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1

The Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed

1992-11-10

2

Main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main injector particle production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and antiproton with beam momenta of 5-90 GeV/c to measure particle production cross-sections of various nuclei including liquid hydrogen, MINOS target and thin targets of beryllium, carbon, bismuth and uranium. The physics motivation to perform such cross-section measurements is described here. Recent results on the analysis of NuMI target and forward neutron cross-sections are presented here. Preliminary cross-section measurements for 58 GeV/c proton on liquid hydrogen target are also presented. A new method is described to correct for low multiplicity inefficiencies in the trigger using KNO scaling. (author)

2012-11-01

3

Switchyard in the Main Injector era conceptual design report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents elements of a design of the Switchyard and of the present fixed target beamlines in the era of the Main Injector (MI). It presumes that 800 GeV Tevatron beam will be transported to this area in the MI era, and permits it to share cycles with 120 GeV Main Injector beam if this option is desired. Geographically, the region discussed extends from the vicinity of AO to downstream points beyond which beam properties will be determined by the requirements of specific experiments. New neutrino lines not utilizing the present Switchyard (NuMI, BooNE) are not addressed. Similarly Main Injector beams upstream of AO are described fully in MI documentation and are unaffected by what is presented here. The timing both of the preparation of this report and of its recommendations for proceeding with construction relate to a desire to do required work in Transfer Hall and Enclosure B during the Main Injector construction shutdown (September 1997 - September 1998). As these areas are off-limits during any Tevatron operation, it is necessary for the fixed target program that work be completed here during this extended down period. The design presented here enables the operation of all beamlines in the manner specified in the current Laboratory plans for future fixed- target physics.

Brown, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Lucas, P.; Malensek, A.; Murphy, C.T.; Yang, M.-J.

1997-08-01

4

Physics with the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector is a new rapid cycling accelerator at Fermilab which is a source of protons to be used in antiproton production to enhance the luminosity of the Tevatron Collider and to provide extracted beams for use in a range of fixed target experiments. We discuss the current status of the accelerator and the physics which it enables. The physics ranges broadly over the standard model and beyond, from the search for neutrino mass to collider physics at the highest energy available today.

Hugh E. Montgomery

1999-04-23

5

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

1997-01-01

6

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

NONE

1997-12-01

7

Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as A{sup a} where a is 0.46 {+-} 0.06 for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54 {+-} 0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo. The MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experiment (FNAL E907) [1] acquired data in the Meson Center beam line at Fermilab. The primary purposes of the experiment were to investigate scaling laws in hadron fragmentation [2], to obtain hadron production data for the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector [3]) target to be used for calculating neutrino fluxes, and to obtain inclusive pion, neutron, and photon production data to facilitate proton radiography [4]. While there is considerable data available on inclusive charged particle production [5], there is little data on neutron production. In this article we present results for forward neutron production using proton beams of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, bismuth, and uranium targets, and compare these data with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

Nigmanov, T.S.; /Michigan U.; Rajaram, D.; /Michigan U.; Longo, M.J.; /Michigan U.; Akgun, U.; /Iowa U.; Aydin, G.; /Iowa U.; Baker, W.; /Fermilab; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bergfeld, T.; /South Carolina U.; Bujak, A.; /Purdue U.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab; Dukes, E.C.; /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

2010-10-01

8

Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV, Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented

2006-11-20

9

Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV. Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented

2006-05-01

10

The NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab began operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense {nu}{sub {mu}} beam of variable energy (2-20 GeV) directed into the Earth at 58 mrad for short ({approx}1km) and long ({approx}700-900 km) baseline experiments. Several aspects of the design and results from early commissioning runs are reviewed.

Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

2005-05-01

11

Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

1995-06-11

12

Addendum to NuMI shielding assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original safety assessment and the Safety Envelope for the NuMI beam line corresponds to 400 kW of beam power. The Main Injector is currently capable of and approved for producing 500 kW of beam power2. However, operation of the NuMI beam line at 400 kW of power brings up the possibility of an occasional excursion above 400 kW due to better than usual tuning in one of the machines upstream of the NuMI beam line. An excursion above the DOE approved Safety Envelope will constitute a safety violation. The purpose of this addendum is to evaluate the radiological issues and modifications required to operate the NuMI beam line at 500 kW. This upgrade will allow 400 kW operations with a reasonable safety margin. Configuration of the NuMI beam line, boundaries, safety system and the methodologies used for the calculations are as described in the original NuMI SAD. While most of the calculations presented in the original shielding assessment were based on Monte Carlo simulations, which were based on the design geometries, most of the results presented in this addendum are based on the measurements conducted by the AD ES&H radiation safety group.

Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

2007-10-01

13

Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

1992-01-01

14

A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

2012-01-01

15

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

Kiyomi Koba et al.

2003-06-02

16

Stability of beam in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV protron synchrotron, designed to remove the limitations of the Main Ring in the delivery of high intensity protron and antiproton beams to the Tevatron. Extensive studies have been made to understand the performance of the Main Injector. In this paper, we present a study of the Main Injector lattice, which includes magnetic and misalignment errors. These calculations shows the Main Injector`s dynamical aperture is larger than its design value of 40{pi} mm mradian at injection.

Mishra, C.S.; Harfoush, F.A.

1993-08-01

17

Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

1993-04-01

18

Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near {+-}45{degrees} are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field.

Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D. [and others

1993-04-01

19

Stability of beam in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV protron synchrotron, designed to remove the limitations of the Main Ring in the delivery of high intensity protron and antiproton beams to the Tevatron. Extensive studies have been made to understand the performance of the Main Injector. In this paper, we present a study of the Main Injector lattice, which includes magnetic and misalignment errors. These calculations shows the Main Injector's dynamical aperture is larger than its design value of 40? mm mradian at injection

1993-05-17

20

Neutrino beams using the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TM-1946 summarizes the status of the NuMI project. This note presents more details on the technical design of the various NUMI beams. Several beam]Line options are investigated for producing neutrinos--(l) a wide-band beam(WBB) using horns, (2) a beam using a single lithium Lens, and (3) a two stage narrow-band beam(NBB) using a Lithium Lens, quadrupoles and dipoles. The first two are designed to maximize the muon neutrino event rate; the third is designed to have a tunable range of parent momenta from 5-60 GeV/c. In the context of NuMI, the Double Horns-and its target were concepts first described in 1991. The lithium Lens has been used at Fermilab for pbar production for several years. With recent upgrades, it forms the basis of what will be used by NuMI. Narrow band beams using conventional dipoles and quadrupoles have been studied, but have less acceptance than one using a lithium lens. The following practical limits are imposed on each of the systems: (1) Horns: The necks will not have a smaller radius than 1 cm; the maximum current will not exceed 170 kAmp. Keeping the inside diameter large allows the primary proton beam to vary in position, yet not strike the fragile neck. In addition, there is a trade-off between decreasing the radius and increasing the wall thickness to maintain the required strength in the conductor material. (2) Magnets: Reasonable conventional designs are used. The maximum gradient for quadrupoles is 12 kG/half-aperture; the maximum field for dipoles is about 16 kG; larger apertures scale the gradients and fields downward. Although not a primary consideration, optically it is desirable for the magnification in each plane to be comparable (within a factor of 2 or 3 is OK). (3) Lithium Lens: The maximum radius is 1.0 cm with a maximum gradient of 100 kG/cm. (4) Dumps: At the place where the primary protons are absorbed, the transverse beam center is ? 1 inch off the edge of the acceptance

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Beam deceleration performance of the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

The Fermilab Main Injector was designed to accelerate protons and antiprotons from a momentum of 8.889 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. In order to study antiproton deceleration, for the ultimate purpose of storing them in a Penning trap, the Main Injector was used to decelerate protons from the injection momentum down to the goal of 2.0 GeV/c. In this paper the operational experience of working with the Main Injector as a decelerator is presented. (1 refs).

Jackson, G P; Capista, D P; Chase, B E; Dey, J; Flora, R; Gattuso, C

2001-01-01

22

Simulations of space charge in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Project X plan for future high intensity operation relies on the Main Injector as the engine for delivering protons in the 60-120 GeV energy range. Project X plans call for increasing the number of protons per Main Injector bunch from the current value of 1.0 x 1011 to 3.0 x 1011. Space charge effects at the injection energy of 8 GeV have the potential to seriously disrupt operations. We report on ongoing simulation efforts with Synergia, MARYLIE/Impact, and IMPACT, which provide comprehensive capabilities for parallel, multi-physics modeling of beam dynamics in the Main Injector including 3D space-charge effects.

2011-04-01

23

Radiation levels around the Fermilab Main Injector extraction septa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector extraction system will be capable of delivering a uniform 120 GeV beam of ? 3 x 1013 protons per spill to the fixed target experiments ( with spill time of 1 sec). Up to 2% of the beam is expected to be lost at the extraction septum and the Lambertson magnet. As a result, one expects increased radiation levels around the septa compared to other parts of the Main Injector. Realistic Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the instantaneous and residual radiation levels in the beam extraction region. The results of these studies are presented and implications are discussed

1997-05-12

24

Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

Visnjic, V.

1992-12-01

25

Operational Aspects of the Main Injector Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB).  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spa...

B. Brown D. Capista J. Crisp L. Bartelson W. Chou

2006-01-01

26

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

2011-10-06

27

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

Mahajan, Sonam; /Panjab U. /Fermilab

2010-12-09

28

Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C

2013-01-01

29

Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10{sup 10} protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20{pi} mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations.

Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

1994-03-01

30

Investigations of ice formation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209 main injector coolant cavity  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe main combustion chamber wall and main injector baffle element deterioration occurred during tests of Space Shuttle Main Engine 0209. One of the possible causes considered is ice formation and blockage of coolant to these components, resulting from the mixing of leaking hot turbine exhaust gas (hydrogen rich steam) and hydrogen coolant in the injector coolant cavity. The plausibility of ice blockage is investigated through simple mixing calculations for hot gas and hydrogen, investigation of condensation and water droplet formation, calculation of the freezing times for droplets, and the prediction of ice layer thicknesses. It is concluded that condensation and droplet formation can occur, and small water droplets that form can freeze very quickly when in contact with the cold coolant cavity surfaces. Copnservative analysis predicts, however, that the maximum thickness of the ice layers formed is too small to result in significant blockage of the coolant flow.

Richards, D. R.; Charklwick, D. M.

1991-01-01

31

Correction schemes to improve the dynamical aperture of the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tracking simulations have revealed that the dominant factors limiting the dynamical aperture of the Main Injector are the large octupole component and the random errors in the recycled Main Ring quadrupoles. This paper describes a correction scheme that reduces the effect of these errors on the performance of the Fermilab Main Injector, especially for the slow extraction operation.

Mishra, C.S.; Harfoush, F.A.

1993-07-01

32

Correction schemes to improve the dynamical aperture of the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracking simulations have revealed that the dominant factors limiting the dynamical aperture of the Main Injector are the large octupole component and the random errors in the recycled Main Ring quadrupoles. This paper describes a correction scheme that reduces the effect of these errors on the performance of the Fermilab Main Injector, especially for the slow extraction operation

1993-05-17

33

Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the value (and Q{sup 2} dependence) of R{sub QCD} = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}. A Main Injector experiment will check the scaling violation of the theory and provide solid measurements of the gluon distributions.

Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

1991-01-01

34

The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom-made timing board, and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron, The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation

2006-11-20

35

Measurement of Pi-K Ratios from the NuMI Target  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions of protons (p) with the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) target are used to create the neutrino beam for the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) Experiment. Using the MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experimental apparatus, the production of charged pions and kaons in p+NuMI interactions is studied. The data come from a sample of 2 x 10{sup 6} events obtained by MIPP using the 120 GeV/c proton beam from the Main Injector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, USA. Pions and kaons are identified by measurement in a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. Presented are measurements of {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}/K{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}/K{sup -} production ratios in the momentum range p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c transversely and 20 GeV/c < p{sub z} < 90 GeV/c longitudinally. Also provided are detailed comparisons of the MIPP NuMI data with the MIPP Thin Carbon data, the MIPP Monte Carlo simulation and the current MINOS models in the relevant momentum ranges.

Seun, Sin Man; /Harvard U.

2007-07-01

36

Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

2011-01-01

37

Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; /Fermilab; Veitzer, Seth A.; Stoltz, Peter; /Tech-X, Boulder; Spentzouris, Panagiotis G.; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2011-05-01

38

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

39

Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance.

Furman, M. A.; Kourbanis, I.; Zwaska, R. M.

2009-05-04

40

Space charge measurements with a high intensity bunch at the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

For Project X, the Fermilab Main Injector will be required to operate with 3 times higher bunch intensity. The plan to study the space charge effects at the injection energy with intense bunches will be discussed.

Seiya, K; Dey, J; Joireman, P; Kourbanis, I; Yagodnitsyna, A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Design of a new main injector cavity for the Fermilab Proton Driver era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the design report of the Fermilab Proton Driver [1], the Main Injector (MI) needs to be upgraded to a 2 MW machine. For the Main Injector radiofrequency (rf) upgrade, R&D efforts are launched to design and build a new rf system. This paper presents the new cavity design study for the rf system. The cavity is simulated with the design code Mafia [2].

Wu, V.; Chen, A.; Qian, Z.; Wildman, D.W.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

42

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2010-05-01

43

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

2010-05-23

44

Tritium transport in the NuMI decay pipe region - modeling and comparison with experimental data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at Main Injector) beam facility at Fermilab is designed to produce an intense beam of muon neutrinos to be sent to the MINOS underground experiment in Soudan, Minnesota. Neutrinos are created by the decay of heavier particles. In the case of NuMI, the decaying particles are created by interaction of high-energy protons in a target, creating mostly positive pions. These particles can also interact with their environment, resulting in production of a variety of short-lived radionuclides and tritium. In the NuMI beam, neutrinos are produced by 120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator which are injected into the NuMI beam line using single turn extraction. The beam line has been designed for 400 kW beam power, roughly a factor of 2 above the initial (2005-06) running conditions. Extracted protons are bent downwards at a 57mr angle towards the Soudan Laboratory. The meson production target is a 94 cm segmented graphite rod, cooled by water in stainless tubes on the top and bottom of the target. The target is followed by two magnetic horns which are pulsed to 200 kA in synchronization with the passage of the beam, producing focusing of the secondary hadron beam and its daughter neutrinos. Downstream of the second horn the meson beam is transported for 675 m in an evacuated 2 m diameter beam (''decay'') pipe. Subsequently, the residual mesons and protons are absorbed in a water cooled aluminum/steel absorber immediately downstream of the decay pipe. Some 200 m of rock further downstream ranges out all of the residual muons. During beam operations, after installation of the chiller condensate system in December 2005, the concentration of tritiated water in the MINOS sump flow of 177 gpm was around 12 pCi/ml, for a total of 0.010 pCi/day. A simple model of tritium transport and deposition via humidity has been constructed to aid in understanding how tritium reaches the sump water. The model deals with tritium transported as HTO, water in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced with tritium. Based on concepts supported by the modeling, a dehumidification system was installed during May 2006 that reduced the tritium level in the sump by a factor of two. This note is primarily concerned with tritium that was produced in the NuMI target pile, carried by air flow into the target hall and down the decay pipe passageway (where most of it was deposited). The air is exhausted through the existing air vent shaft EAV2 (Figure 1)

2007-01-01

45

Tritium transport in the NuMI decay pipe region - modeling and comparison with experimental data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at Main Injector) beam facility at Fermilab is designed to produce an intense beam of muon neutrinos to be sent to the MINOS underground experiment in Soudan, Minnesota. Neutrinos are created by the decay of heavier particles. In the case of NuMI, the decaying particles are created by interaction of high-energy protons in a target, creating mostly positive pions. These particles can also interact with their environment, resulting in production of a variety of short-lived radionuclides and tritium. In the NuMI beam, neutrinos are produced by 120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator which are injected into the NuMI beam line using single turn extraction. The beam line has been designed for 400 kW beam power, roughly a factor of 2 above the initial (2005-06) running conditions. Extracted protons are bent downwards at a 57mr angle towards the Soudan Laboratory. The meson production target is a 94 cm segmented graphite rod, cooled by water in stainless tubes on the top and bottom of the target. The target is followed by two magnetic horns which are pulsed to 200 kA in synchronization with the passage of the beam, producing focusing of the secondary hadron beam and its daughter neutrinos. Downstream of the second horn the meson beam is transported for 675 m in an evacuated 2 m diameter beam (''decay'') pipe. Subsequently, the residual mesons and protons are absorbed in a water cooled aluminum/steel absorber immediately downstream of the decay pipe. Some 200 m of rock further downstream ranges out all of the residual muons. During beam operations, after installation of the chiller condensate system in December 2005, the concentration of tritiated water in the MINOS sump flow of 177 gpm was around 12 pCi/ml, for a total of 0.010 pCi/day. A simple model of tritium transport and deposition via humidity has been constructed to aid in understanding how tritium reaches the sump water. The model deals with tritium transported as HTO, water in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced with tritium. Based on concepts supported by the modeling, a dehumidification system was installed during May 2006 that reduced the tritium level in the sump by a factor of two. This note is primarily concerned with tritium that was produced in the NuMI target pile, carried by air flow into the target hall and down the decay pipe passageway (where most of it was deposited). The air is exhausted through the existing air vent shaft EAV2 (Figure 1).

Hylen, J.; Plunkett, R.; /Fermilab

2007-03-01

46

Field errors introduced by eddy currents in Fermilab main injector magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector ramps from 8 GeV to 120 GeV in about half a second. The rapidly changing magnetic field induces eddy currents in the stainless steel vacuum tubes, which in turn produce error fields that can affect the beam. Field calculations and measurements are presented for the dipole and quadrupole magnets

1997-10-20

47

Field errors introduced by eddy currents in Fermilab main injector magnets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector ramps from 8 GeV to 120 GeV in about half a second. The rapidly changing magnetic field induces eddy currents in the stainless steel vacuum tubes, which in turn produce error fields that can affect the beam. Field calculations and measurements are presented for the dipole and quadrupole magnets.

Walbridge, D.G.C.; Brown, B.C.; Dinanco, J.B.; Sharoran, S.A.; Sim, J.W.

1997-10-01

48

The design and manufacture of the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole Magnet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab's new Main Injector Ring (MIR) will replace the currently operating Main Ring to provide 150 GeV Proton and Antiproton beams for Tevetron injection, and rapid cycling, high intensity, 120 GeV Proton beams for Antiproton production. To produce and maintain the required high beam quality, high intensity, and high repetition rate, conventional dipole magnets with laminated iron core and water cooled copper conductor were chosen as the bending magnet. A new magnet design having low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction, is required to obtain the needed geometric aperture, dynamic aperture, and operational reliability. The current Main Injector Ring lattice design requires the use of 344 of these magnets. 216 of these magnets are to be 6 m long, and 128 are to be 4 m long

1992-03-24

49

Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements

2007-06-25

50

The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

51

Coalescing at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Multimedia

For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 10**11 particles per bunch into the Main Injector. To prepare for this by studying the effects of higher intensity bunches in the Main Injector it is necessary to perform coalescing at 8 GeV. The results of a series of experiments and simulations of 8 GeV coalescing are presented. To increase the coalescing efficiency adiabatic reduction of the 53 MHz RF is required, resulting in ~70% coalescing efficiency of 5 initial bunches. Data using wall current monitors has been taken to compare previous work and new simulations for 53 MHz RF reduction, bunch rotations and coalescing, good agreement between experiment and simulation was found. Possible schemes to increase the coalescing efficiency and generate even higher intensity bunches are discussed. These require improving the timing resolution of the low level RF and/or tuning the adiabatic voltage reduction of the 53 MHz.

Scott, D J; Chase, B; Dye, J; Kourbanis, I; Seiya, K; Yang, M -J

2013-01-01

52

Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

2009-05-04

53

Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector Tracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose we have used old Main Ping dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to us we have separated in our simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables us to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular we have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8.9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

1993-05-17

54

The impact of deformation on the final alignment of the Fermilab main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determination of deformation of the reference points is very important for the final alignment process and the future performance of the FMI machine. In case of Main Injector Tunnel practically all points of the network were subject to deformation. The method of minimizing the first norm of the displacement vector of the reference points was chosen as the method to analyze the deformation experienced within the project. Basic principles of deformation determination and analysis evaluations movement of the network relative of the beam position will be exhibited in this poster. (authors)

Wojcik, G.; Lakanen, St. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Particle Physics Div.: Alignment and Metrology Group, Batavia, IL (United States)

1999-07-01

55

Simulations of Electron Cloud Effects on the Beam Dynamics for the FNAL Main Injector Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab main injector (MI) is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort. This upgrade will involve a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value. Such an increase will place the MI in a regime in which electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. We have used the electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP, recently augmented with new modeling capabilities and simulation techniques, to study the dynamics of beam-electron cloud interaction. This work in progress involves a systematic assessment of beam instabilities due to the presence of electron clouds

2007-06-25

56

Longitudinal bunch monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons  

CERN Document Server

The measurement of the longitudinal behavior of the accelerated particle beams at Fermilab is crucial to the optimization and control of the beam and the maximizing of the integrated luminosity for the particle physics experiments. Longitudinal measurements in the Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons are based on the analysis of signals from resistive wall current monitors. This article describes the signal processing performed by a 2 GHz-bandwidth oscilloscope together with a computer running a LabVIEW program which calculates the longitudinal beam parameters.

Thurman-Keup, R; Blokland, W; Crisp, J; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Flora, R; Hahn, A; Hansen, S; Kiper, T; Para, A; Pordes, S; Tollestrup, A V

2011-01-01

57

Magnet reliability in the Fermilab Main Injector and implications for the ILC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Linear Collider reference design requires over 13000 magnets, of approximately 135 styles, which must operate with very high reliability. The Fermilab Main Injector represents a modern machine with many conventional magnet styles, each of significant quantity, that has now accumulated many hundreds of magnet-years of operation. We review here the performance of the magnets built for this machine, assess their reliability and categorize the failure modes, and discuss implications for reliability of similar magnet styles expected to be used at the ILC.

Tartaglia, M.A.; Blowers, J.; Capista, D.; Harding, D.J.; Kiemschies, O.; Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

2007-08-01

58

Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

2008-01-01

59

The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

1991-09-01

60

53 MHZ Feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

53 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation is crucial to all operations of the Main Injector. Recently a system using a fundamental frequency down converter mixer, a digital bucket delay module and a fundamental frequency up converter mixer were used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the cavities to cancel the transient beam induced voltage. During operation they have shown consistently over 20 dB reduction in side-band voltage around the fundamental frequency during Proton coalescing and over 14 dB in multi-batch antiproton coalescing.

Joseph E Dey et al.

2003-05-19

 
 
 
 
61

The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector  

CERN Multimedia

A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11006

2011-01-01

62

A Study of Muon Neutrino Disappearance Using the Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Beam  

CERN Document Server

We report the results of a search for muon-neutrino disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27e20 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336 +/- 14 muon-neutrino charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to delta m-squared = 2.74e-3 +0.44/-0.26e-3 eV^2 and sin^2(2 theta) > 0.87 at 68% confidence level.

Kordosky, Michael; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cabrera, A; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drakoulakos, D; Durkin, T; Dytman, S A; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, i L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2007-01-01

63

Application of a new scheme for passing through transition energy to the Fermilab Main Ring and Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the vicinity of the transition energy of an ion synchrotron the longitudinal oscillation frequency drops and the motion becomes non-adiabatic; the result is emittance dilution. Furthermore, because the synchrotron oscillation is too slow to average particle energy gain, particles off the synchronous phase get too much or too little acceleration depending whether they lead or lag; therefore, momentum spread is increased. In this regime rf focusing degrades beam quality. To confront these effects directly the author has proposed eliminating the rf focusing near transition by flattening the rf waveform with a second or third harmonic component. The rf is phased so that all particles in the bunch are accelerated by the flattened portion, receiving just the acceleration required by the magnet cycle. The authors will show by concrete examples related to the Fermilab Main Ring (MR) and Main Injector (MI) that one can eliminate rf focusing sufficiently long before and after transition to reduce the maximum momentum spread and emittance growth significantly. Additionally, the bunch has its maximum phase spread at transition so the peak current and resulting microwave instability is mitigated, and bunch above transition becomes a satisfactory match to an accelerating bucket. The authors call this procedure the slide-under technique to distinguish it from the single-frequency duck-under technique and simultaneously to recognize that there are ideas in common

1991-05-06

64

Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMI Facility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13 and September 30, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report details the work done between June 13 and September 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, the facility produces (among other components) tritium in engineered materials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium is generated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to other regions within the facility, or be released to the environment

2006-01-01

65

Space charge measurements with a high intensity bunch at the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For Project X, the Fermilab Main Injector will be required to operate with 3 times higher bunch intensity. The plan to study the space charge effects at the injection energy with intense bunches will be discussed. A multi-MW proton facility has been established as a critical need for the U.S. HEP program by HEPAP and P5. Utilization of the Main Injector (MI) as a high intensity proton source capable of delivering in excess of 2 MW beam power will require a factor of three increase in bunch intensity compared to current operations. Instabilities associated with beam loading, space charge, and electron cloud effects are common issues for high intensity proton machines. The MI intensities for current operations and Project X are listed in Table 1. The MI provides proton beams for Fermilab's Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider and MINOS neutrino experiments. The proposed 2MW proton facility, Project X, utilizes both the Recycler (RR) and the MI. The RR will be reconfigured as a proton accumulator and injector to realize the factor 3 bunch intensity increase in the MI. Since the energy in the RR and the MI at injection will be 6-8 GeV, which is relatively low, space charge effects will be significant and need to be studied. Studies based on the formation of high intensity bunches in the MI will guide the design and fabrication of the RF cavities and space-charge mitigation devices required for 2 MW operation of the MI. It is possible to create the higher bunch intensities required in the MI using a coalescing technique that has been successfully developed at Fermilab. This paper will discuss a 5 bunch coalescing scheme at 8 GeV which will produce 2.5 x 10{sup 11} protons in one bunch. Bunch stretching will be added to the coalescing process. The required RF parameters were optimized with longitudinal simulations. The beam studies, that have a goal of 85% coalescing efficiency, were started in June 2010.

Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab; Yagodnitsyna, A.; /Novosibirsk State U.

2011-03-01

66

Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max is ?> 1.4, and the average electron density is ne ?> 1010 m-3 at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3

2007-04-09

67

Measurements of beam pipe eddy current effects in Main Injector dipole magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dipole magnets for the proposed Main Injector project at Fermilab are designed to ramp to maximum field (1.7 T) at rates over 2.5 T/s. These ramp rates will produce eddy current effects which degrade overall field quality. A harmonics probe was constructed for the purpose of measuring eddy current field components during the ramp cycle. Three separate ramp rates were employed ranging from 1.3 T/s to 2.7 T/s. Tests were performed using beam pipes with two different resistivities. The dominant multipole contribution resulting from eddy current effects in each beam pipe was sextupole. The sextupole component closely matched the calculated prediction

1992-07-20

68

Proposal for Drell-Yan Measurements of Nucleon and Nuclear Structure with the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose measuring the fractional momentum (x) dependence of the ratio of the anti-down to anti-up quark distributions in the proton, {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), using proton induced Drell-Yan reactions at 120 GeV. Recent measurements by FNAL E866 unexpectedly show considerable x dependence in this ratio for x > 0.2. A lower energy primary proton beam from the Main Injector makes it possible to extend the E866 measurements to larger x with much higher precision. The apparatus will also be used with nuclear targets to measure parton energy loss and modifications to anti-quark distributions in nuclear targets at large x (x > 0.2).

Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; /Abilene Christian U.; Arrinton, J.; Geesamn, D.F.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E.; Potterveld, D.H.; /Argonne; Brown, C.N.; /Fermilab; Garvey, G.T.; Leitch, M.J.; /Los Alamos /Rutgers U. /Texas A-M /Valparaiso U.

2001-04-01

69

Experimental Test of a New Antiproton Acceleration Scheme in the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

In an effort to provide higher intensity and lower emittance antiproton beam to the Tevatron collider for high luminosity operation, a new Main Injector (MI) antiproton acceleration scheme has been developed [1-4].* In this scheme, beam is accelerated from 8 to 27 GeV using the 2.5 MHz rf system and from 27 to 150 GeV using the 53 MHz rf system. This paper reports the experimental results of beam study. Simulation results are reported in a different PAC'05 paper [5]. Experiments are conducted with proton beam from the Booster. Acceleration efficiency, emittance growth and beam harmonic transfer between 2.5 MHz (h=28) and 53 MHz (h=588) buckets have been studied. Beam study shows that one can achieve an overall acceleration efficiency of about 100%, longitudinal emittance growth less than 20% and negligible transverse emittance growth.

Wu, Vincent; Chase, Brian; Dey, Joseph; Meisner, Keith G

2005-01-01

70

2.5 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are five 2.5 MHz ferrite cavities (h = 28) in the Main Injector with an R/Q of 500 that are presently used for coalescing for the Tevatron. For use with the Fermilab Recycler, feedforward (FF) beam loading compensation (BLC) is required on these cavities because they will be required to operate at a net of 2 kV. Under current Recycler beam conditions, the beam-induced voltage is of this order. Recently a system using a digital bucket delay module operating at 53 MHz (h = 588) was used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the 2.5 MHz cavities to cancel the beam induced voltage. During current operation they have shown consistently to operate with over a 20 dB reduction in beam loading.

Joseph E Dey, Ioanis Kourbanis and James Steimel

2003-05-19

71

Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} is {approx}> 1.4, and the average electron density is n{sub e} {approx}> 10{sup 10} m{sup -3} at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3].

Furman, M.A.

2007-06-04

72

Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

2008-05-01

73

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort (1). Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector (2-4). The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max, which we let vary in the range 1.2 (le) (delta)max (le) 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 ?max ?e. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency fRF = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population Ntot. The density ne goes through a clear threshold as a function of Ntot in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in Ntot is a factor ? 2 higher for fRF = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor ? 2 when Ntot is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed

2008-08-25

74

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

2010-10-08

75

Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance. An upgrade to the MI is being considered that would increase the bunch intensity Nb, from the present ? 1 x 1011 to 3 x 1011, corresponding to a total pulse intensity Ntot = 16.4 x 1013, in order to generate intense beams for the neutrino program. Such an increase in beam intensity would place the MI in a parameter regime where other storage rings have seen a significant EC effect. Motivated by this concern, efforts have been undertaken over the recent past to measure and simulate the magnitude of the effect and to assess its operational implications on the proposed upgrade. We report here a summary of simulation results obtained with the code POSINST, and certain benchmarks against measurements. Unless stated otherwise, the simulation parameters used are shown in Tab. 1. Some of these represent a slightly simplified version of the MI operation.

2009-05-04

76

Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

2009-07-01

77

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2011-01-01

78

The Fermilab Main Injector dipole and quadrupole cooling design and bus connections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed system for connecting the low conductivity water (LCW) and the electrical power to the magnets is explained. This system requires minimum maintenance. Stainless steel headers supply LCW to local, secondary manifolds which regulate the flow to the dipole and to the copper bus which conduct both power and cooling water to the quadrupole. A combination of ceramic feedthroughs and thermoplastic hoses insulate the piping electrically from the copper bus system. The utilities for the Main Injector are grouped together at the outside wall of the tunnel leaving most of the enclosure space for servicing. Space above the headers is available for future accelerator expansion. The new dipoles have bolted electrical connections with flexible copper jumpers. Separate compression fittings are used for the water connections. Each dipole magnet has two water circuits in parallel designed to minimize thermal stresses and the number of insulators. Two electrical insulators are used in series because this design has been shown to minimize electrolyses problems and copper ion deposits inside the insulators. The design value of the temperature gradient of the LCW is 8{degrees}C.

Satti, J.A.

1995-06-01

79

The Fermilab Main Injector dipole and quadrupole cooling design and bus connections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed system for connecting the low conductivity water (LCW) and the electrical power to the magnets is explained. This system requires minimum maintenance. Stainless steel headers supply LCW to local, secondary manifolds which regulate the flow to the dipole and to the copper bus which conduct both power and cooling water to the quadrupole. A combination of ceramic feedthroughs and thermoplastic hoses insulate the piping electrically from the copper bus system. The utilities for the Main Injector are grouped together at the outside wall of the tunnel leaving most of the enclosure space for servicing. Space above the headers is available for future accelerator expansion. The new dipoles have bolted electrical connections with flexible copper jumpers. Separate compression fittings are used for the water connections. Each dipole magnet has two water circuits in parallel designed to minimize thermal stresses and the number of insulators. Two electrical insulators are used in series because this design has been shown to minimize electrolyses problems and copper ion deposits inside the insulators. The design value of the temperature gradient of the LCW is 8 degrees C

1995-05-01

80

An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

D.A. Edwards

1998-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are -33.6 and -33.9 respectively. The ?p/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the ?p/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be ±5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here

1995-05-01

82

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort [1]. Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector [2-4]. The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}, which we let vary in the range 1.2 {le} {delta}{sub max} {le} 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 {approx}< {delta}{sub max} {approx}< 1.35 at this location. From this piece of information we estimate features of the EC distribution for various fill patterns, including the average electron number density n{sub e}. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency f{sub RF} = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population N{sub tot}. The density n{sub e} goes through a clear threshold as a function of N{sub tot} in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in N{sub tot} is a factor {approx} 2 higher for f{sub RF} = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor {approx} 2 when N{sub tot} is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed.

Furman, Miguel .A.

2008-08-25

83

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here

2007-04-09

84

CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE MAIN INJECTOR PARTICLE PRODUCTION (FNAL-E907) EXPERIMENT AT 58 GEV ENERGY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV {pi}, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary {pi}, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected {approx} 0.26 x 10{sup 6} events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; /Iowa U.

2009-12-01

85

Measurement of Charged Pion Production Yields off the NuMI Target  

CERN Document Server

The fixed-target MIPP experiment, Fermilab E907, was designed to measure the production of hadrons from the collisions of hadrons of momenta ranging from 5 to 120 GeV/c on a variety of nuclei. These data will generally improve the simulation of particle detectors and predictions of particle beam fluxes at accelerators. The spectrometer momentum resolution is between 3 and 4%, and particle identification is performed for particles ranging between 0.3 and 80 GeV/c using $dE/dx$, time-of-flight and Cherenkov radiation measurements. MIPP collected $1.42 \\times10^6$ events of 120 GeV Main Injector protons striking a target used in the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The data have been analyzed and we present here charged pion yields per proton-on-target determined in bins of longitudinal and transverse momentum between 0.5 and 80 GeV/c, with combined statistical and systematic relative uncertainties between 5 and 10%.

Paley, J M; Raja, R; Akgun, U; Asner, D M; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes,, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bhatnagar, V; Choudhary, B; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Graf, N; Gronberg, J; Gulmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Hartouni, E P; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kumar, A; Lange, D J; Lebedev, A; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Mahajan, S; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Singh, A; Solomey, N; Soltz, R A; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K

2014-01-01

86

Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb = 25 ns or tb = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta)max. For tb = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta)max is below ? 1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

2006-06-02

87

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

1995-05-01

88

K_L"0 ? ?"m"i"n"u"s"-"p"l"u"se"± at the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the attempts to replace the Standard Model with more satisfactory theories result in predictions that lepton flavor (separate lepton number) is not absolutely conserved. A new generation of experiments is underway to study decays in which lepton flavor conservation might be violated, such as K_L"0 ? ?"m"i"n"u"s"-"p"l"u"se"±, K"+ ? ?"+?"+e"-, ? ? e?, ? ? eee, and ?"-A ? e"-A. Since the form of a lepton number violating interaction is unknown, it is useful to probe all of these decays, and perhaps decays of B and D mesons, to whatever level is technically feasible. However, here we concentrate on the decay K_L"0 ? ?"m"i"n"u"s"-"p"l"u"se"±. The three most recent experiments on this process have been E780 at BNL, E791 at BNL, and KEK E137, which currently report (90% C.L.) upper limits on the branching fraction of 1.9 x 10"-"9, 2.2 x 10"-"1"0, and 4.3 x 10"-"1"0 respectively. While E780 is complete, the two other experiments are in the process of collecting larger samples and a combined sensitivity of about 2 x 10"-"1"1 is likely (by sensitivity we mean the branching fraction which would produce one observed event). Any new experiment should aim at a sensitivity of 10"-"1"3. There are several places which might offer a suitable beam: the BNL AGS with the Booster, the Fermilab Main Injector (MI), and the TRIUMF KAON facility. 5 refs

1989-08-15

89

Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

1991-05-06

90

Electron linac injector developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

1986-06-02

91

Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for theLHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity N{sub b} at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing t{sub b} = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in N{sub b} beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings t{sub b} = 25 ns or t{sub b} = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are N{sub b} and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}. For t{sub b} = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if {delta}{sub max} is below {approx} 1.2 at nominal N{sub b}. For t{sub b} = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2.

Furman, M.A.

2006-06-14

92

The ArgoNeuT Detector in the NuMI Low-Energy beam line at Fermilab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ArgoNeuT liquid argon time projection chamber has collected thousands of neutrino and antineutrino events during an extended run period in the NuMI beam-line at Fermilab. This paper focuses on the main aspects of the detector layout and related technical features, including the cryogenic equipment, time projection chamber, read-out electronics, and off-line data treatment. The detector commissioning phase, physics run, and first neutrino event displays are also reported....

Anderson, C.; Antonello, M.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fleming, B.; Greenlee, H.; Guenette, R.; Haug, S.; Horton-smith, G.

2012-01-01

93

Rocket injector head  

Science.gov (United States)

A high number of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen orifices per unit area are provided in an injector head designed to give intimate mixing and more thorough combustion. The injector head comprises a main body portion, a cooperating plate member as a flow chamber for one propellant, a cooperating manifold portion for the second propellant, and an annular end plate for enclosing an annular propellant groove formed around the outer edge of the body. All the openings for one propellant are located at the same angle with respect to a radial plane to permit a short combustion chamber.

Green, C. W., Jr. (inventor)

1968-01-01

94

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included

1997-01-01

95

Accumulator injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An accumulator injector is described for injecting a pressurized charge of fuel into a cylinder of an internal combustion engine comprising: an injector body having a fuel inlet for receiving pressurized fuel at a supply pressure, an accumulator pressure chamber communicating with the fuel inlet for accumulating pressurized fuel, and a valve opening for discharging accumulated pressurized fuel; a control chamber communicating with the fuel inlet and adapted for rapid charging with pressurized fuel; pressure release means controllably actuable to effect a rapid decrease in pressure in the control chamber; a valve member axially displaceable in response to opposing pressures in the accumulator and control pressure chambers to open and close the valve opening; a shuttle bore forming opposing bleed chambers communicating with the control and accumulator pressure chambers; a shuttle piston means received in the shuttle bore and displaceable in response to the pressure differential between the control chamber and the accumulator chamber to inversely variably change the volume of the opposing bleed chambers so that actuation of the pressure release means results in a two-phase displacement of the valve member.

Kelly, W.W.

1986-08-12

96

Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for {nu}{sub {mu}} is given approximately by 1 - sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}sin{sup 2}(1.27{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}L/E), where{theta}{sub 23} and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} between the mass eigenstates {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 2}, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a {nu}{sub {mu}} interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x10{sup 20} protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2{+-}16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level {alpha} = 4.2 x 10{sup -3}. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.32 {+-}{sup 1.06}{sub 0.75} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.74 {+-}{sup 0.44}{sub 0.26} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.87 (68% CL).

McGowan, Aaron Michael; /Minnesota U.

2007-08-01

97

Off-axis experiment in the NuMI beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab will provide the most intense high energy neutrino beam in the world. We describe briefly the NuMI beam and its current status, a possible detector for an off-axis experiment, and the potential sensitivity for ?? ? ?e oscillations. It is shown that with a low Z 50 kt detector, one can improve on the current limit from CHOOZ in a 5 year run by a factor of about 20. (author)

2003-02-10

98

The ArgoNeuT Detector in the NuMI Low-Energy beam line at Fermilab  

CERN Document Server

The ArgoNeuT liquid argon time projection chamber has collected thousands of neutrino and antineutrino events during an extended run period in the NuMI beam-line at Fermilab. This paper focuses on the main aspects of the detector layout and related technical features, including the cryogenic equipment, time projection chamber, read-out electronics, and o?-line data treatment. The detector commissioning phase, physics run, and first neutrino event displays are also reported. The characterization of the main working parameters of the detector during data-taking, the ionization electron drift velocity and lifetime in liquid argon, as obtained from through-going muon data complete the present report.

Anderson, C; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Guenette, R; Haug, S; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lathrop, A; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Linden, S; McKee, D; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Rossi, B; Sanders, R; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Wongjirad, T; Zeller, G

2012-01-01

99

H"- injector for ADRIA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synchrotron of the ADRIA project, proposed for the upgrading of LNL accelerator complex, have the capability to accelerate protons with an injection energy of 210 MeV, repetition rate of 50 Hz and an average current of about 32 ?A. In this paper we shall spell out a new proposal for the H"- injector in this mode of operation. The main components of the linac are a double frequency (32.5 MHz, 65 MHz), an RFQ and DTL cavities (425 MHz). The buncher gives to the bunch sequences the time structure corresponding to the Synchrotron RF frequency at injection. The shunt impedance in DTL cavities (equipped with rare earth quadrupoles) remains sufficiently high up to the synchrotron injection energy. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

1992-11-01

100

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(...

Michael, Dg; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allison, Ww; Alner, Gj; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Arms, Ke; Armstrong, R.; Arroyo, C.; Auty, Dj; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, Ds

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27x10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 +/- 14 events. The data are consistent with nu(...

Michael, D. G.; Adamson, P.; Alexopoulos, T.; Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Arroyo, C.; Auty, D. J.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D. S.

2006-01-01

102

High-frequency light gas fuel pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tokamak fuel pellet injector designed on the base of a light gas gun and intended for acceleration of solid hydrogen pellets with 1-10 Hsub(Z) frequency during 5s is described. The main injector elements are cryogenic former and pneumatic accelerator. The injector is made lightly dismountable and it is provided with diagnostic devices for controlling and studying all stages of formation and acceleration of pellets

1984-06-20

103

Particle injector for fluid systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A particle injector device provides injection of particles into a liquid eam. The device includes a funnel portion comprising a conical member having side walls tapering from a top opening (which receives the particles) down to a relatively smaller exit opening. A funnel inlet receives a portion of the liquid stream and the latter is directed onto the side walls of the conical member so as to create a cushion of liquid against which the particles impact. A main section of the device includes an inlet port in communication with the exit opening of the funnel portion. A main liquid inlet receives the main portion of the liquid stream at high pressure and low velocity and a throat region located downstream of the main liquid inlet accelerates liquid received by this inlet from the low velocity to a higher velocity so as to create a low pressure area at the exit opening of the funnel portion. An outlet opening of the main section enables the particles and liquid stream to exit from the injector device.

Ruch, Jeffrey F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1997-01-01

104

Injector losses on Mite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses injector losses on the Mite accelerator at the Sandia National Laboratories. Topics considered in the paper include energy losses, energy transfer, electron beam injection, and electron beams

1985-01-01

105

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-01-01

106

Observation of Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current ?? interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27x1020 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336±14 events. The data are consistent with ?? disappearance via oscillations with vertical bar ?m322 vertical bar =2.74-0.26+0.44x10-3 eV2 and sin2(2?23)>0.87 (68% C.L.)

2006-11-10

107

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(mu) disappearance via oscillations with |Delta(m)2/32|=2.74 +0.44/-0.26 x10(-3)eV(2) and sin(2)(2theta(23))>0.87 (68% C.L.). PMID:17155614

Michael, D G; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; de Jong, J K; DeMuth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Terekhov, A; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-11-10

108

MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

2011-05-01

109

Beam Dynamics Optimization for the Xfel Photo Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The main challenge for the European XFEL photo injector is the production of 1 nC electron beams with a normalized transverse emittance of 0.9 mm mrad. The photo injector setup consists of a 1.5-cell L-band rf gun cavity supplied with solenoids for beam focusing and emittance compensation and the first accelerating section with 8 TESLA superconducting cavities. The first 4 cavities are used as a booster to provide by proper choice of its position, gradient and phase matching conditions for the emittance conservation. For optimization of the beam dynamics in the photo injector, a staged algorithm, based on ASTRA simulations, has been developed. The first stage considers the emission of electrons from a photo cathode. The cathode laser energy and its transverse parameters are adjusted to produce a bunch charge of 1 nC in presence of space charge forces (including image charge at the cathode) and Schottky-like effects. The second stage contains rf gun cavity and solenoid optimization. The booster position, gradient and initial phase are optimized at the third stage yielding the minimum emittance at the photo injector exit. Results of the XFEL photo injector optimization will be presented. Besides simulations experimental studies towards XFEL photo injector are carried out. The photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) develops photo injectors for FELs, including FLASH and the European XFEL. A thorough comparison of measured data with results of beam dynamics simulations is one of the main PITZ goals. Detailed experimental studies on photo emission processes, thermal emittance, transverse and longitudinal phase space of the electron beam are being performed together with beam dynamics simulations. This aims to result in better understanding of beam dynamics in high brightness photo injectors. Experimentally obtained photo injector characteristics (like thermal emittance) have to be used in an additional optimization of the photo injector resulting in more realistic beam dynamics simulations. Results of these studies will be reported as well.

Krasilnikov, Mikhail

110

Linac LU-20 as injector of Nuclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The linac LU-20 created as an injector of Synchrophasotron and Nuclotron is described. Tables of main parameters and beam intensities are included. The functional diagram of LU-20 is shown. Injection channels, diagnostic and control systems are described also. The scheme of beam transport line is also provided. (author)

1996-11-15

111

The SSRL injector beam position monitoring systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beam position monitoring system of the SSRL injector forms a vital component of its operation. Several different types of instrumentation are used to measure the position or intensity of the electron beam in the injector. These include current toroids, fluorescent screens, Faraday cups, the 'Q' meter, a synchrotron light monitor, and electron beam position monitors. This paper focuses on the use of the electron beam position monitors to measure electron trajectories in the injector transport lines and the booster ring. The design of the beam position monitors is described in another paper to be presented at this conference. There are three different beam position monitor systems in the injector. One system consists of a set of five BPMs located on the injection transport line from the linac to the booster (known as the LTB line). There is a second system of six BPMs located on the ejection transport line (known as the BTS line). Finally, there is an array of 40 BPMs installed on the main booster ring itself. This article describes the software and processing electronics of the systems used to measure electron beam trajectories for the new SSRL injector for SPEAR

1991-05-06

112

Major components for the RISP injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • We designed the injector elements for RISP superconducting linac. • Beam dynamics was calculated to meet requirements for the linac. • Superconducting ECR and RFQ were chosen to supply the beam current of uranium. -- Abstract: The injector for the main driver linac of the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea has been designed to supply ions ranging from proton to uranium which will be used to meet requirements of the 400 kW inflight fragmentation (IF) system. The injector includes two superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, a low energy beam transport (LEBT), a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Major elements were optimized and selected by calculating uranium beam optics which will then be delivered to the low energy superconducting linac.

Hong, In-Seok, E-mail: ishong@ibs.re.kr [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Dong-O [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science (Korea, Republic of); Bahng, Jung-Bae; Kim, Eun-San [Department of Physics, Kyungbook National University (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15

113

Photoelectric injector design code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We will describe a computer code based on an analysis for an emittance growth mechanism for electron beams in photoelectric injectors. The analysis leads to a generic injector design with a single external solenoid used for both focusing the beam and reducing the correlated emittance. The position of the solenoid is given by a complicated integral expression, depending on the accelerating gradient and rf focusing. The computer code described here integrates this expression and calculates the best solenoid lens position for a given phasing and field amplitudes of the accelerating cavities. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Carlsten, B.E.

1989-01-01

114

Effect of structural optimization on performance of Venturi injector  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the main fertilization devices, Venturi injector has been widely used in small and medium-sized pipe irrigation systems. However, the pressure loss produced by it during fertilizer injection decreases fertilization quality and irrigation uniformity. The structural optimization of the Venturi injector was carried out using orthogonal experimental design and CFD technology. An injector sample with the optimal combination of structural parameters and the highest injection efficiency was processed to test the performance of the injectors before and after optimization. The injection rate, the maximum injection rate, the flow ratio of the injection rate to the outlet flow rate and other performance parameters were significantly improved while the critical pressure differential was obviously reduced, which indicated that the range of working pressure of the injector was remarkably expanded. Additionally, the feasibility and accuracy of the structural optimization scheme were verified by the experiment.

Yan, H. J.; Chen, Y.; Chu, X. Y.; Xu, Y. C.; Wang, Z. P.

2012-11-01

115

Effect of structural optimization on performance of Venturi injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As one of the main fertilization devices, Venturi injector has been widely used in small and medium-sized pipe irrigation systems. However, the pressure loss produced by it during fertilizer injection decreases fertilization quality and irrigation uniformity. The structural optimization of the Venturi injector was carried out using orthogonal experimental design and CFD technology. An injector sample with the optimal combination of structural parameters and the highest injection efficiency was processed to test the performance of the injectors before and after optimization. The injection rate, the maximum injection rate, the flow ratio of the injection rate to the outlet flow rate and other performance parameters were significantly improved while the critical pressure differential was obviously reduced, which indicated that the range of working pressure of the injector was remarkably expanded. Additionally, the feasibility and accuracy of the structural optimization scheme were verified by the experiment.

2012-11-26

116

Offline Raw Data Injector  

CERN Document Server

The Offline Injector Integration into the LHCb data flow system. Large file disks recorded data samples of real proton-proton collisions at the beauty detector before the LHC shutdown in 2012. These data are distributed over 1000 servers. Project goal, reading the files and injecting them into the lower level buffers.

Devetak, Damir

2013-01-01

117

PLT neutral injector performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience with respect to beamline operation on PLT and on the Princeton test stand is reviewed. We discuss the performance of the injectors, beam energy distributions as measured by two techniques, beam-associated impurities, control of gas evolution in the drift duct by titanium evaporation, reionization in the drift duct, and the computer archiving and control system currently under development

1978-06-30

118

Linac pre-injector  

CERN Multimedia

New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

1965-01-01

119

Horn Operational Experience in K2K, MiniBooNE, NuMI and CNGS  

CERN Document Server

This paper gives an overview of the operation and experience gained in the running of magnetic horns in conventional neutrino beam lines (K2K, MiniBooNE, NuMI and CNGS) over the last decade. Increasing beam power puts higher demands on horn conductors but even more on their hydraulic and electrical systems, while the horn environment itself becomes more hostile due to radiation. Experience shows that designing horns for remote handling and testing them extensively without beam become prerequisites for successful future neutrino beam lines.

Pardons, A

2008-01-01

120

Measurement of neutrino oscillations with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI beam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting vertical bar Delta m(2)vertical bar = (2.43 +/- 0.13) x 10(-3) eV(2) (68% C.L.) and mixing angle sin(2)(2 theta) > 0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight: namely, neutrino decays into lighter p...

Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Baller, B.; Barnes, P. D.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Becker, B. R.; Belias, A.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bhattacharya, D.; Bishai, M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

(G. J. Feldman is the Harvard author) This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |delta m^2|=(2.43±0.13)×10^-3 eV^2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle (sin(2*theta))^2>0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight: namely, neutrino decays into ligh...

Morfin, J.; Sousa, A.; Bower, C.; Holin, A.; Marshall, J. S.; Gallagher, H. R.; Barr, G.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Hylen, J.; Mayer, N.; Meier, J. R.; Merzon, G. I.; Nichol, R. J.; Watabe, M.; Evans, J. J.

2008-01-01

122

Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report constraints on antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% muon antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4 +/- 11.7(stat) ^{+10.2}_{-8.9}(syst) events under the assumption |dm2bar|=2.32x10^-3 eV^2, snthetabar=1.0. Assuming no oscillations occur at the Near Detector baseline,...

Minos, Collaboration; Adamson, P.; Auty, D. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Cavanaugh, S.; Cherdack, D.; Childress, S.

2011-01-01

123

Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2|=(2.43\\pm 0.13)\\times10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ (68% confidence level) and mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta)>0.90$ (90% confidence level). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight, namely neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard deviation levels, respectively.

Adamson, P; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

2008-01-01

124

Testing CPT conservation using the NuMI neutrino beam with the MINOS experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS experiment was designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters with muon neutrinos. It achieves this by measuring the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor composition of the man-made NuMI neutrino beam 1km after the beam is formed and again after 735 km. By comparing the two spectra it is possible to measure the oscillation parameters. The NuMI beam is made up of 7.0% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, which can be separated from the {nu}{sub {mu}} because the MINOS detectors are magnetized. This makes it possible to study {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations separately from those of muon neutrinos, and thereby test CPT invariance in the neutrino sector by determining the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters and comparing them with those for {nu}{sub {mu}}, although any unknown physics of the antineutrino would appear as a difference in oscillation parameters. Such a test has not been performed with beam {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} before. It is also possible to produce an almost pure {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam by reversing the current through the magnetic focusing horns of the NuMI beamline, thereby focusing negatively, instead of positively charged particles. This thesis describes the analysis of the 7% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} component of the forward horn current NuMI beam. The {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} of a data sample of 3.2 x 10{sup 20} protons on target analysis found 42 events, compared to a CPT conserving prediction of 58.3{sub -7.6}{sup +7.6}(stat.){sub -3.6}{sup +3.6}(syst.) events. This corresponds to a 1.9 {sigma} deficit, and a best fit value of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} = 18 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23} = 0.55. This thesis focuses particularly on the selection of {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} events, and investigates possible improvements of the selection algorithm. From this a different selector was chosen, which corroborated the findings of the original selector. The thesis also investigates how the systematic errors affect the precision of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}. Furthermore, it describes a study to determine the gains of the PMTs via the single-photoelectron spectrum. The results were used as a crosscheck of the gains determined at higher intensities by an LED-based light-injection system.

Auty, David John; /Sussex U.

2010-05-01

125

Tritium pellet injector results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

1988-10-02

126

Pellet injectors for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

1981-01-01

127

Update to the NLC Injector System Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance 8 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a 265 ns train of bunches (190 bunches spaced by 1.4 ns or 95 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns); each bunch has a population of up to 1.6 x 1010 particles for 2.8 ns (or 0.8 x 1010 particles for 1.4 ns). Horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be ?(varepsilon)x = 3 x 10-6 m-rad and ?(varepsilon)y = 2 x 10-8 m-rad; bunch length at injection is variable from 90-140 (micro)m. Electron polarization of greater than 80% is required. Electron and positron beams are generated in separate accelerator complexes each of which contains the source, damping ring systems, linacs, bunch length compressors, and collimation regions. Investigation into the feasibility of polarized positrons for the NLC has begun; operations at 180 Hz and the centralization of the injector complex have been studied. The need for affordable, low technical risk, reliable injector subsystems is a major consideration in the design effort. This paper presents an overview of the NLC injector systems with an emphasis on changes in the design since 1999 [1] and discusses the planned R and D

2002-01-01

128

A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |{Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}|, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 23}. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

Ling, Jiajie; /South Carolina U.

2010-07-01

129

Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described.

Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

2013-10-15

130

Control system in SwissFEL injector test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Free Electron Laser (SwissFEL) Injector Test Facility is an important milestone for the realization of a new SwissFEL facility at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The first beam in the Test Facility was produced on the 24. of August 2010 which inaugurated the Injector operation. Since then, the beam quality in various aspects has been greatly improved. The primary goal of the Injector Test Facility is to demonstrate a high-brightness electron beam which will be required to drive the SwissFEL main linac. The Injector further serves as a platform for the development and validation of accelerator components needed for the SwissFEL project. This paper presents the current status of the Test Facility and is focused on the control system related issues which led to the successful commissioning. In addition, the technical challenges and opportunities in view of the future SwissFEL facility are discussed. (authors)

2011-10-10

131

Parameter optimization of JAERI ERL injector by simulated annealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerating parameters of the JAERI ERL injector are optimized to generate high peak-current electron beam for high-power FEL operation. Simulated annealing is employed for the optimization method, because the bunching action in the injector is very complicated due to a merger of the ERL main loop. Optimization result of the local optimization method such as Newton method strongly depends on starting parameters of the optimization. Since a set of the stating parameters cannot be fixed a priori for the JAERI ERL injector, the optimization has to be done by the global optimization method such as simulated annealing. It is found that over 60 A peak current of the electron beam can be achieved in the JAERI ERL injector. (author)

2004-08-04

132

The JET High Frequency Pellet Injector Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new High Frequency Deuterium Pellet Injector is in preparation, as part of the JET programme in support of ITER approved by the EFDA Steering Committee in early 2005. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localised Modes, responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. Indeed it has been recently demonstrated on AUG that the ELM frequency can be imposed by the pellet injection frequency. The energy ejected during each ELM being inversely proportional to the frequency, the capacity of injecting small pellets at typically three times the intrinsic ELM frequency (up to 50-60 Hz) is the main performance required for the new injector. The injector is being designed and built by PELIN LCC (St Petersburg, Russia) on the basis of the injector installed in 2003 on Tore Supra. A prototype is in preparation which will demonstrate the capacity to reach the required performance both for ELM control (pellet volume 1-2 mm3, pellet speed 50-200 m/s and frequency up to 60 Hz) and for plasma fuelling (pellet volume 35-70 mm3, pellet speed 100-500 m/s and frequency up to 15 Hz). The injector is based on the screw extruder technology, which allows injection of an unlimited number of pellets per plasma pulse with a very high level of reliability. One single extruder with two small nozzles and one large nozzle allows the formation of either two simultaneous continuous ribbons of ice or one continuous large rod of ice. A set of electromagnetic cutters and fast valves for pneumatic acceleration is used to cut and accelerate the pellets. The high frequency for the small pellets is obtained by cutting alternatively pellets in the two small ribbons of ice. The injector is connected to the JET machine via a pumping line, required to pump the propellant gas, including a four way fast selector to choose the flight tube to be used to convey the pellets towards the plasma (3 tracks are available on JET for injection from the Low Field Side, from the High Field side or vertically). After a brief presentation of the project organisation, the overall design will be discussed as well as the first results obtained with the prototype. (author)

2006-09-11

133

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm_2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

1983-03-21

134

Electromagnetic fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an electromagnetic fuel injector for an internal combustion engine having a valve axis and including a housing, a flat armature connected to a movable valve element arranged to cooperate with a valve seat, spring means for exerting a force in an axial direction on the armature, and an electromagnetic means for exerting a force in an opposite direction on the armature when electrically energized. The improvement described here comprises: the armature being generally circular and having a portion contoured to define a pivot axis for pivoting engagement with a stationary portion of the fuel injector, the pivot axis including at least two points defining the endpoints of a chord of the armature; and means for concentrating the force applied to the armature by the spring means such that the greater axial spring force is applied to the armature to that side of the valve axis remote from the pivot axis thereby to effect pivoting of the armature about the pivot axis.

Taxon, M.N.; Maguran, G.A.

1987-04-07

135

First Beam Tests of the TTF Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Following tests of the various sub-assemblies at Saclay and Orsay, installation of the entire TESLA Test Facility Injector was completed in Hall 3 at DESY in December 1996. The first phase of operation employs a 250 kV thermionic electron source providing an 800?s train of bunches, each containing 37 pC, and followed by a 216.7 MHz pre-bunching cavity. Subsequent bunching and acceleration is achieved using a standard 1.3 GHz superconducting 9 cell TESLA cavity operated in pulsed mode (10 Hz). Prior to injection in the main linac, the beam parameters are verified using a spectrometer consisting of a dipole magnet and SEM profile monitor. Once the beam is adjusted it is transported to the linac using an optical matching system employing two triplets. Results will be presented of the first beam tests of the completed injector which took place early in 1997.

Garvey, T.; Bernard, M.; Bourdon, J. C.; Chehab, R.; Mencik, M.; Omeich, M.; Rodier, J.; Taurigna-Quere, M.; Variola, A.; Chel, S.; Desmons, M.; Fusellier, J.; Gougnaud, F.; Gournay, J. F.; Jablonka, M.; Joly, J. M.; Juillard, M.; Lussignol, Y.; Mosnier, A.; Phung Ngoc, B.; Buhler, S.; Junquera, T.

1997-05-01

136

Spectral distribution of SPARC photo injector electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SPARC is a photo-injector for production of high-brightness low emittance electron beams to drive a FEL experiment in various configurations, including SASE-FEL radiation of 1-10nm (SPARCX project). Due to a high-brightness source, the SPARC facility can be used to study the physics of ultrashort beams, plasma-wave based acceleration, production of X-rays by means of Compton backscattering, channeling of electron beams and other experiments. The initial process of electron beam generation inside the RF gun determines the main parameters of the electron beam. Interaction of electrons with high-frequency laser beam leads to modulation of the electron beam. In this paper we present electron beam spectral distribution for SPARC photo injector parameters. The estimate of electron beam energy loss for such electron distribution also is given.

2011-01-01

137

Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report constraints on antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% muon antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4±11.7(stat)-8.9+10.2(syst) events under the assumption |?m2|=2.32x10-3 eV2, sin2(2?)=1.0. Assuming no oscillations occur at the Near Detector baseline, a fit to the two-flavor oscillation approximation constrains |?m2|-3 eV2 at the 90% confidence level with sin2(2?)=1.0.

2011-10-01

138

Proposal for continuously-variable neutrino beam energy for the NuMI facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI Facility was intended to be flexibly changed between 3 energies of beams, LE, ME, and HE. However, the changeover requires extensive downtime to move and realign horns and the target. We propose to implement a flexible arrangement where the target can be remotely moved in the beamline direction to change the beam energy and the horns remain fixed. In addition to having the attractive feature of keeping the horn optics fixed, the motion of the target can be performed more quickly and hence on a more frequent basis. We discuss potential increases in statistics in the high energy region, systematic cross-checks available, and the improved beam monitoring capabilities with such variable energy beams.

Kostin, Mikhail; Kopp, Sacha; /Texas U.; Messier, Mark; /Harvard U.; Harris, Deborah A.; Hylen, Jim; Para, Adam; /Fermilab

2006-07-01

139

The PEANUT experiment in the NuMI beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PEANUT experiment was designed to study neutrino interactions in the few GeV range using the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The detector uses a hybrid technique, being made of nuclear emulsions and scintillator trackers. Emulsion films act as a tracking device and they are interleaved with lead plates used as neutrino targets. The detector is designed to reconstruct the topology of neutrino interactions at the single particle level. We present here the full reconstruction and analysis of a sample of 147 neutrino interactions that occurred in the PEANUT detector and the measurement of the quasielastic, resonance and deep-inelastic contributions to the total charged-current cross section. This technique could be applied for the beam monitoring at future neutrino facilities.

2010-03-30

140

The light-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Commissioning the LCLS Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

2007-11-28

142

Commissioning the LCLS Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics

2007-11-28

143

Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

2003-12-01

144

Electromagnetic fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an electromagnetic fuel injector for an internal combustion engine having a valve axis and including a housing, a flat armature connected to a movable valve element arranged to cooperate with a valve seat, spring means for exerting a force in an axial direction on the armature, and electromagnetic means for exerting a force in an opposite direction on the armature when electrically energized. The improvement comprises: the spring means being a helical coil spring disposed in substantially coaxial alignment with the valve axis and having an end in compressive engagement with the armature, the final coil which includes the end of the coil spring being inclined axially outward at an angle relative to a plane normal to the axis of the spring so as to apply to the armature a greater axial spring force to one side of the valve axis than the other thereby to effect pivoting of the armature about a pivot, the pivot being determined by the location of the end of the coil spring.

Gieseking, J.H.

1987-04-28

145

Electromagnetic unit fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an electromagnetic unit fuel injector of the type having a housing with a pump cylinder. An externally actuated plunger is reciprocable in the cylinder to define a pump chamber. A valve controlled injection nozzle is connected to the housing in flow communication with the pump chamber. The housing further includes a supply/spill chamber and a spring/drain chamber in axial spaced apart relationship to each other. A valve stem guide bore between and with a conical valve seat encircling the guide bore at the supply/spill chamber. The improvement described in this patent includes a solenoid which includes a stator operatively fixed at one end to the housing to partly enclose one end of the supply/spill chamber. A cup-shaped cover is fixed to the opposite end of the stator to define an armature chamber. The armature is operatively located in the armature chamber. The stator has a bore, a guide pin reciprocably journaled in the slator, and a nonmagnetic seal operatively and sealingly associated with the stator and the guide pin to prevent fuel flow from the supply/spill chamber to the armature chamber. The guide pin has one end operatively connected to the armature. The opposite end of the guide pin extends into the supply/spill chamber to abut against the valve. Upon enerization of the solenoid the armature is operative to push the valve in an axial direction to block flow communication between the supply/spill chamber and the passage.

Deckard, J.L.; Teerman, R.F.; Bosch, R.H.

1986-02-04

146

Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

2009-01-01

147

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain - POSTPONED!  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB The lectures are postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

148

Beam instrumentation in the LEP Pre-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this paper is to review the beam instrumentation of the LEP pre-injector (LPI) including its design philosophy and software. The usefulness of these equipments for the LPI start-up is considered from an operational point of view and encountered problems are mentioned

1987-01-01

149

Microfabrication of a metal fuel injector nozzle array  

Science.gov (United States)

Furl injector nozzles fabricate with micrometer-scale swirler channels are being fabricated using a combination of micro-fabrication and precision machining. Arrays of fuel injector nozzles are an integral component of the Trapped- Vortex (TV) gas turbine combustor for use in advanced aircraft engines. The principle of TV is to improve flame stabilization through interaction between the main and secondary combustion processes. The fabrication of an array of fuel injectors requires nickel microstructures to be electro deposited on both sides of a nickel substrate in order to segregate the inlet air and fuel flows. The microstructures assist in the atomization of the fuel and induce swirl in the fluids. For each injector, a micrometer- scale cone drilled through the plate facilitates mixing of swirling fuel and air. The mixture is then injected into the secondary combustion chamber with a low-pressure air supply, which is required in order to obtain stoichiometric conditions. The prototype fuel injectors are composed of four individual plates. Two plates seal the air and fuel channels. Another plate contains the micro fabricated swirlers. The fourth plate is used to define the low- pressure air reservoir. The plates were mechanically fastened together using alignment pins for accurate plate positioning. Precision machining was used to position and drill the holes required for alignment, fluid flow, and connectors.

Morris, Tracy E.; Murphy, Michael C.; Acharya, Sumanta

2000-08-01

150

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

151

Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

Wiebe, David J.

2012-10-09

152

Condensation phenomena in condensing injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Condensing injectors have been considered recently for passive emergency core cooling of boiling water reactors. The injector involves the condensation of a high-velocity vapor onto a cocurrent subcooled liquid jet. Previous models assumed the condensation process to be liquid-side limited. However, such models did not agree with the observed flow phenomena. Hence, a vapor-side limited condensation process was considered by the authors. The analysis indicated that high condensation rates cannot be sustained by a coherent jet but can be accommodated by an increase in interfacial area resulting from cavitation and aerodynamic jet breakup

1992-06-07

153

Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions  

CERN Document Server

A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

1979-01-01

154

First studies of ATA injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operational characteristics of the 10 kA, 60 ns, 2.5 MeV ATA injector are presented. Studies of beam emittance, beam profile, rf spectrum and other aspects of beam dynamics were performed, as was a detailed study of the operation and interaction of the plasma cathode and the extraction grid.

Prono, D.S.; Birx, D.L.; Briggs, R.J.; Chong, Y.P.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hester, R.E.; Lauer, E.J.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Struve, K.W.

1983-08-01

155

ANL high-resolution injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne tandem linac accelerator system). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed

1986-01-01

156

Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

Dowell, D

2010-12-10

157

Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

2010-01-01

158

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

1992-06-07

159

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single- stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. A new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

1992-05-01

160

Pb injector at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the CERN Lead Ion Accelerating Facility (achieved within a collaboration of several outside laboratories and with financial help of some member states) a new dedicated Linac has been built. This Linac has been installed in 1994 and served during two extended physics runs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of this machine and describes the first operational experience. Emphasis is put on new features of this accelerator, its associated equipment and on the peculiarities of heavy ions. (author)

1996-11-15

 
 
 
 
161

Using Quasi-Elastic Events to Measure Neutrino Oscillations with MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been designed to search for a change in the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as they travel between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Far Detector in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, 735 km from the target. The MINOS oscillation analysis is mainly performed with the charged current (CC) events and sensitive to constrain high-{Delta}m{sup 2} values. However, the quasi-elastic (QEL) charged current interaction is dominant in the energy region important to access low-{Delta}m{sup 2} values. For further improvement, the QEL oscillation analysis is performed in this dissertation. A data sample based on a total of 2.50 x 10{sup 20} POT is used for this analysis. In summary, 55 QEL-like events are observed at the Far detector while 87.06 {+-} 13.17 (syst.) events are expected with null oscillation hypothesis. These data are consistent with {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance via oscillation with {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.10 {+-} 0.37 (stat.) {+-} 0.24 (syst.) eV{sup 2} and the maximal mixing angle.

Watabe, Masaki; /Texas A& M University

2010-05-01

162

ATA injector-gun calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

1981-01-01

163

Centrifuge pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

1983-01-01

164

The FNAL Injector Upgrade Status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new FNAL H{sup -} injector upgrade is currently being tested before installation in the Spring 2012 shutdown of the accelerator complex. This line consists of an H{sup -} source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), 200 MHz RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Beam measurements have been performed to validate the design before installation. The results of the beam measurements are presented in this paper.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Karns, P.R.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A; Scarpine, V.E.; Tomlin, R.E.; /Fermilab

2012-05-14

165

Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ? Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ? ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ? Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times

2013-10-01

166

Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ? Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ? ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ? Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times.

Géraud, A., E-mail: alain.geraud@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [JET-EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alarcon, T. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bennett, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Frigione, D. [ENEA, CP 65, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Garnier, D. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lang, P.T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lukin, A. [PELIN LLC, 27 Gzhatskaya St., Saint-Petersburg 195220 (Russian Federation); Mooney, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vinyar, I. [PELIN LLC, 27 Gzhatskaya St., Saint-Petersburg 195220 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

167

Improvements of injector RF system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several improvements have been done recently in injector RF system and were described. The frequency automatic tuning system and the amplitude stabilization system of the injector SFC have been improved. The accuracy of the frequency tuning and the stability of the amplitude are within +-1 x 10-5 and +-1 x 10-3 respectively after developing the two systems. The low energy buncher B0 was designed and constructed in order to modulate the continuous beams from ECR ion source and to match the RF accelerating phase of the injector SFC. The buncher B0 runs well and the extraction beams from SFC are three to seven times bigger than that without using it. The Dee box was redesigned and reconstructed in order to meet the requirement of the SFC centre region for injection condition of the ECR ion source. The multipactoring levels were much reduced after the Dee box was replaced by new one and the cavity is more stable in operation

1994-08-01

168

3 GeV Injector Design Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2009-12-16

169

Injector timing for GM diesel series 71, using 70mm, 80mm, and 90mm injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The film surveys conditions that necessitate injector timing. It gives timing procedures, with particular attention to proper use of timing tool 4-1853, and shows adjustment of rocker arm assembly and injector timing.

NONE

1994-12-31

170

Injector timing for GM diesel series 71, using 70mm, 80mm, and 90mm injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The film surveys conditions that necessitate injector timing. It gives timing procedures, with particular attention to proper use of timing tool 4-1853, and shows adjustment of rocker arm assembly and injector timing.

1994-01-01

171

Design of Injector Systems for LUX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LUX concept [1] for a superconducting recirculating linac based ultrafast x-ray facility features a unique high-brightness electron beam injector. The design of the injector complex that meets the baseline requirements for LUX is presented. A dual-rf gun injector provides both high-brightness electron beams to drive the cascaded, seeded harmonic generation VUV-soft x-ray FELs as well as the ultra- low-vertical emittance (''flat'') beams that radiate in hard x-ray spontaneous emission synchrotron beamlines. Details of the injector complex design and performance characteristics are presented. Contributions by the thermal emittance and optical pulse shaping to the beam emission at the photocathode and to the beam dynamics throughout the injector are presented. Techniques that seek to optimize the injector performance, as well as constraints that prevent straightforward optimization, are discussed.

Lidia, Steven M.

2004-07-01

172

Design of Injector Systems for LUX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LUX concept [1] for a superconducting recirculating linac based ultrafast x-ray facility features a unique high-brightness electron beam injector. The design of the injector complex that meets the baseline requirements for LUX is presented. A dual-rf gun injector provides both high-brightness electron beams to drive the cascaded, seeded harmonic generation VUV-soft x-ray FELs as well as the ultra- low-vertical emittance (''flat'') beams that radiate in hard x-ray spontaneous emission synchrotron beamlines. Details of the injector complex design and performance characteristics are presented. Contributions by the thermal emittance and optical pulse shaping to the beam emission at the photocathode and to the beam dynamics throughout the injector are presented. Techniques that seek to optimize the injector performance, as well as constraints that prevent straightforward optimization, are discussed

2004-07-05

173

LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

2007-03-01

174

Coaxial Propellant Injectors With Faceplate Annulus Control  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved design concept for coaxial propellant injectors for a rocket engine (or perhaps for a non-rocket combustion chamber) offers advantages of greater robustness, less complexity, fewer parts, lower cost, and less bulk, relative to prior injectors of equivalent functionality. This design concept is particularly well suited to small, tight-tolerance injectors, for which prior designs are not suitable because the practical implementation of those designs entails very high costs and difficulty in adhering to the tolerances.

Horn, Mark D.; Miyata, Shinjiro; Farhangi, Shahram

2010-01-01

175

Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation.

Vinyar, I. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vinyar@mail.wplus.net; Geraud, A. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CE de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Lukin, A. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Sakamoto, R. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Skoblikov, S. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Umov, A. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., 1-1 Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Gros, G. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CE de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Krasilnikov, I. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Reznichenko, P. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Panchenko, V. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation)

2005-11-15

176

Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N_2, H_2) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x10"1"8 to 10"2"0 atoms. Both the scattering angle (?1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 10"1"6 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (?85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

1994-01-01

177

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

1992-09-14

178

Pneumatic pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

1983-01-01

179

ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

Soderberg, M.

2009-10-01

180

Synchronization of the 14 kTon NO?A neutrino detector with the Fermilab NuMI beam  

Science.gov (United States)

The NO?A experiment is a neutrino oscillation experiment designed to measure parameters related to the neutrino mixing matrix, mass hierarchy and CP violation. The experiment measures neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions from the NuMI beam line at Fermilab in a Near Detector and a Far Detector located 810 kilometers away. Making these measurements requires precise synchronization of 344,064 channels in the Far Detector to an absolute wall time with a channel to channel variation of less then 10 ns. The experiment must correlate the presence of the relatively narrow neutrino beam in the detector with data readout. This paper will discuss the performance of the NO?A timing system during the first few months of operation at the Far Detector.

Niner, E.; Adamson, P.; Deuerling, G.; Kwarciany, R.; Meyer, H.; Norman, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Shanahan, P.; Wilcer, N.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline  

CERN Multimedia

Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

Söderberg, M

2009-01-01

182

Improved Performance of the ATA Injector.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emiss...

J. T. Weir G. J. Caporaso D. S. Prono

1985-01-01

183

Performance and characteristics of the IUCF injector cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) will produce variable-energy light ion beams of energy up to 220 Q2/A MeV. The three stage accelerator consists of a 600 kV dc ion source terminal, an injector cyclotron of nominal 16 Q2/A MeV, and a main stage cyclotron. The two cyclotrons are of isochronous separated-radial-sector design, and are similar except for overall scale. The project was funded in 1968 and will begin operation during 1975. The first two stages were assembled in a temporary location and operated for a few months in 1972. Following relocation and reconstruction in the accelerator laboratory, the first two stages have been in use with internal beam since November 1973 and with extracted beam since October 1974. The current status of the injector cyclotron design and some of its performance characteristics as predicted and as observed in beam development studies are reported. (auth)

1975-06-01

184

Ions for LHC: performance of the injector chain  

CERN Document Server

The first LHC Pb ion run took place at 1.38 A TeV/c per beam in autumn 2010. After a short period of runningin, the injector chain was able to fill the collider with up to 137 bunches per ring, with an intensity of 108 Pb82+ ions/bunch, about 50% higher than the design value. This yielded a luminosity of 3×1025 Hz/cm2, allowing the experiments to accumulate just under 10 ?b-1 each during the four week run. We review the performance of the individual links of the injector chain, and address the main issues limiting the LHC luminosity, in view of reaching 1026 Hz/cm2 in 2011, and substantially beyond when the LHC energy increases after the long shutdown in 2013-14.

Manglunki, D; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Blas, A; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Cettour Cave, S; Chanel, M; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Findlay, A; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jowett, JM; Küchler, D; Maury, S; Métral, E; Pasinelli, S; Schokker, M; Tranquille, G; Vandorpe, B; Wenninger, J; Wehrle, U

2011-01-01

185

Harmonic analysis of Fermilab main ring quadrupoles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Main Ring Quadrupoles have been used in the Fermilab Main Ring and will be utilized in the proposed Fermilab Main Injector. Utilizing a rotating coil harmonic measurement system, a sample of more than 35 Fermilab Main Ring Quadrupoles have been measured. The asymmetric design of these magnets provides many easily measured harmonic coefficients. Results for harmonic coefficients at various excitation levels are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1991-05-06

186

Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

2013-06-01

187

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include (i) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, (ii) a centrifuge injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently (iii) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper. (orig.)

1995-01-01

188

Analytical study on large-scale steam injector to next-generation BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive device for water injection, such as the Passive Core Injection System (PCIS) or the Primary Loop Recirculation System with SI Driven Jet Pumps (PLR with SIDJP). The system needs no large turbo-machinery such as the current PLR pumps used in a PCV. The energy to drive the steam injector (SIDJP) is recovered as enthalpy of the feed water of a core. This is one of the great advantages of SIDJP: none of the driving energy for the PLR escapes to sea water or to air through the main turbine condenser. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Analysis of characteristics of the steam injector was conducted for both small-scale and large-scale injectors using newly developed separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code. The models for analysis were examined with Toshiba's test data for the low-pressure visualized-model test and high-pressure small-size model test. The analysis results showed the SIDJP could not work in the high-pressure range over 7 MPa, and discharged over 12 MPa even at the large-scale rated-flow rate of 61.1 kg/s (220 t/h). (author)

1995-04-23

189

Present status and future of compact injector at NIRS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A HIMAC injector is equipped with three ion sources, and provides heavy ions from H to Xe with the sources. The compact injector, which developed at the NIRS, was recently installed in the HIMAC as the second injector, and the beam tests were successfully performed in April, 2011. In this report, we report a summary and the future of the compact injector. (author)

2011-08-01

190

Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER)

1993-10-11

191

Hypersonic scramjet engine fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a hypersonic scramjet engine fuel injector. It comprises: a housing having a generally horizontal top wall, an inclined bottom wall, and a generally vertical end wall attached together to define in cross-section a generally right triangle, the housing also having two generally vertical side walls having a the-generally-right-triangle shape. The side walls attached to the top, bottom, and end walls to define a fuel-tight, generally right-triangular wedge. The top wall having a fuel inlet orifice. The end wall having at least one convergent-divergent fuel outlet nozzle, and at least one wall of the bottom and side walls having a plurality of spaced-apart fuel-exit holes.

Lee, C.P.; Venkataramani, K.S.; Lahti, D.J.; Lee, V.H.

1990-02-27

192

Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

193

Diode diagnostics for 3 MV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector for the 'DRAGON-I' LIA is being designed and manufactured in CAEP. The injector consists of a single gap diode, extracting at 90 nanoseconds, 3 kA, up to 3.2 MV electrons from a velvet cathode. The diode is powered through high voltage blumlein lines by two Marx generators. The authors shall present an overview of the 3.2 MV diode diagnostics, including: the A-K gap voltage measurement using capacitive voltage probes (CVPs), cathode (source) current using inductance beam probe (IBP) located on the gap between the cathode and anode, beam current and position at the injector exit using beam position monitor (BPM)

2002-10-22

194

Improved performance of the ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emission cathodes is we have increased the injector brightness by a factor of ten above the level we were able to reach using the low density plasma cathodes

1985-06-24

195

Improved performance of the ATA injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emission cathodes is we have increased the injector brightness by a factor of ten above the level we were able to reach using the low density plasma cathodes.

Weir, J.T.; Caporaso, G.J.; Prono, D.S.

1985-06-18

196

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

197

Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ? Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ? Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization.

Mazzucco, G., E-mail: gianluca.mazzucco@dicea.unipd.it [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Muraro, D.; Salomoni, V.; Majorana, C. [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rigato, W.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Inoue, T.; Takemoto, J.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

2013-10-15

198

A study of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the results of an analysis of {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with the MINOS experiment, which studies the neutrino beam produced by the NuMI facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are measured in two similar detectors, located at distances of 1 km and 735 km along the NuMI beamline. The Near Detector provides accurate measurements of the initial beam composition and energy, while the Far Detector is sensitive to the effects of neutrino oscillations. The analysis uses data collected between May 2005 and March 2007, corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. As part of the analysis, sophisticated software was developed to identify muon tracks in the detectors and to reconstruct muon kinematics. Events with reconstructed tracks were then analyzed using a multivariate technique to efficiently isolate a pure sample of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} events. An extrapolation method was also developed, which produces accurate predictions of the Far Detector neutrino energy spectrum, based on data collected at the Near Detector. Finally, several techniques to improve the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement were implemented, and a full study of the systematic uncertainties was performed. Extrapolating from observations at the Near Detector, 733 {+-} 29 Far Detector events were expected in the absence of oscillations, but only 563 events were observed. This deficit in event rate corresponds to a significance of 4.3 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and clear distortion of the Far Detector energy spectrum is observed. A maximum likelihood analysis, which fully accounts for systematic uncertainties, is used to determine the allowed regions for the oscillation parameters and identifies the best fit values as {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.29{sub -0.14}{sup +0.14} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.953 (68% confidence level). The models of neutrino decoherence and decay are disfavored at the 5.0{sigma} and 3.2{sigma} levels respectively, while the no oscillation model is excluded at the 9.4{sigma} level.

Marshall, John Stuart; /Cambridge U.

2008-06-01

199

Atomization characteristics of swirl injector sprays  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable combustion within rocket engines is a continuing concern for designers of rocket engine systems. The swirl-coaxial injector has demonstrated effectiveness in achieving atomization and mixing, and therefore stable combustion. Swirl-coaxial injector technology is being deployed in the American RL1OA rocket design and Russian engine systems already make wide spread use of this technology. The present requirement for swirl injector research is derived from NASA's current Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program. This report describes some of the background and literature on this topic including drop size measurements, comparison with theoretical predictions, the effect of surface tension on the atomization process, and surface wave characteristics of liquid film at the exit of the injector.

Feikema, Douglas A.

1996-01-01

200

Design aspects of an ion injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study is made for the main factors that must be considered on the design of an ion injector. These factors are: the current intensity limits, plasma potential and beam emittance, the current intensity is limited by the beam perveance which depends on the geometry of the extraction system, the type of the ion species and beam aberration factor. We take into account the influence of the plasma potential in determining the actual beam energy. Study of the appropriate design of the einzel lens is necessary in order to match the beam emittance with the accelerator acceptance. The study shows an optimal voltage ratio, which corresponds to the geometry of the lens. At this optimal voltage ratio the beam emittance at the output of the lens is minimum and the beam transport through the lens is without aberration and its intensity decreases with the increase of the atomic number of the ion species. The increase of the extraction voltage affects the increase of the extracted current and decreases the beam brightness which shows that an optimization is necessary to make a compromisation between the extracted current intensity and the beam brightness. (orig.)

Bassal, N.I.; Ragheb, M.S.; Zakhary, S.G. [Accelerators Dept., Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

An introduction to photo-injector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

1993-05-24

202

Numerical simulation of an accelerator injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator injector designs have been evaluated using two computer codes. The first code self consistently follows relativistic particles in two dimensions. Fields are obtained in the Darwin model which includes inductive effects. This code is used to study cathode emission and acceleration to full injector voltage. The second code transports a fixed segment of a beam along the remainder of the beam line. Using these two codes the effects of electrode configuration on emittance, beam quality and beam transport have been studied

1985-05-13

203

Ramp injector scale effects on supersonic combustion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combustion field downstream of a 10 degree compression ramp injector has been studied experimentally using wall static pressure measurement, OH-PLIF, and 2 kHz intensified video filtered for OH emission at 320 nm. Nominal test section entrance conditions were Mach 2, 131 kPa static pressure, and 756K stagnation temperature. The experiment was equipped with a variable length inlet duct that facilitated varying the boundary layer development length while the injector shock structure in re...

2012-01-01

204

Injector Layout and Beam Injection into Solaris  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Solaris synchrotron radiation storage ring to be built in Krakow, Poland is based on the MAX IV 1.5 GeV design. The injector will be a linear accelerator and its components identical to those for the MAX IV project, however, injection is not at full energy and the injector layout is different. The linac and transfer line layout, optics and injection scheme into the storage ring is presented and an analysis of accumulation before energy ramping is discussed.

2011-01-01

205

CARE-JRA2* Activities on Photo-Injectors and CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Multimedia

In the frame of the CARE project, there is a Joint Research Activity (JRA2) called PHIN (PHoto-INjectors). The main objective of this JRA is to perform Research and Development on charge-production by interaction of a laser pulse with material within RF fields and improve or extend existing infrastructures. Another activity of PHIN is the coordination of the activities of various Institutes concerning photo-injectors. A brief review of the work of the eight European laboratories involved in PHIN is presented. One of these R&D topics is the construction of a photo-injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). In this context the status of CTF3 and its main goals - the demonstration of the feasibility of the key issues of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme - is also presented.

Rinolfi, Louis

2005-01-01

206

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150/sup 0/ of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s.

Foster, C.A.

1982-01-01

207

The LHC Lead Injector Chain  

CERN Document Server

A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

2004-01-01

208

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

1982-11-16

209

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150_0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

1983-04-01

210

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H{sup -} ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne; Holmes, S.D.; Kephart, R.D.; Kerby, J.S.; Lebedev, V.A.; Mishra, C.S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Solyak, N.; Stanek, R.P.; /Fermilab; Li, D.; /LBL, Berkeley

2012-05-01

211

Electron gun - the LIU-5/5000 induction linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description of an improved electron gun (EG) - the LIU-5/5000 induction linac injector - is presented. EG consists of three main units: two pulse transformers (cathode and anode) and cathode assembly. A desorption-slit cathode is used in EG. The cathode tests have shown, that when the gap is 35 mm it ensures 3 kA stable current at the voltage 400 kV. Emittance value equalled 0.2 cm x rad for 80% beam. The cathode operated faultlessly for a quarter of a years and its total operating efficiency constituted 2x10"5 pulses

1984-10-16

212

Preliminary considerations about the injectors of the HE-LHC  

CERN Document Server

A hadron collider operating at an energy much larger than the LHC ("HE-LHC") would be a logical successor to the LHC itself, especially if its cost can be minimized by reusing a significant part of the CERN infrastructure like the existing tunnels and/or accelerators. The injector complex must however be extended to reach a beam energy of ~1.2 TeV and. in view of the time span of the HE-LHC project, the replacement of ageing accelerators can also be necessary. The main possible options are outlined together with their specificities.

Garoby, R

2011-01-01

213

Magnet design issues and concepts for the new injector  

CERN Document Server

Possible layouts of superconducting dipoles for the main injector of High Energy LHC (HE-LHC) are proposed on the basis of the experience matured with ongoing R&D activities at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), targeted at developing the technologies for high field fast cycled superconducting magnets for the SIS300 synchrotron of FAIR. Two different magnets are analysed: a) a 4 T dipole ramped up to 1.5 T/s, and b) a 6 T dipole to be operated at lower ramp rates.

Fabbricatore, P

2011-01-01

214

A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

2006-06-01

215

A high resolution AMS-injector for the Pelletron in Lund  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high resolution injector system has recently been installed at the Lund 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The new injector, designed mainly for 26 Al ions will increase the experimental potential of the Lund AMS facility considerably. High quality energy- and mass-resolution is obtained by using a 90 degC spherical electrostatic analyzer followed by a 90 degC magnetic analyzer. The injector is equipped with a high intensity sputtering source with a spherical ionizer. A new analytical technique for acceptance calculations as well as PC-based computational methods have been used in the design of the ion optical system of the new injector. Compared to our old injector system which has a magnetic analyzer with a bending angle of only 15 deg. the new system has a more than ten times better resolution. The beam optics of the new system is also better designed to match the accelerator acceptance. In this way the ion transmission from the ion source to the detector for different ions of interest in our AMS programme. has been increased. (author)

2002-12-01

216

TJ-II neutral beam injectors control and data acquisition system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Control and Data Acquisition System for the Neutral Beam Injectors of TJ-II are described in this paper. The DAQ and Control architecture is based on a distributed system including VME-OS9 real-time computers and personal computers (PCs) with Linux and Windows NT. One OS9-VME local computer located near each injector performs the timing, local signal processing, signal interlock, and operation of the injector mechanical and electrical components. A main OS9-VME interfaces and controls some peripheral systems, such as the high voltage power supplies, water cooling, safety and protection systems. Control is performed from the OS9-VME machines, in which the software elements are basically C/C++ programs performing real time processing and a web server enabling access to the HTML pages acting as user graphic interface.

Martinez-Laso, L.; Liniers, M. E-mail: macarena.liniers@ciemat.es; Alonso, J.; Botija, J.; Garcia, A.; Medrano, M

2001-10-01

217

TJ-II neutral beam injectors control and data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Control and Data Acquisition System for the Neutral Beam Injectors of TJ-II are described in this paper. The DAQ and Control architecture is based on a distributed system including VME-OS9 real-time computers and personal computers (PCs) with Linux and Windows NT. One OS9-VME local computer located near each injector performs the timing, local signal processing, signal interlock, and operation of the injector mechanical and electrical components. A main OS9-VME interfaces and controls some peripheral systems, such as the high voltage power supplies, water cooling, safety and protection systems. Control is performed from the OS9-VME machines, in which the software elements are basically C/C++ programs performing real time processing and a web server enabling access to the HTML pages acting as user graphic interface

2001-10-01

218

Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01

219

Present status of the HIMAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent performance of the injector system of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is reported. The injector comprises two kinds of ion sources (a PIG ion source and an ECR ion source), a 100 MHz RFQ linac and a 100 MHz Alvarez linac. The beam energy is 6 MeV/u for heavy ions between 4He and 40Ar. The typical intensities of the injector are 357 e?A for He2+ and 445 e?A for C6+. The typical normalized 90% emittance and the momentum spread are 0.7 ?mm·mrad and 0.1%, respectively. These performances satisfied the requirement for the cancer therapy. (author)

1994-07-01

220

Performance of upgraded JET neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The JET neutral beam injection (NBI) system is undergoing an upgrade of both beam power and pulse duration, which will be completed in 2011. In order to obtain an early assessment of the performance of the upgraded injectors, two positive ion neutral injectors (PINIs) with modified ion source and accelerator configuration were installed on Octant 8 Neutral Injector Box and successfully commissioned in summer 2009. Both PINIs were routinely delivering {approx}2 MW of deuterium neutral beam power during the JET experimental campaign in autumn 2009. These early tests allowed us to predict with confidence that the JET NBI upgrade objective of injecting 34 MW of total deuterium neutral beam power into the JET plasma will be achieved.

Ciric, D., E-mail: dragoslav.ciric@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ash, A.D.; Crowley, B.; Day, I.E.; Gee, S.J.; Hackett, L.J.; Homfray, D.A.; Jenkins, I.; Jones, T.T.C.; Keeling, D.; King, D.B.; King, R.F.; Kovari, M.; McAdams, R.; Surrey, E.; Young, D.; Zacks, J. [JET-EFDA, EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15

 
 
 
 
221

Performance of upgraded JET neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JET neutral beam injection (NBI) system is undergoing an upgrade of both beam power and pulse duration, which will be completed in 2011. In order to obtain an early assessment of the performance of the upgraded injectors, two positive ion neutral injectors (PINIs) with modified ion source and accelerator configuration were installed on Octant 8 Neutral Injector Box and successfully commissioned in summer 2009. Both PINIs were routinely delivering ?2 MW of deuterium neutral beam power during the JET experimental campaign in autumn 2009. These early tests allowed us to predict with confidence that the JET NBI upgrade objective of injecting 34 MW of total deuterium neutral beam power into the JET plasma will be achieved.

2011-10-01

222

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

1980-09-19

223

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

1981-02-01

224

Unit injector system for passenger car applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout the last few years, the Unit Injector and Unit Pump systems have become the dominant fuel injection systems for heavy duty diesel engines. High injection pressure, high hydraulic efficiency and the specific injection rate shape are their contributions to low emissions and low fuel consumption. Bosch has transferred this proven concept to passenger car applications considering additional requirements like pilot injection capability. The paper describes the Unit Injector design, its functional characteristics and control strategy. An outlook regarding future development steps is given. (author)

Maier, R.; Sassen, K.-P. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Kronenberger, M. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Linz (Austria)

1999-07-01

225

Measurements of Inclusive Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged Current Differential Cross Sections on Argon in the NuMI Antineutrino Beam  

CERN Document Server

The ArgoNeuT collaboration presents measurements of inclusive muon neutrino and antineutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon in the Fermilab NuMI beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum at a mean neutrino energy of 9.6 GeV (neutrinos) and 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos), in the range $0^\\circ < \\theta_\\mu < 36^\\circ$ and $0 < p_\\mu < 25$ GeV/$c$, for both neutrinos and antineutrinos.

Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Hatcher, R; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01

226

Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen

1993-06-07

227

Properties of high current RFQ injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author) 2 refs.

Schempp, A.; Goethe, J.W. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

1996-12-31

228

Plans for ions in the injector complex  

CERN Multimedia

The heavy ion beams required during the HL-LHC era will imply significant modifications to the existing injector chain. We review the various options, highlighting the importance of an early definition of the future needs and keeping in mind the compatibility with the rest of the future CERN physics programme.

Manglunki, D

2012-01-01

229

Properties of high current RFQ injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RFQ linacs are efficient, compact low energy ion structures, which have found numerous applications. They use electrical rf focusing and can capture, bunch and transmit high current ion beams. Some recent development and new projects like a heavy ion injectors for a cyclotron, and the status of the work on high current high duty factor RFQs will be discussed. (author)

1996-02-02

230

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ?1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

1993-05-10

231

Acquisition system of tandem injector parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system centralizes all the parameters belonging to the accelerator injector. The acquisition center system reinforces an original device made of cameras and video receivers. Besides giving access to all the parameters of the ion source, the new system allows, in the ''OSCILLO'' mode, to visualize in real time any channel on the oscilloscope

1986-01-01

232

SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R&D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment. The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed. The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R&D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; de Esch, H.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M.; Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W.

2011-09-01

233

Performance potential of the injectors after LS1  

CERN Document Server

The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons in the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB to PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than no...

Bartosik, H; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Mikulec, B; Raginel, V; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

2012-01-01

234

Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector: Progress and prospect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kim, Kyekyoon

1988-12-01

235

Operational experience with the 450 kV injector for the superconducting cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to get a correct bunching of the tandem beams to be injected into the K-800 superconducting cyclotron at LNS and to improve further the transmission inside the tandem, the construction of a new injector providing 450 keV negative ions became necessary. The project, funded in 1990, is now complete. The commissioning of the 450 kV injector has been carried out paying particular attention to some technical problems: (1) the presence of two different sources, which permits to switch easily from one source to the other, has required to double all the hardware, except for the analyzing magnet and for the gas box, in order to be effective in reducing downtimes for maintenance: (2) the reduction of the electrical noise, which disturbs the computer control system; (3) the management of 79 analogic parameters and 110 digital parameters, which has been performed in an environment where the classical control system via insulated bars fails because of the high potential gradient (10 kV/in), one of the highest ever obtained in conditioned air environment for injectors. The main features of the 450 kV injector are summarized. The main details of the commissioning with the platform performances are presented and some details of ion optics are given. (orig.)

1996-11-11

236

Resistivity comparison of capillary plasma injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the electrothermal-chemical (ETC) propulsion launcher, a capillary plasma injector is widely used to supply hot plasmas into a combustion chamber. To investigate the electrical properties of a capillary discharge under a high pressure environment, the densities of plasma species and resistivities of the plasma in the local thermodynamic equilibrium were calculated. Capillary plasma injectors were discharged in the ETC propulsion launcher and in the open air. Their resistivities showed different behaviors when compared with the calculated resistivities, from which the state of power balance could be estimated. The capillary plasma discharged in the open air showed large ejection of plasmas without a power-balanced state, while that plasma produced in the ETC propulsion launcher reached near a balanced steady-state as the pressure of the combustion chamber becomes appreciable

2002-10-22

237

Development of an injector for induction linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High quality injected beam is fundamental for an induction linac. A 3.5 MeV injector to produce 3.0 kA high brightness electron beam is introduced in this paper. 7 induction accelerating cavities on the side of cathode and 5 cavities on the side of anode are added together to provide 3.5 MV high voltage pulse across the diode, with pulse length of 90ns. The electron beam source is a 7 cm diameter velvet cathode. 1.4m diameter radial insulators with liquid resistor are used to keep cathode stem and anode stem along center axis of the injector, and oppress flashover electric field at the same time. Solenoid coils are placed inside cathode stalk and anode stalk which work together with Solenoid coils in accelerating cavities to lead emitted beam transport through anode pipe. Measured extracted beam parameters are described in the end of the paper

2002-10-22

238

Flash X-Ray Injector Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

Paul, A C

2004-03-26

239

Compact and stable multibeam fiber injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compact and stable 20-beam injector was built for launching laser light into fibers for Fabry Perot velocity measurements of shock-driven surfaces. The fiber injector uses commercial mounts on mini-rails. Dielectric-coated beamsplitters provide accurate amplitude division. Minimal adjustments for stable operation are permitted by the use of a real-time video-viewer. The video system includes a non-linear camera for CW alignment and a linearized camera with a frame grabber for pulsed measurement and analysis. All 20-injection points are displayed on a single monitor. Optical requirements are given for image relay and magnification. Stimulated Brillouin scattering limitations on high-power are quantified.

Collins, L. F., LLNL

1998-07-01

240

LS1 Report: injectors 2.0  

CERN Multimedia

Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

1991-05-01

242

The injector of the superconducting linac LISA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector of the LNF project LISA (LInear Superconducting Accelerator) is a room temperature system, consisting of a 100 keV gun, a transport line with chopper and prebuncher systems, a capture section (a graded-? 2.5 GHz structure) which accelerates the beam to 1.1 MeV, and an isochronous and achromatic transport line which injects the beam into the SC-Linac after a ?-bending. The status of the project is presented

1991-03-01

243

Pellet injector development at IPP garching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection development at IPP garching is summarized. Two type of pellet injectors are in operation: light gas guns with speeds of up to 1500 meters per second and with single or double pellet injection capabilities and pellet injection centrifuges with pellet speeds of up to 720 meters per second and capabilities of injection of series of up to 80 pellets at rates of 50 pellets per second. Refuelling studies with the centrifuges are being carried out in ASDEX

1986-06-01

244

30 degree injectors at hypervelocity conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Results are presented of the first high-speed propulsion-related experiments performed in the NASA-Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel, designed to simulate combustor inlet conditions at approximately Mach 14. Results demonstrate the capability of the tunnel for high-speed propulsion testing and yield data on the performance of 30-deg flush wall injectors tested in the tunnel. The experimental results are compared with those of a CFD analysis.

Loomis, Mark P.; Zambrana, Horacio A.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Tam, Tim C.; Cavolowsky, John A.; Newfield, Mark E.; Bittner, Robert D.

1992-07-01

245

Progress on lead photocathodes for superconducting injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present the results of our investigation of bulk lead, along with various types of lead films, as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the photon energy of the incident light, from 3.9 eV to 6.5 eV. Quantum efficiencies of 0.5% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead plated cathode is underway.

John Smedley; Triveni Rao; Jacek Sekutowicz; Peter Kneisel; J. Langner; P. Strzyzewski; Richard Lefferts; Andrzej Lipski

2005-05-16

246

Progress on Lead Photocathodes for Superconducting Injectors  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of our investigation of bulk, electroplated and vacuum deposited lead as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the wavelength of the incident light, from 310 nm to 190 nm. Quantum efficiencies of 0.3% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

Smedley, John; Langner, Jerzy; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Strzyzewski, P

2005-01-01

247

Experiments with the Ignitor Pellet Injector (IPI)  

Science.gov (United States)

The four barrel, two-stage pneumatic injector for the Ignitor experiment (IPI), built by ENEA and ORNL, has been tested in the course of three esperimental campaigns. The optimal shaping of the propellant pressure pulse to improve pellet acceleration is provided by specially designed Pulse Shaping Valves. These have been modified and tested on a new facility that allows operating pellet injector components in conditions close to those at which they will have to operate on the IPI. Fast closing (< 10 ms) valves drastically reduce the expansion volumes needed to remove the propellant gas at the end of the guiding tube. The four barrel (2.1, 2.2, 3.0 and 4.6 mm bores) pipe-gun cryostat is cooled down by a closed cycle refrigerator, and pellet diagnostics for measuring speed and mass of the pellets, as well as for capturing in-flight pictures of all four pellets were developed for this application. The final impact target is equipped with a shock accelerometer. The injector is designed to deliver pellets with velocities up to 4 km/s (2 km/s already achieved): the results of the latest experimental campaign will be reported.

Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Podda, S.; Bombarda, F.; Baylor, L. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Foust, C.; Fehling, D.; McJill, J. M.; Meitner, S.; Roveta, G.

2009-11-01

248

The JET high frequency pellet injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new deuterium ice pellet injector is in preparation for JET. It is designed to inject both small pellets (variable volume within 1-2 mm3) at high frequency (up to 60 Hz) for ELM mitigation experiments and large pellets (volume within 35-70 mm3) at moderate frequency (up to 15 Hz) for plasma fuelling. It is based on the screw extruder technology developed by PELIN and pneumatic acceleration. An injection line will connect the injector to the flight tubes already in place to convey the pellets toward the plasma either from the low field side or from the high field side of the torus. This injection line enables: (i) the pumping of the propellant gas, (ii) the provision of the vacuum interface with the torus and (iii) the selection of the flight tube to be used via a fast selector. All the interfaces have been designed and a prototype injector is being built, to demonstrate that the required performance is achievable

2007-10-01

249

The JET high frequency pellet injector project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new deuterium ice pellet injector is in preparation for JET. It is designed to inject both small pellets (variable volume within 1-2 mm{sup 3}) at high frequency (up to 60 Hz) for ELM mitigation experiments and large pellets (volume within 35-70 mm{sup 3}) at moderate frequency (up to 15 Hz) for plasma fuelling. It is based on the screw extruder technology developed by PELIN and pneumatic acceleration. An injection line will connect the injector to the flight tubes already in place to convey the pellets toward the plasma either from the low field side or from the high field side of the torus. This injection line enables: (i) the pumping of the propellant gas, (ii) the provision of the vacuum interface with the torus and (iii) the selection of the flight tube to be used via a fast selector. All the interfaces have been designed and a prototype injector is being built, to demonstrate that the required performance is achievable.

Geraud, Alain [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: alain.geraud@cea.fr; Dentan, M. [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Whitehead, A.; Butcher, P. [Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Communal, D. [CEA Grenoble, CEA/DSM/DRFMC/SBT, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Faisse, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Gedney, J.; Gros, G. [Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Guillaume, D. [CEA Grenoble, CEA/DSM/DRFMC/SBT, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hackett, L. [Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hennion, V. [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Homfray, D.; Lucock, R.; McKivitt, J.; Sibbald, M. [Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Portafaix, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Perin, J.P. [CEA Grenoble, CEA/DSM/DRFMC/SBT, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Reade, M.; Sands, D. [Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Saille, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France)] (and others)

2007-10-15

250

Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

2012-09-01

251

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

2004-11-10

252

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued

2004-01-01

253

Status report of the VICKSI CN-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the accelerator facility VICKSI at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin a 6 MV Van de Graaff accelerator (HVEC CN-type) is used as injector for a separated sector isochronous cyclotron. The facility is in operation since 1978. In the following we will report about the operating experience with the CN-injector, which had to undergo a near complete reconstruction before it could be used as a heavy ion injector. (orig.)

1986-02-15

254

The 3 GeV synchrotron injector for SPEAR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dedicated 3 GeV injector synchrotron for the storage ring SPEAR has been constructed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SSRL, and has become operational by November 1990. The injector consists of an rf-gun, a 120 MeV linear accelerator, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and associated beam transport lines. General design features and special new developments for this injector are presented together with operational performance

1991-05-06

255

A new injector for the ISL-cyclotron at HMI  

Science.gov (United States)

A new injector for the ISL (Ionen-Strahl-Labor) heavy ion cyclotron at the HMI (Hahn-Meitner-Institut) Berlin (the former VICKSI machine) is under construction, which uses an RFQ as an injector for a SSC (Separated-Sector-Cyclotron). The ECR source together with two variable energy 4-rod-RFQs will replace the Tandem injector to mett the demands of the solid state physics users. The design of the new RFQ injector and the status of the project will be discussed.

Engels, O.; Häuser, J.; Homeyer, H.; Marhauser, F.; Pelzer, W.; Schempp, A.

1996-06-01

256

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) has been designed and is being fabricated. The injector will be installed on the STOR-M tokamak (R = 0.46 m, a = 0.12 m) to study CT injection into tokamak discharges. The injector is of coaxial configuration consisting of formation, compression and acceleration sections. Discharge of a 500 ?F (2 kV) capacitor bank through a solenoid is capable of inducing a quasi-steady magnetic flux up to 1 mWb. Four fast-acting gas puffing valves inject up to 4 x 10"1"9 hydrogen particles within 100 ?sec into the formation region. Two 20 ?F (20 kV) capacitor banks are used for the formation, compression and acceleration of a CT. High density tungsten coating, ac glow discharge cleaning and on-line baking are among the efforts to produce high quality CTs with low impurity contents. The envisaged CT parameters are: r_o (outer radius) ? 0.05 m, r_i (inner radius) ? 0.018 m, L (length) ? 0.15 m, n (density) ? 4 x 10"2"1 m"-"3 and v (velocity) ? 400 km/sec. CT with these parameters should be able to penetrate 1 Tesla magnetic field in the STOR-M tokamak. Magnetic probes and He-Ne laser interferometer will be used to measure the CT velocity, density, magnetic field, and length. Spectroscopic measurements will be performed to investigate impurity contents in the CT. The CT parameters, especially its particle inventory, are designed to allow disruption-free CT injection into the STOR-M tokamak. The emphasis of this research program is to study physics involved in tokamak plasma refueling by CT injection. Feasibility of plasma heating and current drive will also be investigated. In particular, the dependence of injection processes on the injection angle (130 degree to 40 degree with respect to the plasma current direction) will be studied in detail

1994-06-06

257

High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with N_B particles per bunch, spaced a distance S_B apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed ?c, the luminosity is given by L = N_B"2?c/4??"2S_B, where ? is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity ? is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and ? is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of ? and S_B, requires a large value for the ratio N_B"2/var-epsilon _n, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed N_B, the luminosity can be increased if var-epsilon _n can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider

1990-11-07

258

Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s-1, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s-1, as planned. (author)

1989-09-25

259

Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

1990-01-01

260

The LELIA induction injector: First results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LELIA is an induction accelerator designed and built at CESTA for FEL applications. The objective of this program is to produce a high-brightness and high-average-power electron beam. An injector (1.5 MeV, 1.5 kA, 50 ns flat top pulse) is now under test. It uses an Osmium dispenser cathode and ten induction cells driven by a high voltage pulse generator (150 kV, 60 ns, 2 ?). It is able to work at high repetition rate (1 KHz). Initial operation began in June last year. Beam characteristics have ben measured and compared with numerical simulations

1992-05-25

 
 
 
 
261

An induction linac injector for scaled experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig

1991-05-06

262

Radiotracer injector: An Industrial Application (RIIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention. (author)

2011-09-13

263

Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm3), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented

2014-02-01

264

Comparison of resonant-phonon-assisted terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with one-well injector and three-well module  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors compare resonant-phonon-assisted terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with different active region designs, i.e., one-well injector and three-well module, using an ensemble Monte Carlo method. Carrier transport under injection anticrossing, parasitic anticrossing, and collection anticrossing couplings are investigated for both structures. The results show that the main parasitic current channel is the resonance of the injector 1' with the lower lasing level 3 and one-well injector design benefits a high injection selectivity because of a better ?1'4/?1'3 ratio. Due to the diagonal radiative transition, the one-well injector design sacrifices the oscillator strength and modal gain to reduce the parasitic coupling. Temperature evaluation shows that longitudinal-optical phonon emission is the dominant scattering mechanism contributing to lasing and the calculated modal gain in the one-well design shows a slower decreasing rate with temperature.

Li, H.; Cao, J. C.; Tan, Z. Y.; Feng, S. L.

2008-11-01

265

Cfd Simulation to the Flow Field of Venturi Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Venturi injector is widely used in fertigation system due to its obvious advantages such as cheap and robust system without mobile pieces, simple structure, convenient to operation, stable performance, needless of external energy for operation etc. At present, the hydraulic parameters such as suction capacity (injection rate) for the most of the Venturi injectors produced domestically are not very desirable. In this paper, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was used to simulate the inner flow field of the Venturi injectors, and the relationships among the structure parameters (i.e., throat length L, throat diameter D, slot diameter Da) and suction capacity q, and the optimal structure sizes of the Venturi injector were analyzed. The results show that when the inlet pressure and the slot position are kept unchanged as the sample one, the suction capacity of Venturi injector increases with the decrease of throat diameter D and throat length L, and the increase of slot diameter Da; while keeping the slot diameter Da, throat diameter D and throat length L unchanged, the suction capacity of Venturi injector q increases with the increase of inlet pressure P. The optimal combination of the structural parameters in this size was selected as follows: throat diameter D=8mm, slot diameter Da=18.5mm, and throat length L=14mm. In this case, the suction capacity of the Venturi injector q=1.203m3/h. The results can provide theoretic support for domestic Venturi injector research, design and manufacturing.

Huang, Xingfa; Li, Guangyong; Wang, Miao

266

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been ...

J. Rathke A. Ambrosio M. Cole E. Peterson T. Schultheiss

2005-01-01

267

Transverse Injection into Subsonic Crossflow with Various Injector Orifice Geometries  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational and experimental results are presented for a case study of single injectors employed in 90 deg transverse injection into a non-reacting subsonic flow. Different injector orifice shapes are used (including circular, square, diamond-shaped, and wide rectangular slot), all with constant cross-sectional area, to observe the effects of this variation on injector penetration and mixing. Whereas the circle, square, and diamond injector produce similar jet plumes, the wide rectangular slot produces a plume with less vertical penetration than the others. There is also some evidence that the diamond injector produces slightly faster penetration with less mixing of the injected fluid. In addition, a variety of rectangular injectors were analyzed, with varying length/width ratios. Both experimental and computational data show improved plume penetration with increased streamwise orifice length. 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) results are obtained for the various injector geometries using NCC (National Combustion Code) with the kappa-epsilon turbulence model in multi-species modes on an unstructured grid. Grid sensitivity results are also presented which indicate consistent qualitative trends in the injector performance comparisons with increasing grid refinement.

Foster, Lancert E.; Zaman, Khairul B.

2010-01-01

268

Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs

1991-01-01

269

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive steam jet pump for water injection or the primary loop recirculation system. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Visualized fundamental tests were conducted in order to develop separate two-phase flow models to be installed in the PHOENICS code. The models were verified by using high-pressure steam test data, as well as the visualized data. Then the large-scale injectors analyses were conducted using the newly developed models. The analysis results showed that the large-scale steam injector could work in the high-pressure range and discharged over 12 MPa, even at the rated flow rate of 61 kgs-1 (220 ton h-1). (orig.)

1997-11-01

270

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4"+, Ne 3"+, and He 2"+ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4"+ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ? cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1985-05-13

271

Advanced, high energy neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BNL design of a high energy neutral beam injector is based on the neutralization of negative ions, a process that remains very efficient even at energies up to and above 1 MeV. The principal elements of such an injector are: source of negative ions, beam extraction and transport system, accelerator, neutralizing cell, and system for the removal and dumping (or energy recovery) of the remaining charged components of the beam. Among several possible source geometries, the most advanced is the BNL version of the magnetron. Best results have been obtained by using geometrical focusing of surface produced H"- ions and an asymmetric discharge chamber. A large water cooled model is being fabricated, to deliver 1-2 A of H"-/D"- beam currents in pulses longer than 5 s, with a source power efficiency of about 6 kW/A and a gas efficiency of 6-10%. First tests are scheduled for July 1980. Two options of the beam transport are being studied theoretically and experimentally: a weak focusing bending magnet and a strong focusing chain of electrostatic quadrupoles

1980-09-12

272

Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 10{sup 21} particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5{sup o}-25{sup o} have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis.

Soukhanovskii, V A; Kugel, H W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M; Blanchard, W; Bush, C; Gernhardt, R; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Majeski, R; Menard, J; Provost, T; Sichta, P; Raman, R

2005-09-30

273

Improved brightness of the ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the ATA injector using the low density plasma cathode (flashboard cathode) have shown that the brightness of the injector was being limited by the non-uniform emission of the cathode surface. To avoid this difficulty, we rearranged the cathode-anode geometry to accommodate field shaping surfaces and a field emission cathode. Computer simulations of the cathode-anode geometry using the EBQ code led us to try a 5.5 cm radius cathode with an A-K gap of about 13 cm. There was no grid used during the experiment. The cathode was surrounded by a Pierce correcting shroud and the typical gap voltage was about 2.5 MeV. Our initial tests of the field emission cathodes were done using a woven carbon yarn that was laced through a fine mesh screen and then trimmed to a uniform height. Using these ''tufted'' cathodes, it was easy to vary the number of emission sites per square centimeter. We also varied the geometry of these cathodes by giving the screen a slight convex shape so that the center of the cathode was about 1 cm closer to the anode plane than the edge of the cathode. At the suggestion of R. Adler of MRC, we also tested commerically available velvet cloth. This was done by epoxying the cloth to the cathode surface using a conducting silver epoxy. We tested the velvet cathodes in both the flat and convex configurations to compare with the tufted carbon yarn cathodes

1985-10-01

274

Long-baseline neutrino physics in the U.S  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NOvA experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

2006-12-01

275

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)a)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

2014-02-01

276

Slip Stacking  

CERN Multimedia

Slip stacking has been onperational at Fermilab Main Injector (MI) since December 2004. The proton beam intensity for the anti proton production was increased by 70% with the stacking scheme. We plan to use it also for the Numi operation which is providing beams to the MINOS neutrino experiment.

Seiya, K; Dey, J; Joireman, P; Kourbanis, I; Reid, J

2008-01-01

277

Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {mu}m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-03-15

278

Hydrogen pellet injector for plasma fueling experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, one of the most promising methods of plasma refueling in plasma fusion devices is frozen pellet injection. This method has some advantages. That is, by choosing the pellet size and velocity in an appropriate way, 1) It is easy to deposit the particles into the plasma center. 2) It is easy to control the plasma density profile to an optimal one. 3) Consequently, it is possible to improve plasma confinement characteristics. Therefore, frozen pellet injection has been adopted for many plasma fueling applications. Recently, a pneumatic multiple pellet injector has been developed by Kobe Steel Ltd. in collaboration with Kyoto University and installed on HELIOTRON-E for advanced pellet injection experiments. In this paper, we will present the configuration of the injection and basic performance. (author)

1989-01-01

279

Gas generator with injector mixing cup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a gas generator comprising: a combustion chamber; a mixing cup and a passageway connecting the cup with the combustion chamber, the passageway being characterized by an aspect ratio greater than about 2.0 but less than about 5.0; and an injector comprising a first orifice for delivering fuel to the mixing cup and a second orifice for delivering oxidizer to the mixing cup; the first and second orifices having diameters suitable for providing a non-stoichiometric fuel/oxidizer ratio in the mixing cup for given pressure drops across the orifice, the first orifice and the second orifices being aligned such that the flow of fuel and the flow of oxidizer impinge at a nonzero angle within the mixing cup, thereby producing an atomized fuel-oxidizer mixture.

Yu, T.I.

1988-02-02

280

PLT and ISX neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six high power (40 keV--60 A) injection systems, four for PLT (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) and two for ISX (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) tokamaks, have been developed, fabricated, and operated. Each injector delivers 750 kW (1000 kW) of H (D) neutral power to the tokamak plasma. An in-depth system parameter study has revealed unique features: high atomic yield (approximately 85%), improved ion optics due to a preacceleration technique, near steady-state operation (up to 500 msec), and a possible technique to control species yield. Routine operation includes high duty cycle (approximately 10%), long filament lifetime (several months), high arc efficiency, and the reliability necessary for application on a fusion device. The program status and injection parameters will be discussed

1978-07-07

 
 
 
 
281

Commissioning the Linac Coherent Light Source injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The Linac Coherent Light Source is a SASE x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC [J. Arthur , SLAC-R-593, 2002.]. The injector section, from drive laser and rf photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in the fall of 2006. The initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August of 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photocathode drive laser, rf gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band rf systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.

2008-03-01

282

The JET multi-pellet injector launcher  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under a collaborative agreement between the Joint European Torus JET and the United States Department of Energy US DOE, JET and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) jointly built a multi-pellet injector for fuelling and re-fuelling of the JET plasma. A three-barrel repetitive pneumatic pellet Launcher - built by ORNL - is attached to a JET pellet launcher-machine interface (in short: Pellet Interface) which is the subject of this paper. The present Launcher-Interface combination provides deuterium or hydrogen injection at moderate pellet speeds for the next two operational periods on JET. The Pellet Interface, however, takes into account the future requirements of JET. It was designed to allow the attachment of the high speed pellet launchers now under development at JET and complies with the requirements of remote handling and tritium operation. In addition, the use of tritium pellets is being considered

1987-10-12

283

Commissioning Results of the LCLS Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam has recently been completed. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008. In this paper, we report experimental results and experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning. This includes the cathode, drive laser, RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

Dowell, D.H.; Akre, R.; Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC; Frohlich, L.; Limberg, T.; Prat, E.; /DESY

2007-11-16

284

Commissioning Results of the LCLS Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam has recently been completed. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008. In this paper, we report experimental results and experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning. This includes the cathode, drive laser, RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics

2007-08-26

285

Initial Commissioning Experience With the LCLS Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC [1]. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam is taking place during the spring and summer of 2007. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, will begin later, in the fall of 2007. We report here on experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning, including RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics

2007-06-25

286

Improved brightness of the ATA injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of the ATA injector using the low density plasma cathode (flashboard cathode) have shown that the brightness of the injector was being limited by the non-uniform emission of the cathode surface. To avoid this difficulty, we rearranged the cathode-anode geometry to accommodate field shaping surfaces and a field emission cathode. Computer simulations of the cathode-anode geometry using the EBQ code led us to try a 5.5 cm radius cathode with an A-K gap of about 13 cm. There was no grid used during the experiment. The cathode was surrounded by a Pierce correcting shroud and the typical gap voltage was about 2.5 MeV. Our initial tests of the field emission cathodes were done using a woven carbon yarn that was laced through a fine mesh screen and then trimmed to a uniform height. Using these ''tufted'' cathodes, it was easy to vary the number of emission sites per square centimeter. We also varied the geometry of these cathodes by giving the screen a slight convex shape so that the center of the cathode was about 1 cm closer to the anode plane than the edge of the cathode. At the suggestion of R. Adler of MRC, we also tested commerically available velvet cloth. This was done by epoxying the cloth to the cathode surface using a conducting silver epoxy. We tested the velvet cathodes in both the flat and convex configurations to compare with the tufted carbon yarn cathodes.

Weir, J.T.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chambers, F.W.; Kalibjian, R.; Kallman, J.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.; Slominski, M.E.

1985-10-01

287

ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K{sup +} injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500 keV-1MeV diode preinjector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the ``energy effect``: in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the ``energy effect`` by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the ``energy effect`` of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 keV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented.

Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Grote, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-05-01

288

High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design  

CERN Document Server

There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

2005-01-01

289

Evaluation Methods for Coolant Injector Performances and Severe Accident Phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides the numerical simulation methods of the coolant injector in the direct cooling type core catcher, and evaluation methods of the severe accident phenomena. Firstly, the numerical simulation method for two-phase flow behaviour inside coolant injectors is established. Installation of the coolant injectors in the direct cooling type core catcher is one of the concepts to deliver cooling water mixed with inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent steam explosion while effectively cooling down the corium by direct heat transfer. Secondly, the evaluation tools of the severe accident phenomena such as in-vessel accident scenario, the DCH, steam explosion, MCCI, and containment pressurization are surveyed and discussed

2010-01-01

290

Performance and Modeling of the JLAB IR FEL Upgrade Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JLab IR Upgrade Injector has delivered up to 9.1 mA of CW electron beam current at 9 MeV. The injector is driven by a 350 kV DC Photocathode Gun. Injector behavior and beam-based measurements are in good agreement with PARMELA simulations. The injected beam envelopes were established by measuring beam spot sizes and comparing them with those predicted by a transpart matrix based model. The emittances were measured by fitting an initial trial beam matrix to the measured data. The injected bunch length was established by measuring the energy spread downstream of the Linac while operating at either side of crest

2004-09-03

291

Performance and Modeling of the JLAB IR FEL Upgrade Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The JLab IR Upgrade Injector has delivered up to 9.1 mA of CW electron beam current at 9 MeV. The injector is driven by a 350 kV DC Photocathode Gun. Injector behavior and beam-based measurements are in good agreement with PARMELA simulations. The injected beam envelopes were established by measuring beam spot sizes and comparing them with those predicted by a transpart matrix based model. The emittances were measured by fitting an initial trial beam matrix to the measured data. The injected bunch length was established by measuring the energy spread downstream of the Linac while operating at either side of crest.

C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Beard; S. Benson; G. Biallas; D. Bullard; D. Douglas; H. F. Dylla; R.Evans; A. Grippo; J. Gubeli; K. Jordan; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; R. Walker; B. Yunn; S.Zhang

2004-09-01

292

Performance and Modeling of the JLab IR FEL Upgrade Injector  

CERN Multimedia

The JLab IR Upgrade Injector has delivered up to 9.1 mA CW of electron beam current at 9 MeV. The injector is driven by a 350 kV DC Photocathode Gun. Injector behavior and beam-based measurements are in very good agreement with PARMELA simulations. The injected beam envelopes were established by measuring beam spot sizes and comparing them with those predicted by a transport matrix based model. The emittances were measured by fitting an initial trial beam matrix to the measured data. The injected bunch length was established by measuring the energy spread downstream of the Linac while operating at either side of crest.

Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Benson, S V; Herman-Biallas, George; Bullard, Don; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred; Evans, Richard; Grippo, A; Gubeli, Joe; Jordan, Kevin; Neil, George; Shinn, Michelle D; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Shukui

2004-01-01

293

Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D.W.

1993-05-12

294

Evaluation Methods for Coolant Injector Performances and Severe Accident Phenomena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides the numerical simulation methods of the coolant injector in the direct cooling type core catcher, and evaluation methods of the severe accident phenomena. Firstly, the numerical simulation method for two-phase flow behaviour inside coolant injectors is established. Installation of the coolant injectors in the direct cooling type core catcher is one of the concepts to deliver cooling water mixed with inert gas such as nitrogen to prevent steam explosion while effectively cooling down the corium by direct heat transfer. Secondly, the evaluation tools of the severe accident phenomena such as in-vessel accident scenario, the DCH, steam explosion, MCCI, and containment pressurization are surveyed and discussed

Ryu, Chang Kook; Lee, Myung Il; Ye, In Soo; Hong, Jae Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

295

Stability Study of ATF 80MeV Injector Linac  

CERN Document Server

A beam stability test was carried out at ATF 80 MeV injector linac. The test was performed by taking data of each monitor in pulse to pulse base. A data acquisition system which consists of a PC and a GPIB network was used for the test. In order to analyze the data, ''Correlation Plot'' method is used which is effective to find out some source of the observed beam fluctuation. This paper describes the result of the stability measurement and the comparison between ATF injector and SLC injector.

McCormick, D

2003-01-01

296

Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

Viniar, I. [Saint-Petersburg State Technical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sudo, S.

1997-07-01

297

New injector (NPI) for nuclear physics at SLAC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A program of nuclear physics experiments has been approved at SLAC, and a new high average current injector is being added to the accelerator 650 meters upstream (Sector 25) of the accelerator output. The new injector (NPI) will produce beams in End Station A of up to 150 mA, 1.6 ..mu..sec, 180 pps at energies from 0.5 to 6 GeV. NPI will also have 1 nsec short pulse capability for electron injection into SSRL. Work on NPI started in October of 1983, and the first beam from the new injector is scheduled for the Fall of 1984.

Koontz, R.F.

1984-05-01

298

New injector (NPI) for nuclear physics at SLAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program of nuclear physics experiments has been approved at SLAC, and a new high average current injector is being added to the accelerator 650 meters upstream (Sector 25) of the accelerator output. The new injector (NPI) will produce beams in End Station A of up to 150 mA, 1.6 ?sec, 180 pps at energies from 0.5 to 6 GeV. NPI will also have 1 nsec short pulse capability for electron injection into SSRL. Work on NPI started in October of 1983, and the first beam from the new injector is scheduled for the Fall of 1984

1984-05-07

299

Construction of injector cryomodule for c-ERL project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compact energy-recovery linac (cERL) is under construction at KEK. In the injector cryomodule, electron beams of 10 mA are accelerated from the beam energy of 500 keV to 5 MeV. The injector cryomodule consists of three 2-cell cavity systems, and each cavity is driven by two input couplers. The design features, component test results and assembly status of the injector cryomodule for the cERL are described in this paper. (author)

2012-08-08

300

Conceptual SPL RF Main Power Coupler design  

CERN Document Server

While the upgrade plans of the LHC injectors had to be reduced in scope in 2010, the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) remains a fundamental element of plans for a possible future neutrino facility. Prototyping work is therefore continuing at CERN and the current focus is on the test of a first four cavity SPL-like cryomodule with full power. This report summarizes the parameters for the Main Power Coupler design as discussed and approved within the ‘Review of SPL RF power couplers’, held at CERN in March 2010.

Montesinos, Eric

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm  

CERN Document Server

A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing Cyclotron), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48MHz 4-rod RFQ accelerates ion beam from 4keV/u to 300keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with 3.07m long vanes. The phase advance has been taken into account to analysis the error tolerance, and parametric resonance have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. KONUS IH-DTLs, which follow the RFQ, accelerate the ions up to the energy of 7.272MeV/u and inject into HIRFL-CSRm. Th...

Zhang, Xiaohu; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, zhongshan

2013-01-01

302

Design of the MITICA Neutral Beam Injector: From Physics Analysis to Engineering Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: For ITER heating and current drive, two neutral beam injectors (NBIs) are planned, delivering a total of 33 MW in stationary conditions up to one hour; each injector will accelerate a 40 A negative deuterium ion current up to 1 MV. Such requirements have never been achieved simultaneously. Hence the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) facility is under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padua, Italy. PRIMA will include a test bed named MITICA (Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement), with the aim of meeting the ITER beam requirements in terms of negative ion yield, beam uniformity, high voltage holding, operation of beam line components and power supplies, overall reliability of the NBI. The present contribution describes the current status of numerical simulations, devoted to the optimisation of MITICA, providing the main inputs for the design of accelerator, beam line components, diagnostics and power supplies. Physics and engineering aspects include: beam optics, dumping of co-extracted and stripped electrons, thermo-mechanical behaviour of grids and beam line components during long pulse operation, voltage holding capabilities. The optimised geometry of the accelerator is characterised by equal acceleration gaps (increased voltage holding capability) and a combination of horizontal and vertical magnetic fields in the accelerator (reducing heat loads and electrons exiting the accelerator); the gas pressure profile is also simulated in the accelerator and in the injector. The design of the accelerator power supplies has been supported by simulations of static and dynamic performances, including the investigation of overvoltages by a sophisticated fast transient model and the modelling of matching network and RF systems. Moreover the signals expected from the diagnostic systems have been simulated, with realistic beam features, providing prescriptions for the design of diagnostics, like beam emission spectroscopy, beam tomography and neutron diagnostic. Most of the design of MITICA plants and components are well developed and close to finalisation. 550 Poster. (author)

2012-09-01

303

Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

1985-09-08

304

Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

2001-05-01

305

Method and apparatus for a substantially coaxial injector element  

Science.gov (United States)

A system to provide a two piece robust fluid injector. According to various embodiments, the fluid injector is a fuel injector for a combustion engine. The injector includes two coaxially formed annuluses. One annulus is formed in a face plate and the second annulus or hole is defined by a tube extending through the face plate. The tube extends through the face plate in a portion of a through bore which also is used to define the second annulus. The second annulus is formed using a throughbore through which the tube extends. This allows the second annulus to always be formed inherently and precisely substantially coaxial with the first annulus. Moreover, the second annulus can be formed with a much greater tolerance than if other independent components needed to be added.

Horn, Mark D. (Inventor); Miyata, Shinjiro (Inventor); Farhangi, Shahram (Inventor)

2006-01-01

306

Longitudinal beam dynamics of high current injector at IUAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main components of high current injector (HCI) for accelerating and bunching the ion beam are high voltage deck (30 kV), 12.125 Mhz multiharmonic buncher (MHB), 48.5 Mhz radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and 97 MHz drift tube linac (DTL). The low and medium energy beam transport sections (LEBT and MEBT) are respectively connects high temperature superconducting ECR ion source (HTSC-ECR) with RFQ and DTL. The high energy beam transport section (HEBT) of HCI delivers the beam from DTL to Superconducting LINAC. This requires the beam to rotate around 360 deg which is accomplished by a set of four 45-45 deg achromatic bends with suitable beam diagnostics and magnetic quadrupole triplet between them. The first three achromats are similar but last one is different so as to preserve the existing material science beam line of 15UD pelletron. The whole beam line is according to existing geometrical layout with proper radiation safety measures. The simulation results from TRACE 3D and TRACK code are summarized here for full facility

2011-12-01

307

The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

2011-02-11

308

Spark-integrated propellant injector head with flashback barrier  

Science.gov (United States)

High performance propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that allows for effective and safe thermal decomposition and/or combustion of the propellants. By integrating a sintered metal component between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable fuel injector head may be implemented. Additionally the fuel injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

Mungas, Gregory Stuart (Inventor); Fisher, David James (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

2012-01-01

309

Liquid Monopropellant Injector Development for High Power Electrodeless Plasma Thruster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis work aims at developing a liquid monopropellant injector for a high power electrodeless plasma thruster. The feasibility of using a chemical monopropellant for electric propulsion is investigated. After a design phase, the injector is put to the test with a simulant to the real liquid monopropellant in a simulated environment. Theoretical models are created to predict the power needed to vaporize a mass flow of the monopropellant without decomposing the heavy molecules. Testing has...

Linde, Robin

2012-01-01

310

Development of six-shot pneumatic pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A six-shot pneumatic pellet injector has been developed by Kobe Steel in collaboration with Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, and installed on HELIOTRON E for plasma fueling applications. More than 90% of the pellet shots are successful in operation. Pellet velocity ranges from 400 m/s to 1 400 m/s. This paper outlines the configuration of the injector. The design of the fast solenoid valves and the guide line system are also described. (author)

1989-01-01

311

INFLUENCE OF ELECTROHYDRAULIC INJECTOR PARAMETERS ON FUEL SUPPLY PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of calculation research of electrohydraulic injector for accumulator fuel equipment of high-speed diesel engine of DT type are presented in the article. As a result of obtained data analysis of fuel supply process there have been determined the limits of fuel injector constructive and adjusting changes and proportion that served as a starting point of multicriterion synthesis of electronic control injection fuel system.

?. Vrublevsky

2010-01-01

312

Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design of the second and third generation pneumatic devices which are being developed at ORNL. A four shot injector has been designed and operated and is currently installed on the PDX device at PPPL. A modified four shot has been designed for use on the MIT Alcator C DEVICE. The Advanced Pneumatic Injector is a development project. It's purpose is to demonstrate acceleration of 2-mm pellets at a repetition rate of 10 s/sup -1/

1981-10-29

313

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

Rathke; A. Ambrosio; M. Cole; E. Peterson; T. Schultheiss; H. Bluem; A.M.M. Todd; I. Campisi; E. Daly; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; G. Neil; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; C. Rode; J. Sekutowicz; T.Whitlatch; M. Wiseman

2005-05-16

314

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule  

CERN Multimedia

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

Rathke, John; Bluem, Hans; Campisi, Isidoro E; Cole, Michael; Daly, Edward; Hogan, John; Mammosser, John; Neil, George R; Peterson, Ed; Preble, Joseph P; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Todd, Alan M M; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark

2005-01-01

315

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule

2005-05-16

316

Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM) [Santa Fe, NM; Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2009-12-01

317

Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

1991-01-01

318

Scaling of heat transfer in gas—gas injector combustor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scaling of heat transfer in gas—gas injector combustor is investigated theoretically, numerically and experimentally based on the previous study on the scaling of gas—gas combustion flowfield. The similarity condition of the gas—gas injector combustor heat transfer is obtained by conducting a formulation analysis of the boundary layer Navier—Stokes equations and a dimensional analysis of the corresponding heat transfer phenomenon. Then, a practicable engineering scaling criterion of the gas—gas injector combustor heat transfer is put forward. The criterion implies that when the similarity conditions of inner flowfield are satisfied, the size and the pressure of gas—gas combustion chamber can be changed, while the heat transfer can still be qualitatively similar to the distribution trend and quantitatively correlates well with the size and pressure as q ? p0.8cd?0.2t. Based on the criterion, single-element injector chambers with different geometric sizes and at different chamber pressures ranging from 1 MPa to 20 MPa are numerically simulated. A single-element injector chamber is designed and hot-fire tested at seven chamber pressures from 0.92 MPa to 6.1 MPa. The inner wall heat flux are obtained and analysed. The numerical and experimental results both verified the scaling criterion in gas—gas injector combustion chambers under different chamber pressures and geometries. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

2011-06-01

319

ELM Triggering with the New PPPL Lithium Granular Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A Li granular injector based on a high-speed rotating impeller has been developed at PPPL. The injector is capable of injecting spherical particles with diameters up to 1.3 mm and velocities of up to 100 m/s and has several possible applications. Primarily, the injector was developed as a tool to induce ELMs for ELM pacing experiments in plasmas operating in the H-mode. It can also operate as a real-time wall conditioning tool or as a method to resupply Li during a discharge to devices where Li is applied to the PFC's prior to a discharge. The injector is also capable of horizontally injecting small dust particles of any variety for plasma-dust transport studies. The first injector has recently been successfully installed on the EAST tokamak in Hefei, China where ELMs were induced with near 100% efficiency when 0.7mm spheres were injected at ˜ 40m/s into the midplane SOL. The injector will be described and supporting data for ELM triggering will be presented.

Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Maingi, R.; Hu, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zou, G.

2012-10-01

320

Liquid Methane/Oxygen Injector Study for Mars Ascent Engines  

Science.gov (United States)

As a part of the advancing technology of the cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars exploration mission, this effort aims at evaluating propellant injection concepts for liquid methane/liquid oxygen (LOX) rocket engines. Split-triplet and unlike impinging injectors were selected for this study. A total of four injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows, at MSFC. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure ranging from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were conducted. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability. Initial assessments of the test results showed that the injectors provided stable combustion and there were no injector face overheating problems under all operating conditions. The Raman scattering signal measurement method was successfully demonstrated for the hydrocarbon/oxygen reactive flow field. The near-injector face flow field was visually observed through the use of an infrared camera. Chamber wall temperature, high frequency chamber pressure, and average throat section heat flux were also recorded throughout the test series. Assessments of the injector performance are underway.

Trinh, Huu Phuoc

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The effects of diesel injector needle motion on spray structure.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal structure of diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the steady-state fuel distribution within the spray. However, little experimental or computational work has been performed on the dynamics of fuel injectors. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the injector nozzle, and to track changes in that geometry as the needle opens and closes in real time. This has enabled the dynamics of the injector to be compared with the dynamics of the spray, and allows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to use realistic time-dependent flow passage geometries. In this study, X-ray phase-enhanced imaging has been used to perform time-resolved imaging of the needle seat area in several common-rail diesel injection nozzles. The fuel distributions of the sprays emitted by these injectors were also studied with fast X-ray radiography. Correlations between eccentric motions of the injector needle valve and oscillations in the fuel density as it emerges from the nozzle are examined. CFD modeling is used to interpret the effect of needle motion on fuel flow.

Powell, C. F.; Kastengren, A. L.; Liu, Z.; Fezzaa, K. (Energy Systems); ( XSD)

2011-01-01

322

SEY and Surface Analysis Measurements on FNAL Main Injector Ring S/S Beam Chamber Material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Material was provided by Dr. Weiren Chou, FNAL. Both mildly-activated used, and new sections of stainless steel (type 316L) beam chamber were measured. Centimeter-sized coupons were cleanly dry-cut from the large flat surface (called ''flat side'' in the plots) and from the ID end (inside diameter of the ring, in the case of the used material) and narrow end (in the case of the new material). The unused material was ultra-soniced in acetone (to remove storage residue), then rinsed with ethanol and blown dry with filtered N{sub 2}-gas, to simulate new chamber installation final rinse. Used material was installed, as cut. Surface chemistry was measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sometimes called ''ESCA''). With this technique, soft x-rays (1486 eV) illuminate the sample, penetrating into the surface ten microns. Photoelectrons are generated from energy levels of the constituent compounds/elements present. Those electrons, within 5 nm or so of the surface, escape without energy loss and preserve valence information about the atomic levels from which they were generated. An electron energy analyzer, of good energy resolution, measures the photoelectron energy, thereby yielding both valence (chemical) information and relative atomic abundances in the top 5 nm of surface. Using appropriate sensitivity factors, these intensities are converted to a semi-quantitative (surface atom %) concentration in the analyzed layer. As a benchmark, the limit for carbon contamination on vacuum components for UHV use at SLAC is 50 at%. That corresponds to about 8-10 monolayers of elemental carbon. XPS does not detect hydrogen because it has no electrons after bonding. Generally, hydrides do not show evidence of ''chemical shift'' of the binding energy of the metal lines.

Kirby, Robert E.; /SLAC

2006-09-18

323

Measurement application for injector solenoid : measurement application for an injector solenoid in the Wärtsilä 46CR engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis was commissioned by Wärtsilä Finland Services and concerns creating an application with LabVIEW that will measure key values from an injector solenoid intended for a Wärtsilä 46CR engine.

Ohls, Tony Conny Christoffer

2012-01-01

324

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design on an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-diam) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-diam) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-number. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented. The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. More recently, an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector next year. The new device will combine a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous pneumatic injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest injector system

1986-06-01

325

Streamlined Darwin methods for particle beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physics issues that involve inductive effects, such as beam fluctuations, electromagnetic (EM) instability, or interactions with a cavity require a time-dependent simulation. The most elaborate time-dependent codes self-consistently solve Maxwell's equations and the force equation for a large number of macroparticles. Although these full EM particle-in-cell (PIC) codes have been used to study a broad range of phenomena, including beam injectors, they have several drawbacks. In an explicit solution of Maxwell's equations, the time step is restricted by a Courant condition. A second disadvantage is the production of anomalously large numerical fluctuations, caused by representing many real particles by a single computational macroparticle. Last, approximate models of internal boundaries can create nonphysical radiation in a full EM simulation. In this work, many of the problems of a fully electromagnetic simulation are avoided by using the Darwin field model. The Darwin field model is the magnetoinductive limit of Maxwell's equations, and it retains the first-order relativistic correction to the particle Lagrangian. It includes the part of the displacement current necessary to satisfy the charge-continuity equation. This feature is important for simulation of nonneutral beams. Because the Darwin model does not include the solenoidal vector component of the displacement current, it cannot be used to study high-frequency phenomena or effects caused by rapid current changes. However, because wave motion is not followed, the Courant condition of a fully electromagnetic code can be exceeded. In addition, inductive effects are modeled without creating nonphysical radiation

1987-09-20

326

Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

1991-01-01

327

Recent progress in photo-injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed

1996-10-12

328

An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

2007-03-14

329

Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet's energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots

1994-11-01

330

Ring injector of the IHEP accelerator. 1. Characteristics of the longitudinal motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main stages of the 1.5 GeV IHEP synchrotron (fast booster) accelerating cycle are considered. Calculated characteristics of the particle longitudinal motion are given. Requirements for accelerating voltage and accelerator magnetic field are formulated. Tolerances on the system parameters for a new injector are obtained. The admissible value of longitudinal coupling impedance in a booster is calculated. It is noted that the admissible value of longitudinal impedance in the booster is considerable, and the noticeable increase of longitudinal bunch volume due to longitudinal multipole instabilities is unlikely

1979-01-01

331

European programme towards the 1 MeV ITER NB injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) system presents several challenges and a robust program is necessary in order to achieve the requirements within the tight constraints due to the ITER construction plan. The establishment of full scale NB test facilities (NBTF) has therefore become a centre piece of the international NB development strategy. This paper describes the status of the design activities that have been undertaken in Europe to develop the components for the heating NB injectors along with the main plans and results of the R and D activities. A description of the programme towards the establishment of the test facilities and the planned activities is also reported.

Masiello, A. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.masiello@f4e.europa.eu; Agarici, G.; Bonicelli, T.; Simon, M. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Antoni, V. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35126, Padova (Italy); De Esch, H. [Association EURATOM, CEA Cadarache, IRFM/SCCP, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); De Lorenzi, A. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35126, Padova (Italy); Dremel, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, EURATOM Association, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Franzen, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740, Garching (Germany); Hemsworth, R. [ITER, ITER Joint Work Site, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Liniers, M. [Association EURATOM-CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Marcuzzi, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35126, Padova (Italy); Martin, D. [UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Piovan, R. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35126, Padova (Italy); Simonin, A. [Association EURATOM, CEA Cadarache, IRFM/SCCP, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35126, Padova (Italy); Surrey, E. [UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Svensson, L. [Association EURATOM, CEA Cadarache, IRFM/SCCP, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Tanga, A. [ITER, ITER Joint Work Site, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35126, Padova (Italy)] (and others)

2009-06-15

332

European programme towards the 1 MeV ITER NB injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) system presents several challenges and a robust program is necessary in order to achieve the requirements within the tight constraints due to the ITER construction plan. The establishment of full scale NB test facilities (NBTF) has therefore become a centre piece of the international NB development strategy. This paper describes the status of the design activities that have been undertaken in Europe to develop the components for the heating NB injectors along with the main plans and results of the R and D activities. A description of the programme towards the establishment of the test facilities and the planned activities is also reported.

2009-06-01

333

Technological aspects of the different schemes for accelerator and ion source of the ITER neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each Injector of the ITER Neutral Beam system will deliver a power up to 16.5MW and guarantee steady operation for one hour in H or in D. To fulfil these requirements, the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) must provide a current up to 40A of negative ions accelerated up to 1MV. At present two different schemes for the ion source and the accelerator are under investigation. In the framework of the European tasks in preparation for the ITER construction, the design of the NBI system based on the alternative concepts for these components has been performed including the related Power Supply, 1 MV Transmission Line and Bushing. In this paper the activities performed by Consorzio RFX on this area are presented and the main achievements discussed. In particular the design of the components for the alternative concepts are compared with those of the reference NBI design and the main technological aspects outlined and discussed. (author)

2007-03-01

334

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented. PMID:24593568

Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

2014-02-01

335

Experimental study of combustion processes involved in hypergolic propellant coaxial injector operation  

Science.gov (United States)

The first results are presented of an experimental research program to understand the operation of a coaxial injector using hypergolic propellants. Mechanisms and processes involved in coaxial injector operation are identified for a two-plate injector and a coaxial injector. The usefulness of backlight cinematography and laser sheet visualization in the study of coaxial injector operation is examined. A review of the literature on injector elements using highly reactive hypergolic propellants is presented along with an analysis of fundamental mechanisms involved in these propellants.

Habiballah, M.; Dubois, I.; Gicquel, P.; Foucaud, R.

1992-07-01

336

Viability of $\\Delta m^2\\sim$ 1 eV$^2$ sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines  

CERN Document Server

This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have been imposed.

Karagiorgi, G; Conrad, J; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M

2009-01-01

337

A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on 'pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable

1990-10-08

338

Simplified feedwater heater system by multi-stage steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to realize the simplified BOP (balance of plant) system of BWR plant, the authors developed the basic designs of feedwater system simplified by application of steam injector. Basic specification of simplified steam injector feedwater heater system (SI-FWH) was developed based on system designs and thermal efficiency evaluation. Test facility was constructed based on system specification selected in accordance with analysis results of plant thermal efficiency. The steam pressures used in the selected best system for low pressure feed water heaters are 0.05 MPa, 0.10 MPa, 0.21 MPa and 0.40 MPa are almost the same pressures as the current ABWR's. Improved steam injectors for feedwater heater system were studied by thermal hydraulic analyses and the test model attained the 4-stage specifications. The 4-stage injectors succeeded in raising the water temperature to 143degC. The parallel multistage steam injectors rationalize the feedwater system by eliminating the twelve neck-heaters, and prevent the chrome ion, which is dissolved from the stainless steel heater tube, introducing into the RPV (reactor pressure vessel). (author)

2000-10-01

339

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)

1997-10-04

340

Simplified feedwater heater system by multi-stage steam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to realize the simplified BOP (balance of plant) system of BWR plant, the authors developed the basic designs of feedwater system simplified by application of steam injector. Basic specification of simplified steam injector feedwater heater system (SI-FWH) was developed based on system designs and thermal efficiency evaluation. Test facility was constructed based on system specification selected in accordance with analysis results of plant thermal efficiency. The steam pressures used in the selected best system for low pressure feed water heaters are 0.05 MPa, 0.10 MPa, 0.21 MPa and 0.40 MPa are almost the same pressures as the current ABWR's. Improved steam injectors for feedwater heater system were studied by thermal hydraulic analyses and the test model attained the 4-stage specifications. The 4-stage injectors succeeded in raising the water temperature to 143degC. The parallel multistage steam injectors rationalize the feedwater system by eliminating the twelve neck-heaters, and prevent the chrome ion, which is dissolved from the stainless steel heater tube, introducing into the RPV (reactor pressure vessel). (author)

Ohmori, S.; Mori, M. [Nuclear Power R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.. Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Narabayashi, T.; Nakamaru, M.; Asanuma, Y.; Kato, T. [Power Systems and Service Co., Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cryopump design for the ITER heating neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) is developing the cryopumps for the ITER neutral beam injectors (NBI). The cryopumps are pumping all gas fluxes from the ion beam source and the beam line components. The main gas source of all beam line components is the neutralizer with a protium flow of 25.4 Pa m3s-1 next to the smaller gas flows from beam source and the residual ion dump. The cryopumps are based on sorption pumping by charcoal coated cryopanels at a temperature between 4.5K and 6.5K. During detailed investigations of the gas dynamics in the Neutral Beam System it showed up that in the close geometry of the beam line design a cryopump with a gas capture probability of at least 30% is needed to cover the needed low pressures. Therefore, a novel cryopump has been developed which is characterised by an increase in capture probability of 50% which could be achieved at a corresponding increase of the heat load of only 20% compared to a classical cryopump. The new cryopump design is now the reference design for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam System and the mechanical engineering has been started to come up with the detailed design in terms of a CATIA5 model. Two of these cryopumps will be integrated in the beam line vessel, each of them 8 m long and 2.8 m high resulting in an overall pumping speed for hydrogen of 5000 m3 s-1. We discuss the investigations on the gas dynamic calculations for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam system and we summarize the resulting requirements to cover the needed gas profile. The development of the cryopump design is presented in detail accompanied by the results of calculated pumping properties and an outlook to the future work. (author)

2008-10-13

342

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80 pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5 nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 3{1}/{2} cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5 MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity.

Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

2007-07-01

343

Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

J. Grames, J. Hansknect, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman

2011-05-01

344

Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

2009-06-22

345

[Single use insulin injector evaluated by patients (questionnaire study)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was the analysis of perception of the disposable pen injector HumaJect by diabetic patients. Selected features of the insulin delivery systems were evaluated, and on that basis, the comparison between HumaJect and other insulin injectors was made. Research material was collected in questionnaires filled out by doctors after interviewing patients who were using HumaJect for at least one month. 1802 diabetic individuals aged 9 to 88 participated in the study. HumaJect was ranked "very good" (which is the highest possible rank) by 71% of patients. Among specific features, the highest ranks were assigned to "Ease of dose setting", "Dosing range" and "Disposable form". Most of patients assigned higher ranks to HumaJect than to other insulin delivery systems. 89% of patients indicated desire to continue treatment with this injector. PMID:11081325

Markiewicz, K; Chrzanowski, G; Falkowska-Gilska, B; Janczarska, M; Kurzawa, J; Pyrzyk, B; Szperkowska, B; Toczkowski, M; Wi?niewski, J

2000-08-01

346

ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PRE-INJECTOR DIGNOSTICS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL,). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (R-FQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device

2006-05-01

347

Electron Beam Ion Source Pre-Injector Diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device

2006-11-20

348

Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s

2006-01-01

349

Electron injectors for next-generation x-ray sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing

2004-08-01

350

A Software-Implemented Fault Injector on Windows NT Platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we present our experience in developing a tool for Software-Implement Fault Injection (SWIFI into Windows operation system. The fault injector uses software-base strategies to emulate the effects of radiation-induced transients occurring in the system hardware components. The SWIFI tool called MOFI (Memory Oriented Fault Injector is being used, in conjunction with an appropriate system fault model, to evaluate the applications, measure the injecting strength of injector and mean time to failure of injected applications and determine the sensitivity of applications to faults. The MOFI has been validated to inject faults into user-specified CPU registers and memory regions with many random distributions in location and uniform random distribution in time. The different random distributions chosen in location could produce different experiment results. The reason will be discussed in this study.

Qing-He Pan

2010-01-01

351

A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples  

CERN Document Server

We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and an in-vacuum microscope allows observation of the liquid jet for diagnostics while it is being exposed to the X-ray beam. A fiber optically coupled pump laser illuminating the jet is incorporated for pump-probe experiments. First results with this injector system have been obtained at the LCLS.

Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H

2011-01-01

352

An electron beam injector for pulse compression experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the physics of longitudal pulse compression in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction linac module. It produces a 50 ns, 40 mA electron pulse with a 2.5 to 7.5 keV, quadratically time-dependent energy shear. This beam will be injected into the existing 5-m long periodic transport channel with 38 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions the pulse will be compressed by a factor of 4 to 5 before reaching the end of the existing solenoid channel. This paper reports on the design features and the measured general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties.

Wang, J.G.; Boggasch, E.; Kehne, D.; Reiser, M.; Shea, T.; Wang, D.X.

1990-01-01

353

A High Peak Current Source for the CEBAF Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CEBAF accelerator can drive high power IR and UV FELs, if a high peak current source is added to the existing front end. We present a design for a high peak current injector which is compatible with simultaneous operation of the accelerator for cw nulear physics (NP) beam. The high peak current injector provides 60 A peak current in 2 psec long bunches carrying 120 pC charge at 7.485 MHz. At 10 MeV that beam is combined with 5 MeV NP beam (0.13pC, 2 psec long bunches at 1497 MHz) in an energy combination chicane for simultaneous acceleration in the injector linac. The modifications to the low-energy NP transport are described. Results of optical and beam dynamics calculations for both high peak current and NP beams in combined operation are presented.

Yunn, Byung; Sinclair, Charles; Krafft, Geoffrey; Liger, Philippe

1992-07-01

354

Tritium pellet injector design for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q ? 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

1986-01-01

355

Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

1985-11-18

356

Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

1997-06-01

357

An electron beam injector for pulse compression experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the physics of longitudal pulse compression in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction linac module. It produces a 50 ns, 40 mA electron pulse with a 2.5 to 7.5 keV, quadratically time-dependent energy shear. This beam will be injected into the existing 5-m long periodic transport channel with 38 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions the pulse will be compressed by a factor of 4 to 5 before reaching the end of the existing solenoid channel. This paper reports on the design features and the measured general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties

1990-04-16

358

RHIC injector complex online model status and plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An online modeling system is being developed for the RHIC injector complex, which consists of the Booster, the AGS and the transfer lines connecting the Booster to the AGS and the AGS to RHIC. Historically the injectors have been operated using static values from design specifications or offline model runs, but tighter beam optics constraints required by polarized proton operations (e.g, accelerating with near-integer tunes) have necessitated a more dynamic system. An online model server for the AGS has been implemented using MAD-X [1] as the model engine, with plans to extend the system to the Booster and the injector transfer lines and to add the option of calculating optics using the Polymorphic Tracking Code (PTC [2]) as the model engine.

Schoefer,V.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.

2009-05-04

359

Engineering design and manufacturing of prototype neutral injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first of Neutral Injection heating on JET requires injection of 5 MW of 80 neutral atoms into the plasma torus for times in excess of 10 sec. Eight injectors, each rated at 80 kV and 60 amp of hydrogen ions, will be required to provide this nett 5 MW of full energy hydrogen atoms. This paper describes the engineering design and manufacturing aspects of the prototype versions of these injectors, which are currently referred to as Plug-In Neutral Injectors. In particular the philosophy of accurate alignment of the tetrode accelerator structure on a high voltage insulated flange will be discussed in conjunction with the problem of active cooling of grids

1981-10-29

360

Progress report on the LEP pre-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LEP Pre-injector (LPI) provided very reliably positrons and electrons at 500 MeV for the LEP injector chain during the first LEP injection tests. Later, experiments were performed with the LEP Injector Linacs (LIL) to verify the influence of various parameters on the positron current and on the conversion efficiency. The authors also report experiments done with the Electron-Positron Accumulation ring (EPA) operating at 500 MeV concerning trapping, accumulation, and equilibrium beam parameters. Cutting of the 8 bunches by a thin electrostatic septum to produce two batches of 8 bunches was successfully tested. First runs with e+ and e- at 600 MeV showed the LPI behaves also at this energy as expected. 11 refs., 5 figs

1989-03-20

 
 
 
 
361

Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

2011-11-01

362

Betatron injector on the base of an impregnated cathode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector based on an impregnated cathode and intended for use in a 35 MeV betatron has been developed. A dependence of the betatron bremsstrahlung on the emittance angle of the injected electron beam has been measured. It is shown that the bremsstrahlung intensity monotonically increases with the decrease of the emittance angle. Employment of an impregnated cathode made it possible to improve the electron beam focusing and to increase the beam bremsstrahlung intensity 20 times. The cathode operated with high reliability at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1000 deg C. In addition to that the injector lifetime has increased. The described injector has been in operation for more than 8500 hours and failed because of heater destruction

1980-01-01

363

Computational Assessment of Independent Stage Control of a Cascade Injector (Postprint).  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational assessment of independent stage control of a cascade injector was performed. This investigation used computational fluid dynamics to gain understanding of the mechanics governing the penetration characteristics of the cascade injector. Com...

C. D. Carter D. R. Eklund E. J. Gutmark H. L. Meicenheimer M. R. Gruber

2006-01-01

364

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

2006-08-04

365

Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

2006-01-01

366

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6

2006-01-01

367

Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS

1994-10-02

368

A scheme for a fully superconducting electron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme for a fully superconducting electron injector, i.e., which does not use a room temperature section, suitable for a superconducting linac, is discussed. The availability of 5-cell 1.5 GHz cavities is assumed. A single cell superconducting cavity for preacceleration, followed by two standard 5-cell cavities for capture and acceleration is suggested. The injector elements are described. Simulations indicate that using a single cell cavity as preaccelerator permits a good capture of electrons in velocity of light multicell cavities despite the fringing field and a standard high voltage electron gun

1988-06-07

369

Transscleral fixation by injector implantation of a foldable intraocular lens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scleral fixation of a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) was performed in 17 eyes of 17 patients using a new small incision technique with injector implantation. All eyes were implanted with a hydrophobic acrylic three-piece IOL, either with phacoemulsification surgery or secondarily. No cases of intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. The operation time required for scleral fixation only was less than 30 minutes in all cases. Scleral fixation of foldable IOLs using a self-sealing tunnel incision and injector technique minimizes intraoperative hypotony and related complications such as suprachoroidal hemorrhage. Furthermore, this technique saves surgery time and the sutureless technique used for most patients can reduce postoperative astigmatism. PMID:20307049

Choi, Kyung Seek; Park, Sung Yong; Sun, Hae Jung

2010-01-01

370

Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development.

Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

2000-09-01

371

The APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This note describes the low-energy-transfer-line designed for the APS. The low energy transfer line constitutes two transport lines. One of these lines runs from linac to the positron accumulator ring, also called ``PAR``, and is 23.7138 m long. The second part of the low energy transport line runs from the ``PAR`` to the injector synchrtoron and is about 30.919 m long. The above length includes two quadrupoles, a bend magnet and a septum magnet in the injector synchrotron.

Koul, R.K.; Crosbie, E.

1991-03-01

372

The BOEING double subharmonic electron injector - performance measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two stage subharmonic injector has been installed and tested on the Boeing S band linac. The injector is designed as a prototype front end for a high voltage linac for free electron laser research. This accelerator will require long macropulse trains of widely spaced high current micropulses. Single micropulse output beams of 1-2 nC, 10 ps width, 1% full width energy spread and normalized emittance of epsilon /SUB n/ = ???r/phi/ = 0.01 cm-rad have been measured. The data are in good agreement with model predictions

1985-10-01

373

High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

Kwan, Joe W.

2005-02-15

374

Injector Control Unit for 750 keV DC accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The unit is designed for the supply of power to electron-gun of the 750 keV DC accelerator, floating at a potential of -750 kV w.r.t. earth. The filament current value is set by the beam current stabilizing unit located at ground potential. The stimulus signal is transmitted to the injector control unit through an optical communication link. The injector control unit generates a signal whose pulse-width is proportional to the filament current. This signal is then transmitted to the current stabilizing unit through another optical link where it is processed to realize a feedback signal for the filament current. (author)

2003-02-03

375

Characteristics of an injector with an explosive cathode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of an experimental study of the output current and the electron spectrum of an explosive cathode injector for a small-size betatron are presented. The electron energy is 200 keV, the beam current of the injector is up to 1 kA, the pulse duration is 2ns. The experiments have been carried out on the diode system with the use of a nanosecond generator with a high-voltage pulse transformer and serial dischargers SKEh-5 and P-47. The electron spectrum has beem measured by the absorption spectra method

1975-01-01

376

A vehicle test technique for studying port fuel injector deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In late 1984 and early 1985, car owners in the Denver, Colorado area begain complaining about driveability. All affected cars had port fuel injection systems. With time, complaints with certain makes of engines spread to other geographical areas. A test method was needed to study the factors causing flow-restricting deposits in the injectors. The Coordinating Research Council Automotive Fuel Injector Deposit Group was organized in March 1986. A Test Procedures Subgroup was assigned the task of selecting a vehicle test procedure that related to field experience. This paper describes the CRC program to explore repeatability and reproducibility of the method.

Tupa, R.C.; Taniguchi, B.Y.; Benson, J.D.

1989-01-01

377

Adaptation of the 1 MV bushing to the SINGAP concept for the ITER NB injector test bed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1 MV bushing of the ITER NB injector is probably one of the most challenging components of the whole accelerator, since such a high voltage (HV) in a contaminated and radiated environment requires the development of non-standard technologies. This paper intends to provide a guideline for the design of 1 MV bushing for the ITER neutral beam injector test bed. Although mainly focused on the SINGAP alternative concept of the injector, the reported general criteria can be useful for the design of other HV components, such as post insulators of the acceleration grids. For every different kind of required insulation, basic physical models describing breakdown phenomena are reported together with the main technological implications and the practical recommendations necessary to improve insulation performance. The results of the finite element analyses of 1 MV bushing, operating at CEA-Cadarache laboratories, are used to validate general criteria in a typical geometry. The effects of radiation, such as neutrons and gamma rays, on solid insulators and gases have also been taken into account, describing the most important phenomena and the related implications in terms of voltage hold-off capabilities. Finally the design of the bushing in the SINGAP option and the solutions adopted are described

2006-06-01

378

Combustion Stability Characteristics of the Project Morpheus Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Main Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Project Morpheus liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines demonstrated acousticcoupled combustion instabilities during sea-level ground-based testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC). High-amplitude, 1T, 1R, 1T1R (and higher order) modes appear to be triggered by injector conditions. The instability occurred during the Morpheus-specific engine ignition/start sequence, and did demonstrate the capability to propagate into mainstage. However, the instability was never observed to initiate during mainstage, even at low power levels. The Morpheus main engine is a JSC-designed 5,000 lbf-thrust, 4:1 throttling, pressure-fed cryogenic engine using an impinging element injector design. Two different engine designs, named HD4 and HD5, and two different builds of the HD4 engine all demonstrated similar instability characteristics. Through the analysis of more than 200 hot fire tests on the Morpheus vehicle and SSC test stand, a relationship between ignition stability and injector/chamber pressure was developed. The instability has the distinct characteristic of initiating at high relative injection pressure drop (dP) at low chamber pressure (Pc); i.e., instabilities initiated at high dP/Pc at low Pc during the start sequence. The high dP/Pc during start results during the injector /chamber chill-in, and is enhanced by hydraulic flip in the injector orifice elements. Because of the fixed mixture ratio of the existing engine design (the main valves share a common actuator), it is not currently possible to determine if LOX or methane injector dP/Pc were individual contributors (i.e., LOX and methane dP/Pc typically trend in the same direction within a given test). The instability demonstrated initiation characteristic of starting at or shortly after methane injector chillin. Colder methane (e.g., sub-cooled) at the injector inlet prior to engine start was much more likely to result in an instability. A secondary effect of LOX sub-cooling was also possibly observed; greater LOX sub- cooling improved stability. Some tests demonstrated a low-amplitude 1L-1T instability prior to LOX injector chill-in. The Morpheus main engine also demonstrated chug instabilities during some engine shutdown sequences on the flight vehicle and SSC test stand. The chug instability was also infrequently observed during the startup sequence. The chug instabilities predictably initiated at low dP/Pc at low Pc. The chug instabilities were always self-limiting; startup chug instabilities terminated during throttle-up and shutdown chug instabilities decayed by shutdown termination.

Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, Robert L.

2014-01-01

379

How to Successfully Renovate a Controls System? - Lessons Learned from the Renovation of the CERN Injectors’ Controls Software  

CERN Document Server

Renovation of the control system of the CERN LHC injectors was initiated in 2007 in the scope of the Injector Controls Architecture (InCA) project. One of its main objectives was to homogenize the controls software across CERN accelerators and reuse as much as possible the existing modern sub-systems, such as the settings management used for the LHC. The project team created a platform that would permit coexistence and intercommunication between old and new components via a dedicated gateway, allowing a progressive replacement of the former. Dealing with a heterogeneous environment, with many diverse and interconnected modules, implemented using different technologies and programming languages, the team had to introduce all the modifications in the smoothest possible way, without causing machine downtime. After a brief description of the system architecture, the paper discusses the technical and non-technical sides of the renovation process such as validation and deployment methodology, operational applicatio...

Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pace, M; Pera Mira, P; Roux, E; Wozniak, J Pawel

2014-01-01

380

LBL Wideroe-based heavy ion injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LBL Wideroe-based high-intensity heavy-ion injector for the SuperHILAC will be operational by April 1981. It will provide several emA of low charge state ions up through uranium at high duty factor to the SuperHILAC. Several of the subsystems have already operated to specification and will be described

1981-03-13

 
 
 
 
381

High Power Hydrogen Injector with Beam Focusing for Plasma Heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power neutral beam injector has been developed with the atom energy of 25 keV, a current of 60 A, and several milliseconds pulse duration. Six of these injectors will be used for upgrade of the atomic injection system at central cell of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device and 2 injectors are planned for SHIP experiment.The injector ion source is based on an arc discharge plasma box. The plasma emitter is produced by a 1 kA arc discharge in hydrogen. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase its efficiency and improve homogeneity of the plasma emitter. The ion beam is extracted by a 4-electrodes ion optical system (IOS). Initial beam diameter is 200 mm. The grids of the IOS have a spherical curvature for geometrical focusing of the beam. The optimal IOS geometry and grid potentials were found with the numerical simulation to provide precise beam formation. The measured angular divergence of the beam is 0.02 rad, which corresponds to the 2.5 cm Gaussian radius of the beam profile measured at focal point

2005-01-01

382

Development of H2 pellet injectors for industrial marketing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1. Discussion of the construction of injector installation at ETA-BETA II. 2. Production and experience with two different ''pipe-guns''. One for large pellets, diameter/length = 4.5-5 mm/8-20 mm and one for small pellets, diameter/length = 2 mm/3-4 mm. (author) 27 ills., 39 refs

1988-01-01

383

Beam quality of the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The beam quality of the ATA injector has been experimentally measured using a magnetic collimator. These measurements have been performed for a variety of magnetic field profiles, including field strengths where the collimator is shorter than a cyclotron wavelength. The experimental currents transmitted through the collimator have been predicted numerically. The numerical predictions and experimental data are in good agreement.

Boyd, J.K.; Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.; Weir, J.T.

1987-01-01

384

Beam quality of the ATA [Advanced Test Accelerator] injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beam quality of the ATA injector has been experimentally measured using a magnetic collimator. These measurements have been performed for a variety of magnetic field profiles, including field strengths where the collimator is shorter than a cyclotron wavelength. The experimental currents transmitted through the collimator have been predicted numerically. The numerical predictions and experimental data are in good agreement

1987-03-16

385

Features of short-pulse test injector for ion linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental samples of proton and deuteron short-pulse injectors on spark ion source base showed that they can be used as a calibration equipment in working-out the HF parameters in accelerating structures, especially in multi-channel ones

1997-09-16

386

Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

1977-04-22

387

An isotope separation magnet for the injector test experiment (MITE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A magnet has been designed for space-charge neutralization studies on the Injector Test Experiment at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Augmented by suitable collectors, the magnet could also be used for pilot-scale isotope separations. The present report documents the design of this particular magnet and illustrates the process of designing beam transport magnets in general

1988-01-01

388

A triple-isotope injector for accelerator mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of the newly installed 40 keV negative ion injector for the three isotopes (masses 12, 13 and 14) of natural carbon is discussed. A cesium sputter ion source and an achromatic arrangement of four dipole magnets with two electric slot lenses is being used, to achieve minimal aberrations for the injected beam into a tandem

1991-05-06

389

Proton Injector for CW-Mode Linear Accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous applications exist for CW linear accelerators with final energies in the 0.5 to 4.0 MeV proton energy range. Typical proton current at the linac output energy is 20 mA. An important subsystem for the accelerator facility is a reliable dc mode proton injector. We present here design and laboratory results for a dc, 25-keV, 30-mA proton injector. The proton source is a 2.45-GHz microwave hydrogen ion source which operates with an 875-G axial magnetic field. Low emittance, high proton fraction (>85%), beams have been demonstrated from this source. The injector uses a novel dual-solenoid magnet for matching the injector beam into a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. Recently, a dc ion-source development program has given up to 30 mA beam current. The dual solenoid is a compact and simple design utilizing tape-wound, edge-cooled coils. The low-energy beam transport design as well as 25-keV beam matching calculations to an RFQ will also be presented.

2009-03-10

390

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

1991-10-03

391

Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

2007-04-22

392

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1-to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC)

1991-10-03

393

Development of long pulse neutral beam injector system for the east tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutral beam injector (NBI) was considered to be developed in ASIPP to support the EAST physical research. It is mainly used for the plasma heating and current driving. The NBI system mainly consists of high current ion source, neutralizer, bending magnet, calorimeter, ion dump, vacuum vessel and power supply system, control system. It can provides a neutral beam with beam energy of 50-80 keV, beam power of 2-4 WM, and beam pulse of 10-100 s. The development of NBI system is a complicated and difficult mission, and the key components design such as ion sources, bending magnet, calorimeter, etc are ongoing. The development of the NBI system will be completed in 4 years. (authors)

2010-11-01

394

Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

1992-10-02

395

Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Impinging Injector Element  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) impinging injector element. The unlike impinging element, a fuel-oxidizer- fuel (F-O-F) triplet, is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub o), combustor length, L(sub comb), and impingement half-angle, alpha, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 163 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface which includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio. Finally, specific variable weights are further increased to illustrate the high marginal cost of realizing the last increment of injector performance and thruster weight.

Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

2001-01-01

396

The detection of back-to-back proton pairs in Charged-Current neutrino interactions with the ArgoNeuT detector in the NuMI low energy beam line  

CERN Multimedia

Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (NN SRC) carry important information on nuclear structure and dynamics. NN SRC have been extensively probed through two-nucleon knock- out reactions in both pion and electron scattering experiments. We report here on the detection of two-nucleon knock-out events from neutrino interactions and discuss their topological features as possibly involving NN SRC content in the target argon nuclei. The ArgoNeuT detector in the Main Injector neutrino beam at Fermilab has recorded a sample of 30 fully reconstructed charged current events where the leading muon is accompanied by a pair of protons at the interaction vertex, 19 of which have both protons above the Fermi momentum of the Ar nucleus. Out of these 19 events, four are found with the two protons in a strictly back-to-back high momenta configuration directly observed in the final state and can be associated to nucleon Resonance pionless mechanisms involving a pre-existing short range correlated np pair in the nu...

Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01

397

??????? ???????? ???????????? The main objective himmotologii ??????? ?????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????. In the articles formulated main tasks of chemmotology and main technologies of decision of majority are indicated from the put tasks. C????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????.

?.?. ??????

2009-01-01

398

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticid [...] es chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de, Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira, Silvério; Antônio Augusto, Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de, Queiroz.

399

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de Pinho

2012-01-01

400

The Beam Forming Numerical Simulation for High Power Neutral Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power neutral beam injector START-4 for plasma heating has been described. The distinctive features of the injector are comparatively large initial beam aperture (200 mm) and multi holes grids with the large numbers of the holes (more than 3000). A significant focusing is realized to a beam diameter 50 mm at a length 1.2 m. The disadvantage of the multi holes optic is low transparency, which decreases the efficiency of plasma source and makes worse vacuum conditions in the source. The possible decisions of these problems are using ion-optical systems (IOS) with enlarged diameter of holes and, also, application IOS with the azimuthal-slit holes structure. Numerical simulation and test experiments have been carried out for investigation of the ability such IOS geometries

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Development of lithium vapor injector for boundary control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A lithium (Li) vapor injector for boundary control has been developed. A diverter covered with lithium is expected to reduce particle recycling. Recycling reduction is considered to be one of the triggers for the L-H transition. In this paper, the method of lithium dispersion is investigated under the assumption that the experiment is carried out in the Large Helical Device in National Institute for fusion Science, Japan (LHD). A performance test is performed on a prototype of the vapor injector. The amount of injected lithium was approximately 1% of the value expected from the vapor pressure data, due to the generation of lithium oxide. It is also found that nozzle temperature is quite important to suppress the Li dispersion.

2010-11-01

402

Development of lithium vapor injector for boundary control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A lithium (Li) vapor injector for boundary control has been developed. A diverter covered with lithium is expected to reduce particle recycling. Recycling reduction is considered to be one of the triggers for the L-H transition. In this paper, the method of lithium dispersion is investigated under the assumption that the experiment is carried out in the Large Helical Device in National Institute for fusion Science, Japan (LHD). A performance test is performed on a prototype of the vapor injector. The amount of injected lithium was approximately 1% of the value expected from the vapor pressure data, due to the generation of lithium oxide. It is also found that nozzle temperature is quite important to suppress the Li dispersion.

Tsuchiya, Hayato, E-mail: tsuchiya.hayato@lhd.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Hirooka, Yoshi; Ashikawa, Naoko [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Chung, Kyu-Sun [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Masuzaki, Suguru; Nagayama, Yoshio [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan)

2010-11-15

403

High-current injector for the proposed SLAC linear collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new, high-current injector has been designed to yield the 7.5 x 1010e- per S-band bunch necessary for the proposed linear collider. The injector consists of two prebunchers at the 16th subharmonic, a 0.75 c traveling wave buncher, and a three-meter velocity of light traveling wave structure. The e- beam is confined by a solonoidal magnetic field in the buncher and capture regions. A computer simulation similar to that used by Mavrogenes et al., has been used to calculate the bunching. The calculation indicates it is possible to achieve approx. 1 x 1011e- in 160 of S-band from a 15 amp gun pulse of 1.5 nsec duration

1981-03-13

404

Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching signi?cantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the ?rst part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

405

Pneumatic injector of hydrogen pellets for the LHD stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel pellets into plasma of the LHD stellarator in a continuous mode for an infinitely long time is described. The continuous injection is ensured by a screw extruder and two cryorefrigerators that allow extrusion of solid hydrogen rods with diameters of 2 and 2.5 mm at a speed of up to 40 mm/s in a steady-state mode. A cylindrical cutter and a valve with compressed hydrogen form solid-hydrogen pellets with diameters of 2 and 2.5 mm from the rod and inject them into plasma at a frequency of up the 11 Hz and a speed of 150-550 m/s. The reliability of the injector operation is 99%

2006-01-01

406

The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.  

CERN Document Server

The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

2010-01-01

407

Numerical investigation of a laser gun injector at CEBAF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laser gun injector is being developed based on the superconducting rf technologies established at CEBAF. This injector will serve as a high charge cw source for a high power free electron laser. It consists of a dc laser gun, a buncher, a cryounit and a chicane. Its space-charge-dominated performance has been thoroughly investigated using the time-consuming but more appropriate point-by-point space charge calculation method in PARMELA. The notion of conditioning for final bunching'' will be introduced. This concept has been built into the code and has greatly facilitated the optimization of the whole system to achieve the highest possible peak current while maintaining low emittance and low energy spread. Extensive parameter variation studies have shown that the design will perform better than the specifications. (orig.)

Liu, H. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Benson, S. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Bisognano, J. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Liger, P. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Neil, G. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Neuffer, D. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Sinclair, C. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)); Yunn, B. (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States))

1994-02-01

408

Injector Power Supplies Reliability Improvements at the Advanced Photon Source  

CERN Document Server

Operational goals for the APS facility include 97% availability and a mean time between unscheduled beam losses (faults) of 70 hours, with more than 5000 user hours of scheduled beam per year. To meet this objective, our focus has changed to maximizing the mean time between faults (MTBF). We have made various hardware and software improvements to better operate and monitor the injector power supply systems. These improvements have been challenging to design and implement in light of the facility operating requirements but are critical to maintaining maximum reliability and availability of beam for user operations. This paper presents actions taken as well as future plans to continue improving injector power supply hardware and software to meet APS user operation goals.

Hillman, Albert; Sereno, Nicholas S; Soliday, Robert; Wang, Ju

2005-01-01

409

Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993

1992-10-05

410

Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

2005-04-08

411

Development of The High Speed Pellet Injector For Ignitor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENEA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are collaborating on the development of a four barrel, two-stage pneumatic injector for the Ignitor experiment, featuring two innovative concepts: (i) the proper shaping of the propellant pressure pulse to improve pellet acceleration, and (ii) the use of fast closing (< 10 ms) valves to drastically reduce the expansion volumes of the propellant gas removal system. Two independent sub-systems have been built and tested separately by ENEA and ORNL. ...

Coppi, Bruno; Roveta, G.; Fehling, D.; Meitner, S.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Ronci, G.; Capobianchi, M.; Migliori, S.; Bombarda, F.; Frattolillo, A.

2009-01-01

412

Descemet's tear due to injector cartridge tip deformity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using an injector system through 2.8-mm clear corneal incision following phacoemulsification provides excellent speedy postoperative recovery. In our reported case, a Sensar AR40e IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, USA) was loaded into Emerald C cartridge, outside the view of the operating microscope, by the first assistant. The surgeon proceeded with the IOL injection through a 2.8-mm clear corneal incision after uneventful phacoemulsification, immediate...

2012-01-01

413

Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

1991-05-01

414

Experience with the Wendelstein VII-neutral injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of the injector systems for W VII-A has been improved. The factors which had reduced their availability during three experimental periods are outlined. A serious problem remaining in this injection experiment is radiation of plasma impurities during injection. The source of plasma impurities has not yet been identified with certainty. Theoretical and experimental evidence demonstrating the increase of plasma radiation due to impurities in the neutral beam is presented

1981-10-29

415

Commissioning and operation of the Nuclear Physics Injector at SLAC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A.

Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.; Leger, G.K.; Iverson, R.

1985-03-01

416

Synchrotron injectors based on high charge state ion sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of any injector contemplated to replace the electrostatic tandem accelerators some time in the future should evidently match or surpass the characteristics of the tandems. It is a fortunate coincidence that the performance of the BNL tandem satisfies in most respects the requirements of the proposed collider, although originally tandems were not built with this application in mind. Requests for heavy ion beams with parameters suitable for injection into the rings of a heavy ion collider have appeared rather recently, at a stage when the high charge state ion sources, which in principle are capable of producing many ion species, have not yet reached such a level of performance. Therefore, consideration of such sources as part of a future injector replacing the tandem accelerators will have to rely on the extrapolation of results from existing models, developed for a different purpose. At the same time, present and future collider requirements for heavy ion beams should serve as a stimulus for the development of sources producing ions with adequate charge states and intensities. Injectors based on such sources may present a better alternative than the tandem accelerators because a higher charge-to-mass ratio of ions from the source results in a more efficient and less costly accelerator. In this report, two candidates for a high charge state, heavy ion source will be considered: an EBIS and an ECR. Other approaches, e.g. laser ion sources, are much further away in the development of a device to be used in a synchrotron injector. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

1990-01-01

417

Merits of D--based neutral beam injectors for tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model-based efficiencies and costs of D+ and D- neutral beam systems are presented and compared. The results of modeling of the heating and the current driving by D- generated neutral beams are presented. PLT experimental data on heating as a function of beam penetration are presented and discussed. Efficiencies, costs, heating, and current driving are combined to derive the merits of D--based neutral beam injector for tokamaks

1980-12-01

418

Fast Beam Current Transformer Software for the CERN Injector Complex  

CERN Multimedia

The fast transfer-line Beam Current Transformers(BCTs) in the CERN injector complex are undergoing a complete consolidation to eradicate obsolete, maintenance intensive hardware. The corresponding low-level software has been designed to minimise the effect of identified error sources while allowing remote diagnostics and calibration facilities. This paper will present the front-end and expert application software with the results obtained.

Andersen, M

2011-01-01

419

Space-Charge Compensation Options for the LHC Injector Complex  

CERN Document Server

Space-charge effects have been identified as the most serious intensity limitation in the CERN PS and PS Booster, on the way towards ultimate LHC performance and beyond. We here explore the application of several previously proposed space-charge compensation methods to the two LHC pre-injector rings, and the challenges which need to be overcome. The methods considered include the reduction of tune shift and resonance strengths via octupoles, pole-face windings, electron lenses, or neutralisation.

Aiba, M; Dorda, U; Franchetti, G; Garoby, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martini, M; Métral, E; Papaphilippou, Y; Scandale, Walter; Shiltsev, V; Zimmermann, F

2007-01-01

420

A CFD STUDY OF CAVITATION IN REAL SIZE DIESEL INJECTORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Diesel engines, the internal flow characteristics in the fuel injection nozzles, such as the turbulence level and distribution, the cavitation pattern and the velocity profile affect significantly the air-fuel mixture in the spray and subsequently the combustion process. Since the possibility to observe experimentally and measure the flow inside real size Diesel injectors is very limited, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations are generally used to obtain the relevant informati...

Patouna, Stavroula

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Dielectric emitter in injector of linear induction electron accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operation of a new type of cathode - a dielectric emitter - is based on electron-charge accumulation on the dielectric surface followed by injection. An injector with a dielectric emitter for a linear induction accelerator is described that provides a beam current of 1.5 kA for a charging potential of 29 kV and an accelerating potential of 400 kV. 6 refs., 2 figs

1992-04-01

422

Microtron as an injector into an electron synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary proposal to build a synchrotron radiation source at the Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest, Romania is considered. The electron energy is about 200-300 MeV, corresponding to a cut-off wavelength of several hundred angstroms. A comparison with other radiation sources in the same wavelength range is presented. The 17-orbit microtron, now in operation, will be used as injector. The microtron parameters are presented. 4 refs

1992-09-22

423

Health physics aspects of nuclear radiations from deuterium beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations are made for X-ray generation from the accelerator column of various neutral beam injectors. For the case of deuterium beam operation where 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons pose a serious health physics concern, neutron and tritium production rates from beam targets are calculated for different beam energies. Biological doses from these radiations and shielding requirements are discussed

1978-01-01

424

BPM DAQ system upgrade for SuperKEKB injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KEK electron/positron linac is a 600-m-long injector providing the beams of different energies with four independent storage rings. A non-destructive beam position monitor (BPM) is an indispensable diagnostic tool for a long-term stable beam operation. In the KEK linac, around one hundred BPMs with the four strip-line type electrodes are utilized for the beam position and charge measurement. The measured beam positions can be used for the beam orbit and energy feedback loops. The current BPM data acquisition (DAQ) system comprises 23 fast digital oscilloscopes based on Windows-XP, and the precision of measurement precision is approximately 50 ?m. Toward the SuperKEKB project, the upgrade of injector linac is now going on for increasing the beam intensity and reducing the beam emittance. For the SuperKEKB linac, the emittance of electron beam should be reduced one-fifth smaller than that of former KEKB injector. For this reason, a high precision of the beam position measurement less than 10 ?m is strongly required. In this paper, we present the system description and performance evaluation of a new BPM DAQ system in detail. (author)

2012-08-08

425

Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

2010-07-01

426

Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

2008-01-01

427

Performance test at the prototype injector unit for JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma heating by neutral beam injection on the JT 60 project is scheduled to commence in the middle of 1986. Neutral beam power of 20 MW at energies ranging from 75 to 100 KeV are to be injected into the torus for up to 10 sec from 14 injector units. The prototype injector unit was constructed in November 1981 to test and demonstrate individual beam line performance. This unit, equipped with two ion sources, has succeeded in producing the nominal operating conditions of 75 kV, 70 A, 10 s in February 1982, and in the extended operating conditions of 100 kV,70 A,10 s in March 1983. Since the most distinctive feature of our injector is its beam duration time of up to 10 s, great care was given during these test to the heat loads on the beam line components, especially the ion dump and the water jacket (magnet protecting liner) which suffer the highest heat load of all the components

1984-01-01

428

Ion sources and injectors for HIF induction linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For heavy ion fusion (HIF) induction linac drivers, a typical injector requires total beam current of 50-100 A and is comprised of many individual beams of 0.5-1.0 A each. As a step towards developing a full ion driver for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants, an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) will be proposed within a few years [1]. The IRE will have a linac of more than 150 MeV and beam current about 18 A (ion mass 39). At present, a compact multiple-beam injector is being developed to meet the IRE specifications. In our design, about 100 miniature beamlets (of a few mA each) will be merged to form each 0.5 A beam at the matching section. The beamlets have current density up to 100 mA/cm2 at the ion source (as opposed to 3.5 mA/cm2 used in previous low current density large beam designs). With optimized positioning and aiming, the miniature beamlets can quickly merge and match into an ESQ channel thus minimizing the matching section size requirement. Simulation results have shown that when the beamlet current is small and the number of beamlets are large, the emittance of a 1.6 MeV, 0.5 A beam (after merging) at the end of the injector is 1.0 ? mm-mrad

2000-08-21

429

Compound port fuel injector nozzle droplet sizes and spray patterns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this research was to determine an empirical method of relating the droplet sizes and the spray patterns to the parameters and the geometries of the compound nozzles. Two different types of compound nozzles were studied, the compound silicon micro machined nozzle and the compound metal disk nozzle. Several different orifice geometries of each nozzle type were examined. The injector components upstream of the compound nozzle of two different types of injectors were also studied. A nondimensional characterization of the droplet sizes and the mass flow rates was proposed. The results of this study show that there exists optimum geometric features that will provide sprays with the minimum steady state and dynamic Sauter mean diameter. The spray of a compound nozzle can be characterized by the atomization efficiency and the discharge coefficient. Nozzle testing results show that many flow characteristics are developed in the compound nozzle. The compound silicon micro machined nozzles produce similar droplet sizes in both of the injectors studied. The compound metal disk nozzles produce sprays with droplet sizes similar to the compound silicon micro machined nozzles. The spray pattern is determined by the direction of the velocity vectors developed inside the compound nozzle. A split spray can be produced by controlling the direction of these velocity vectors and enhanced with modifications to the cavity geometry.

Rivette, S.M.; Evers, L.W. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1996-09-01

430

Understanding and improving the neutral beam injector conditioning problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of high voltage electrical breakdowns between the ion beam extraction grids of a high-power neutral beam injector is one of the major factors that determine the performance of an injector. The tedious procedure of 'conditioning' the electrodes in up to several thousand shots and the stressing of electrical supplies by the fast transients are two examples illustrating the need for more understanding of the actual origins of the high-voltage breakdown and the desire to reduce their frequency, thereby shortening the down-times on an injector. This report is an attempt to systematically address these questions. It starts with a survey of the relevant literature relevant to gap breakdown in the extraction optics system. Considering the various possible reasons for breakdowns, different methods for conditioning are discussed as to their potential effectiveness and with respect to the necessary effort. The proposed experimental work to improve the conditioning time will then be described. Finally the results so far obtained will be reported. (orig.)

1991-01-01

431

Simulation for a New Polarized Electron Injector (SPIN) for the S-DALINAC  

CERN Document Server

The Superconducting DArmstädter LINear ACcelerator (S-DALINAC) is a 130 MeV recirculating electron accelerator serving several nuclear and radiation physics experiments. For future tasks, the 250 keV thermal electron source should be completed by a 100 keV polarized electron source. Therefore a new low energy injection concept for the S-DALINAC has to be designed. The main components of the injector are a polarized electron source, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter spin-rotator and a Mott polarimeter. In this paper we report over the first simulation and design results. For our simulations we used the TS2 and TS3 modules of the CST MAFIA (TM) programme which are PIC codes for two and three dimensions and the CST PARTICLE STUDIO (TM).

Steiner, Bastian; Gräf, Hans Dieter; Richter, Achim; Roth, Markus; Weiland, Thomas

2005-01-01

432