/nucleon (10.3% of light velocity). It was manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., and the performance test for the acceleration characteristics has been just finished. The observed beam intensity and quality satisfy the requirement for medical use, which is necessary for a dose rate of 5 Gy/min for a patient. (author)

134

Centrifuge pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

135

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. As part of this development program, we are constructing a prototype of the front end of the Project X linac at Fermilab. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) can be constructed over...

Ostroumov, P. N.; Holmes, S. D.; Kephart, R. D.; Kerby, J. S.; Lebedev, V. A.; Mishra, C. S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Shemyakin, A. V.; Solyak, N.; Stanek, R. P.; Li, D.

2013-01-01

136

3 GeV Injector Design Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2009-12-16

137

Using Quasi-Elastic Events to Measure Neutrino Oscillations with MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been designed to search for a change in the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as they travel between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Far Detector in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, 735 km from the target. The MINOS oscillation analysis is mainly performed with the charged current (CC) events and sensitive to constrain high-{Delta}m{sup 2} values. However, the quasi-elastic (QEL) charged current interaction is dominant in the energy region important to access low-{Delta}m{sup 2} values. For further improvement, the QEL oscillation analysis is performed in this dissertation. A data sample based on a total of 2.50 x 10{sup 20} POT is used for this analysis. In summary, 55 QEL-like events are observed at the Far detector while 87.06 {+-} 13.17 (syst.) events are expected with null oscillation hypothesis. These data are consistent with {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance via oscillation with {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.10 {+-} 0.37 (stat.) {+-} 0.24 (syst.) eV{sup 2} and the maximal mixing angle.

Watabe, Masaki; /Texas A& M University

2010-05-01

138

Design status of heavy ion injector program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

139

LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

2007-03-01

140

Cavity BPM design for PKU-FEL injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is designed for the injector of PKU-FEL Facility. The designed frequency of the dipole mode TM110 is 1.3 GHz, which is equal to the frequency of the main accelerator in PKU-FEL Facility. The cross-talk problem is solved by introducing two rectangular recesses into the cavity. The position resolution of the cavity BPM is about 10 ?m, the dynamic range is more than 30 mm and the time response is bunch to bunch, which are sufficient for the PKU-FEL injector. Compared with the bunch power, the power dissipation of the main resonant modes excited by e-bunches can be neglected. (authors)

 
 
 
 
141

49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.  

Science.gov (United States)

...57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a... Injectors and feedwater pumps must be...tank hose and tank valves must be kept in...Bracing. Injectors, feedwater pumps, and all associated piping shall be...

2010-10-01

142

Transient Beam Dynamics in the LBL 2 MV Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K{sup +}) and low normalized emittance (< 1 {pi} mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV gun pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam, and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. A matching section is being built to match the beam to the electrostatic accelerator ELISE. The gun preinjector, designed to hold up to 1 MV with minimal breakdown risks, consists of a hot aluminosilicate source with a large curved emitting surface surrounded by a thick ''extraction electrode''. During beam turn-on the voltage at the source is biased from a negative potential, enough to reverse the electric field on the emitting surface and avoid emission, to a positive potential to start extracting the beam; it stays constant for about 1 {micro}s, and is reversed to turn-off the emission. Since the Marx voltage applied on the accelerating quadrupoles and the main pre-injector gap is a long, constant pulse (several {micro}s), the transient behavior is dominated by the extraction pulser voltage time profile. The transient longitudinal dynamics of the beam in the injector was simulated by running the Particle in Cell codes GYMNOS and WARP3d in a time dependent mode. The generalization and its implementation in WAIW3d of a method proposed by Lampel and Tiefenback to eliminate transient oscillations in a one-dimensional planar diode will be presented.

Henestroza, E; Grote, D

1999-12-07

143

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

144

Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N2, H2) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x1018 to 1020 atoms. Both the scattering angle (?1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 1016 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (?85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

145

Pneumatic pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

146

Candela Photo-Injector Experimental Results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 500 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents energy spectrum measurements of the dark current and intense electron emission that occurs when the laser power density is very high.

Travier, C.; Boy, L.; Cayla, J. N.; Leblond, B.; Georges, P.; Thomas, P.

1994-01-01

147

Candela photo-injector experimental results  

CERN Document Server

The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 500 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents energy spectrum measurements of the dark current and intense electron emission that occurs when the laser power density is very high.

Travier, C; Cayla, J N; Leblond, B; Georges, P; Thomas, P; Travier, C; Boy, L; Cayla, J N; Leblond, B; Georges, P; Thomas, P

1995-01-01

148

Status and performance of PF injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

149

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (i) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (ii) a centrifuge injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (iii) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper. (orig.).

Combs, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barber, G.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Baylor, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dyer, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fisher, P.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fehling, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Foster, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Foust, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gouge, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jernigan, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Milora, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Qualls, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schechter, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sparks, D.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tsai, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Frattolillo, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati, Rome (Italy); Migliori, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati, Rome (Italy); Scaramuzzi, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati, Rome (Italy); Capobianchi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati, Rome (Italy); Domma, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ronci, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati, Rome (Italy)

1995-12-31

150

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (i) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (ii) a centrifuge injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (iii) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper. (orig.)

151

Internal baffling for fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

2014-08-05

152

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

CERN Document Server

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. As part of this development program, we are constructing a prototype of the front end of the Project X linac at Fermilab. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) can be constructed over the period FY12-16 and will include an H- ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two SC cryomodules providing up to 30 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA. Successful operations of the facility will demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that will find applications beyond Project X in the longer term.

Ostroumov, P N; Kephart, R D; Kerby, J S; Lebedev, V A; Mishra, C S; Nagaitsev, S; Shemyakin, A V; Solyak, N; Stanek, R P; Li, D

2013-01-01

153

Present status and future of compact injector at NIRS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A HIMAC injector is equipped with three ion sources, and provides heavy ions from H to Xe with the sources. The compact injector, which developed at the NIRS, was recently installed in the HIMAC as the second injector, and the beam tests were successfully performed in April, 2011. In this report, we report a summary and the future of the compact injector. (author)

154

Analytical study on large-scale steam injector to next-generation BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive device for water injection, such as the Passive Core Injection System (PCIS) or the Primary Loop Recirculation System with SI Driven Jet Pumps (PLR with SIDJP). The system needs no large turbo-machinery such as the current PLR pumps used in a PCV. The energy to drive the steam injector (SIDJP) is recovered as enthalpy of the feed water of a core. This is one of the great advantages of SIDJP: none of the driving energy for the PLR escapes to sea water or to air through the main turbine condenser. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Analysis of characteristics of the steam injector was conducted for both small-scale and large-scale injectors using newly developed separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code. The models for analysis were examined with Toshiba's test data for the low-pressure visualized-model test and high-pressure small-size model test. The analysis results showed the SIDJP could not work in the high-pressure range over 7 MPa, and discharged over 12 MPa even at the large-scale rated-flow rate of 61.1 kg/s (220 t/h). (author)

155

Improved performance of the ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emission cathodes is we have increased the injector brightness by a factor of ten above the level we were able to reach using the low density plasma cathodes

156

Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ? Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ? Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization.

Mazzucco, G., E-mail: gianluca.mazzucco@dicea.unipd.it [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Muraro, D.; Salomoni, V.; Majorana, C. [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rigato, W.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Inoue, T.; Takemoto, J.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

2013-10-15

157

Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ? Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ? Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization

158

Hole to Hole Mass Distribution in Diesel Injector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different examples of common rail injectors have been tested, referring to fuel distribution over the injector’s eight nozzle holes. Measurement equipment has been constructed to collect each fuel spray separately in one test tube each, which then will be weighed. A big part of the work has been constructing the measurement equipment and adjustments to be able to do the measurements as accurate as possible. Three different injectors of the same model and one injector of a later model were t...

Palmkvist, Anders

2007-01-01

159

Injector linac for the MESA facility  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present several possible configurations of an injector linac for the upcoming Mainz Energy-recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) [1] and discuss their suitability for the project.

Heine, R.

2013-11-01

160

A study of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the results of an analysis of {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with the MINOS experiment, which studies the neutrino beam produced by the NuMI facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are measured in two similar detectors, located at distances of 1 km and 735 km along the NuMI beamline. The Near Detector provides accurate measurements of the initial beam composition and energy, while the Far Detector is sensitive to the effects of neutrino oscillations. The analysis uses data collected between May 2005 and March 2007, corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. As part of the analysis, sophisticated software was developed to identify muon tracks in the detectors and to reconstruct muon kinematics. Events with reconstructed tracks were then analyzed using a multivariate technique to efficiently isolate a pure sample of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} events. An extrapolation method was also developed, which produces accurate predictions of the Far Detector neutrino energy spectrum, based on data collected at the Near Detector. Finally, several techniques to improve the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement were implemented, and a full study of the systematic uncertainties was performed. Extrapolating from observations at the Near Detector, 733 {+-} 29 Far Detector events were expected in the absence of oscillations, but only 563 events were observed. This deficit in event rate corresponds to a significance of 4.3 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and clear distortion of the Far Detector energy spectrum is observed. A maximum likelihood analysis, which fully accounts for systematic uncertainties, is used to determine the allowed regions for the oscillation parameters and identifies the best fit values as {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.29{sub -0.14}{sup +0.14} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.953 (68% confidence level). The models of neutrino decoherence and decay are disfavored at the 5.0{sigma} and 3.2{sigma} levels respectively, while the no oscillation model is excluded at the 9.4{sigma} level.

Marshall, John Stuart; /Cambridge U.

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

An introduction to photo-injector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

162

Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K+, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 ? mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse

163

Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES&H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope.

Andrews, Mike; Appel, Jeffrey A.; Bogert, Dixon; Childress, Sam; Cossairt, Don; Griffing, William; Grossman, Nancy; Harding, David; Hylen, Jim; Kuchler, Vic; Laughton, Chris; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley

2009-05-01

164

Status of PRIMA, the test facility for ITER neutral beam injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The ITER project requires additional heating by two neutral beam injectors, each accelerating to 1MV a 40A beam of negative deuterons, delivering to the plasma about 17MW up to one hour. As these requirements have never been experimentally met, it was decided to build a test facility, PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator), in Italy, including a full-size negative ion source, SPIDER, and a prototype of the whole ITER injector, MITICA, aiming to develop the heating injectors to be installed in ITER. The Japan and the India Domestic Agencies participate in the PRIMA enterprise; European laboratories, such as KIT-Karlsruhe, IPP-Garching, CCFE-Culham, CEA-Cadarache and others are also cooperating. In the paper the main requirements are discussed and the design of the main components and systems are described.

Sonato, P.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; ITER International Team

2013-02-01

165

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

166

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150/sup 0/ of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s.

Foster, C.A.

1983-04-01

167

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150/sup 0/ of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s.

Foster, C.A.

1982-01-01

168

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

169

The LHC Lead Injector Chain  

CERN Document Server

A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

2004-01-01

170

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H{sup -} ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne; Holmes, S.D.; Kephart, R.D.; Kerby, J.S.; Lebedev, V.A.; Mishra, C.S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Solyak, N.; Stanek, R.P.; /Fermilab; Li, D.; /LBL, Berkeley

2012-05-01

171

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R and D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H- ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

172

RF system of the photon factory injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rf system of the Photon Factory 2.5 GeV injector electron linac now under construction is described. The rf system is composed of four stages: a master oscillator, a main booster amplifier (cw, 476 MHz), sub-booster amplifiers (pulse, 2856 MHz) and fourty-two high power klystrons. The output rf power of the klystrons is 30 MW and the rf power of each klystron is split and fed into four accelerator guides composing one acceleration unit. Almost all of the rf equipment and components have been installed in their positions and are in the final adjustment stage

173

Report from the WG-2 of the LUMI-05 workshop scenarios for the injector complex upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The LUMI-05 workshop was held in Arcidosso (Italy) from August 31st to September 3rd, gathering about 40 participants. The scope of the workshop was to explore scenarios for the LHC luminosity upgrade, with particular emphasis on LHC IR layouts with lower ?* and on new high energy injectors for increasing the beam intensity. These topics were discussed by two separate working groups, the first one (WG-1) mainly dealing with the LHC IR Upgrade, and the second one (WG-2) on High Energy Injectors. This note reports about activities and conclusions of WG-2.

Scandale, Walter

2006-01-01

174

BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun  

Science.gov (United States)

The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 ?mm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%.

Liu, Sheng-Guang; Huang, Tong-Ming; Xu, Jin-Qiang

2011-09-01

175

Coaxial Injectors for Liquid Oxygen/Methane (LOX/CH4) Technology Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Since late 2005, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and demonstrating technology for liquid oxygen and methane (LOX/CH4) engine designs. Efforts were undertaken to help advance technology that might benefit NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The propellant combination has gained interest as a potential option for the ascent stage main propulsion system on the Altair lunar lander vehicle. The propellants are also attractive for eventual Mars missions in future development activities. MSFC s efforts focus on evaluating the performance potential of both liquid and gaseous methane for specific injector designs. Previous JANNAF papers reported the performance observed for LOX and methane with an impinging injector. More recent efforts have focused on testing coaxial injector designs. Hot-fire testing performed at MSFC with thrust levels close to 5000 lbf demonstrated high performance with coaxial injectors of different element densities and various fuel film cooling levels. Test data provided results on performance, chamber wall compatibility, and heat flux profiles for different injectors. A variety of igniters were also demonstrated, including a torch igniter and a microwave (or plasma) igniter.

Elam, Sandra; Osborne, Robin; Protz, Christopher

2010-01-01

176

Near-to-Final MINOS Oscillation Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been collecting NuMI beam neutrino data since 2005 and atmospheric neutrino data since 2003. The NuMI beam delivered its last Proton on Target (POT) for MINOS neutrino production in April 2012 prior to its shutdown and upgrade for NO?A. This paper presents MINOS' near-to-final measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters obtained when using the complete MINOS data set

177

Power supply of a betatron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-voltage pulse power supply of small-sized 8 MeV electron energy betatron injector is described. The supply is made on the basis of step-up pulse transformer with the accumulator total discharge. Voltage amplitude at the injector cathode reaches 100 kW at up to 5 A load current. Duration of voltage pulse of semisimesoidal form constitutes by basis 0.5 ?s. Dimensions of pilse transformer in combination with oil tank are equal to 150x140x150 mm, mass - 5.2 kg. Heating of the injector cathode, which is under high voltage conditions, is conducted using alternative voltage generator connected to primary coil of pulse transformer. Operation of power supply is considered

178

Commissioning of the SPS as LEP injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the original design report on the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP) proposed a LEP injector based on a new 22 GeV synchrotron. Subsequently, in order to reduce the cost of the project it was proposed to use the existing Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) together with its injector, the CERN Proton Synchrotron (CPS) in order to accelerate electrons and positrons up to 20 GeV/c for injection into LEP. It was further proposed to accelerate leptons in the dead time between proton cycles imposed by the average power consumption in the SPS magnets. This implied major changes to the SPS software and hardware, in particular to the master timing generator and to the function generators, in order to operate in a multicycling mode with at least one hadron and four lepton cycles per supercycle. Commissioning of the injector chain started in 1987 and continued into the first half of 1988

179

TJ-II neutral beam injectors control and data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Control and Data Acquisition System for the Neutral Beam Injectors of TJ-II are described in this paper. The DAQ and Control architecture is based on a distributed system including VME-OS9 real-time computers and personal computers (PCs) with Linux and Windows NT. One OS9-VME local computer located near each injector performs the timing, local signal processing, signal interlock, and operation of the injector mechanical and electrical components. A main OS9-VME interfaces and controls some peripheral systems, such as the high voltage power supplies, water cooling, safety and protection systems. Control is performed from the OS9-VME machines, in which the software elements are basically C/C++ programs performing real time processing and a web server enabling access to the HTML pages acting as user graphic interface

180

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

 
 
 
 
181

ESRF synchrotron injector tune measurement system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tune measurement system implemented on the synchrotron injector allows the measurement of this parameter during ?2 ms periods inside the 50 ms acceleration cycle of the machine. The measurement methods are presented and the components of the system described: beam shaker, beam position pick-up, front end and detection electronics, spectrum analyser. The response of the beam to the shaker can be measured in three modes: a slow frequency sweep mode, a fast swept frequency mode and an FFT mode. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed and results of the measurements performed on the beam during the synchrotron injector commissioning are presented. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 5 figs

182

Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

183

Overview of neutral beam injector technology developments at universities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activities of universities on the neutral beam injector developments have been overviewed. The subjects consist of NBI construction, components developments and system analyses, which are intensively studied at universities. Although neutral beam injector technologies are present day top topics, however, still a lot of efforts with flexible ideas are necessary to realize reactor relevant neutral beam injector system. (author)

184

Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnical actuation  

Science.gov (United States)

A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical signal. The product derived from this activity will be useful for astronaut's health, being able to administrate emergency doses of products (for instance cardio-tonic or hypoallegic drugs) enough to survive an emergency situation (as it can be a heart attack during EVA). The system can also be used for easy administration of drugs needed for physiological research. The usefulness of the device in terrestrial applications has no doubt, allowing remote administration of drugs to patients whose biomedical parameters are remotely monitored. The concept proposed here is new in combining the idea of pharmaceutical chip with the ultrasonic droplet technology and the use of pyrotechnics to provide energy to the drug to be injected. The proposed Drug Injector Microsystem is based on 2 main blocks:- Micropyrotechnic system: defines the ignition part based on pyrotechnic.- Microfluidic system: defines the drug injection part. This part is also divided in different critical parts: Expansion chamber, membrane or piston, drug reservoir and a needle. Different sensors are placed on the expansion chamber of microfluidic system and on the micropyrotechnic system. A complete electronic module is implemented with a PC interface to define flexible and user friendly experiences showing the smart drug delivery injector microsystem principle.

Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez, Jaime; Miribel, Pere; Samitier-Marti, Josep; Rossi, Carole; Berthold, Axel

2003-04-01

185

Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggend generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen

186

Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope

187

High current injector for heavy ion fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 ?s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (< 5k?) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (? 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 ?s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented

188

Design and modeling of the multibeam injector  

Science.gov (United States)

For both HIF and ion driven HEDP experiments, the beams a driver produces must have both high brightness and high current. The US HIF program has had extensive experience and success working with single, monolithic ion sources for accelerator experiments with moderate injector current requirements. Such sources produce up to hundreds of milliAmps with normalized emittances less than 1-?-mm mrad. However, with a need for higher current, and more compact, sources up to and over 1 A, monolithic sources begin to suffer from the poor scaling of source area to current. That is, by combining the limits of space-charge limited emission, voltage breakdown, and good optics, the source area is seen to scale as a high power of the current, A?I. A means of bypassing the scaling, leading to a much more compact injector, is the use of multiple beamlets, each of which can have a much higher current density than a larger monolithic beam. The beamlets are merged near the end of the injector. A major challenge is the inherent emittance growth that occurs as the beamlets merge. In this paper, the design of such an injector will be presented along with simulations used to study and validate the design. This design offers other advantages, and some disadvantages, that will be described. Finally, comparisons will be made to experimental results from the merging beamlet experimental campaign on STS-500.

Grote, D. P.; Kwan, J. W.; Westenskow, G. A.

2007-07-01

189

Pneumatic pellet injector for JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pneumatic 4-shot pellet injector has been installed and operated for JT-60 (JAERI Tokamak-60). The performance tests have proven that the device provides high speed pellets as planned. The maximum pellet velocity obtained in the hydrogen pellet tests is greater than 2.3km/s at 100 bar propellant gas. (author)

190

Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

191

Properties of high current RFQ injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author)

192

Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines  

Science.gov (United States)

A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be rapidly scaled from small in-space applications [500-5,000 lbf (2.2 22.2 kN)] to large thrust engine applications [80,000 lbf (356 kN) and beyond]. The triaxial injector is also less sensitive to eccentricities, manufacturing tolerances, and gap width of many traditional coaxial and pintle injector designs. The triaxial-injector injection orifice configuration provides for high injection stiffness. The low parts count and relatively large injector design features are amenable to low-cost production.

Muss, Jeff

2010-01-01

193

SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R&D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment. The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed. The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R&D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; de Esch, H.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M.; Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W.

2011-09-01

194

The ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions

195

The ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions.

Pardo, R.C.; Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.

1986-11-10

196

Flash X-Ray Injector Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

Paul, A C

2004-03-26

197

LS1 Report: injectors 2.0  

CERN Multimedia

Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2014-01-01

198

The atlas positive-ion injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make beams of essentially all elements including uranium available at ATLAS. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides ions of high charge states at microampere currents, and rf superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. (orig.)

199

Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

2005-01-01

200

Design status of heavy ion injector program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column. The column consists of two 28-inch diameter insulator modules made of 85 percent Al2O3 ceramic rings brazed to niobium feedthrough rings to which the electrodes are mechanically attached. Field shaping is used to minimize electron avalanche induced flashover along the inside surface of the ceramic rings. The column is self-supporting and is cantilevered from one end of the containment vessel. A brazed assembly was chosen to provide the required bond strength and high vacuum capability. The HV pulsed power supply is a 2MV Marx generator cantilevered from the opposite end of the containment vessel. The stainless steel pressure vessel (PV) contains a 65 psig mixture of SF6(30%) and nitrogen (70%) to provide the electrical insulation

 
 
 
 
201

RLIUP: Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans  

CERN Document Server

This report contains the Proceedings of the "Review of LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans" (RLIUP), held in the Centre de Convention, Archamps, France, 29–31 October 2013. The RLIUP examined the parameters of the LIU and HL-LHC projects following the experience and changes in the beam parameters experienced over the previous two years. It discussed which level of integrated luminosity will necessitate a replacement of the inner detectors and the insertions, the importance of reaching 3000 $fb^{-1}$ or the minimum integrated luminosity which would be tolerated. The main outcome of RLIUP is a staged path from the LHC performance at the end of 2012 to the required performance for the HL-LHC, along with a number of important recommendations on the work organization of the coming years.

Zimmermann, F; RLIUP Workshop

2014-01-01

202

Comissioning Of The Linear Accelerator-injector Of Tnk Facility  

CERN Document Server

The industrial storage facility has been developed and manufactured at Budker INP SB RAS. It contains an 80 MeV electron linear accelerator-injector and two electron storage rings: the lesser 450 MeV booster ring and the main 2.5 GeV storage ring. In 2002, the work on the accelerator assembling was begun. On December, 25 of this year the accelerator was started up, and the current at the linear accelerator output was obtained. The linear accelerator schematic together with a description of the 6 meter long accelerating DAW structure which operates at 2.8 GHz, are presented in the paper. The first results of the accelerator start-up are as follows: the accelerated electron current of ~50 mA with the energy of ~55-60 MeV.

Zagorodnikov, E I; Chernov, K N; Churkin, I N; Dolgov, A M; Filiptchenko, A V; Grachev, N N; Khramtsov, V P; Kildisheva, O E; Kokin, E N; Korchuganov, V N; Krylov, Yu V; Matveev, Yu G; Matyash, N V; Medvedko, A S; Odintsov, D G; Ostreiko, G N; Repkov, V V; Ruvinsky, S I; Serdobintsev, G V; Shvedov, D A; Sinyatkin, S V; Spinko, N V; Steshov, A G; Tararyshkin, S V; Ushakov, V A; Valentinov, A G; Yudin, V D; Yupinov, Yu L

2004-01-01

203

Upgrade of the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector Bunching System  

CERN Document Server

Over the last few years, significant efforts were concentrated on improving the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) RF bunching system, consisting of a four-harmonic pre-buncher, Traveling Wave Chopper (TWC) and a single-frequency sinusoidal re-buncher. The primary goal was to improve RF field stability with a redesigned RF system and to improve buncher performance for higher current beams resulting in better bunch stability and time structure at the first PII superconducting resonator. The major parts of the system were redesigned and rebuilt, including the RF 12 - 48 MHz amplifiers for the harmonic pre-buncher and re-buncher, RF driver rack for the TWC, and the RF control chassis for both the pre-buncher and re-buncher. The four-harmonic resonant structure of the harmonic buncher itself was modified, too, mainly for better mechanical stability and better RF matching. These improvements will be described and the performance of the new system presented.

Sharamentov, Sergey I; Clifft, Benn; Pardo, Richard C

2005-01-01

204

Study of RF-asymmetry in photo-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the RF-asymmetry existing in the full cell of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell type photo-injector has been investigated. The fields of the multi-pole modes have been analyzed respectively, and lastly, a simple and reliable technique is presented to eliminate the dipole mode with the RF-asymmetry induced by dipole mode. In the process of simulation, the time domain module of CST Microwave Studio is mainly used as the tool to calculate the electro-magnetic fields. The FFT technique is employed to conduct frequency domain analysis for the fields. The results of FFT are utilized to estimate emittance growth induced by higher multi-pole modes, according to the framework of Panofsky-Wenzal theorem. Based on the above analysis, efforts have been made to eliminate dipole fields by modifying the length of vacuum port on the opposite side of RF-coupling port

205

The S-DALINAC polarized electron injector SPIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the superconducting 130 MeV Darmstadt electron linac S-DALINAC a source of polarized electrons has been installed. Pulsed Ti:Sapphire and diode lasers illuminate a superlattice-GaAs cathode, producing polarized electrons preaccelerated to 100 keV. A Wien filter and Mott polarimeter are used for spin manipulation and polarization measurement. Downstream of the superconducting injector linac a 5-10 MeV Mott polarimeter has been installed. A Moeller polarimeter behind the main linac has been designed for energies between 50 and 130 MeV, and additional Compton-transmission polarimeters will be installed for online polarization monitoring. Photo-fission measurements of different uranium isotopes have been carried out and an active target setup is under investigation. We report on the status and performance of the source of polarized electrons and currently planned experiments with polarized beams.

Eckardt, Christian; Bonnes, Uwe; Brunken, Marco; Eichhorn, Ralf; Enders, Joachim; Espig, Martin; Fritzsche, Yuliya; Haas, Oliver; Ingenhaag, Christoph; Lindemann, Janina; Platz, Markus; Wagner, Markus; Weber, Antje; Zwicker, Benjamin [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Aulenbacher, Kurt [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

2012-07-01

206

First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Positive-Ion Injector (PH) designed to enable ATLAS to accelerate all stable nuclei has been completed and successfully tested. This new injector system consists of an ECR source on a 350-kV platform coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac formed with four different types of independently-phased 4-gap accelerating structures. The injector linac is configured to be optimum for the acceleration of uranium ions from 0.029 to ? 1.1 MeV/u. When ions with q/A > 0. 1 are accelerated by PII and injected into the main ATLAS linac, CW beams with energies over 6 MeV/u can be delivered to the experimental areas. Since its completion in March 1992, PII has been tested by accelerating 3OSi7+, 40Arll+, 132Xe13+, and 208Pb24+. For all of these, transmission through the injecter linac was ? 100% of the pre-bunched beam, which corresponds to ? 60% of the DC beam from the source. The accelerating fields of the superconducting resonators were somewhat greater than the design goals, and the whole system ran stably for long periods of time

207

An integrated aerodynamic-ramp-injector/plasma-torch-igniter for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The first integrated, flush-wall, aero-ramp-fuel-injector/plasma-torch igniter and flame propagation system for supersonic combustion applications with hydrocarbon fuels was developed and tested. The main goal of this project was to develop a device which could be used to demonstrate that the correct placement of a plasma-torch-igniter/flame-holder in the wake of the fuel jets of an aero-ramp injector array could make sustained, efficient supersonic combustion with low losses and thermal loading possible in a high enthalpy environment. The first phase of the research effort was conducted at Mach 3.0 at a static pressure and temperature of 0.19 atm and 101 K. This phase involved component analyses to improve on the designs of the aero-ramp and plasma-torch as well as address integration and incorporation difficulties. The information learned from these experiments lead to the creation of the first prototype integrated aero-ramp/plasma torch design featuring a new simplified four-hole aero-ramp design. The second phase of the project consisted of experiments at Mach 2.4 involving a cold-flow mixing evaluation of the new aero-ramp design and a resizing of the device for incorporation into a scramjet flow path test rig at the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL). Experiments were performed at a static pressure and temperature of 0.25 atm and 131 K, and at injector-jet to freestream momentum flux ratios ranging from 1.0 to 3.3. Results showed the aero-ramp to mix at a considerably faster rate than the injector used in the AFRL baseline combustor configuration due to high levels of vorticity created by the injector array. The last phase of the research involved testing the final device design in a cold-flow environment at Mach 2.4 with ethylene fuel injection and an operational plasma torch with methane, nitrogen, a 90-percent nitrogen 10-percent hydrogen (by volume) mixture, and air feedstock gases. Experiments were performed with injector jet to freestream momentum flux ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.3, and 1.2 with the plasma torch at a nominal power level 2000 watts. Overall, the final integrated design showed a high mixing efficiency and a higher potential for repeatable main fuel ignition and flame propagation with the plasma torch placed at the middle of the three downstream torch stations tested ( x/dinjector = 8 downstream from the center of the injector area), with nitrogen as the torch feedstock. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Jacobsen, Lance Steven

208

Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

209

Ion sources and injectors for HIF induction linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

210

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements.

Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Karpenko, V.; Sangster, T.C.

2000-07-24

211

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

2004-11-10

212

Initial use of the positive-ion injector of ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The positive-ion injector of ATLAS consists of an ECR heavy-ion source coupled to a 12-MV superconducting injector linac. The ECR source and a 3-MV version of the partially completed linac have been used to accelerate successfully several species of heavy ions. The operating experience is summarized, with emphasis on the excellent beam quality of beams from the new injector. Two new fast-timing detectors are described. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

213

Photographic characterization of spark-ignition engine fuel injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifold port fuel injectors suitable for use in general aviation spark-ignition engines were evaluated qualitatively on the basis of fuel spray characteristics. Photographs were taken at various fuel flow rates or pressure levels. Mechanically and electronically operated pintle injectors generally produced the most atomization. The plain-orifice injectors used on most fuel-injected general aviation engines did not atomize the fuel when sprayed into quiescent air.

Evanich, P. L.

1978-01-01

214

2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.

2004-11-10

215

First coupled CH power cavity for the FAIR proton injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The main acceleration of this room temperature linac will be provided by six CH cavities operated at 325 MHz. Each cavity will be powered by a 2.5 MW Klystron. For the second acceleration unit from 11.5 MeV to 24.2 MeV a 1:2 scaled model has been built. Low level RF measurements have been performed to determine the main parameters and to prove the concept of coupled CH cavities. In Summer 2012, the assembly and tuning of the first power prototype was finished. Until then, the cavity was tested with a preliminary aluminum drift tube structure, which was used for precise frequency and field tuning. Before Spring 2013 the final drift tube structure will be welded inside the main tanks and the preparation for copper plating will take place. This paper reports on the main tuning and commissioning steps towards that novel type of DTL and it shows the latest results measured on a fully operational CH proton cavity.

216

Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m2) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m2), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

217

A study of plasma ignition enhancement for aeroramp injectors in supersonic combustion applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this project was to investigate the mixing and chemical phenomena associated with the integration of a low-power, uncooled plasma torch into a fuel injector array. The potential application was for an integrated scramjet igniter/injector, with the hope of producing superior mixing and flameholding performance for supersonic combustion applications. To create a knowledge base for integration, several key investigations were made of the anode material, anode geometry, and spectrographic analysis of different light hydrocarbon fuels and inert feedstocks, all aimed at increasing the ignition potential of the plasma torch. Investigations of the anode material demonstrated the molybdenum provided longer lifetimes than either pure copper or tungsten-copper anodes. In addition, geometric studies of the anode revealed that anodes with short constrictor lengths and sonic exit nozzles provided superior ignition performance based on higher transfer rates of thermal energy from the arc to the feedstock. This resulted in the production of higher hydrogen atom concentrations within the plasma jet. Spectrographic observation of the plasma jets revealed that methane, ethylene, propylene, and propane plasmas all contain excited atomic hydrogen, a radical known to participate in important chain-branching combustion reactions. Based on the knowledge gained, and encouraging results, a candidate scramjet igniter and flameholder was designed. The design was observed to exhibit a synergistic effect between the plasma igniter and fuel injector in that the fuel injector provides not only a subsonic region for plasma ignition, but also lifts the combustion enhancing radicals out into the fuel-air stream by means of counter-rotating vortices. Furthermore, under the conditions tested, increases in plasma torch power produced an exponential increase in the intensity of downstream products, indicating an enhancement effect. Based upon these observations, the integrated igniter/injector design is expected to perform well in supersonic combustion applications.

Gallimore, Scott D.

218

Cybele: A large size ion source of modular construction for the Tore-Supra diagnostic injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE and charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra tokamak. This injector routinely operates with a large size ion source (the so-called Pagoda ion source) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiments. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objectives are a high accelerated proton fraction (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm2, and uniform illumination of the extraction surface (within ±5%) for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). The main particularity of Cybele is the modular construction; it is composed of five, vertically juxtaposed modules, geometrically arranged to fit the curved extraction surface of the injector, which ensures the geometrical focusing of the neutral beam 7 m downstream, at the entrance to the tokamak. Cybele will be tested first for positive-ion production for the Tore-Supra injector and later in negative-ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity over the very large extraction surface (?1 m2) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A prototype module (the Drift source) has already been developed and optimized [A. Simomin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4542 (1999)] both for positive- and negative-ion productions. It has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D- current density (200 A/m2), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity, and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW)

219

Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160?MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5?kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5?kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45?kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena.

Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

2014-12-01

220

CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by these investigators to be very valuable for code validation because combustion kinetics, turbulence models and atomization models based on low pressure experiments of hydrogen air combustion do not adequately verify analytical or CFD submodels which are necessary to simulate rocket engine combustion. We wish to emphasize that the simulations which we prepared for this meeting are meant to test the accuracy of the approximations used in our general purpose spray combustion models, rather than represent a definitive analysis of each of the experiments which were conducted. Our goal is to accurately predict local temperatures and mixture ratios in rocket engines; hence predicting individual experiments is used only for code validation. To replace the conventional JANNAF standard axisymmetric finite-rate (TDK) computer code 2 for performance prediction with CFD cases, such codes must posses two features. Firstly, they must be as easy to use and of comparable run times for conventional performance predictions. Secondly, they must provide more detailed predictions of the flowfields near the injector face. Specifically, they must accurately predict the convective mixing of injected liquid propellants in terms of the injector element configurations.

Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) has been designed and is being fabricated. The injector will be installed on the STOR-M tokamak (R = 0.46 m, a = 0.12 m) to study CT injection into tokamak discharges. The injector is of coaxial configuration consisting of formation, compression and acceleration sections. Discharge of a 500 ?F (2 kV) capacitor bank through a solenoid is capable of inducing a quasi-steady magnetic flux up to 1 mWb. Four fast-acting gas puffing valves inject up to 4 x 1019 hydrogen particles within 100 ?sec into the formation region. Two 20 ?F (20 kV) capacitor banks are used for the formation, compression and acceleration of a CT. High density tungsten coating, ac glow discharge cleaning and on-line baking are among the efforts to produce high quality CTs with low impurity contents. The envisaged CT parameters are: ro (outer radius) ? 0.05 m, ri (inner radius) ? 0.018 m, L (length) ? 0.15 m, n (density) ? 4 x 1021 m-3 and v (velocity) ? 400 km/sec. CT with these parameters should be able to penetrate 1 Tesla magnetic field in the STOR-M tokamak. Magnetic probes and He-Ne laser interferometer will be used to measure the CT velocity, density, magnetic field, and length. Spectroscopic measurements will be performed to investigate impurity contents in the CT. The CT parameters, especially its particle inventory, are designed to allow disruption-free CT injection into the STOR-M tokamak. The emphasis of this research program is to study physics involved in tokamak plasma refueling by CT injection. Feasibility of plasma heating and current drive will also be investigated. In particular, the dependence of injection processes on the injection angle (130 degree to 40 degree with respect to the plasma current direction) will be studied in detail

222

High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with NB particles per bunch, spaced a distance SB apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed ?c, the luminosity is given by L = NB2?c/4??2SB, where ? is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity ? is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and ? is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of ? and SB, requires a large value for the ratio NB2/var-epsilon n, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed NB, the luminosity can be increased if var-epsilon n can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider

223

High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with N{sub B} particles per bunch, spaced a distance S{sub B} apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed {beta}c, the luminosity is given by L = N{sub B}{sup 2}{beta}c/4{pi}{sigma}{sup 2}S{sub B}, where {sigma} is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity {tilde {beta}} is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and {gamma} is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of {tilde {beta}} and S{sub B}, requires a large value for the ratio N{sub B}{sup 2}/{var epsilon}{sub n}, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed N{sub B}, the luminosity can be increased if {var epsilon}{sub n} can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider.

Wangler, T.P.

1990-01-01

224

Radiotracer injector: An Industrial Application (RIIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention. (author)

225

Numerical analysis of coaxial swirl injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing recognition exists in the United States that injector dynamics play a pivotal role in the combustion instabilities of some Liquid Rocket Engines (LREs). Russian researchers believe injector dynamics can lead to unsteady mass flow from the injector to the combustion chamber resulting in unsteady heat release. Unsteady heat release coupled with the chamber modes, could cause combustion instability and the destruction of the rocket. The research described herein focused on the use of computational fluid dynamics to describe the frequency and amplitude of unsteady mass flow rate from a gas-centered coaxial swirl injector with varying geometries and fluid properties. An incompressible model, therefore, was utilized to investigate the effects of density ratio, liquid swirl velocity, liquid film thickness, collar thickness, and recess length. Present findings showed that the frequency at which the liquid film oscillates increases as the density ratio and collar thickness increase, decreases as the film thickness and liquid swirl velocity increases, and is unaffected by the recess length. Thus, the frequency seems dependent on the behavior of the vortex shedding/reattachment from the collar and the dynamic pressure imbalance on the liquid surface. The vortex behavior has been included as an important parameter for determining the behavior of the film given that the collar thickness affects the frequency. Since these studies lead to the belief that the vortex dynamics aft of the collar are important, a more fundamental study concerning the vortex dynamics behind a splitter plate/post was undertaken. For this study a compressible model was utilized to investigate the effects of momentum ratio, axisymmetry, the presence of a wall near the splitter, and swirl. Shedding frequency was found to increase as the momentum ratio varies from unity. Furthermore, axisymmetry reduced the shedding frequency over all momentum ratios. The presence of a wall near the splitter, in contrast, increased the shedding frequency when the higher momentum stream was adjacent to the wall. Finally, swirl caused complex interactions aft of the splitter rendering distinct trends in shedding frequency difficult to discern for high amounts of swirl.

Canino, James Vincent

226

Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s-1, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s-1, as planned. (author)

227

Solid hydrogen pellet injector for T-10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the first Soviet high-speed hydrogen pellet injector operating on T-10. An experimental investigation was done of the interaction process between the fuel pellet and the tokamak plasma and the diagnostics of the transfer process in the plasma. The system is calculated on the injection during the discharge pulse of a single pellet containing hydrogen with a velocity of up to 700 m/sec. The experiments conducted in T-10 have included an investigation of the limits of stability of the injection, the heat and particle transfer processes in the plasma and the effect of the injection on MHD perturbation

228

Main Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discuss on main nuclear facilities available in the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). As a national research institute whose core activities are nuclear science and technology, MINT are made up of main commercializable radiation irradiators, pilot plant and fully equipped laboratories. Well elaboration on its characteristics and functions explain for RTP (PUPSPATI TRIGA reactors), Cobalt-60 gamma irradiator, electron beam accelerators, and radioactive waste management center

229

Component of astronauts survival equipment backpack - medical injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The automatic medical injectors were carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts space suit.

1963-01-01

230

Pellet injector systems for plasma refueling on LHD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen pellet injection is one of the leading candidates for a refueling to magnetic confined fusion plasmas, since it can provide particles directly to core plasma. In order to investigate appropriateness of the pellet injection as a plasma refueling method, two types of solid hydrogen pellet injector systems have been developed and plasma experiments with pellet injection have been carried out on LHD (Large Helical Device). One is an in-situ pipe gun type pellet injector, which is the simplest of all pellet injector concepts. The in-situ pipe gun injector has 10 independent controlled barrels and each barrel can inject 3 mm? x 3 mml pellets with a velocity of ?1200 m/s. The other is a repetitive pellet injector with a screw extruder. The screw extruder can form 2.5 mm? solid hydrogen rod continuously at a extruding rates of ?35 mm/s and, therefore, the repetitive pellet injector can inject pellets in infinitum with repetitive rate of 10 Hz. Common feature of these injectors is employing a compact cryocooler to solidify hydrogen and, therefore, these injectors can be operated with just electricity instead of liquid helium supply system. (author)

231

Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm(3)), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented. PMID:24593595

Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

2014-02-01

232

Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torusa)  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm3), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

2014-02-01

233

Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 10{sup 21} particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5{sup o}-25{sup o} have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis.

Soukhanovskii, V A; Kugel, H W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M; Blanchard, W; Bush, C; Gernhardt, R; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Majeski, R; Menard, J; Provost, T; Sichta, P; Raman, R

2005-09-30

234

Pneumatic pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced pneumatic-injector-based pellet fueling systems are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range from 1 to 2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumatic-based pellet fueling systems for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET), and a new simplified eight-shot injector has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These long-pulse devices operate reliably at up to 1.5 km/s with pellet sizes ranging between 1 and 6 mm. In addition to these activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies such as the electrothermal gun and the two-stage light-gas gun to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets to 1.4 km/s were recently demonstrated. 27 refs., 10 figs

235

Steam injector development for ALWR's application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam Injectors (SI's) can be used in Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's) for high pressure makeup water supply; this solution seems to be very attractive because of the ''passive'' features of SI's, that would take advantage of the available energy from steam without introduction of any rotating machinery. In particular, SI's could be used for high pressure safety injection in BWR's or for emergency feedwater in the secondary side of evolutionary PWR's. An instrumented Steam Injector (SI) prototype, operating at high pressures, has been built and tested. The experimental results confirm the capability of tested SI to operate at constant inlet water pressure (about 0.3 MPa) and inlet water temperature up to 50 deg. C, with steam pressure ranging from 2.5 to 9 MPa (4.5-9 MPa at maximum inlet water temperature). The discharge pressure target (10% higher than steam pressure) was fulfilled in the operating range. It should be noted that the minimum operating limit can be lowered to 1.5 MPa with some modifications. To achieve these results an original double-overflow flowrate-control/startup system, patented by ENEL/CISE in 1993, has been used. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

236

Performance of the Ignitor Pellet Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

ENEA and ORNL have built a four barrel, two-stage pneumatic injector for the Ignitor experiment featuring two innovative concepts: (i) an optimal shaping of the propellant pressure pulse to improve pellet acceleration, and (ii) the use of fast closing (propellant gas removal system. The injector is designed to deliver pellets of different sizes with velocities up to 4 km/s, capable of penetrating near the center of the plasma column when injected from the low field side in Ignitor burning plasmas (n010^21 m-3, T011 keV). The ENEA sub-system, which includes the two-stage guns and pulse-shaping valves, the gas removal system, with associated controls and diagnostics, and the ORNL sub-system, consisting of the cryostat and pellet diagnostics, with related control and data acquisition system, have been assembled in Oak Ridge. Pellet speeds of 2 km/s have been achieved, despite the unfavorable configuration adopted in order to carry out some preliminary tests immediately after assembling the system, a very promising result. A second experimental campaign is planned for the 2008 Fall, when all four diagnostic channels should be complete.

Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Podda, S.; Bombarda, F.; Baylor, L. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C.; Fehling, D.; McJill, J. M.; Meitner, S.; Roveta, G.

2008-11-01

237

Improved brightness of the ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the ATA injector using the low density plasma cathode (flashboard cathode) have shown that the brightness of the injector was being limited by the non-uniform emission of the cathode surface. To avoid this difficulty, we rearranged the cathode-anode geometry to accommodate field shaping surfaces and a field emission cathode. Computer simulations of the cathode-anode geometry using the EBQ code led us to try a 5.5 cm radius cathode with an A-K gap of about 13 cm. There was no grid used during the experiment. The cathode was surrounded by a Pierce correcting shroud and the typical gap voltage was about 2.5 MeV. Our initial tests of the field emission cathodes were done using a woven carbon yarn that was laced through a fine mesh screen and then trimmed to a uniform height. Using these ''tufted'' cathodes, it was easy to vary the number of emission sites per square centimeter. We also varied the geometry of these cathodes by giving the screen a slight convex shape so that the center of the cathode was about 1 cm closer to the anode plane than the edge of the cathode. At the suggestion of R. Adler of MRC, we also tested commerically available velvet cloth. This was done by epoxying the cloth to the cathode surface using a conducting silver epoxy. We tested the velvet cathodes in both the flat and convex configurations to compare with the tufted carbon yarn cathodes

238

SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

239

Performance of a CW RFQ Injector for the IUCF Cyclotron  

CERN Document Server

A 750 keV RFQ proton pre-injector was installed in place of a 600 keV Cockroft-Walton high voltage terminal for the IUCF k220 Cyclotron.* The pre-injector consists of a 20 keV microwave ion source and LEBT, a unique design 750 keV CW RFQ, and a short transfer beam line to the k15 injector cyclotron center region.** This pre-injector system was installed and commissioned in June of 2003 and is now in routine service as the sole injection system to the cyclotrons. This contribution will discuss the performance of the CW RFQ pre-injector and the transmission properties of the beam through the cyclotrons.

Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; East, Gary W; Friesel, Dennis; Hamm, Robert W; Jones, William P; Staples, John W

2005-01-01

240

Pitfalls when using a contrast medium injector in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a power injector to applicate GD-DTPA we found a contrast enhancement of the pyelo-caliceal system even in the native studies, and hence we analysed pitfalls when using power injectors in MRI. Material and methods: We used a power injector Spectris trademark (MedRad, Maastricht, Netherlands). In vitro artifacts were achieved by the mixture of contrast media and saline solution. We substituted contrast media by red water, NaCl by clear water. Results: Using power injectors in MRI, some pitfalls must be avoided, which can render investigations useless, especially dynamic contrast-enhanced investigations. Conclusion: In our study we showed an easy way to overcome some pitfalls and use a power injector in MRI in a diagnostically helpful way. The simple use of valves inhibits the mixture of contrast media and saline solution. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
241

Injector design guidelines for gas/liquid propellant systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Injector design guidelines are provided for gas/liquid propellant systems. Information was obtained from a 30-month applied research program encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination studied was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ ambient temperature gaseous methane. Design criteria that provide for simultaneous attainment of high performance and chamber compatibility are presented for both injector types. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular coaxial and like-doublet injectors that operate with design parameters similar to those employed. However, caution should be exercised when applying these data to propellant combinations whose elements operate in ranges considerably different from those employed in this study.

Falk, A. Y.; Burick, R. J.

1973-01-01

242

Development of a compact injector and injection technology to promote the WCI center project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the R and D project to promote the activities and technology developments or World Class Institute (WCI) center, 'Center for Quantum beam based Radiation Research' Main goal is the R and D of compact circular accelerator by developing the injection technology using laser-accelerated electron beam. The subject of this project includes the technology development of compact high energy injector using laser-plasma acceleration, such as, high-vacuum plasma target and the improvement of stability and quality of laser accelerated electron beam, and the injection technology of them to a circular accelerator. As a matching R and D, this project is focused on any technologies related on laser acceleration to accomplish it as an injector

243

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2014-02-15

244

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)a)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

2014-02-01

245

Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platfrom and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A < 130, will be superior to the present FN tandem as a heavy-ion injector. In later phases of the work, the injector linac will be enlarged enough to allow ATLAS to effectively accelerate uranium ions. The injector system is expected to provide exceptional beam quality. The status of the work, expected performance of the accelerator system, and the technical issues involved are summarized

246

Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 ?m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B.

2012-03-01

247

Initial Commissioning Experience With the LCLS Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC [1]. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam is taking place during the spring and summer of 2007. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, will begin later, in the fall of 2007. We report here on experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning, including RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

Akre, R.; Castro, J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.H.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Rivetta, C.; Saleski, M.; Schmerge, J.F.; Schultz, D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC /DESY

2007-11-02

248

PLT and ISX neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six high power (40 keV--60 A) injection systems, four for PLT (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) and two for ISX (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) tokamaks, have been developed, fabricated, and operated. Each injector delivers 750 kW (1000 kW) of H (D) neutral power to the tokamak plasma. An in-depth system parameter study has revealed unique features: high atomic yield (approximately 85%), improved ion optics due to a preacceleration technique, near steady-state operation (up to 500 msec), and a possible technique to control species yield. Routine operation includes high duty cycle (approximately 10%), long filament lifetime (several months), high arc efficiency, and the reliability necessary for application on a fusion device. The program status and injection parameters will be discussed

249

Injector upgrade for the S-DALINAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector section of the S-DALINAC currently delivers beams of up to 10 MeV w ith a current of up to 60?A. The upgrade aims to increase both parameters to 14 MeV and 150?A in order to allow more demanding experiments. Therefor e, a modified cryostat module equipped with two new cavities is required. Due to an increase in rf power to 2 kW the old coaxial rf input couplers, being design ed for a maximum power of 500 W, have to be replaced by new waveguide couplers. We review the design principles and report on the fabrication of the cavities an d the whole module

250

Quantum-cascade lasers without injector regions  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the status of quantum-cascade lasers without injector regions, based on a four- and five-level staircase, respectively. First lasers were realized at a wavelength of ~ 10 ?m. By applying an optimized design, we achieved high performance injectorless quantum-cascade lasers emitting at ~ 6.7 ?m. On the basis of this design, we investigated the influence of doping density and the number of periods of active sections. A sample with a doping sheet density of 2.5x10 10 cm -2 and 60 periods of active sections shows record low threshold current densities of 0.75 kA/cm2 at 300 K. Recently, we have further extended the wavelength range even down to ~ 4.2 ?m.

Friedrich, A.; Amann, M.-C.

2007-02-01

251

Emittance compensation for an SRF photo injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a superconducting photo injector is an ongoing challenge at the HZDR in Dresden. Several milestones like the first operation of a half cell niobium cavity in 2002 and the worldwide first beam transfer from a 3 1/2-cell SRF gun into an actual accelerator structure have already been accomplished. Nevertheless, as superconducting electron sources are of great interest for future ERL or cw operated FEL projects, studies to improve their output parameters and stability continue to get them on the same level as their normal conducting counterparts. The talk discusses several of the current approaches to reduce the transversal emittance of the next 3 1/2-cell cavity at the HZDR including the installation of a superconducting solenoid within the gun's cryostat.

252

Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

253

ATLAS positive-ion injector proposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS facility will provide beams of heavy-ions through approximately mass 130. Energies provided will range from over 20 MeV/A for lighter ions down to approximately 5 MeV/A for mass 130. In discussions with our user group concerning future program needs, two major areas of focus emerged. The first was a desire to increase the beam intensities available by approximately a factor of ten beyond what is possible from our present negative-ion source and tandem injector for all ion species. The second was to obtain beams of at least 10 MeV/A energy for all possible masses through uranium. These features were desired without compromising the presnt qualities of the ATLAS facility: good beam quality, ease of operation, and continuous (DC) operation. The facility which has been proposed to address these goals consists of replacing the negative-ion injector and FN tandem with a positive-ion source and a superconducting linac of a new design which makes use of the high field gradients possible with superconducting structures. The positive-ion source proposed is an electron cyclotron resonance source mounted on a high-voltage platform, providing a 350-kV potential for preacceleration of the ions. This will produce, for example, uranium ions of 7 MeV with a velocity of .008c, assuming a charge state of 20+. The ions will be bunched in a two stage bunching system providing a pulsed beam with a time width of better than 0.4

254

ATLAS positive-ion injector proposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ATLAS facility will provide beams of heavy-ions through approximately mass 130. Energies provided will range from over 20 MeV/A for lighter ions down to approximately 5 MeV/A for mass 130. In discussions with our user group concerning future program needs, two major areas of focus emerged. The first was a desire to increase the beam intensities available by approximately a factor of ten beyond what is possible from our present negative-ion source and tandem injector for all ion species. The second was to obtain beams of at least 10 MeV/A energy for all possible masses through uranium. These features were desired without compromising the presnt qualities of the ATLAS facility: good beam quality, ease of operation, and continuous (DC) operation. The facility which has been proposed to address these goals consists of replacing the negative-ion injector and FN tandem with a positive-ion source and a superconducting linac of a new design which makes use of the high field gradients possible with superconducting structures. The positive-ion source proposed is an electron cyclotron resonance source mounted on a high-voltage platform, providing a 350-kV potential for preacceleration of the ions. This will produce, for example, uranium ions of 7 MeV with a velocity of .008c, assuming a charge state of 20/sup +/. The ions will be bunched in a two stage bunching system providing a pulsed beam with a time width of better than 0.4 ns for injection into the linac.

Pardo, R.C.

1984-10-01

255

A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current

256

New injector (NPI) for nuclear physics at SLAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program of nuclear physics experiments has been approved at SLAC, and a new high average current injector is being added to the accelerator 650 meters upstream (Sector 25) of the accelerator output. The new injector (NPI) will produce beams in End Station A of up to 150 mA, 1.6 ?sec, 180 pps at energies from 0.5 to 6 GeV. NPI will also have 1 nsec short pulse capability for electron injection into SSRL. Work on NPI started in October of 1983, and the first beam from the new injector is scheduled for the Fall of 1984

257

Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D. W.

1993-05-01

258

Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

259

High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design  

CERN Document Server

There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

2005-01-01

260

30-kV proton injector for PIGMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 30-kV proton injector designed for matching a 30-mA proton beam into the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) section of the PIGMI accelerator has been constructed and tested. This injector uses a small efficient duoplasmatron ion source and a single-gap extraction system for creating a convergent ion beam, and a three-element unipotential einzel lens for focusing the ion beam into the RFQ. A description of this prototype injector is presented, along with the experimental data obtained during the testing of this system

 
 
 
 
261

Evaluation Methods for Coolant Injector Performances and Severe Accident Phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides the numerical simulation methods of the coolant injector in the direct cooling type core catcher, and evaluation methods of the severe accident phenomena. Firstly, the numerical simulation method for two-phase flow behaviour inside coolant injectors is established. Installation of the coolant injectors in the direct cooling type core catcher is one of the concepts to deliver cooling water mixed with inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent steam explosion while effectively cooling down the corium by direct heat transfer. Secondly, the evaluation tools of the severe accident phenomena such as in-vessel accident scenario, the DCH, steam explosion, MCCI, and containment pressurization are surveyed and discussed

262

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design on an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-diam) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-diam) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-number. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented. The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. More recently, an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector next year. The new device will combine a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous pneumatic injectors at ORNL have been utilized in t injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest injector system

263

Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm  

CERN Document Server

A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing Cyclotron), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48MHz 4-rod RFQ accelerates ion beam from 4keV/u to 300keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with 3.07m long vanes. The phase advance has been taken into account to analysis the error tolerance, and parametric resonance have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. KONUS IH-DTLs, which follow the RFQ, accelerate the ions up to the energy of 7.272MeV/u and inject into HIRFL-CSRm. Th...

Zhang, Xiaohu; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, zhongshan

2013-01-01

264

The development of light ion injector for the plasma diagnostic system based on beam emission spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of light ion injector and neutralizer for the BES plasma diagnostic system and its first experimental results are presented in this work. This injector will be used for neutral beam plasma diagnostic systems. Diagnostic systems based on neutral beams of Li or Na atoms can be used to study the spatial plasma density profiles, impurity ions and magnetic field distribution in the border region of the plasma fusion devices. This method is based on the detection of the probe beam glow of atoms excited by the plasma electrons. These diagnostic systems consist of two main parts - the neutral beam injector (including the ion beam accelerator and neutralizer) and the secondary light signal registration system. Light ion beam accelerator based on the five-electrode ion-optical system, in contrast to the classical three-electrode system, delivers beams of lithium or sodium with current 3 - 5 mA at a beam energy 20 - 25 keV. The neutralizer is based on the supersonic jet of sodium vapor formed by Laval nozzle. The first experiments of neutralizing the ion beam with a transverse supersonic atomic jet was done.

265

Design of the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector: From Physics Analysis to Engineering Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: For ITER heating and current drive, two neutral beam injectors (NBIs) are planned, delivering a total of 33 MW in stationary conditions up to one hour; each injector will accelerate a 40 A negative deuterium ion current up to 1 MV. Such requirements have never been achieved simultaneously. Hence the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) facility is under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padua, Italy. PRIMA will include a test bed named MITICA (Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement), with the aim of meeting the ITER beam requirements in terms of negative ion yield, beam uniformity, high voltage holding, operation of beam line components and power supplies, overall reliability of the NBI. The present contribution describes the current status of numerical simulations, devoted to the optimisation of MITICA, providing the main inputs for the design of accelerator, beam line components, diagnostics and power supplies. Physics and engineering aspects include: beam optics, dumping of co-extracted and stripped electrons, thermo-mechanical behaviour of grids and beam line components during long pulse operation, voltage holding capabilities. The optimised geometry of the accelerator is characterised by equal acceleration gaps (increased voltage holding capability) and a combination of horizontal and vertical magnetic fields in the accelerator (reducing heat loads and electrons exiting the accelerator); the gas pressure profile is also simulated in the accelerator and in the injector. The design of the accelerator power supplies has been supported by simulations of static and dynamic performances, including the investigation of overvoltages by a sophisticated fast transient model and the modelling of matching network and RF systems. Moreover the signals expected from the diagnostic systems have been simulated, with realistic beam features, providing prescriptions for the design of diagnostics, like beam emission spectroscopy, beam tomography and neutron diagnostic. Most of the design of MITICA plants and components are well developed and close to finalisation. 550 Poster. (author)

266

Venous air emboli and computed axial tomography power contrast injectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 47-year-old female presented to our level 1 trauma center following a single vehicle rollover. The computed tomography power injector was not appropriately primed with contrast, resulting in a large venous air embolus. PMID:19178899

Ball, Chad G; Rajani, Ravi R; Feliciano, David V; Nicholas, Jeffrey M

2009-06-01

267

Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

268

Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

269

The Injector of the VUV-FEL at DESY  

CERN Document Server

The VUV-FEL is a free electron laser user facility being commissioned at DESY in Hamburg. In the current configuration, the linac accelerates an electron beam up to 800 MeV. The injector is a crucial part of the linac, since it has to generate and maintain a high brightness electron beam required for SASE operation. The injector includes a laser driven RF gun, a booster section, a bunch compressor, and diagnostic sections. The good performance of the injector was crucial for the first lasing of the VUV-FEL at a wavelength of 32 nm in January 2005. We report on the present layout of the injector, the properties of the electron beam and on upgrade plans scheduled in the near future.

Schreiber, S

2005-01-01

270

Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 ? mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

271

Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

2001-05-01

272

Diesel Engine Injector Faults Detection Using Acoustic Emissions Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of the method of identifying injector faults in a JCB 444T2 diesel engine using acoustic emission (AE technique. Different kinds of injector faults were seeded in the four-cylinder, four-stroke, and turbo-engine. Then, faulty injectors are tested to evaluate AE based injection fault detection. The AE signals recorded from the tests were processed in the angular, frequency and joint angular-frequency domain. The results from joint angular-frequency analysis have shown that AE can clearly monitor the changes in the combustion process due to its high signal to noise ratio, where other vibro-acoustic sources have little influence. Using features in the AE signal, faults of injector can be identified during the operation of the engine.

F. Elamin

2010-08-01

273

Microwave heated resin injector for advanced composite production.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel microwave (MW) injector at 2.45 GHz for resin infiltration has been developed at the Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany. Resin injection is an essential step in the production of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) for aerospace applications. A compact, low-cost and automated MW injector provides an efficient and safe energy transfer from the MW source to the resin and supports an appropriate electromagnetic field structure for homogeneous infiltration. The system provides temperature monitoring and an automatized MW power switching, which ensures a fast response of the MW system to rapid changes in the temperature for high flow rates of the resin. In low power measurements with a vector network analyzer, the geometry of the injector cavity has been adjusted to provide an efficient system. The MW injector has been tested for specific resin systems infiltrations. PMID:19227063

Stanculovic, Sebastijan; Feher, Lambert

2008-01-01

274

Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

275

Electron beam diagnostics for a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector.  

Science.gov (United States)

A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) photoelectron injector is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a continuous-wave SRF injector including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE free electron laser (FEL) and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development, serving a multitude of operation settings. In this paper the layout and the rationale of the diagnostics beamline are described. Furthermore detailed information on specific components is given, together with results from laboratory tests and data taking. PMID:19044401

Kamps, Thorsten; Arnold, Andre; Boehlick, Daniel; Dirsat, Marc; Klemz, Guido; Lipka, Dirk; Quast, Torsten; Rudolph, Jeniffa; Schenk, Mario; Staufenbiel, Friedrich; Teichert, Jochen; Will, Ingo

2008-09-01

276

The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System  

CERN Document Server

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

MacLean, J F

2001-01-01

277

Design study of a L-band photocathode RF injector  

Science.gov (United States)

In the proposal of the Beijing Advanced Light Source, a compact combination of XERL and XFEL using a common SC linac is being considered. In the meantime, an ERL-FEL test facility is being proposed and will be used for THz radiation. In this test facility, a L-band photocathode RF injector is needed. In this paper, we give the physical design of the L-band photocathode RF injector for the test facility.

Zhu, Xiong-Wei; Wang, Shu-Hong; Chen, Sen-Yu

2010-02-01

278

Candela photo-injector experimental results with a dispenser photocathode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The dispenser photocathode is illuminated by a 500 fs pulse from a frequency-tripled Ti:sapphire laser. In this paper we report charge measurements showing that the dispenser photocathode has a quantum efficiency as high as 10-3. This efficiency decreases with a lifetime of 12 hours, but can be recovered by heating the cathode for 5 minutes

Travier, C.; Leblond, B.; Bernard, M.; Cayla, J. N.; Thomas, P.

1996-01-01

279

Coaxial plasma injector operating in a quasistationary mode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A coaxial plasma injector is investigated under a quasistationary operational conditions on hydrogen with 0.1-4 g/s mass flow rate at < or approx. 30 kA discharge currents. The plasma parameters (potential, concentration, electron temperature), the rate of directed plasma flow and distribution of currents in plasma are measured in a plasma flare. It is shown that electrodynamic mechanism of plasma acceleration can be realized for the given injector

280

Optimum design of space storable gas/liquid coaxial injectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Review of the results of a program of single-element, cold-flow/hot-fire experiments performed for the purpose of establishing design criteria for a high-performance gas/liquid (FLOX/CH4) coaxial injector. The approach and the techniques employed resulted in the direct design of an injector that met or exceeded the performance and chamber compatibility goals of the program without any need for the traditional 'cut-and-try' development methods.

Burick, R. J.

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Development of six-shot pneumatic pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A six-shot pneumatic pellet injector has been developed by Kobe Steel in collaboration with Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, and installed on HELIOTRON E for plasma fueling applications. More than 90% of the pellet shots are successful in operation. Pellet velocity ranges from 400 m/s to 1 400 m/s. This paper outlines the configuration of the injector. The design of the fast solenoid valves and the guide line system are also described. (author)

282

The INR of RAS proton linac injector beam study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the proton beam simulation and experimental study at the INR RAS Linac injector are presented. Influence of the injector beam current and the accelerating tube intermediate electrode potential transients on the linear accelerator beam parameters have been studied. The capacitive voltage divisor and the duoplasmatron discharge current generator with 0.5 % stabilization have been installed. At the ion pulse current 85 mA the normalized emittans is 0,05 ? cm x mrad for 63 % current.

283

INFLUENCE OF ELECTROHYDRAULIC INJECTOR PARAMETERS ON FUEL SUPPLY PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of calculation research of electrohydraulic injector for accumulator fuel equipment of high-speed diesel engine of DT type are presented in the article. As a result of obtained data analysis of fuel supply process there have been determined the limits of fuel injector constructive and adjusting changes and proportion that served as a starting point of multicriterion synthesis of electronic control injection fuel system.

?. Vrublevsky

2010-01-01

284

Modulator of neutral particle injector of 1MW  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modulator of accelerating voltage of the ion-optical system (IOS) of a neutral particle injector of 30 A and 30 kV controlled by 50x10-6 ... 50x10-3 sec duration is described. Calculation of the circuit main elements and the required parameters of the modulator tube are presented. A low-resistance thyristor submodulator which permits to produce rectangular driving pulse on the grid of the modulator tube as well as to stop the circuit at the loading break-down is used to reduce the probability of interelectrode break-down in the tube. Two circuits of modulator control are used for this purpose. One of them is performed according to the logical circuit and it exercises the modulator control according to the fixed program, the other one is carried out on the base of feedback and it forms the control signal at accidental change of the current in the loading (for example, in the result of the break-down) that makes it possible to remove voltage from the loading during approximately 20 ?s. In this case time of the circuit restoration does not exceed 75 ?s. The experimental investigations have revealed reliability of both modulator in the whole and the individual elements

285

The effects of diesel injector needle motion on spray structure.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal structure of diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the steady-state fuel distribution within the spray. However, little experimental or computational work has been performed on the dynamics of fuel injectors. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the injector nozzle, and to track changes in that geometry as the needle opens and closes in real time. This has enabled the dynamics of the injector to be compared with the dynamics of the spray, and allows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to use realistic time-dependent flow passage geometries. In this study, X-ray phase-enhanced imaging has been used to perform time-resolved imaging of the needle seat area in several common-rail diesel injection nozzles. The fuel distributions of the sprays emitted by these injectors were also studied with fast X-ray radiography. Correlations between eccentric motions of the injector needle valve and oscillations in the fuel density as it emerges from the nozzle are examined. CFD modeling is used to interpret the effect of needle motion on fuel flow.

Powell, C. F.; Kastengren, A. L.; Liu, Z.; Fezzaa, K. (Energy Systems); ( XSD)

2011-01-01

286

An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

2007-03-14

287

Streamlined Darwin methods for particle beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physics issues that involve inductive effects, such as beam fluctuations, electromagnetic (EM) instability, or interactions with a cavity require a time-dependent simulation. The most elaborate time-dependent codes self-consistently solve Maxwell's equations and the force equation for a large number of macroparticles. Although these full EM particle-in-cell (PIC) codes have been used to study a broad range of phenomena, including beam injectors, they have several drawbacks. In an explicit solution of Maxwell's equations, the time step is restricted by a Courant condition. A second disadvantage is the production of anomalously large numerical fluctuations, caused by representing many real particles by a single computational macroparticle. Last, approximate models of internal boundaries can create nonphysical radiation in a full EM simulation. In this work, many of the problems of a fully electromagnetic simulation are avoided by using the Darwin field model. The Darwin field model is the magnetoinductive limit of Maxwell's equations, and it retains the first-order relativistic correction to the particle Lagrangian. It includes the part of the displacement current necessary to satisfy the charge-continuity equation. This feature is important for simulation of nonneutral beams. Because the Darwin model does not include the solenoidal vector component of the displacement current, it cannot be used to study high-frequency phenomena or effects caused by rapid current changes. However, because wave motion is not followed, the Courant condition of a fully electromagnetic code can be exceeded. In addition, inductive effects are modeled without creating nonphysical radiation

288

Ion source operating at the Unilac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Unilac injection velocity (v = 0.005 X c) and the maximum potential difference between ion source and ground (320 kV) limit positive ion acceleration to a specific charge of not less than 0.0336 (corresponding to 238U8+). Ion sources qualified for the Unilac must be able to produce a charge spectrum with high intensities in the required charge states (1 - 10 particle ?A). This requirement is satisfied for all elements by the Dubna type heated cathode penning ion source. Obviously, for isotopes of low natural abundance high beam currents can only be produced by employing enriched isotopes as feeding materials. Presently the injector is equipped with one penning ion source and one duoplasmatron ion source. 90% of the noble gas ions are provided by the duoplasmatron ion source, whereas ion beams of solids are exclusively furnished by the penning source. In particular, this latter source is well suited and highly developped for producing ion beams from solids by means of the sputtering process. In the future, however, we intend to produce metal ions up to a mass of 100 by a sputter version of the duoplasmatron. (orig.)

289

Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

290

Recent progress in photo-injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed.

Ben-Zvi, I.

1996-10-01

291

RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 1010 A/m2, with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 1010 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR

292

RF Photoelectric injectors using needle cathodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Photocathode RF guns, in various configurations, are the injectors of choice for both current and future applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. Many of these applications, such as single-pass free-electron lasers, require beams with high brilliance but not necessarily high charge per bunch. Field-enhanced photoelectric emission has demonstrated electron-beam current density as high as 10 10 A/m 2, with a quantum efficiency in the UV that approaches 10% at fields on the order of 10 10 V/m. Thus, the use of even a blunt needle holds promise for increasing cathode quantum efficiency without sacrificing robustness. We present an initial study on the use of needle cathodes in photoinjectors to enhance beam brightness while reducing beam charge. Benefits include lower drive-laser power requirements, easier multibunch operation, lower emittance, and lower beam degradation due to charge-dependent effects in the postinjector accelerator. These benefits result from a combination of a smaller cathode emission area, greatly enhanced RF field strength at the cathode, and the charge scaling of detrimental postinjector linac effects, e.g., transverse wakefields and CSR.

Lewellen, J. W.; Brau, C. A.

2003-07-01

293

PHIN photo-injector as the CLIC drive beam source  

Science.gov (United States)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study proposes a multi-TeV, high luminosity, electron-positron linear collider in order to fulfill the current need for a lepton collider. The study has been started in the late 80s at CERN and currently is a joint effort with a collaboration of 40 institutes. An innovative scheme of high peak RF power production for the high accelerating gradient has been proposed for CLIC. The so called "two-beam scheme" consists of two beams that are running parallel to each other. One of the beams is to be accelerated for the collision experiments and called "the main beam". The second beam of the CLIC scheme is "the drive beam" and will be employed for the power production. The quality of the main beam acceleration depends on the stability of the power that is generated by the drive beam. Therefore, the optimization of the drive beam production with the proper time structure and within the required beam dynamics tolerances is one of the most important accelerator physics aspects of the project. Currently in the conceptual level, the baseline design of the drive beam injector consists of a thermionic gun. This electron source has to be combined with a sub-harmonic bunching system in order to provide the required time structure of the drive beam. However, a big disadvantage of this scheme is the parasitic satellite bunches that are produced due to the sub-harmonic bunching system. PHIN photoinjector has been raised as another option in order to replace the existing thermionic gun of CLIC test facility (CTF3) and to form the bases of a source for the CLIC drive beam. The PHIN project is in the framework of the European CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) program.

Chevallay, Eric; Csatari, Marta; Dabrowski, Anne; Doebert, Steffen; Egger, Daniel; Fedosseev, Valentine; Mete, Oznur; Olvegaard, Maja; Petrarca, Massimo

2012-02-01

294

PHIN photo-injector as the CLIC drive beam source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study proposes a multi-TeV, high luminosity, electron-positron linear collider in order to fulfill the current need for a lepton collider. The study has been started in the late 80s at CERN and currently is a joint effort with a collaboration of 40 institutes. An innovative scheme of high peak RF power production for the high accelerating gradient has been proposed for CLIC. The so called 'two-beam scheme' consists of two beams that are running parallel to each other. One of the beams is to be accelerated for the collision experiments and called the main beam. The second beam of the CLIC scheme is 'the drive beam' and will be employed for the power production. The quality of the main beam acceleration depends on the stability of the power that is generated by the drive beam. Therefore, the optimization of the drive beam production with the proper time structure and within the required beam dynamics tolerances is one of the most important accelerator physics aspects of the project. Currently in the conceptual level, the baseline design of the drive beam injector consists of a thermionic gun. This electron source has to be combined with a sub-harmonic bunching system in order to provide the required time structure of the drive beam. However, a big disadvantage of this scheme is the parasitic satellite bunches that are produced due to the sub-harmonic bunching system. PHIN photoinjector has been raised as another ophotoinjector has been raised as another option in order to replace the existing thermionic gun of CLIC test facility (CTF3) and to form the bases of a source for the CLIC drive beam. The PHIN project is in the framework of the European CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) program.

295

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented. PMID:24593568

Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

2014-02-01

296

Conceptual SPL RF Main Power Coupler design  

CERN Document Server

While the upgrade plans of the LHC injectors had to be reduced in scope in 2010, the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) remains a fundamental element of plans for a possible future neutrino facility. Prototyping work is therefore continuing at CERN and the current focus is on the test of a first four cavity SPL-like cryomodule with full power. This report summarizes the parameters for the Main Power Coupler design as discussed and approved within the ‘Review of SPL RF power couplers’, held at CERN in March 2010.

Montesinos, Eric

2011-01-01

297

A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in ?e charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for ?e appearance searches from neutral current events with a ?0 are reduced well below the ? 0.5-1.0% ?e contamination of the ?? beam. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC, a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded). Continuing Rand D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. E.orts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K. The 2005 APS neutrino study recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term Rand D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our Rand D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics

298

A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) [2], which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in {nu}{sub e} charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for {nu}{sub e} appearance searches from neutral current events with a {pi}{sup 0} are reduced well below the {approx} 0.5-1.0% {nu}{sub e} contamination of the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam [3]. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC [4], a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept [5] based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded) [6]. Continuing R&D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. Efforts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K [7]. The 2005 APS neutrino study [1] recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term R&D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our R&D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics.

Finley, D.; Jensen, D.; Jostlein, H.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; /Fermilab; Bromberg, C.; /Michigan State U.; Lu, C.; McDonald, T.; /Princeton U.; Gallagher,; Mann, A.; Schneps, J.; /Tufts U.; Cline, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Wang, H.; /UCLA; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; /Yale U.; Menary, S.; /York U., Canada

2005-09-01

299

Comparison of new motorized injector vs manual injector for implantation of foldable intraocular lenses on wound integrity: an ASOCT study.  

Science.gov (United States)

PurposeTo compare intraocular lens implantation using a motorized injector vs standard manual injector through a 2.2-mm clear corneal incision.MethodsPatients underwent standard phacoemulsification using a 2.2-mm clear corneal incision. Hydrophobic acrylic aspheric intraocular lens (Acrysof SN60WF intraocular lens (IOL)) was inserted using D cartridge with manual monarch injector or autosert motorized injector. IOL safety, final incision size and wound integrity in terms of anterior and posterior wound gape, and descemet's membrane detachment were compared between the two groups at post-operative day 1 and at 1 month using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.ResultsThe study recruited 32 patients in the group I (manual injector) and 30 patients in group II (motorized injector). In group I, the final incision after IOL insertion increased by 0.12?mm (95% CI: 0.134-0.106) (P<0.0001), which was seen in 100% of the patients. In group II, the incision enlarged by 0.01 (95% CI: 0.021-0.0.001) (P=0.07) and was seen in only 6.67% of the cases. IOL nicks were seen in 9.37% of the cases in group I only. Although the incidence of descemet's membrane detachment and anterior wound gape was similar for both groups, posterior wound gape was seen more often with the manual injector in the immediate post-operative period. (P=0.018)ConclusionThe motorized insertion system was gentle and safe for the IOLs with lesser incidence of IOL nicks. Regarding wound safety, it caused significantly less incision enlargement and better posterior wound integrity. PMID:25033901

Khokhar, S; Sharma, R; Patil, B; Aron, N; Gupta, S

2014-10-01

300

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D(+) ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D(+) beam that passed through the ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16??mm?mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation. PMID:22380316

Ren, H T; Peng, S X; Lu, P N; Zhou, Q F; Yuan, Z X; Zhao, J; Zhang, M; Song, Z Z; Yu, J X; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

An Injector for the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a summary of progress on the development of a plasma injector for NASA's VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine. The plasma rocket constrains a flowing plasma in an asymmetric magnetic bottle and exhausts it through a magnetic nozzle to produce thrust. The injector is a plasma source located on the axis of symmetry, forward of the series of coils forming the constraining magnetic field. The injector is intended to produce a well-collimated jet of highly ionized plasma which will enter the central cell of the machine through its forward mirror. The prototype design is based on that of a Lorentz Force Accelerator developed as a thruster by the electric propulsion research group at Princeton. Our investigation focuses on the effects of the rocket's magnetic field on the operation of the injector, the effect of a local magnetic field on the discharge behavior, and the effectiveness of discharge initiation by glow discharge versus initiation by ECRH. We evaluate the performance of this prototype injector by comparing the characteristics of the plasma it inserts into the central cell of the engine with the characteristics called for in the design of the plasma rocket.

Glover, T. W.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Chan, A. A.

1997-11-01

302

A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on 'pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable

303

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D{sup +} ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D{sup +} beam that passed through the {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16{pi} mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2012-02-15

304

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)

305

Viability of ?m2?1??eV2 sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low-energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have bee...

Sorel, Michel; Shaevitz, M. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Djurcic, Z.; Karagiorgi, G.

2009-01-01

306

Influence of injector geometry on particle trajectories: Analysis of particle dynamics in the injector and plasma jet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conditions of particle injection into the side of plasma jets play an important role in determining the microstructure and properties of sprayed deposits. However, few investigations have been carried out on this topic. The current work presents the results of an experimental and computational study of the influence of injector geometry and gas mass flow rate on particle dynamics at injector exit and in the plasma jet. Two injector geometries were tested: a straight tube and a curved tube with various radii of curvature. Zirconia powders with different particle size range and morphology were used. A possible size segregation effect in the injector was analyzed from the space distribution of particles collected on a stick tape. The spray patterns in the plasma jet was monitored from the thermal radiation emitted by particles. An analysis of the particle behavior in the injector and mixing of the carrier-gas flow with the plasma jet was carried out using a 3-D computational fluids dynamics code.

Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Dussoubs, B.; Fauchais, P. [Univ. de Limoges (France); Roemer, T.S.; Neiser, R.A.; Smith, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01

307

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-3. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

308

First operation of the ATLAS positive-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate that all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system. (Author) 5 refs., tab., fig

309

First operation of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector (PII) is complete and beam acceleration tests are underway. The PII consists of an ECR ion source, on a high-voltage platform, providing beam to a low-velocity-acceptance, independently-phased, superconducting linac. This injector enables the ATLAS facility to accelerate any heavy ion, including uranium, to energies in excess of the Coulomb barrier. The design accelerating field performance has been exceeded, with an average accelerating field of approximately 3.2 MV/m achieved in early tests. Initial beam tests of the entire injector indicate tat all important performance goals have been met. This paper describes the results of these early tests and discusses our initial operating experience with the whole ATLAS system

310

RHIC injector complex online model status and plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An online modeling system is being developed for the RHIC injector complex, which consists of the Booster, the AGS and the transfer lines connecting the Booster to the AGS and the AGS to RHIC. Historically the injectors have been operated using static values from design specifications or offline model runs, but tighter beam optics constraints required by polarized proton operations (e.g, accelerating with near-integer tunes) have necessitated a more dynamic system. An online model server for the AGS has been implemented using MAD-X [1] as the model engine, with plans to extend the system to the Booster and the injector transfer lines and to add the option of calculating optics using the Polymorphic Tracking Code (PTC [2]) as the model engine.

Schoefer,V.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.

2009-05-04

311

NATIONAL HIGH MAGENTIC FIELD LABORATORY FEL INJECTOR DESIGN CONSIDERATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Numerical study of beam dynamics was performed for two injector systems for the proposed National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at the Florida State University (FSU) Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility. The first considered a system consisting of a thermionic DC gun, two buncher cavities operated at 260 MHz and 1.3 GHz and two TESLA type cavities, and is very similar to the injector of the ELBE Radiation Source. The second system we studied uses a DC photogun (a copy of JLab FEL electron gun), one buncher cavity operated at 1.3 GHz and two TESLA type cavities. The study is based on PARMELA simulations and takes into account operational experience of both the JLab FEL and the Radiation Source ELBE. The simulations predict the second system will have a much smaller longitudinal emittance. For this reason the DC photo gun based injector is preferred for the proposed FSU FEL facility.

Pavel Evtushenko; Stephen Benson; David Douglas; George Neil

2007-06-25

312

Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

2001-10-01

313

NATIONAL HIGH MAGENTIC FIELD LABORATORY FEL INJECTOR DESIGN CONSIDERATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Numerical study of beam dynamics was performed for two injector systems for the proposed National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at the Florida State University (FSU) Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility. The first considered a system consisting of a thermionic DC gun, two buncher cavities operated at 260 MHz and 1.3 GHz and two TESLA type cavities, nd is very similar to the injector of the ELBE Radiation Source. The second system we studied uses a DC photogun (a copy of JLab FEL electron gun), one buncher cavity operated at 1.3 GHz and two TESLA type cavities. The study is based on PARMELA simulations and takes into account operational experience of both the JLab FEL and the Radiation Source ELBE. The simulations predict the second system will have a much smaller longitudinal emittance. For this reason the DC photo gun based injector is preferred for the proposed FSU FEL facility

314

Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

2011-11-01

315

Linac injector options for a relativistic heavy ion synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A growing interest in medical uses for high energy heavy ion beams has led to two recent proposals to build dedicated medical heavy ion synchrotrons. Linear accelerators are generally preferred as injectors for synchrotrons, but in the case of heavy ions with relatively low charge to mass ratios, the required linacs are extremely large, and/or complex, low frequency structures. Cyclotrons were therefore initially proposed as the injectors for the medical synchrotrons. Recently a new radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure has been developed. Its excellent capture, beam transport and acceleration characteristics for low velocity ion beams makes it ideally suited as a heavy ion synchrotron injector either alone or in combination with a drift tube linac

316

Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

317

Fuel pellet centrifugal injector for tokamak type fusion devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel pellet centrifugal injector for the tokamak-reactor manufactured on the base of a turbomolecular pump is described. The injector operates in the following way. Apportion of hydrogen required for pellet series formation is supplied to a cryostat. From the piston extrudes hydrogen in a form of a rod is supplied to the mechanism cutting off pellets of 2-4 mm size. Then the pellet is caught by the inlet section of the rotating rotor. The rotor rotates with 21x103 rev/min velocity and accelerates pellets up to 2 km/s. The injector supplies hydrogen pellets with 1-10 Hsub(Z) frequency during 5s. The time for preparing the system for injection of the following series of pellets constitutes 5-8 min

318

The SPS as Injector for LHC Conceptual Design  

CERN Document Server

The last report comprising an overall description of the SPS as an LHC injector was published in 1993. While most of the basic features of the injector scheme have not changed since then, theoretical and experimental studies have been continued and have led to a more complete understanding of the various issues. In addition the decision has now been taken to build the transfer lines from the SPS to the LHC with room-temperature magnets. For this reason a different transfer line had to be chosen for injection into the clockwise circulating LHC ring (Beam 1), with corresponding modifications to the extraction from the SPS. Finally, a more precise planning of the LHC project permits in turn to establish a firm planning and cost profile for the preparation of the SPS as LHC injector. This report describes the present status of the studies, the layout of the major new components of the SPS and their conceptual design.

Collier, Paul; Jung, R; Kissler, Karl Heinz; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Ruggiero, F; Scandale, Walter; Schindl, Karlheinz; Schröder, G; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Vos, L

1997-01-01

319

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80 pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5 nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 3{1}/{2} cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5 MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity.

Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

2007-07-01

320

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

2006-08-04

 
 
 
 
321

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6

322

Highly charged ion injector in the terminal of tandem accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly charged heavy ion injector using an all permanent magnet type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Tokai. The new in-terminal injector made it possible to accelerate highly charged heavy ions which have not been obtained from the tandem accelerator. Beam energy and beam intensity have been remarkably increased and the noble gas ion beams have become available.

323

High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

Kwan, Joe W.

2005-02-15

324

Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

Bieniosek, F.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

2000-03-17

325

Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

Bieniosek, F.M. E-mail: fmbieniosek@lbl.gov; Kwan, J.W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C

2001-05-21

326

Development of the 2-MV Injector for HIF  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated.

Bieniosek, F. M.; Kwan, J. W.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, C.

2001-05-01

327

Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

2005-01-18

328

Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01

329

Tracer-encapsulated pellet injector for plasma diagnostics  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector for making solid hydrogen pellets around impurity cores has been developed for plasma transport study in large helical device. A technique has been employed for automatic loading carbon or polystyrene cores of 0.2 mm diameter from a gun magazine to a light-gas gun barrel. The injector is equipped with a cryocooler and is able to form a 3.2 mm long and 3 mm diameter cylindrical solid hydrogen pellet at 7-8 K with an impurity core in its center within 6 min and to inject it in the light-gas gun up to 1 km/s.

Sudo, S.; Viniar, I.; Lukin, A.; Reznichenko, P.; Umov, A.

2005-05-01

330

The BOEING double subharmonic electron injector - performance measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two stage subharmonic injector has been installed and tested on the Boeing S band linac. The injector is designed as a prototype front end for a high voltage linac for free electron laser research. This accelerator will require long macropulse trains of widely spaced high current micropulses. Single micropulse output beams of 1-2 nC, 10 ps width, 1% full width energy spread and normalized emittance of epsilon /SUB n/ = ???r/phi/ = 0.01 cm-rad have been measured. The data are in good agreement with model predictions

331

Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operationexclamation

332

Commissioning and operation of the nuclear physics injector at SLAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the start-up operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A. The SLAC Nuclear Physics Injector is in full operation!

333

Highly charged ion injector in the terminal of tandem accelerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A highly charged heavy ion injector using an all permanent magnet type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Tokai. The new in-terminal injector made it possible to accelerate highly charged heavy ions which have not been obtained from the tandem accelerator. Beam energy and beam intensity have been remarkably increased and the noble gas ion beams have become available.

Matsuda, M; Asozu, T; Nakanoya, T; Kutsukake, K; Hanashima, S; Takeuchi, S, E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Nuclear Science Research Institute, Tandem Accelerator Section 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-04-01

334

Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development.

Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

2000-09-01

335

Solid hydrogen pellet injector for the T-10 device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of solid hydrogen pellet injector for the T-10 device is described. The injector represents a cryogenics system comprising a pellet formation and acceleration unit and a nitrogen-helium cryostat located in a vacuum chamber. The system is calculated for injection of a pellet containing 1x1020 hydrogen atoms with up to 700 m/s velocity during a discharge pulse. The above parameters enabled to inject pellets into plasma up to the 17 cm depth at the 32 cm small radius of plasma filament. The mathematical model of film condensation process at pellet formation is presented

336

Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS

337

Development of the 2-MV injector for HIF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 2-MV Injector consists of a 17-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with maximum current of 0.8 A of potassium beam at 2 MeV. Previous performance of the Injector produced a beam with adequate current and emittance but with a hollow profile at the end of the ESQ section. We have examined the profile of the beam as it leaves the diode. The measured nonuniform beam density distribution qualitatively agrees with EGUN simulation. Implications for emittance growth in the post acceleration and transport phase will be investigated

338

Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions. The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely avoid a use of the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. At the same time, semi-empirical expressions have the universal constant that does not depend on the injector design.

Filipovi? Ivan

2011-01-01

339

D1+ ion injector for a linear accelerator with quadrupole radiofrequency focusing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A D1+ (H2+) ion injector for a linear accelerator with quadrupole radiofrequency focusing is described. The injector consists of an ion source (duoplasmatron, system for beam acceleration and shaping), system for matching the beam characteristics with the accelerator acceptance and vacuum chamber. The design characteristics of the injector are presented

340

Conceptional design of a heavy ion linac injector for HIRFL-CSRm  

Science.gov (United States)

A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10–100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 m long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.

Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue-Jun; Du, Heng; Li, Zhong-Shan

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

How to Successfully Renovate a Controls System? - Lessons Learned from the Renovation of the CERN Injectors’ Controls Software  

CERN Document Server

Renovation of the control system of the CERN LHC injectors was initiated in 2007 in the scope of the Injector Controls Architecture (InCA) project. One of its main objectives was to homogenize the controls software across CERN accelerators and reuse as much as possible the existing modern sub-systems, such as the settings management used for the LHC. The project team created a platform that would permit coexistence and intercommunication between old and new components via a dedicated gateway, allowing a progressive replacement of the former. Dealing with a heterogeneous environment, with many diverse and interconnected modules, implemented using different technologies and programming languages, the team had to introduce all the modifications in the smoothest possible way, without causing machine downtime. After a brief description of the system architecture, the paper discusses the technical and non-technical sides of the renovation process such as validation and deployment methodology, operational applicatio...

Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pace, M; Pera Mira, P; Roux, E; Wozniak, J Pawel

2014-01-01

342

Development of H2 pellet injectors for industrial marketing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Discussion of the construction of injector installation at ETA-BETA II. 2. Production and experience with two different ''pipe-guns''. One for large pellets, diameter/length = 4.5-5 mm/8-20 mm and one for small pellets, diameter/length = 2 mm/3-4 mm. (author) 27 ills., 39 refs

343

LBL Wideroe-based heavy ion injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LBL Wideroe-based high-intensity heavy-ion injector for the SuperHILAC will be operational by April 1981. It will provide several emA of low charge state ions up through uranium at high duty factor to the SuperHILAC. Several of the subsystems have already operated to specification and will be described

344

An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Miller, Roger H.

2001-01-23

345

An injector for the CLIC test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Rinolfi, L; Pittin, R; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, D

2008-01-01

346

An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Braun, H; Rinolfi, Louis; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, A D

2000-01-01

347

Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

Franke, Sylvain; Ackermann, Wolfgang; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-07-01

348

A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm2 was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of an injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We were able to reach greater than 100 kV/cm in the first four gaps. We also performed experiments on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, these test were carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We have measured the beam's emittance after the beamlets are merged and passed through an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ). Our goal is to confirm the emittance growth and to demonstrate the technical feasibility of building a driver-scale HIF injector

349

Magnesium Film Photocathodes for High Brilliance Electron Injectors  

CERN Document Server

Advanced high brilliance electron injectors require photocathodes having low thermal emittance, high quantum efficiency (QE) and prompt response. They should be easy to handle and capable of working in the very high electric fileds of a RF gun. Magnesium films deposited by laser ablation and sputtering techniques are discussed and QE measurements are presented.

Tazzioli, Franco; Cialdi, Simone; Cultrera, Luca; Gatti, Giancarlo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Perrone, Alessio; Rossi, Marco; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Vicario, Carlo

2005-01-01

350

High Power Hydrogen Injector with Beam Focusing for Plasma Heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power neutral beam injector has been developed with the atom energy of 25 keV, a current of 60 A, and several milliseconds pulse duration. Six of these injectors will be used for upgrade of the atomic injection system at central cell of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device and 2 injectors are planned for SHIP experiment.The injector ion source is based on an arc discharge plasma box. The plasma emitter is produced by a 1 kA arc discharge in hydrogen. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase its efficiency and improve homogeneity of the plasma emitter. The ion beam is extracted by a 4-electrodes ion optical system (IOS). Initial beam diameter is 200 mm. The grids of the IOS have a spherical curvature for geometrical focusing of the beam. The optimal IOS geometry and grid potentials were found with the numerical simulation to provide precise beam formation. The measured angular divergence of the beam is 0.02 rad, which corresponds to the 2.5 cm Gaussian radius of the beam profile measured at focal point

351

A triple-isotope injector for accelerator mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of the newly installed 40 keV negative ion injector for the three isotopes (masses 12, 13 and 14) of natural carbon is discussed. A cesium sputter ion source and an achromatic arrangement of four dipole magnets with two electric slot lenses is being used, to achieve minimal aberrations for the injected beam into a tandem

352

Electron beam injector for longitudinal beam physics experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study problems of longitudinal beam in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. These include studies of longitudinal pulse compression and resistive-wall instability. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction module. In the compression experiment, it produces a 50 ns, 40 mZ, 2-5 keV electron pulse with a time-dependent velocity spread. This beam will be injected into a 5-m long periodic transport channel with 36 short solenoid lenses. The pulse is expected to be compressed by a factor of 3 or greater when reaching the end of the channel. In the resistive-wall instability experiment, the injector produces a 5 ns, 100 mA and 2.5 keV beam pulse. This beam will be guided into a resistive-wall channel of a few meters length for the instability study. This paper reports on the design features and the performance of the injector components and system

353

Electron beam injector for lingitudinal beam physics experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the longitudinal beam physics in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiments, including studies of longitudinal beam pulse compression and resistive-wall instability. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction acceleration module. In the beam pulse compression experiment, it produces a 50 ns, 40 mA and 2.5 to 7.5 keV electron beam pulse with an approximately linear time-dependent velocity tilt. This beam will be injected into an existing 5 m long periodic transport channel with 36 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions, the beam pulse is expected to be compressed by a factor of 3 or greater when reaching the end of the solenoid channel. In the resistive-wall instability experiment, the injector produces an electron beam pulse of 5 to 50 ns in duration, about 100 mA in current and a few kilovolts in energy. This beam will be guided into a resistive-wall channel of a couple of meters in length for study of the longitudinal resistive-wall instability. This paper reports on the design features and the general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties. (orig.)

354

Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

355

The positive-ion injector of ATLAS: Design and operating experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently completed Positive-Ion Injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS is a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system. Unlike the tandem, the new injector provides ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and experience in the operation of ATLAS with its new injector is discussed

356

Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

357

LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”  

CERN Document Server

The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

2014-01-01

358

Durability implications of neat hydrogen under sonic flow conditions on pulse-width modulated injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the durability implications of neat hydrogen on electronically operated pulse-width modulated fuel injectors. Four injector types were evaluated, some of which were modified through the employment of solid lubricant coatings and surface treatments - creating a total of eight candidate H{sub 2} injector variants. For each injector variant, test stand durability data was recorded until failure or the accumulation of more than 800 h (64 million injector cycles, or {approx} 45 k vehicle miles) of operation on neat hydrogen. The injector durability experiments were conducted employing pulse widths and frequencies representative of engine operation at moderate speed, high speed, and maximum speed conditions. The results from these experiments ranged from failure in < 80 h to several injector variants successfully completing more than 800 h of testing. (author)

Kabat, D.M. [Ford Motor Co., (United States). Powertrain and Vehicle Research Laboratory; Heffel, J.W. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Center for Environmental Research and Technology

2002-10-01

359

Minimally Intrusive and Nonintrusive Supersonic Injectors for LANTR and RBCC/Scramjet Propulsion Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A family of supersonic injectors for use on spaceplanes, rockets and missiles and the like is disclosed and claimed. Each injector maintains a specific constant (uniform) Mach number along its length when used while being minimally intrusive at significantly higher injectant pressure than combuster freestream total pressure. Each injector is substantially non-intrusive when it is not being used. The injectors may be used individually or in a group. Different orientations of the injectors in a group promotes greater penetration and mixing of fuel or oxidizer into a supersonic combustor. The injectors can be made from single piece of Aluminum, investment cast metal, or ceramic or they can be made from starboard and port blocks strapped together to accurately control the throat area. Each injector includes an elongated body having an opening which in cross section is an hour glass (venturi shaped) and the opening diverges in width and depth from the bow section to the stem section of the opening.

Buggele, Alvin E. (Inventor); Gallagher, John R. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

360

Effects of fuel-injector design on ultra-lean combustion performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions data were obtained for six fuel injector configurations tested with ultra lean combustion. Fuel injectors included three multiple source designs and three configurations using a single air assist injector. Only the multiple source fuel injectors provided acceptable emissions. Values of 16g CO/kg fuel, 1.9g HC/kg fuel, and 19.g NO2/kg fuel were obtained for the combustion temperature range of 1450 to 1700 K for both a high blockage 19 source injector and a low blockage 41 source injector. It was shown that high fuel injector pressure drop may not be required to achieve low emissions performance at high inlet air temperature when the fuel is well dispersed in the airstream.

Anderson, D. N.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effect of injector geometry on the performance of an internally mixed liquid atomizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of injector's geometry on the performance of an internally mixed, air-assisted, liquid injector. In this type of injector a small amount of air is injected into a liquid stream within the injector. The interaction of the liquid with the atomizing air inside the injector induces atomization. The results presented in this paper show that the size of the droplets produced by the investigated injector decreases with a decrease in the air injection area. This is due to the increase in atomizing air injection velocity that accompanies the decrease in the air injection area, which improves atomization. This study also shows that the droplet sizes decrease with an increase in the injector's length, which is attributed to the increase in total interactive force. (author)

Kushari, A.

2010-11-15

362

Final steps towards cool-down of the new injector module for the S-DALINAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The S-DALINAC is a superconducting electron accelerator, operated at the Technical University Darmstadt since 1991. In a CEBAF like design it delivers electron beams up to 130 MeV, provided by a 10 MeV injector and a 40 MeV main linac, accelerating the electrons up to 3 times by recirculation. Currently, the injector of the S-DALINAC delivers electron beams with a current of up to 60 ?A. This limit arises from the RF feed-through allowing only 500 W per cavity. With the new cryostat-module an increase in energy ranging to 14 MeV and in current of up to 250 ?A are projected. To accommodate the increased power demand the RF has to be supplied by a WR-284 transition line which is connected to the resonator by a new waveguide-to-coax power coupler. We report the latest qualification measurements and the final mounting steps allowing the first cool-down shortly. (author)

363

Self-heat generation in piezoelectric stack actuators used in fuel injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are used in fuel injectors due to their quick response, high efficiency, accuracy, low power consumption, and excellent repeatability. Experimental results for soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack actuators have shown that a significant amount of heat is generated when they are driven under high frequency and/or high electric-field magnitudes, both of which occur in fuel injectors. Self-heat generation in these actuators, mainly caused by losses, can significantly affect their reliability and piezoelectric properties, and may also limit their application. Other studies have demonstrated that at large unipolar electric-field magnitudes, displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis) shows a direct relation with polarization–electric-field loss (dielectric hysteresis). In this paper, a simplified analytical self-heating model is presented. The model directly relates self-heating in multilayer piezoelectric actuators to displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis). The model developed is based on the first law of thermodynamics, and accounts for different parameters such as geometry, magnitude and frequency of applied electric field, duty cycle percentage, fuel type, and environmental properties. The model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results at low and high electric-field magnitudes

364

Spray analysis of a gasoline direct injector by means of two-phase PIV  

Science.gov (United States)

The hollow-cone spray of a high-pressure swirl injector for a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was investigated inside a pressure vessel by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). As the interaction between the spray droplets and the ambient air is of particular interest for the mixture preparation process, two-phase PIV techniques were applied. To allow phase discrimination, fluorescent seeding particles were used to trace the gas phase. Because of the periodicity of piston engine injection, a statistical evaluation of ensemble-averaged fields to reduce cycle-to-cycle variations and to provide more general information about the two-phase flow was performed. Besides the general spray/air interaction process the investigation of the spray collapse at elevated ambient pressures was the main focus of the study. Future investigations of transient interaction processes require simultaneous techniques in combination with a high-speed camera to resolve the transient interaction phenomena. Therefore, optical filters that attenuate Mie-scattered light and transmit fluorescent light were used to collect both phases on the same image. Consequently, phase separation techniques were employed for data analysis. A masking and a peak separation technique are described and a comparison between the results of an instantaneous two-phase flow field in the spray cone of a DISI injector is presented in the paper.

Rottenkolber, G.; Gindele, J.; Raposo, J.; Dullenkopf, K.; Hentschel, W.; Wittig, S.; Spicher, U.; Merzkirch, W.

2002-06-01

365

Main beam diagnostics at GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main diagnostics designed at GANIL are: 1) a probe in 3 yokes of each SSC (The pick-up probe consists of differential interceptive targets for the measurement of the vertical and radial beam positions and a semi-interceptive wire target, using secondary electron emission, for the measurement of the time-length of the bunches. The pick-up probe is supported by a tube which moves through the yoke; it covers a 2.5 m range). 2) central phase diagnostics (15 couples of 50 ohm capacitive probes are located in one valley of each SSC. They mainly allow to adjust the isochronism by measuring the central phase of the beam. 8 high impedance capacitive probes are located in the beam line. They measure the beam phase in order to control the RF phase of the accelerating and bunching voltages. The phase measurement is made on the second harmonic of the beam signal with an analogic multiplier between the beam signal and the pilot. Amplifier gain, fundamental rejection filters, noise rejection and other parameters are microprocessor controlled according to the magnitude of the picked-up signal and the working frequency). 3) profile monitors (The GANIL extracted beam is going to be tuned with the help of secondary emission monitors. They are multiwire chambers operating in the beam line vacuum. They provide two simultaneous beam profiles in the vertical and horizontal planes. The profiles are displayed on a scope or processed by a Camac-unit. They give informations on the location, width, emittance and intensity of the beam. The number of monitors for the whole GANIL is about 80). These diagnostics have been tested at GANIL (ion soure, that means to very low energy beams, and injector extracted beam), at ALICE and at ISN cyclotron

366

The detection of back-to-back proton pairs in Charged-Current neutrino interactions with the ArgoNeuT detector in the NuMI low energy beam line  

CERN Document Server

Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (NN SRC) carry important information on nuclear structure and dynamics. NN SRC have been extensively probed through two-nucleon knock- out reactions in both pion and electron scattering experiments. We report here on the detection of two-nucleon knock-out events from neutrino interactions and discuss their topological features as possibly involving NN SRC content in the target argon nuclei. The ArgoNeuT detector in the Main Injector neutrino beam at Fermilab has recorded a sample of 30 fully reconstructed charged current events where the leading muon is accompanied by a pair of protons at the interaction vertex, 19 of which have both protons above the Fermi momentum of the Ar nucleus. Out of these 19 events, four are found with the two protons in a strictly back-to-back high momenta configuration directly observed in the final state and can be associated to nucleon Resonance pionless mechanisms involving a pre-existing short range correlated np pair in the nu...

Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01

367

An Approach to Improved Credibility of CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by simulating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to. the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process.. This paper documents the status of an effort to understand and compare the predictive capabilities and resource requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of model problem injectors. Preliminary results from a steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), an unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier Stokes (URANS) and three different Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques used to model a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants are presented. Initial observations are made comparing instantaneous results, corresponding time-averaged and steady-state solutions in the near -injector flow field. Significant differences in the flow fields exist, as expected, and are discussed. An important preliminary result is the identification of a fundamental mixing mechanism, accounted for by URANS and LES, but missing in the steady BANS methodology. Since propellant mixing is the core injector function, this mixing process may prove to have a profound effect on the ability to more correctly simulate injector performance and resulting thermal environments. Issues important to unifying the basis for future comparison such as solution initialization, required run time and grid resolution are addressed.

Tucker, Paul K.; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

2007-01-01

368

Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was use to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers

369

Ion source and injector experiments at the HIF/VNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy-ion fusion program is conducting several ion source and injector experiments to support ongoing HIF beam transport experiments and to develop new injector concepts for future fusion drivers. In the area of large diameter surface source, we studied the beam optics, experimented with aperturing, and benchmarked the computer simulation code. Steady progress was made in the merging beamlet experiment. The RF plasma source was optimized to produce high current density beamlets. Computer simulation of merging beamlets had produced a design and the hardware is being fabricated. We are examining a new concept based on accel-decel injection to produce super-high line charge density for application in driving targets for high energy density physics studies. Since trapping of secondary electrons in high current positive ion beams is still a concern for HIF, we consider a backup option using negative ion beams

370

Fuel Injector Design Optimization for an Annular Scramjet Geometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A four-parameter, three-level, central composite experiment design has been used to optimize the configuration of an annular scramjet injector geometry using computational fluid dynamics. The computational fluid dynamic solutions played the role of computer experiments, and response surface methodology was used to capture the simulation results for mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery within the scramjet flowpath. An optimization procedure, based upon the response surface results of mixing efficiency, was used to compare the optimal design configuration against the target efficiency value of 92.5%. The results of three different optimization procedures are presented and all point to the need to look outside the current design space for different injector geometries that can meet or exceed the stated mixing efficiency target.

Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

2003-01-01

371

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de Pinho

2012-01-01

372

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticid [...] es chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de, Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira, Silvério; Antônio Augusto, Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de, Queiroz.

373

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

374

The Beam Forming Numerical Simulation for High Power Neutral Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power neutral beam injector START-4 for plasma heating has been described. The distinctive features of the injector are comparatively large initial beam aperture (200 mm) and multi holes grids with the large numbers of the holes (more than 3000). A significant focusing is realized to a beam diameter 50 mm at a length 1.2 m. The disadvantage of the multi holes optic is low transparency, which decreases the efficiency of plasma source and makes worse vacuum conditions in the source. The possible decisions of these problems are using ion-optical systems (IOS) with enlarged diameter of holes and, also, application IOS with the azimuthal-slit holes structure. Numerical simulation and test experiments have been carried out for investigation of the ability such IOS geometries

375

Modelling of two-phase flow in a steam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: Two-phase steam and water flow in a steam injector is characterised by a wide spectrum of interface area concentration. The steam injector consists of mixing chamber, nozzle and diffuser. Superheated steam of high velocity and low pressure enters the mixing chamber, where its momentum and energy is transferred into water. Water flows into the mixing chamber in a form of thin annular jet, parallel to the injector walls. Contrary to steam, initial velocity of water is low, approximately few meters per second. In the inlet part of the mixing chamber water flow is annular and boundary of interface is clearly visible. In a some distance from the inlet water film becomes unstable and droplets of water are entrained from the film surface. The flow structure changes into droplet pattern. In the vicinity of the steam nozzle, where shock wave appears, pressure grows rapidly and droplet flow changes into bubble pattern. Inside the shock wave the steam is almost completely condensed. Water pressure downstream of the nozzle is higher than the pressure at the steam injector inlet. Flow in the injector is characterized by high gradients of velocity, pressure, void fraction and very different flow patterns. These changes were observed in the steam injector of 40 cm in length, built in IFFM. The water and steam flow through the steam injector was described by means of one dimensional, two fluid model together with interfacial area transport equation. with interfacial area transport equation. Source terms in the balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are functions of interfacial area concentration. Source term in interfacial area transport equation is assumed to be in a simple relaxation form. The model is completed by transport equations of mass, momentum and heat fluxes. These equations describe transfer of the fluxes along the axial direction due to gradient of physical variables between phases. Intensity of these fluxes depend strongly on the flow patterns. In the case of annular flow the intensity is negligible, while for the bubble pattern it is significant. The feature of the model includes the existence of real eigenvalues of the equations system, what means the model is of the hyperbolic type. The numerical calculations are based on the experimental data. Part of the boundary conditions come from experiment, the rest is approximated. The solution of the two-phase water and steam flow in the steam injector is performed for the steady-state conditions, though measurements show high fluctuations of physical variables as well as fluctuations of the flow pattern. This effect is especially visible in the jet nozzle. Numerical calculations are performed by means of Runge-Kutta method for the two-phase model described by the system of 10 ordinary differential equations. The results of numerical solution are compared with the experimental data and analysed. (author)

376

Experiments on the Cooler Injector Synchrotron at IUCF  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction of a Cooler Injector Synchrotron(CIS) has been finished and commissioned at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. It is designed to be used as the Cooler injector to accelerate high-intensity polarized proton(deutron) from 7 MeV(6 MeV) to 200 MeV(107 MeV). The particle beams from the Linac are injected into the CIS ring via a 4.5?gm/cm^2 Carbon foil strip. Using the present H^- source, 18 mA(8× 10^10 protons) has been accumulated in the ring. The theoretical analysis of the beam emittance growth due to the strip foil scattering and the vacuum will be compared with the experimental results. The 200 MeV proton ramping experiments will also be reported.

Kang, Xiaojian; Friesel, D. L.; Lee, S. Y.

1998-04-01

377

An improved ion source for the Levitron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'duopigatron' plasma source used on the Culham Levitron Injector is limited in output due to instability, non-uniform plasma distribution across the diameter of the multi-aperture extraction array and magnetic interference from the Levitron coil system. The admittance of the machine is fixed by the coil geometry and increase of injected power can be achieved only by improving the injector brightness under all conditions of machine operation. A new source has been developed which is stable in operation, is insensitive to external magnetic fields and which significantly increases the available injected power. The source is also capable of being modulated at high frequency (approximately - 1 KHz), permitting the use of phase sensitive detection methods for certain machine experiments, eg. the measurement of the Okhawa current

378

Injector of solid hydrogen pellets for the T-10 tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of fuel pellet in ector for the T-10 tokamak which is used in experiments on studying the prOcesses of fuel pellet interaction with tokamak plasma, and diagnosis of plasma transfer processes is described. A mathematical model for optimization of the injector operation is given. The injector represents a cryogenic system, containing a pellet generating and accelerating unit and, a nitrogen- helium cryostat installed together in a vacuum chamber. The system is supposed to inject one pellet containing 1020 hydrogen atoms during discharge pulse with the rate up to 700 m/s. Pellets are injected into plasma for the depth upto 17 cm, at the plasma radius of 32 cm

379

Optimization of RF Compressor in the SPARX Injector  

CERN Document Server

The SPARX photoinjector consists in a rf gun injecting into three SLAC accelerating sections, the first one operating in the RF compressor configuration in order to achieve higher peak current. A systematic study based on PARMELA simulations has been done in order to optimize the parameters that influence the compression also in view of the application of this system as injector of the so called SPARXINO 3-5 nm FEL test facility. The results of computations show that peak currents at the injector exit up to kA level are achievable with a good control of the transverse and longitudinal emittance by means of a short SW section operating at 11424 MHz placed before the first accelerating section. Some working points in different compression regimes suitable for FEL experiments have been selected. The stability of these points and the sensitivity to various types of random errors are discussed.

Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ferrario, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Spataro, Bruno

2005-01-01

380

Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching signi?cantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the ?rst part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

 
 
 
 
381

70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

382

Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

2005-04-08

383

Pulsed plasma guns for intense ion beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma guns designed to provide high-pulsed fluxes of ions for intense ion beam injectors are described. The guns use pulsed radial magnetic fields to accelerate ions longitudinally into magnetically insulated extraction gaps. Plasma was supplied using both spark sources and pulsed gas injection. In typical operation, a 1-? pulse of nitrogen ions with an ion flux equivalent to 50 A/cm2 was produced. A variety of ions ranging in mass from protons to argon was investigated

384

Operation of the rf controls in the CEBAF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CEBAF injector has produced its first relativistic beam with two superconducting cavities. Six RF control modules are used to control amplitude and phase in the chopper cavities, the buncher, the capture section, and the two superconducting cavities. In this paper the required stability and actual performance of the modules are discussed. For the superconducting cavity control, performance is consistent with energy stability of ?10-4

385

Commissioning and operation of the Nuclear Physics Injector at SLAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A

386

Present status of the KEK electron/positron injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the KEK electron/positron injector linac, the electron beam has been delivered to the photon factories (PF, PF-AR) using three sectors downstream. In FY2011, the linac was operated reasonably well for 5492 hours after the quick restoration. In five sectors upstream, the recovery efforts after the earthquake are underway. The upgrade efforts to supply high-current and low-emittance beams for SuperKEKB also have been continued. (author)

387

Pressure pulsation dampers for injectors; Druckpulsationsdaempfer fuer Injektoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressure pulsations in the fuel injection system impede the formation of optimum spray properties and mixture formation. FMP Technology and KW Technologie have developed a porous body-based pulsation damper for gasoline engines that is suitable for all injectors. It suppresses opening and closing pulsations, thus allowing reproducible injection quantities to be achieved, even for short injection periods of fractions of a millisecond. (orig.)

Durst, Franz; Haspel, Dominik; Schilling, Lars [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Handtmann, Arthur [Albert Handtmann Holding GmbH und Co. KG, Biberach (Germany)

2012-11-15

388

Development of gateway system using EPICS for KEKB injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPICS gateway has been developed for the control system of the KEKB injector linac. EPICS clients can monitor the device status through this gateway with EPICS channel access network protocol. This system provides information of following devices: klystron, beam position monitor, vacuum, interlock and beam switch. These data are accumulated in Channel Archiver, which is one of EPICS clients, and are displayed by a Web browser. The gateway has a capability to treat over 4900 transactions per second practically. (author)

389

A CFD STUDY OF CAVITATION IN REAL SIZE DIESEL INJECTORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Diesel engines, the internal flow characteristics in the fuel injection nozzles, such as the turbulence level and distribution, the cavitation pattern and the velocity profile affect significantly the air-fuel mixture in the spray and subsequently the combustion process. Since the possibility to observe experimentally and measure the flow inside real size Diesel injectors is very limited, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations are generally used to obtain the relevant informati...

Patouna, Stavroula

2012-01-01

390

Compensation of beam loading in the ALS injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the Advanced Light Source (ALS) 50 MeV injector linac, a modest level of beam loading is expected, which if uncompensated, will cause an energy spread greater than 4% in the beam intended for the booster synchrotron. Use is made of the fact that the linac consists of two equal, independently driven sections. Phase jumps of appropriate amount are introduced, which effectively, result in a power step to offset the beam loading. 3 refs., 5 figs

391

Compensation of beam loading in the ALS injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the Advanced Light Source (ALS) 50 MeV injector linac, a modest level of beam loading is expected, which if uncompensated, will cause an energy spread greater than 4% in the beam intended for the booster synchrotron. Use is made of the fact that the linac consists of two equal, independently driven sections. Phase jumps of appropriate amount are introduced, which effectively, result in a power step to offset the beam loading

392

A CW RFQ injector for the IUCF cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work has begun to upgrade the IUCF 210 MeV proton cyclotrons for use as a dedicated proton source for cancer treatment and other applications requiring medium energy dc proton beams. A major performance and reliability upgrade to replace the 600 kV Cockcroft Walton with a 700 keV proton CW RFQ as the pre-accelerator for the 15 MeV injector cyclotron is presented

393

Merits of D--based neutral beam injectors for tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model-based efficiencies and costs of D+ and D- neutral beam systems are presented and compared. The results of modeling of the heating and the current driving by D- generated neutral beams are presented. PLT experimental data on heating as a function of beam penetration are presented and discussed. Efficiencies, costs, heating, and current driving are combined to derive the merits of D--based neutral beam injector for tokamaks

394

RF drivers for the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifiers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 200Mhz intermediate power amplifier system, comprised of four separate chassis or cavity amplifiers is being developed as a driver stage for the Bevalac injector final RF amplifiers. These amplifiers are in to upgrade and replace the present systems with an expected increase in the available RF output power and the system reliability while reducing the associated operating costs. The system construction, design, and initial high power test results are presented

395

Explosive plasma injectors in the study of circumterrestrial space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors review the use of plasma jets as injectors of vaporized metal ions into the ionosphere from a spacecraft for purposes of ionospheric diagnostics in such areas as the study of charged-particle transport and precipitation from clouds of ionospheric particles as well as the effect of magnetic and electric fields on ionospheric particle motion. Various types of jets based on the explosive vaporization and ionization of the probe metals are described.

Ruzhin, Yu.Ya.; Skomarovskii, V.S.; Stadnichenko, I.A.; Titov, V.M.; Shvetsov, G.A.

1987-11-01

396

Ignition sequence of an annular multi-injector combustor  

CERN Document Server

Ignition is a critical process in combustion systems. In aeronautical combustors, altitude relight capacities are required in case of accidental extinction of the chamber. A simultaneous study of light-round ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor has been performed on the experimental and numerical sides. This effort allows a unique comparison to assess the reliability of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in such a configuration. Results are presented in fluid dynamics videos.

Philip, Maxime; Vicquelin, Ronan; Schmitt, Thomas; Durox, Daniel; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Candel, Sébastien

2013-01-01

397

Beam inflection channel of the IHEPh proton synchrotron ring injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magneto-optical channel of injection system of the JHEPh accelerator is described. The channel provides the 30 MeV beam switching from the linear accelerator to the ring injector (booster). The calculation values of lenses gradients and magnetic fields of the channel for beam inflection to the booster are given. The measured value of horizontal and vertical emittance equaled about 3 cmxmrad at the level of 90% current

398

Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

2010-07-01

399

Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

2008-01-01

400

A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector  

CERN Document Server

To provide compact high-brightness heavy-ion beams for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm2 was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. More than 90% of the ions were in the Ar+ state, and the energy spread from charge exchange was found to be small. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of a 61-beamlet injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We will report on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, the test will be carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We will measure the beam?s emittance after the beamlets are merged and have bee...

Westenskow, Glen; Grote, D P; Halaxa, Erni; Kwan, Joe W

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Ion source and injector improvements at the superHILAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major improvements have been made on the Adam injector at the SuperHILAC heavy ion accelerator. Adam is a pressurized Cockcroft-Walton injector, typically run at voltages in excess of 2 MeV. The PIG ion source was redesigned to increase the length of the discharge column and the extraction slit, while remaining within the magnet poles of the source magnet. To maintain cooling, part of the thinner soft-iron end cap was replaced with a copper section, modifying the magnetic circuit. These modifications resulted in more than doubling the ion beam intensity. A large liquid nitrogen cryotrap within the pressure vessel was replaced by an RF shielded, commercial cryopump head with a custom pumping array. This reduced the pressure at the ground end of the injector by an order of magnitude and reduced that at the source by a factor of two, even with the additional gas load due to the longer slit. The pressure reduction was essential to minimize charge exchange loss of the highly charged ions, such as Fe4+. Plans are underway to replace a 3 watt cryopump in the terminal end with a 10 watt pump which is expected to result in a 50% faster cooldown time, and greater than a 50% increase in running time before regeneration of the cryopump is necessary. 3 refs., 4 figs

402

BPM DAQ system upgrade for SuperKEKB injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KEK electron/positron linac is a 600-m-long injector providing the beams of different energies with four independent storage rings. A non-destructive beam position monitor (BPM) is an indispensable diagnostic tool for a long-term stable beam operation. In the KEK linac, around one hundred BPMs with the four strip-line type electrodes are utilized for the beam position and charge measurement. The measured beam positions can be used for the beam orbit and energy feedback loops. The current BPM data acquisition (DAQ) system comprises 23 fast digital oscilloscopes based on Windows-XP, and the precision of measurement precision is approximately 50 ?m. Toward the SuperKEKB project, the upgrade of injector linac is now going on for increasing the beam intensity and reducing the beam emittance. For the SuperKEKB linac, the emittance of electron beam should be reduced one-fifth smaller than that of former KEKB injector. For this reason, a high precision of the beam position measurement less than 10 ?m is strongly required. In this paper, we present the system description and performance evaluation of a new BPM DAQ system in detail. (author)

403

Performance test at the prototype injector unit for JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma heating by neutral beam injection on the JT 60 project is scheduled to commence in the middle of 1986. Neutral beam power of 20 MW at energies ranging from 75 to 100 KeV are to be injected into the torus for up to 10 sec from 14 injector units. The prototype injector unit was constructed in November 1981 to test and demonstrate individual beam line performance. This unit, equipped with two ion sources, has succeeded in producing the nominal operating conditions of 75 kV, 70 A, 10 s in February 1982, and in the extended operating conditions of 100 kV,70 A,10 s in March 1983. Since the most distinctive feature of our injector is its beam duration time of up to 10 s, great care was given during these test to the heat loads on the beam line components, especially the ion dump and the water jacket (magnet protecting liner) which suffer the highest heat load of all the components

404

Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures

405

High Brightness, High Average Current Injector Development at Cornell  

CERN Document Server

Cornell University is constructing a 100 mA average current, high brightness electron injector for a planned Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) hard X-ray synchrotron radiation source. This injector will employ a very high voltage DC gun with a negative electron affinity photoemission cathode. Relatively long duration electron pulses from the photocathode will be drift bunched, and accelerated to 5-15 MeV with five two-cell, 1300 MHz superconducting cavities. The total beam power will be limited to 575 kW by the DC and RF power sources. A genetic algorithm based computational optimization of this injector has resulted in simulated rms normalized emittances of 0.1 mm-mrad at 80 pC/bunch, and 0.7 mm-mrad at 1 nC/bunch. The many technical issues and their design solutions will be discussed. Construction of the gun and the SRF cavities is well underway. The schedule for completion, and the planned measurements, will be presented.

Sinclair, C K

2005-01-01

406

Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron

407

On-line control for the proton linac 100-kev injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-line system for automated control of a duoplasmatron type pulse ion source which is used in an injector of the 3 MeV linac with spatial uniform quadrupole focusing is described. The system comprises two Electronic-60 computers interfaced via optical communication line. Main computer memory comprises a set of programs which are responsible for a standard mode of source operation. Source electrode voltages, currents in solenoid and pulse valve coil, gas pressure in a discharge chamber are controlled according to a program given by an operator, as well as synchronization of voltages and currents pulses. System software is written in the RI-2 operational system using MACRO-2 and FORTRAN languages. System tests indicated that it provides steady operation both in the mode of maximum injection current (450 mA) and in an arbitrary transient mode. Precision of maintaining given parameter values over a long period of time amounts to 1%

408

Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

2003-07-01

409

Internal flow measurements of the SSME fuel preburner injector element using real time neutron radiography  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to observations of unsteady flow in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner injector element, several flow studies have been performed. Real time neutron radiography tests were recently completed. This technique provided real time images of MiL-c-7024 and Freon-22 flow through an aluminum liquid oxygen post model at three back pressures (0, 150, and 545 psig) and pressure drops up to 1000 psid. Separated flow appeared only while operating at back pressures of 0 and 150 psig. The behavior of separated flow was similar to that observed for water in a 3x acrylic model of the LOX post. On the average, separated flow appeared to reattach near the exit of the post when the ratio of pressure drop to supply pressure was about 0.75.

Lindsay, John T.; Elam, Sandy; Koblish, Ted; Lee, Phil; Mcauliffe, Dave

1990-01-01

410

The low of formation of accelerating voltage frequency change in the IHEP ring booster injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Block-diagram of a new section for accelerating field frequency formation in the ring injector - the IHEP booster is described. To obtain the effective tuning range of 0.7-2.8 MHz, heterodyne method with two controlled oscillators was used. Two oscillators are connected in the same circuit, their circuits have similar inductance coils and are placed into an aggregate thermostat. Block-diagrams of a master oscillator, an initial frequency oscillator and a function converter are given. Digital control application permitted not only to improve main section characteristics but to gain new possibilities for using computers. Control program provides work with equipment, dialogue with an operator, and a specialized operational system provides regime rescuing and restoration

411

Simulation for a New Polarized Electron Injector (SPIN) for the S-DALINAC  

CERN Document Server

The Superconducting DArmstädter LINear ACcelerator (S-DALINAC) is a 130 MeV recirculating electron accelerator serving several nuclear and radiation physics experiments. For future tasks, the 250 keV thermal electron source should be completed by a 100 keV polarized electron source. Therefore a new low energy injection concept for the S-DALINAC has to be designed. The main components of the injector are a polarized electron source, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter spin-rotator and a Mott polarimeter. In this paper we report over the first simulation and design results. For our simulations we used the TS2 and TS3 modules of the CST MAFIA (TM) programme which are PIC codes for two and three dimensions and the CST PARTICLE STUDIO (TM).

Steiner, Bastian; Gräf, Hans Dieter; Richter, Achim; Roth, Markus; Weiland, Thomas

2005-01-01

412

Determination of the longitudinal phase space distribution produced with the TTF photo injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The longitudinal phase space distribution of the beam produced with the rf photo injector of the TESLA Test Facility at DESY is mainly determined by the longitudinal laser pulse shape and the compression due to the rf acceleration field in the rf gun. The longitudinal electron distribution is measured with a high resolution streak camera using synchrotron radiation at the spectrometer dipole (E - 200 MeV). The same streak camera is used to measure the UV laser pulse shape. The longitudinal distribution of the laser and the electron beam can alternatively be determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy. The energy spread of the beam is determined by measuring the beam profile in the dispersive section using optical transition radiation. Dephasing of the superconducting accelerating cavities and variation of bunch compression parameters allow further measurements of the longitudinal phase space distribution. (authors)

Bernard, M.; Leblond, B. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Geitz, M.; Schreiber, S.; Von Walter, G.; Sertore, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2000-06-01

413

The Optimization of the Electron Injector Resonance System Based on the Evanescent Oscillations  

CERN Document Server

The report presents the results of the bunching system optimization and electrons motion simulation in the compact S ? band injector. The injector consists of the low-voltage diode electron gun and optimized bunching system based on the resonant system with the evanescent oscillations. The amplitude of RF electrical field is increased along the axis of the bunching system. The resonance system optimization allows to obtain electron bunches with the phase length less than 10° (for 70 % particles) at the injector exit.

Perezhogin, Sergey; Kramarenko, Kateryna; Kushnir, Volodymyr; Mytrochenko, Viktor; Zhiglo, Valentin

2005-01-01

414

Construction of the Photon Factory 2.5 GeV injector electron linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Photon Factory accelerator consists of a 2.5 GeV injector linac and a 2.5 GeV storage ring. The linac will be used not only for the injector of the 2.5 GeV storage ring but also for other purposes; as an injector for lower energy small storage rings, picosecond, nanosecond and microsecond range pulsed-light sources, and eventually for the electron and positron injector for TRISTAN . This report describes the general picture and special features of the linac and the present status of construction. (orig.)

415

Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium

416

Method and apparatus for duct sealing using a clog-resistant insertable injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for forming a duct access region through one side of a previously installed air duct, wherein the air duct has an air flow with an air flow direction by inserting an aerosol injector into a previously installed air duct through the access region. The aerosol injector includes a liquid tube having a liquid tube orifice for ejecting a liquid to be atomized; and a propellant cap. The method is accomplished by aligning the aerosol injector with the direction of air flow in the duct; activating an air flow within the duct; and spraying a sealant through the aerosol injector to seal the duct in the direction of the air flow.

Wang, Duo (Albany, CA); Modera, Mark P. (Piedmont, CA)

2010-12-14

417

Space Storable Propellant Performance Gas/Liquid Like-Doublet Injector Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

A 30-month applied research program was conducted, encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space-storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination selected for study was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ambient temperature gaseous methane. The injector pattern characterized was the like-(self)-impinging doublet. Program effort was apportioned into four basic technical tasks: injector and thrust chamber design, injector and thrust chamber fabrication, performance evaluation testing, and data evaluation and reporting. Analytical parametric combustion analyses and cold flow distribution and atomization experiments were conducted with injector segment models to support design of injector/thrust chamber combinations for hot fire evaluation. Hot fire tests were conducted to: (1) optimize performance of the injector core elements, and (2) provide design criteria for the outer zone elements so that injector/thrust chamber compatibility could be achieved with only minimal performance losses.

Falk, A. Y.

1972-01-01

418

Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (11) Visualization Study on the Start-Up of the Steam Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384 x 180 pixel resolution with 30,000 fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300 mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000 fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected. (authors)

419

A novel low energy fast chopper for H-injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab H-injector will be upgraded from a Cockcroft-Walton system to a 750 keV RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) system. Part of the upgrade is the addition of a fast chopper in the LEBT (low energy beam transport) just before the RFQ. The novelty of this chopper is that it reflects rather than deflects beam. It also has low capacitance <10pF so that the rise and fall times of the beam pulse are dominated by cabling and the MOSFET switches. In fact, the measured rise and fall time of the chopped beam have been measured and they are better than 150 ns at 15 Hz.

420

Upgrade of console system at the KEK injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the KEK linac control room, many PCs and monitors are utilized for displaying many beam parameters and device statuses. A first operator console system has been used in this three decades. In March 2011, the catastrophic earthquake made many PCs and monitors to be collapsed and damaged. From this experience, the quakeproof is required for the linac console system. Towards SuperKEKB project, we are planning to expand the linac control system and control room. From these reasons, the console system of KEK linac was renovated in the last summer. In this paper, we report the upgrade of console system at the KEK injector linac in detail. (author)

 
 
 
 
421

Heavy ion injector for the CERN Linac 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An injector system has been designed to provide a fully stripped oxygen beam for acceleration in the CERN PS complex. An ECR source will provide an O/sup 6/+ beam to a heavy ion RFQ accelerator. The beam from the RFQ will be further accelerated by the CERN Linac 1 (Old Linac) in the 2 ..beta.. lambda-mode to an energy of 12.5 MeV/u at which point it will be fully stripped for subsequent acceleration in the CERN synchrotrons. The specifications of the new equipment and modifications to the existing linear accelerator are described.

Angert, N.; Klabunde, J.; Langenbeck, B.; Leible, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Struckmeier, J.; Wolf, B.H.; Abbott, S.; Brodzik, D.; Gough, R.

1984-05-01

422

Heavy ion injector for the CERN linac 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector system has been constructed to provide heavy ion beams for the CERN accelerators. In the initial step, an ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) source produces on O6+ ion beam, which is accelerated in an RFQ (radiofrequency quadrupole) structure from 5.6 keV/u to 139.5 keV/u. The specifications of this preaccelerator are described and results of test measurements at GSI are presented, as well as first experience at CERN. Oxygen ions have been accelerated in the CERN machines to 200 GeV/u. An upgrading program for the acceleration of sulphur or calcium is presented. (orig.)

423

Heavy ion injector for the CERN linac 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An injector system has been constructed to provide heavy ion beams for the CERN accelerators. In the initial step, an ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) source produces on O/sup 6+/ ion beam, which is accelerated in an RFQ (radiofrequency quadrupole) structure from 5.6 keV/u to 139.5 keV/u. The specifications of this preaccelerator are described and results of test measurements at GSI are presented, as well as first experience at CERN. Oxygen ions have been accelerated in the CERN machines to 200 GeV/u. An upgrading program for the acceleration of sulphur or calcium is presented.

Wolf, B.H.; Leible, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Klabunde, J.; Langenbeck, B.; Angert, N.; Gough, R.A.; Staples, J.; Caylor, R.; Howard, D.

1987-07-15

424

A heavy ion injector for the CERN linac 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector system has been designed to provide a fully stripped oxygen beam for acceleration in the CERN PS complex. An ECR source will provide an O6+ beam to a heavy ion RFQ accelerator. The beam from the RFQ will be further accelerated by the CERN Linac 1 ('Old Linac') in the 2 ?lambda-mode to an energy of 12.5 MeV/u at which point it will be fully stripped for subsequent acceleration in the CERN synchrotrons. The specifications of the new equipment and modifications to the existing linear accelerator are described. (orig.)

425

Heavy ion injector for the CERN Linac 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector system has been designed to provide a fully stripped oxygen beam for acceleration in the CERN PS complex. An ECR source will provide an O6+ beam to a heavy ion RFQ accelerator. The beam from the RFQ will be further accelerated by the CERN Linac 1 (Old Linac) in the 2 ? lambda-mode to an energy of 12.5 MeV/u at which point it will be fully stripped for subsequent acceleration in the CERN synchrotrons. The specifications of the new equipment and modifications to the existing linear accelerator are described