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1

Main injector particle production experiment at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main injector particle production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and antiproton with beam momenta of 5-90 GeV/c to measure particle production cross-sections of various nuclei including liquid hydrogen, MINOS target and thin targets of beryllium, carbon, bismuth and uranium. The physics motivation to perform such cross-section measurements is described here. Recent results on the analysis of NuMI target and forward neutron cross-sections are presented here. Preliminary cross-section measurements for 58 GeV/c proton on liquid hydrogen target are also presented. A new method is described to correct for low multiplicity inefficiencies in the trigger using KNO scaling. (author)

2012-01-01

2

Cycle-to-cycle extraction synchronization of the Fermilab Booster for multiple batch injection to the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on a system to ensure cycle-to-cycle synchronization of beam extraction from the Fermilab Booster accelerator to the Main Injector. Such synchronization is necessary for multiple batch operation of the Main Injector for the Run II upgrade of anti-proton production using slip-stacking in the Main Injector, and for the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) neutrino beam. To perform this task a system of fast measurements and feedback controls the longitudinal progress of the Booster beam throughout its acceleration period by manipulation of the transverse position maintained by the LLRF (Low-level Radio Frequency) system.

Zwaska, R.; Kopp, S.; /Texas U.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

3

Operational Performance of a Bunch by Bunch Digital Damper in the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Multimedia

We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project.

Adamson, Philip; Foster, G W; Hansen, Sten; Kang, Hyejoo; Marchionni, Alberto; Nicklaus, Dennis J; Semenov, Alexei; Wildman, David

2005-01-01

4

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

1997-01-01

5

Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as A{sup a} where a is 0.46 {+-} 0.06 for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54 {+-} 0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo. The MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experiment (FNAL E907) [1] acquired data in the Meson Center beam line at Fermilab. The primary purposes of the experiment were to investigate scaling laws in hadron fragmentation [2], to obtain hadron production data for the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector [3]) target to be used for calculating neutrino fluxes, and to obtain inclusive pion, neutron, and photon production data to facilitate proton radiography [4]. While there is considerable data available on inclusive charged particle production [5], there is little data on neutron production. In this article we present results for forward neutron production using proton beams of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, bismuth, and uranium targets, and compare these data with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

Nigmanov, T.S.; /Michigan U.; Rajaram, D.; /Michigan U.; Longo, M.J.; /Michigan U.; Akgun, U.; /Iowa U.; Aydin, G.; /Iowa U.; Baker, W.; /Fermilab; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bergfeld, T.; /South Carolina U.; Bujak, A.; /Purdue U.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab; Dukes, E.C.; /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

2010-10-01

6

Progress in Multi-Batch Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector and Future Plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multi-batch slip stacking has been used for operations since January, 2008 and effectively increased proton intensity to the NuMI target by 50% in a Main Injector (MI) cycle. The MI accepts 11 batches at injection energy from the Booster, and sends two batches to antiproton production and nine to the NuMI beam line. The total beam power in a cycle was increased to 340 kW on average. We have been doing beam studies in order to increase the beam power to 400 kW and to control the beam loss. We will also discuss 12 batch slip stacking scheme which is going to be used for future neutrino experiments.

Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

2008-04-01

7

Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results.

Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

1995-06-01

8

Slow extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slow resonant extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector through the extraction channel was achieved in February, 2000, with a spill length of 0.3 sec. Beam losses were small. Excellent wire chamber profiles were obtained and analyzed. The duty factor was not very good and needs to be improved.

Craig D. Moore et al.

2001-07-20

9

Multi-batch slip stacking in the Main Injector at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab is planning to use multi-batch slip stacking scheme in order to increase the proton intensity at the NuMI target by about a factor of 1.5.[1] [2] By using multi-batch slip stacking, a total of 11 Booster batches are merged into 6, 5 double ones and one single. We have successfully demonstrated the multibatch slip stacking in MI and accelerated a record intensity of 4.6E13 particle per cycle to 120 GeV. The technical issues and beam loss mechanisms for multibatch slip stacking scheme are discussed.

Seiya, K.; Berenc, T.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

10

Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

1993-01-01

11

Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

1992-01-01

12

A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector  

CERN Multimedia

Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

2012-01-01

13

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

Kiyomi Koba et al.

2003-06-02

14

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.

2003-01-01

15

Magnet end design: The main injector dipoles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the accelerator designer standpoint, one of the quantities of interest in a magnet is the axially integrated transverse field. It is easily shown that the latter satisfies the equations of 2D magnetostatics. This is the basic theoretical result needed to design accelerator magnet ends. Unfortunately, axially integrated fields must be obtained from accurate 3D field maps and magnets ends have historically been designed using a cut and try approach. To a certain extent, this remains true even today; however, the advent of reliable 3D magnet design codes now permits to substantially reduce the costs associated with the construction of various prototypes. In this paper, the theory of magnet end design is reviewed. The design of the end of the dipole magnets of the proposed Fermilab Main Injector is analyzed in a detailed manner using TOSCA, a well-established 3D finite element code. Provided the limitations of the code are well understood by the user, the integrated field profile is satisfactorily predicted

1991-01-01

16

Low-dispersion ?t jump for the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bipolar ?t-jump design is reported for the Fermilab Main Injector (Lattice MI-17). The total amount of jump is 1.3 units. Both the betatron and dispersion waves are confined, while the betatron tunes remain nearly unchanged. The Fermilab Main Injector has been designed to overcome some of the unfavorable effects on the particle motion around transition energy. Unlike the Main Ring, the Main Injector has a very large aperture, so that beam low due to scraping can be avoided. The bunch area at transition will be less than 0.1 eV-sec, so that the nonlinear Johnsen effect can be avoided. Also rapid ramping across transition is possible, so that the nonadiabatic time can be reduced. Nevertheless, negative-mass instability will develop when the bunch intensity is high enough. The only way to avoid this instability is to incorporate a ?t jump

1995-01-01

17

Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters

1992-01-01

18

Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

Visnjic, V.

1992-12-01

19

Some estimation concerning crossing transition of the main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We estimate some parameters pertaining to the transition crossing of the Main Injector. These include the nonadiabatic time, bunch length and bunch height at transition, the microwave growth across transition driven by a longitudinal impedance, and the parameters that govern the Umstaetter's and the Johnsen's effects. 9 refs., 1 tab.

Ng, King-Yuen.

1990-06-01

20

Simulations of transition crossing in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The design goal for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is to accelerate a minimum of 6x1010 protons per bunch through the transition. We present here the results from simulation studies of the transition crossing in the FMI using the particle tracking code ESME

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Radiation shielding for the Main Injector collimation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding studies performed with the MARS15 code for the Main Injector collimation system at Fermilab are presented and discussed. MAD-to-MARS Beam Line Builder is used to generate realistic extended curvilinear geometry models.

Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

22

Fermilab Main Injector Collimation Systems: Design, Commissioning and Operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector is moving toward providing 400 kW of 120 GeV proton beams using slip stacking injection of eleven Booster batches. Loss of 5% of the beam at or near injection energy results in 1.5 kW of beam loss. A collimation system has been implemented to localize this loss with the design emphasis on beam not captured in the accelerating RF buckets. More than 95% of these losses are captured in the collimation region. We will report on the construction, commissioning and operation of this collimation system. Commissioning studies and loss measurement tools will be discussed. Residual radiation monitoring of the Main Injector machine components will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these efforts.

Brown, Bruce; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnson, David E.; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Morris, Denton K.; Rakhno, Igor; Seiya, Kiyomi; Sidorov, Vladimir; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

23

Field shape measurements of prototype Main Injector dipole endpacks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of the transverse dependence of the flux on the symmetry plane were obtained on a series of endpacks mounted on a Main Injector prototype dipole. From these flux measurements, we determined the endfield shape, expressed in terms of normal harmonics, up to 14-pole. We describe the measurement and analysis procedure, and present the results for all endpacks that were tested. The final endpack (number 10) has a sextupole, normalized to the body, of +0.167 [plus minus] .072 units, and the relative field shape deviates by [lt] 1.2 units relative to the on-axis field strength over the range [vert bar]x[vert bar] [lt] 2.0[double prime]. These measurements indicate that Endpack 10 meets the requirements for the Main Injector dipole.

Glass, H.D.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.

1993-01-06

24

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

2011-10-06

25

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

Mahajan, Sonam; /Panjab U. /Fermilab

2010-12-09

26

Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Multimedia

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C

2013-01-01

27

Simulation of slow extraction in the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent modifications to the tracking code TEAPOT have allowed us to simulate both ramp and slow extraction in the Fermilab Main Injector at 120 GeV/c. This calculation includes all the magnetic field and alignment errors. Preliminary results from this calculation are presented here and compared with other calculations. Further studies to optimize the strength and ramp of the extraction elements are in progress.

Mishra, C.S.; Harfoush, F.A.; Johnstone, J.

1993-08-01

28

Accelerator improvement options for NuMI oroton intensity.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to meet the needs for protons for MINOS and other experiments, substantial improvements will be necessary in the Booster and Main Injector. They have evaluated a number of improvements which would yield an increase in the number of protons on target for NuMI and Mini-BooNE in the years 2005-2008. They outline a possible program of improvements in the Booster and Main Injector which can be implemented in steps over a five year period and which could result in an increase in proton intensity through the Main Injector which is approximately four times what is currently possible. They provide a list of specific improvements and suggest a possible schedule for the implementation.

Choudhary, B.; Fields, T.; Foster, G. W.; Graffin, J.; Lucas, P.; Marchionni, A.; Martin, P.; Michael, D.; Prebys, E.; Pruss, S.

2003-07-29

29

Status of slip stacking at Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking'' [1]. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have been performed for this process and we have already verified that, at least for low beam intensities, the stacking procedure works as expected [2]. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems was done during the last machine shut down, from August to November 2004 [3].

Seiya, K.; Berenc, T.; Dey, J.; Chase, B.; Rivetta, C.; Kourbanis, I.; MacLachlan, J.; Meisner, K.; Pasquinelli, R.; Reid, J.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

30

Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 1010 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20? mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations.

1994-01-01

31

Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10{sup 10} protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20{pi} mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations.

Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

1994-03-01

32

A kaon physics program at the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay KL ? ?0? anti ? decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K+ beam to produce a pure K0 beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare KS decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ''kaon factory'' proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world

1997-01-01

33

A kaon physics program at the Fermialb Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we describe a triad of kaon experiments which will form the foundation of a kaon physics program at Fermilab in the Main Injector era. These three experiments; KAMI, CKM and CPT, span the range of experiment types discussed above. KAMI will use the existing neutral kaon beam and the KTeV detector as the basis of a search for the Standard Model ultra rare decay K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{anti {nu}} decay mode is by far the theoretically cleanest measurement of the Standard Model parameter responsible for CP violation. CKM will measure the analogous charged kaon decay mode. Together these two experiments will determine the Standard Model contribution to CP violation independent of the B meson sector. The Standard Model parameters controlling CP violation must be observed to be the same in the K and B meson sectors in order to confirm the Standard Model as the sole source of CP violation in nature. CPT is a hybrid beam experiment using a high purity K{sup +} beam to produce a pure K{sub 0} beam in order to search for violation of CPT symmetry at a mass scale up to the Planck mass. CPT also will measure new CP violation parameters to test the Standard Model and search for rare K{sub S} decays. The Fermilab infrastructure for such a physics program largely already exists. The Main Injector will be an existing accelerator by late 1998 with beam properties comparable to any of the previous ``kaon factory`` proposals. The KTeV detector and neutral kaon beamline are unsurpassed in the world and were originally designed to also operate with the 120 GeV Main Injector beam as KAMI. The Fermilab Meson laboratory was originally designed as an area for fixed target experiments using 200 GeV proton beams. The charged kaon beam experiments will naturally find a home there. Both charged kaon experiments, CKM and CPT, will share a new high purity RF separated charged kaon beam based on superconducting RF technology which will provide the highest intensity and purity charged kaon beam in the world.

Cooper, Peter

1997-11-01

34

Beam-Based Alignment of the NuMI Target Station Components at FNAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional horn-focused neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos from a beam of mesons directed into a long evacuated decay volume. The relative alignment of the primary proton beam, target, and focusing horns affects the neutrino energy spectrum delivered to experiments. This paper describes a check of the alignment of these components using the proton beam.

Zwaska, R.; /Argonne; Bishai, M.; Childress, S.; Drake, G.; Escobar, C.; Gouffon, P.; Harris, D.A.; Hylen, J.; Indurthy, D.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; /Argonne /Brookhaven

2006-09-01

35

Beam-Based Alignment of the NuMI Target Station Components at FNAL  

CERN Document Server

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility is a conventional horn-focused neutrino beam which produces muon neutrinos from a beam of mesons directed into a long evacuated decay volume. The relative alignment of the primary proton beam, target, and focusing horns affects the neutrino energy spectrum delivered to experiments. This paper describes a check of the alignment of these components using the proton beam.

Zwaska, R; Childress, S; Drake, G; Escobar, C; Gouffon, P; Harris, D A; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Lucas, P; Marchionni, A; Para, A; Pavlovich, Z; Smart, W; Talaga, R; Viren, B

2006-01-01

36

Physics design for the C-ADS main linac basing on two different injector design schemes  

CERN Multimedia

The China ADS (C-ADS) project is proposed to build a 1000 MW Accelerator Driven sub-critical System around 2032. The accelerator will work in CW mode with 10 mA in beam current and 1.5 GeV in final beam energy. The linac is composed of two major sections: the injector section and the main linac section. There are two different schemes for the injector section. The Injector-I scheme is based on a 325-MHz RFQ and superconducting spoke cavities of same RF frequency and the Injector-II scheme is based on a 162.5-MHz RFQ and superconducting HWR cavities of same frequency. The main linac design will be different for different injector choice. The two different designs for the main linac have been studied according to the beam characteristics from the different injector schemes.

Yan, Fang; Meng, Cai; Tang, Jing-Yu

2013-01-01

37

Tevatron energy and luminosity upgrades beyond the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Tevatron will be the world's highest energy hadron collider until the LHC is commissioned, it has the world's highest energy fixed target beams, and Fermilab will be the leading high energy physics laboratory in the US for the foreseeable future. Following the demise of the SSC, a number of possible upgrades to the Tevatron complex, beyond construction of the Main Injector, are being discussed. Using existing technology, it appears possible to increase the luminosity of the bar pp Collider to at least 1033cm-2sec-1 (Tevatron-Star) and to increase the beam energy to 2 TeV (DiTevatron). Fixed target beam of energy about 1.5 TeV could also be delivered. Leaving the existing Tevatron in the tunnel and constructing bypasses around the collider halls would allow simultaneous 800 GeV fixed target and ?s = 4 TeV collider operation. These upgrades would give Fermilab an exciting physics program which would be complementary to the LHC, and they would lay the groundwork for the construction of a possible post-LHC ultra-high energy hadron collider

1994-01-01

38

Measurement of Pi-K Ratios from the NuMI Target  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interactions of protons (p) with the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) target are used to create the neutrino beam for the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) Experiment. Using the MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experimental apparatus, the production of charged pions and kaons in p+NuMI interactions is studied. The data come from a sample of 2 x 10{sup 6} events obtained by MIPP using the 120 GeV/c proton beam from the Main Injector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, USA. Pions and kaons are identified by measurement in a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. Presented are measurements of {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, {pi}{sup +}/K{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}/K{sup -} production ratios in the momentum range p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c transversely and 20 GeV/c < p{sub z} < 90 GeV/c longitudinally. Also provided are detailed comparisons of the MIPP NuMI data with the MIPP Thin Carbon data, the MIPP Monte Carlo simulation and the current MINOS models in the relevant momentum ranges.

Seun, Sin Man; /Harvard U.

2007-07-01

39

Design of a new main injector cavity for the Fermilab Proton Driver era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the design report of the Fermilab Proton Driver [1], the Main Injector (MI) needs to be upgraded to a 2 MW machine. For the Main Injector radiofrequency (rf) upgrade, R&D efforts are launched to design and build a new rf system. This paper presents the new cavity design study for the rf system. The cavity is simulated with the design code Mafia [2].

Wu, V.; Chen, A.; Qian, Z.; Wildman, D.W.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

40

Design Study of the CLIC Main Beam Injector Linac  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents a possible design for the CLIC Injector Linac, where both electrons and positrons are accelerated from 0.2 to 2.4~GeV, prior to injection into the damping rings. The most stringent constraints on the design are set by the positron beam, which has by far the largest transverse emittance. The proposed optics is based on a FODO lattice wrapping the first six 1.5 GHz accelerating structures, followed by a succession of quadrupole triplets and accelerating structures for the rest of the linac.

Ferrari, A; Tecker, F A

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Low-dispersion {gamma}{sub t} jump for the main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bipolar {gamma}{sub t}-jump design is reported for the Fermilab Main Injector (Lattice MI-17). The total amount of jump is 1.3 units. Both the betatron and dispersion waves are confined, while the betatron tunes remain nearly unchanged. The Fermilab Main Injector has been designed to overcome some of the unfavorable effects on the particle motion around transition energy. Unlike the Main Ring, the Main Injector has a very large aperture, so that beam low due to scraping can be avoided. The bunch area at transition will be less than 0.1 eV-sec, so that the nonlinear Johnsen effect can be avoided. Also rapid ramping across transition is possible, so that the nonadiabatic time can be reduced. Nevertheless, negative-mass instability will develop when the bunch intensity is high enough. The only way to avoid this instability is to incorporate a {gamma}{sub t} jump.

Ng, K.Y.; Bogacz, A.

1995-05-01

42

Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within ± 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to ± 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

1999-01-01

43

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

2010-05-01

44

An 8 GeV H- multi-turn injection system for the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An 8 GeV superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) has been proposed [1] as a single stage H{sup -} injector into the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron . This would be the highest energy H{sup -} multi-turn injection system in the world. The conceptual design of an injection system has been further refined by addressing transverse phase space painting issues, chicane dipole fields and foil location, foil temperature issues, and initial longitudinal phase space painting simulations. We present the current state of design.

Johnson, D.E.; Yoon, P.; /Fermilab; Liaw, C-J.; Raparia, D.; Bebee-Wang, J.; /Brookhaven

2007-06-01

45

Comments on the behavior of. alpha. sub 1 in main injector. gamma. sub t jump schemes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tracking studies of transition crossing in the Main Injector have shown that the Johnsen effect is the dominant cause of beam loss and emittance blow up. To suppress this effect one has to have control over {alpha}{sub 1} (dispersion of the momentum compaction factor {alpha}). Various {gamma}{sub t} jump configurations are examined and the resulting changes in {alpha}{sub 1} are assessed. These results are further validated by comparison between the simulation and simple analytic {alpha}{sub 1}--formulas derived for a model FODO lattice with full chromaticity compensation in the presence of an eddy current sextupole component. A scheme involving the introduction of a dispersion wave in the arcs of the Main Injector, around transition time, seems to be promising if one regards the strength of the eddy current sextupole family as an external knob'' to control values of {alpha}{sub 1}.

Bogacz, S.A.; Peggs, S.

1991-05-01

46

Beam intensity limits in the Main Injector through transition with a normal phase jump scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Fermilab Main Injector, which is under construction, will be a high intensity proton synchrotron and will be capable of accelerating (decelerating) protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c (150 GeV/c to 8.9 GeV/c). Presently, the plan is to accelerate or decelerate the beam through the transition energy of 20.49 GeV, using basic normal phase jump scheme. Efficient deceleration of anti p through the Main Injector is crucial for the success of the Recycler Ring Project. We have performed extensive longitudinal beam dynamics simulations for both modes of operation to determine the beam intensity limits and other properties. We present the latest results of calculation and their implications

1997-01-01

47

Narrowband beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector accelerating cavities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrowband beam loading compensation system was installed for the Main Injector Accelerating Cavities. This feedback operates solely on the fundamental resonant mode of the cavity. This paper describes modifications to the high level Radio Frequency system required to make the system operational. These modifications decreased the effect of steady-state beam loading by a factor of 10 and improved the reliability of paraphasing for coalescing.

Joseph E. Dey; John S. Reid and James Steimel

2001-07-12

48

Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector Tracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose we have used old Main Ping dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to us we have separated in our simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables us to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular we have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8.9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

1993-01-01

49

The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

1991-09-01

50

Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

2008-01-01

51

Simulations of Electron Cloud Effects on the Beam Dynamics for theFNAL Main Injector Upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab main injector (MI) is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort. This upgrade will involve a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value. Such an increase will place the MI in a regime in which electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. We have used the electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP, recently augmented with new modeling capabilities and simulation techniques, to study the dynamics of beam-electron cloud interaction. This work in progress involves a systematic assessment of beam instabilities due to the presence of electron clouds.

Sonnad Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine M.; Grote, David

2006-04-15

52

Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model.

Furman, Miguel A; Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

2008-06-09

53

The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

1991-01-01

54

Design and multiparticle simulation of the half integer slow extraction system for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One of the roles of the new Main Injector ring, in the second phase of the Fermilab upgrade, is to deliver all year around the slow extracted 120 GeV test beams. The half-integer slow extraction system design and results from a Monte-Carlo simulation of fast spill are presented. The simulation was performed with a computer tracking program based on the TEVLAT program with a large number of particles (up to 1000). Particle tracking included the systematic errors produced by the magnetic multipoles within the dipoles and quadrupoles as well as random multipole errors

1991-01-01

55

The Fermilab Main Injector Dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120-150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. In this paper the design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T.

1992-01-01

56

53 MHz beam loading compensation for slip stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently In-Phase and Quadrature (I&Q) was added to both the 53 MHz Feedback and Feedforward Beam Loading Compensation for Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector. With 53 MHz Feedback, we can now turn the 18 Radio Frequency (RF) Stations off down to below 100 V. In using I&Q on Feedforward, beam loading compensation to the beam on both the upper and lower frequencies of Slip Stacking can be applied as we slip the beam. I&Q theory will be discussed.

Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

57

A dynamic dispersion insert in the Fermilab Main Injector for momentum collimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector (MI) accelerator is designed as a FODO lattice with zero dispersion straight sections. A scheme will be presented that can dynamically alter the dispersion of one of the long straight sections to create a non-zero dispersion straight section suitable for momentum collimation. During the process of slip stacking DC beam is generated which is lost during the first few milliseconds of the ramp. A stationary massive primary collimator/absorber with optional secondary masks could be utilized to isolate beam loss due to uncaptured beam.

Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

58

A 40 kV, 3.1 ? PFN for the Main Injector Abort Kicker  

Science.gov (United States)

The Main Injector Abort kicker system has been run at full voltage successfully. The system was required to operate with a PFN due to the long cable run between the modulator and the magnet. The system was designed to operate in air to allow for easier maintenance. The topology chosen has the thyratron cathode grounded, a grounded PFN and a floating pulse transformer. The system is also required to have low EMI because of the proximity of low level controls. Several problems related to operation in air and the pulse transformer were solved. The paper will emphasize the solutions implemented for successful operation of the final system.

Jensen, Chris

1997-05-01

59

Longitudinal bunch monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons  

CERN Document Server

The measurement of the longitudinal behavior of the accelerated particle beams at Fermilab is crucial to the optimization and control of the beam and the maximizing of the integrated luminosity for the particle physics experiments. Longitudinal measurements in the Tevatron and Main Injector synchrotrons are based on the analysis of signals from resistive wall current monitors. This article describes the signal processing performed by a 2 GHz-bandwidth oscilloscope together with a computer running a LabVIEW program which calculates the longitudinal beam parameters.

Thurman-Keup, R; Blokland, W; Crisp, J; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Flora, R; Hahn, A; Hansen, S; Kiper, T; Para, A; Pordes, S; Tollestrup, A V

2011-01-01

60

Magnet reliability in the Fermilab Main Injector and implications for the ILC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Linear Collider reference design requires over 13000 magnets, of approximately 135 styles, which must operate with very high reliability. The Fermilab Main Injector represents a modern machine with many conventional magnet styles, each of significant quantity, that has now accumulated many hundreds of magnet-years of operation. We review here the performance of the magnets built for this machine, assess their reliability and categorize the failure modes, and discuss implications for reliability of similar magnet styles expected to be used at the ILC.

Tartaglia, M.A.; Blowers, J.; Capista, D.; Harding, D.J.; Kiemschies, O.; Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described.

G William Foster et al.

2004-07-09

62

Design and multiparticle simulation of the half integer slow extraction system for the Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the roles of the new Main Injector ring, in the second phase of the Fermilab upgrade, is to deliver all year around the slow extracted 120 GeV test beams. The half-integer slow extraction system design and results from a Monte-Carlo simulation of fast spill are presented. The simulation was performed with a computer tracking program based on the TEVLAT program with a large number of particles (up to 1000). Particle tracking included the systematic errors produced by the magnetic multipoles within the dipoles and quadrupoles as well as random multipole errors.

Trbojevic, D.; Harrison, M.

1991-05-01

63

Physics at the Planck scale: Tests of CPT invariance at the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is possible that CPT-violating amplitudes with sizes of order mK/ mPlanck contribute to processes involving K mesons. We describe several tests of CPT invariance that could be carried out at the Fermilab Main Injector. To our surprise we find that one experiment, a precision measurement of the CP-violating charge asymmetry in semileptonic K decays, can be performed with sufficient statistical accuracy to detect the presence of CPT-violating amplitudes of size mK / mPlanck which generate a mass difference between K0 and bar K0. 10 refs.

1989-01-01

64

The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector  

CERN Multimedia

A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/6/11/T11006

2011-01-01

65

A Study of Muon Neutrino Disappearance Using the Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Beam  

CERN Multimedia

We report the results of a search for muon-neutrino disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27e20 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336 +/- 14 muon-neutrino charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to delta m-squared = 2.74e-3 +0.44/-0.26e-3 eV^2 and sin^2(2 theta) > 0.87 at 68% confidence level.

Kordosky, Michael; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cabrera, A; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drakoulakos, D; Durkin, T; Dytman, S A; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, i L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2007-01-01

66

2.5 MHz feedforward beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are five 2.5 MHz ferrite cavities (h = 28) in the Main Injector with an R/Q of 500 that are presently used for coalescing for the Tevatron. For use with the Fermilab Recycler, feedforward (FF) beam loading compensation (BLC) is required on these cavities because they will be required to operate at a net of 2 kV. Under current Recycler beam conditions, the beam-induced voltage is of this order. Recently a system using a digital bucket delay module operating at 53 MHz (h = 588) was used to produce a one-turn-delay feedforward signal. This signal was then combined with the low level RF signal to the 2.5 MHz cavities to cancel the beam induced voltage. During current operation they have shown consistently to operate with over a 20 dB reduction in beam loading.

Joseph E Dey, Ioanis Kourbanis and James Steimel

2003-05-19

67

6 Batch Injection and Slipped Beam Tune Measurements in Fermilab?s Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During NOVA operations it is planned to run the Fermilab Recycler in a 12 batch slip stacking mode. In preparation for this, measurements of the tune during a six batch injection and then as the beam is decelerated by changing the RF frequency have been carried out in the Main Injector. The coherent tune shifts due to the changing beam intensity were measured and compared well with the theoretically expected tune shift. The tune shifts due to changing RF frequency, required for slip stacking, also compare well with the linear theory, although some nonlinear affects are apparent at large frequency changes. These results give us confidence that the expected tunes shifts during 12 batch slip stacking Recycler operations can be accommodated.

Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yan, M.-J.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01

68

Proposal for Drell-Yan Measurements of Nucleon and Nuclear Structure with the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose measuring the fractional momentum (x) dependence of the ratio of the anti-down to anti-up quark distributions in the proton, {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), using proton induced Drell-Yan reactions at 120 GeV. Recent measurements by FNAL E866 unexpectedly show considerable x dependence in this ratio for x > 0.2. A lower energy primary proton beam from the Main Injector makes it possible to extend the E866 measurements to larger x with much higher precision. The apparatus will also be used with nuclear targets to measure parton energy loss and modifications to anti-quark distributions in nuclear targets at large x (x > 0.2).

Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; /Abilene Christian U.; Arrinton, J.; Geesamn, D.F.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E.; Potterveld, D.H.; /Argonne; Brown, C.N.; /Fermilab; Garvey, G.T.; Leitch, M.J.; /Los Alamos /Rutgers U. /Texas A-M /Valparaiso U.

2001-04-01

69

Design for Fermilab main injector magnet ramps which account for hysteresis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the dominant fields in accelerator electromagnets are proportional to the excitation current, precise control of accelerator parameters requires a detailed understanding of the fields in Main Injector magnets including contribution from eddy currents, magnet saturation, and hysteresis. Operation for decelerating beam makes such considerations particularly significant. Analysis of magnet measurements and design of control system software is presented. Field saturation and its effects on low field hysteresis are accounted for in specifying the field ramps for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Some simplifying assumptions are made which are accepted as limitations on the required ramp sequences. Specifications are provided for relating desired field ramps to required current ramps for the momentum, tune, and chromaticity control.

Brown, B.C.; Bhat, C.M.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Wu, G.

1997-05-01

70

Modeling of the primary proton beamline of the Fermilab NuMI project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 120 GeV primary proton beamline for the NuMI-MINOS [1] experiment at Fermilab will transport one of the most intense high-energy beams ever constructed. in parallel operation with the Collider program, 80% of the intensity capability of the Fermilab Main Injector can be sent to NuMI. Radiation safety pertaining to residual activity, damage of equipment and irradiation of groundwater is a primary concern. A particular challenge is that this beam will be transported to and targeted in a cavern excavated in rock in an aquifer region. A model of the beamline, including transport elements and excavated enclosures, has been built in the radiation simulation program MARS. This model has been used to determine limits for allowable beam loss, and to study effects of instabilities and of various failure types. Some results obtained with this model are presented.

Sergei Striganov et al.

2001-08-14

71

The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are -33.6 and -33.9 respectively. The ?p/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the ?p/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be ±5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here

1995-01-01

72

Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

2009-07-01

73

Experimental test of a new antiproton acceleration scheme in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to provide higher intensity and lower emittance antiproton beam to the Tevatron collider for high luminosity operation, a new Main Injector (MI) antiproton acceleration scheme has been developed [1-4]. In this scheme, beam is accelerated from 8 to 27 GeV using the 2.5 MHz rf system and from 27 to 150 GeV using the 53 MHz rf system. This paper reports the experimental results of beam study. Simulation results are reported in a different PAC'05 paper [5]. Experiments are conducted with proton beam from the Booster. Acceleration efficiency, emittance growth and beam harmonic transfer between 2.5 MHz (h=28) and 53 MHz (h=588) buckets have been studied. Beam study shows that one can achieve an overall acceleration efficiency of about 100%, longitudinal emittance growth less than 20% and negligible transverse emittance growth. accelerated to 150 GeV and injected to the Tevatron. The multi-bunch coalescing process is eliminated in this acceleration scheme. Consequently, longitudinal emittance growth is reduced. Smaller emittance growth reduces beam loss.

Wu, V.; Bhat, C.M.; Chase, B.E.; Dey, J.E.; Meisner, K.G.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

74

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort [1]. Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector [2-4]. The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}, which we let vary in the range 1.2 {le} {delta}{sub max} {le} 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 {approx}< {delta}{sub max} {approx}< 1.35 at this location. From this piece of information we estimate features of the EC distribution for various fill patterns, including the average electron number density n{sub e}. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency f{sub RF} = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population N{sub tot}. The density n{sub e} goes through a clear threshold as a function of N{sub tot} in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in N{sub tot} is a factor {approx} 2 higher for f{sub RF} = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor {approx} 2 when N{sub tot} is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed.

Furman, Miguel .A.

2008-08-25

75

Single/Few Bunch Space Charge Effects at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 1011 particles per bunch into the Main Injector. Therefore, at 8 GeV, there will be increased space charge tune shifts and an increased incoherent tune spread. In preparation for these higher intensity bunches exploratory studies have commenced looking at the transmission of different intensity bunches at different tunes. An experiment is described with results for bunch intensities between 20 and 300 109 particles. To achieve the highest intensity bunches coalescing at 8 GeV is required, resulting in a longer bunch length. Comparisons show that similar transmission curves are obtained when the intensity and bunch length have increased by similar factors. This indicates the incoherent tune shifts are similar, as expected from theory. The results of these experiments will be used in conjugation with simulations to further study high intensity bunches in the Main Injector.

2012-01-01

76

The Modeling of Time-Structured Multiturn Injection into Fermilab Main Injector (Microbunch Injection with Parasitic Longitudinal Painting)  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents the modeling of time-structured multiturn injection for an upgraded Main Injector with the 8-GeV Superconducting RF proton driver, or an ILC-style linac, or a Project-X linac. The Radio-Frequency mismatch between a linac and the upgraded Main Injector will induce parasitic longitudinal painting in RF-phase direction. Several different scenarios with a choice of different RF parameters for single RF system and double RF system in the presence of longitudinal space charge have been investigated. From the studies of microbunch injection with the aid of ESME (2003) numerical simulations, it is found that the dual RF system with a choice of appropriate RF parameters allows us to overcome the space-charge limitation set by beam intensity during the multiturn-injection process. A double RF system with a harmonic ratio (R_H = H_2/H_1) of 2.0 and a voltage ratio (R_V = V_2/V_1) of 0.5 are most favored to reduce both longitudinal and transverse effects of space charge in the Main Injector.

Yoon, Phil S; Chou, Weiren

2008-01-01

77

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here.

Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini,Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

2006-04-15

78

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here.

2006-01-01

79

Energy deposition issues at 8 GeV H- beam collimation and injection to the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy deposition and radiation issues at 8 GeV h{sup -} beam collimation in the beam transfer line and at stripping injection to the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) are analyzed. Detailed calculations with the STRUCT [1] and MARS15 [2] codes are performed on heating of collimators and stripping foils, as well as on accelerator elements radioactivation at normal operation. Extraction of the unstripped part of the beam to the external beam dump and loss of the excited-state H{sup 0} atoms in MI are also studied.

Drozhdin, A.I.; Kostin, M.A.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

80

CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE MAIN INJECTOR PARTICLE PRODUCTION (FNAL-E907) EXPERIMENT AT 58 GEV ENERGY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV {pi}, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary {pi}, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected {approx} 0.26 x 10{sup 6} events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; /Iowa U.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Coil tubing injector unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a coil tubing injector unit for injecting tubing into a well bore having a vertical well axis, the coil tubing injector unit. It comprises: a main injector frame positionable adjacent the well bore, the main injector frame having a top, a bottom and opposing vertical sides, a selected one of the opposing vertical sides having a longitudinal opening formed therein which defines a vertical run for the injector unit; a plurality of gripper block assemblies carried on the main injector frame, each of the gripper block assemblies including a pair of plier-like halves which are pivotable between an open position and a closed, gripping position as the assemblies enter the vertical run. Drive means located on the main injector frame for driving the gripper block assemblies within the main injector frame.

Elliston, T.

1992-07-28

82

A Conceptual Design of an Internal Injection Absorber of 8 GeV H-Injection into the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An 8 GeV superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) has been proposed as a single stage H{sup -} injector into the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron[1]. This would be the highest energy H{sup -} multi-turn injection system in the world. An injection absorber is required to absorb a few percent o the incoming beam on a regular pulse by pulse basis. The requirements and conceptual design of an internal absorber, capable of steady state 6.5 kW is discussed.

Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

83

Computational and experimental study of flow-induced vibration of the SSME main injector post  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) liquid-oxygen (LOX) posts are subjected to high-velocity turbulent flow from the transfer ducts. In a preliminary assessment of the vibration problem, it was determined that the two potential excitation mechanisms for LOX post vibration are fluidelastic instability and turbulent buffeting. A fundamental study is being conducted to understand the problem and to develop techniques to avoid detrimental vibrational effects with the objective of improving engine life. This paper summarizes the results of an analytical model for fluidelastic instability and test results for turbulent buffeting of a tube array in crossflow. A general theory of fluidelastic instability for a tube array in crossflow is presented. Various techniques to obtain the motion-dependent fluid-force coefficients are discussed and the general instability characteristics are summarized. The theory is also used to evaluate the results of other mathematical models for crossflow-induced instability. The fluid excitation forces acting on a tube array are presented as a function of Reynolds number, incoming flow conditions, and tube location in an array. The experimental data show the general characteristics of flow across a tube array. As the flow passes through each row of tubes, the fluid is subjected to resistance, the effect of which is to convert some of the fluid pressure energy to turbulent energy. In the first few rows, the transformation of energy occurs in a somewhat orderly manner. As the flow reaches the interior tubes, unsteadiness of the flow increases and, usually, a randomness of the flow and its pressure fluctuation exists in the flow field.

Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

1986-01-01

84

Injector communications system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of gasoline additive control is described, comprising establishing communications between a central processor and a remote field additive injector, setting additive quantity per command pulse in the additive injector from the central processor, providing command pulses to the additive injector from a gasoline flowmeter associated with the injector, supplying a predetermined additive quantity from the additive injector to the gasoline flow, storing in the additive injector cumulative quantity of additive added to the gasoline flow, storing in an additive controller cumulative command pulses, periodically interrogating the additive controller from the central processor, periodically supplying data of recorded cumulative additive quantity and cumulative command pulses from the additive injector to the main processor, and periodically printing reports of additive added and gasoline flow at each additive injector.

Williams, G.E.; Hollabaugh, C.A.

1993-06-22

85

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

1995-01-01

86

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing.

Flora, R.; Martin, K.; Moibenko, A.; Pfeffer, H.; Wolff, D.; Prieto, P.; Hays, S.

1995-04-01

87

Antiproton acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector using 2.5 MHz (H=28) and 53 MHz (H=588) rf systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the Run II era at Fermilab, the Recycler stores antiprotons at 8 GeV and the Main Injector accelerates the antiprotons and the protons from 8 GeV to 150 GeV for Tevatron injection. The Recycler injects antiprotons to the Main Injector in 2.5 MHz rf buckets. This report presents an acceleration scheme for the antiprotons that involves a slow ramp with initial 2.5 MHz acceleration and subsequent fast acceleration with 53 MHz rf system. Beam acceleration and rf manipulation with space charge and beam loading effects are simulated using the longitudinal simulation code ESME. Simulation suggests that one can expect about 15% emittance growth for the entire acceleration cycle with beam loading compensations. Preliminary experimental results with proton beam will also be presented.

Vincent Wu et al.

2003-06-10

88

Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

1991-01-01

89

Fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick (Bromley, GB)

2001-02-27

90

Event Rates for Off Axis NuMI Experiments  

CERN Multimedia

Neutrino interaction rates for experiments placed off axis in the NuMI beam are calculated. Primary proton beam energy is 120 GeV and four locations at 810 km from target and 6, 12, 30 and 40 km off axis are considered. This report is part of the Joint FNAL/BNL Future Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Study.

Viren, B

2006-01-01

91

Ground Motion Studies at NuMI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground motion can cause significant deterioration in the luminosity of a linear collider. Vibration of numerous focusing magnets causes continuous misalignments, which makes the beam emittance grow. For this reason, understanding the seismic vibration of all potential LC sites is essential and related efforts in many sites are ongoing. In this document we summarize the results from the studies specific to Fermilab grounds as requested by the LC project leader at FNAL, Shekhar Mishra in FY04-FY06. The Northwestern group focused on how the ground motion effects vary with depth. Knowledge of depth dependence of the seismic activity is needed in order to decide how deep the LC tunnel should be at sites like Fermilab. The measurements were made in the NuMI tunnel, see Figure 1. We take advantage of the fact that from the beginning to the end of the tunnel there is a height difference of about 350 ft and that there are about five different types of dolomite layers. The support received allowed to pay for three months of salary of Michal Szleper. During this period he worked a 100% of his time in this project. That include one week of preparation: 2.5 months of data taking and data analysis during the full period of the project in order to guarantee that we were recording high quality data. We extended our previous work and made more systematic measurements, which included detailed studies on stability of the vibration amplitudes at different depths over long periods of time. As a consequence, a better control and more efficient averaging out of the daytime variation effects were possible, and a better study of other time dependences before the actual depth dependence was obtained. Those initial measurements were made at the surface and are summarized in Figure 2. All measurements are made with equipment that we already had (two broadband seismometers KS200 from GEOTECH and DL-24 portable data recorder). The offline data analysis took advantage of the full Fourier spectra information and the noise was properly subtracted. The basic formalism is summarized if Figure 3. The second objective was to make a measurement deeper under ground (Target hall, Absorber hall and Minos hall - 150 ft to 350 ft), which previous studies did not cover. All results are summarized in Figure 3 and 4. The measurements were covering a frequency range between 0.1 to 50 Hz. The data was taken continuously for at least a period of two weeks in each of the locations. We concluded that the dependence on depth is weak, if any, for frequencies above 1 Hz and not visible at all at lower frequencies. Most of the attenuation (factor of about 2-3) and damping of ground motion that is due to cultural activity at the surface is not detectable once we are below 150 ft underground. Therefore, accelerator currently under consideration can be build at the depth and there is no need to go deeper underground is built at Fermi National Laboratory.

Mayda M. Velasco; Michal Szleper

2012-02-20

92

Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI  

CERN Document Server

The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

Boehnlein, David J

2012-01-01

93

Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; /Fermilab; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

2009-12-01

94

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included.

1997-01-01

95

MARS simulations of the NuMI primary beamline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MARS is a Monte Carlo code for simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon and low-energy neutron transport in shielding and in accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an eV up to 100 TeV. This report uses MARS to both transport the 120 GeV primary proton beam from the NuMI extraction Lambertsons through the NuMI Pre-target Hall and calculate the radiological effect of beam losses at various locations and for a variety of conditions. These results are used to: anticipate where beam losses will be significant; determine the level of activation of components; and calculate ground water activation and confirm adequacy of shielding. The results are presented in tables and figures along with drawings of the magnets as they were modeled in MARS. Details of the model elements are found in Appendix A. Further details of beam loss case studies are included in Appendix B.

Sergei I Striganov

2004-05-18

96

Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for {nu}{sub {mu}} is given approximately by 1 - sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23}sin{sup 2}(1.27{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}L/E), where{theta}{sub 23} and {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} between the mass eigenstates {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 2}, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a {nu}{sub {mu}} interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x10{sup 20} protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2{+-}16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level {alpha} = 4.2 x 10{sup -3}. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.32 {+-}{sup 1.06}{sub 0.75} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |{Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32}| = 2.74 {+-}{sup 0.44}{sub 0.26} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} (stat+sys) and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.87 (68% CL).

McGowan, Aaron Michael; /Minnesota U.

2007-08-01

97

The electron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron injector with an electron gun type-M-24, received from Leningrad (USSR) and mounted in the accelerators division is described. The operation processes such as: evacuation of the injector volume, decomposition and activation of the cathode and calibration of the filament power are also discussed. The primary examination of the injector at 67 KV extraction voltage, and 560 pulse/sec, gave 780 ?A average emission current and 460 ?A average injector current, collected at a Faraday cup. From the results obtained, the efficiency coefficient is calculated and the beam distribution is predicted

1978-01-01

98

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MIPP (FNAL-E907) is a large acceptance spectrometer to measure hadronic particle production - TPC and wire chambers to measure track parameters - TPC dE/dx, ToF, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov give ?/K/p separation up to 100 GeV/c

2007-01-01

99

Injector of solid indicator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

1981-04-25

100

Injector needle shroud  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A needle shroud for an injector is disclosed. The needle shroud includes a body having a connecting means for releasable connection to the injector when in a first mode of operation. The body has an aperture therethrough, which is shaped and dimensioned to allow a needle to extend through the body when the needle shroud is connected to the injector. The body of the needle shroud has a cavity shaped and dimensioned to receive the needle, whereby the cavity includes a formation shaped and dimensioned to be engageable with a complementary formation of the needle when the needle has been received in the cavity. Rotation of the needle shroud causes rotation of the needle, thereby allowing disengagement of the needle from the injector with the needle housed in the cavity. The needle shroud is reusable with a further the needle. (62) Divided Out of 555327

WALKER RODNEY GORDON; EBBETT TODD DONALD; STANDING COLIN ANTHONY

 
 
 
 
101

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01

102

NuMI proton beam diagnostics and control: achieving 2 megawatt capability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI proton beam at Fermilab currently delivers 120 GeV protons to the neutrino production target with design beam power capability to 400 kW. Upgrade capability to 700 kW is being prepared, with planning toward delivering 2.3 MW beam provided by the Project X accelerator upgrade plan. We report on the system of beam diagnostics and control used in operation of the NuMI beam. Also considered are the steps to provide a robust system for transport and targeting beam of 2 MW and beyond.

Childress, S.; /Fermilab

2008-10-01

103

TDEM AND NUMIS (PLUS) SOUNDINGS AT THE ASH MEADOWS NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE: A CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer of 2002, a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres was undertaken to evaluate and gain knowledge of the Iris NUMIS instrument. The system was deployed ...

104

Measurement of neutrino oscillations with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI beam.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |Deltam2| = (2.43+/-0.13) x 10(-3) eV2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle...

Adamson, P; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, KE; Armstrong, R; Auty, DJ

105

Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

(G. J. Feldman is the Harvard author) This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |delta m^2|=(2.43±0.13)×10^-...

Morfin, J.; Sousa, A.; Bower, C.; Holin, A.; Marshall, J. S.; Gallagher, H. R.; Barr, G.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Hylen, J.

106

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20)...

Michael, DG; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, WW; Alner, GJ

107

Fuel injector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Leonard, Gary L. (Schenctady, NY)

1988-01-01

108

Injector of low energy positrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Description of the injector of low energy positrons is performed. The plant for the accumulation of low energy positrons ATHENA (Antihydrogen apparatus) operating at CERN is a prototype of the low energy positron injector. The injector involves positron sources, handling channel, catcher and removal section. Injector sections is placed in longitudinal magnetic field, pellet with radioactive 22Na serves as positron source. Positrons accumulation is found in the field with minimum pressure, this decreases their losses during cooling

2003-01-01

109

Tritium pellet injector TPI-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current concept of fueling large fusion devices is based on gas puffing and pellet injection. The pellet injector produces, accelerates and transports into a plasmas the pellets composed of hydrogen isotopes. Here, tasks and design of a tritium repeating pellet injector developed in Russia are presented. The injector uses improved in-situ and extrusion technologies for pellet formation.

1995-01-01

110

Rotary engine with dual spark plugs and fuel injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a stratified charge rotary combustion engine having a housing having a running surface surrounding a working chamber, the running surface having a two-lobed profile, the lobes forming a junction in a top-dead-center region of the housing, a rotor mounted for rotation in the working chamber, a fuel injection and ignition system placed in the top-dead center region. It includes a pilot fuel injector fuel into the working chamber; a first spark plug located upstream of the pilot fuel injector for igniting fuel injected by the pilot fuel injector, the pilot fuel injector and the first spark plug being located on a downstream side of the junction; a main fuel injector for injecting fuel into the working chamber, the ignited pilot fuel acting to ignite fuel injected by the main injector; and a second spark plug located upstream of the main fuel injector and located upstream of the junction for igniting fuel/air mixture in the working chamber.

Abraham, J.; Bracco, F.V.

1991-06-11

111

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336+/-14 events. The data are consistent with nu(mu) disappearance via oscillations with |Delta(m)2/32|=2.74 +0.44/-0.26 x10(-3)eV(2) and sin(2)(2theta(23))>0.87 (68% C.L.). PMID:17155614

Michael, D G; Adamson, P; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; de Jong, J K; DeMuth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Terekhov, A; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-11-08

112

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Multimedia

This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-01-01

113

INTRAOCULAR LENS INJECTOR SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intraocular lens (lOL) assembly packaged for shipping, comprising an lOL injector component having a lumen wall, and an intraocular lens, af least one of the lumen wall and the optic comprising a first lens retention feature for impeding progress of the lens through said lumen toward the distal end. An lOL injector, comprising at least two projections extending from said lumen wall, to interfere with said soft tip prior to and during engagement of said soft tip with the lOL. An intraocular lens storage system, comprising a receptacle within the container, and a tapered portion, the tapered portion and the receptacle permitting a user's fingers to extend into the container to grasp a portion of a shuttle in the receptacle and remove the shuttle, the receptacle defining a volume in which liquid is confined, the volume of the receptacle being less than the volume of the container.

SEYBOTH WILLIAM J; CULLEN JON P; ENGIN EMIN; WAGNER CHRISTOPHER E; BIDDLE GRAHAM W

114

Studies of a magnetic pellet injector for laser fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is concerned with fundamental experiments of the first challenge of constructing a magnetic pellet injector for laser fusion scheme. The main architecture-magnetic storage section, magnetic injection section, and laser timing irradiation section are tested. An injected iron pellet (diameter 9.5 mm, velocity 3.5 m/s) is irradiated by pulse YAG laser with 100 % probability at a flight distance of 15 cm. This study assures us of a view of the future pellet injector.

Sakagami, Yukio; Mabuchi, Yoshihiro (Gifu Univ. (Japan))

1982-05-01

115

Drive ram for medical injectors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of using a medical fluid injector (10) and a syringe (16), the method comprising inserting a syringe, having a longitudinal reference axis, into an aperture defined in the injector while the syringe is located within the aperture in the injector, positioning at least a portion (28) of a plunger of the syringe such that it is received between first and second gripper members (92) of the injector, and such that at least one of the first and second gripper members is in contact with at least a portion of the plunger, wherein the positioning comprises pivoting the first and second gripper members (92) about a common pivot axis (95).

LEWIS FRANK M

116

LCLS Injector Drive Laser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Requirements for the LCLS injector drive laser present significant challenges to the design of the system. While progress has been demonstrated in spatial shape, temporal shape, UV generation and rep-rate, a laser that meets all of the LCLS specifications simultaneously has yet to be demonstrated. These challenges are compounded by the stability and reliability requirements. The drive laser and transport system has been installed and tested. We will report on the current operational state of the laser and plans for future improvements.

Dowell, D.H.; Castro, J.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; White, W.; /SLAC

2007-11-02

117

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

1983-01-01

118

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm/sup 2/ plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements.

Jackson, C.H.; Bubp, D.G.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hester, R.E.; Neil, V.K.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.

1983-03-09

119

Side-loaded pen injector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A side-loaded pen injector is adapted to allow a drug cartridge7to be loaded into the side of the injector. The injector may have adjustable stroke push rod9means by which the amount of drug administered can be varied. The push rod9may have a saw-tooth thread12which may engage with a matching thread on the inside of the injector. The side of the injector may have a hinged panel4provided with clip means22to temporarily retain the drug cartridge. The hinged panel4may be spring-loaded towards the closed position or be unbiased and have latching means. The syringe may be provided with a needle which is a passive safety needle.

WESTON TERENCE EDWARD; EMMOTT DOUGLAS ARTHUR

120

Spectral distribution of SPARC photo injector electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SPARC is a photo-injector for production of high-brightness low emittance electron beams to drive a FEL experiment in various configurations, including SASE-FEL radiation of 1-10nm (SPARCX project). Due to a high-brightness source, the SPARC facility can be used to study the physics of ultrashort beams, plasma-wave based acceleration, production of X-rays by means of Compton backscattering, channeling of electron beams and other experiments. The initial process of electron beam generation inside the RF gun determines the main parameters of the electron beam. Interaction of electrons with high-frequency laser beam leads to modulation of the electron beam. In this paper we present electron beam spectral distribution for SPARC photo injector parameters. The estimate of electron beam energy loss for such electron distribution also is given.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

NuMI-B-495 Tritium Production in the Dolomitic Rock Adjacent to NuMI Beam Tunnels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is a discussion of tritium production levels we mightexpect in the Dolomitic rock adjacent to NuMI beam tunnels.1Contents1 Introduction 32 Tritium Production in Groundwater 32.1 Interpreting the Borak et. al. water sample activity . . . . . . 63 Normalized activity from Borak et. al. 73.1 Projection for NuMI Dolomite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.2 Comparison with TM-2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.3 Discussion of Uncertainties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Comparisons to Other Calculations 124.1 CERN Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124.2 NuMI TDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Impact for Shield Design 166 Summary and Recommendations 17References 19A Hadron Flux and Threshold Energy Dependence 22A.1 Flux Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22A.2 Study of Sensitivity to Spectrum Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . 25B Tritium cross section ...

A. Wehmann; S. Childress

122

Assessment of radiological releases from the NuMI facility during MINOS and NOvA operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report makes projections of the radiological releases from the NuMI facility during operations for the MINOS and NO ?A experiments. It includes an estimate of the radionuclide levels released into the atmosphere and the estimated tritium and sodium-22 concentrations in the NuMI sump water and Fermilab pond system. The analysis was performed for NuMI operations with a beam power on target increased from the present 400 kW design up to a possible 1500 kW with future upgrades. The total number of protons on target was assumed to be 18 x 10{sup 20} after the completion of MINOS and 78 x 10{sup 20} after the completion of NO ?A.

Martens, Mike; /Fermilab

2007-04-01

123

The light-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams.

1983-01-01

124

Neutrino Oscillations Experiments using Off-axis NuMI Beam  

CERN Multimedia

NuMI neutrino beam is constructed to aim at the MINOS detector in Soudan mine. Neutrinos emitted at angles $10-20 mrad$ with respect to the beam axis create an intense beam with a well defined energy, dependent on the angle. Additional surface detectors positioned at the transverse distance of several kilometers from the mine offer an opportunity for very precise mesurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters. The mixing matrix element $|U_{e3}|^{2}$ can be measured down to a value of 0.0025 with the exposure of the order of $20 kton\\times years$.

Para, A

2001-01-01

125

Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam  

CERN Multimedia

This letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2|=(2.43\\pm 0.13)\\times10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ (68% confidence level) and mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta)>0.90$ (90% confidence level). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight, namely neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard deviation levels, respectively.

Adamson, P; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

2008-01-01

126

Piezo inline injectors; Piezo-Inline-Injektoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamentals of piezo inline injectors are gased on the experience with conventional common rail injectors and with a mechatronic approach to injection system design. With the development of this injector family and its successful serial application in 2003, Robert Bosch GmbH provided the basis for an innovative concept of common rail injectors.

Mattes, P.; Boecking, F.; Kampmann, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2005-07-01

127

High-brightness electron injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance.

Sheffield, R.L.

1987-01-01

128

The pulsed ion injectors on the basis of explosive ion emission for ion linear inductor accelerators  

Science.gov (United States)

The conception of pulsed ion injectors on the basis of explosive ion emission for ion linear inductor's accelerators is presented. The physical principles of explosive ion emission are considered. The main advantages of these ion injectors are production of high current ion beams of different kinds of ions from solid materials. The development and research of explosive ion emission showed possibilities of production of heavy charge of ion beams. The general constructions of this kind of ion sources for injectors are discussed. The main parameters of ion injectors are following: a) kinetic energy 200 - 500 keV; b) beam current 50 - 1000 A; c) pulse duration 50- 1000 nsec; d) diameter of ion beams 5-20 mm; e) repetition 1-100 Hz; f) kind of ion - all conducting materials. The main applications of linear inductor accelerators with injector on the basis explosive ion emission are discussed.

Korenev, Sergey

1997-05-01

129

Experimental characterization of CANDELA photo-injector  

Science.gov (United States)

CANDELA photo-injector is made of a 2-cell S-band RF gun, using a dispenser cathode illuminated by a Ti:sapphire laser. This electron source provides a single bunch (at 12.5 Hz), with a charge of 1 nC and an energy of 2 MeV. After recalling the experimental set-up, this paper presents some results concerning mainly energy and bunch length measurements, and also comparisons with simulations done with the PARMELA code. Measured pulse durations of less than 10 ps show for the first time that dispenser photocathodes are ``fast response'' cathodes.

Travier, C.; Devanz, G.; Leblond, B.; Mouton, B.

1997-02-01

130

A new biolistic intradermal injector  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

2013-07-01

131

Setting and Measuring the Longitudinal Optics in CEBAF Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CEBAF injector is designed to produce three cw polarized beams to be simultaneously accelerated and delivered to three experimental halls. These beams have independent current controls that can be as low as few hundred pico-amperes or as high as 200 microamperes. The beams are created in a photocathode gun using 3 separate rf gain switched lasers each operating at 499 MHz which together make up 1497 MHz, the CEBAF fundamental frequency. At the gun, the beams have the same time structure as the lasers with about 55 pico-seconds bunch length at 499 MHz. Through the injector, this bunch length is then adiabatically reduced to about 2 pico-seconds. The main requirement is that the beams have short stable bunch lengths at the end of the injector. In this paper we discuss the longitudinal bunching process for the JLAB injector. We also describe how the bunch length is measured at various places along the injector and how the measurement results are used to set relative phases of the three lasers and the phases and amplitudes of various rf cavities with high precision.

R. Kazimi; C.K. Sinclair; G.A. Krafft

2000-08-01

132

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain - POSTPONED!  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB The lectures are postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

133

Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

Wiebe, David J.

2012-10-09

134

Request for a Test Exposure of OPERA Targets in the NuMI Beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We request to use the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam in the MINOS Near Detector Hall to produce neutrino interactions in two separate detector arrangements using prototype target bricks designed for the OPERA experiment. OPERA is scheduled to to begin taking data in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam in 2006. The proposed test set up would be located just upstream of the MINOS Near Detector. The data will be used to validate the OPERA analysis scheme and to study backward particle production in neutrino interactions, which is of interest to the OPERA collaboration as well as the neutrino community in general. In addition, we contend that the data taken in this exposure may also be useful to the MINOS collaboration as additional input to the understanding of the initial composition of the neutrino beam. Ideally, this exposure could take place in early to mid-2005, providing timely feedback to both the OPERA and MINOS collaborations.

2004-01-01

135

Request for a Test Exposure of OPERA Targets in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We request to use the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam in the MINOS Near Detector Hall to produce neutrino interactions in two separate detector arrangements using prototype target bricks designed for the OPERA experiment. OPERA is scheduled to to begin taking data in the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam in 2006. The proposed test set up would be located just upstream of the MINOS Near Detector. The data will be used to validate the OPERA analysis scheme and to study backward particle production in neutrino interactions, which is of interest to the OPERA collaboration as well as the neutrino community in general. In addition, we contend that the data taken in this exposure may also be useful to the MINOS collaboration as additional input to the understanding of the initial composition of the neutrino beam. Ideally, this exposure could take place in early to mid-2005, providing timely feedback to both the OPERA and MINOS collaborations.

Kodama, K.; /Aichi U.; Tzanakos, G.; /Athens U.; Baller, B.; Lundberg, B.; Rameika, R.; Saoulidou, N.; /Fermilab; Aoki, S.; /Kobe U.; Autiero, D.; Chaussard, L.; Caffari, Y.; Declais, Y.; /IPNL /Minnesota U. /Nagoya U. /Pittsburgh U.

2004-11-01

136

Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Multimedia

We report constraints on muon antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4 +/- 11.7(stat) ^{+10.2}_{-8.9}(syst) events under the assumption |dm2bar|=2.32x10^-3 eV^2, snthetabar=1.0. A fit to the two-flavor oscillation approximation constrains |dm2bar|<3.37x10^-3 eV^2 at the 90% confidence level with snthetabar=1.0.

Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

2011-01-01

137

Measurement of neutrino oscillations with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |Deltam2| = (2.43+/-0.13) x 10(-3) eV2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle sin2(2theta) > 0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight: namely, neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard-deviation levels, respectively. PMID:18851439

Adamson, P; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; de Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Harris, E Falk; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

2008-09-26

138

Drive ram for medical injectors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application discloses a drive ram (26) for a medical fluid injector, the drive ram being designed to interface with a plunger of a syringe, the drive ram comprising a pivot pin (94) aligned with a longitudinal axis (24) of the drive ram and two confronting gripper members (92) pivotally coupled to said pivot pin (94), and defining a gripper cavity (90). Furthermore, the application discloses a method of using a medical fluid injector (10) comprising gripping a syringe plunger (30) of a syringe (16) with first and second gripper members (92) of the medical fluid injector and applying a force (F1) on the first and second gripper members at a pivot point (94) pivotally connecting the first and second gripper members, wherein the force urges the first and second gripper members toward one another at points of engagement with the syringe plunger.

LEWIS FRANK M

139

Pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several advanced plasma fueling systems are under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for present and future magnetic confinement devices. These include multishot and repeating pneumatic pellet injectors, centrifuge accelerators, electrothermal guns, a Tritium Proof-of-Principle experiment, and an ultrahigh velocity mass ablation driven accelerator. A new eight-shot pneumatic injector capable of delivering 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, and 4.0 mm diameter pellets at speeds up to 1500 m/s into a single discharge has been commissioned recently on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor. The so-called Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) is a prototype of a Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) scheduled for use on TFTR in 1990. Construction of the TPI will be preceded by a test of tritium pellet fabrication and acceleration using a 4 mm bore ''pipe gun'' apparatus. A new repeating pneumatic pellet injector capable of 2.7 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm operation is being installed on the Joint European Torus to be used in ORNL/JET collaborative pellet injection studies. A 1.5 m centrifuge injector is being developed for application on the Tore Supra experiment in 1988. The new device, which is a 50% upgrade of the prototype centrifuge used on D-III, features a pellet feed mechanism capable of producing variable-size pellets (1.5 to 3.0 mm diameter) optimally shaped to survive acceleration stresses. Accelerating pellets to velocities in excess of 2 km/s is being pursued through two new development undertakings. A hydrogen plasma electrothermal gun is operational at 2 km/s with 10 mg hydrogen pellets; this facility has recently been equipped with a pulsed power supply capable of delivering 1.7 kJ millisecond pulses to low impedence arc loads.

1987-01-01

140

Pellet injector research at ORNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several advanced plasma fueling systems are under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for present and future magnetic confinement devices. These include multishot and repeating pneumatic pellet injectors, centrifuge accelerators, electrothermal guns, a Tritium Proof-of-Principle experiment, and an ultrahigh velocity mass ablation driven accelerator. A new eight-shot pneumatic injector capable of delivering 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, and 4.0 mm diameter pellets at speeds up to 1500 m/s into a single discharge has been commissioned recently on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor. The so-called Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) is a prototype of a Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) scheduled for use on TFTR in 1990. Construction of the TPI will be preceded by a test of tritium pellet fabrication and acceleration using a 4 mm bore ''pipe gun'' apparatus. A new repeating pneumatic pellet injector capable of 2.7 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm operation is being installed on the Joint European Torus to be used in ORNL/JET collaborative pellet injection studies. A 1.5 m centrifuge injector is being developed for application on the Tore Supra experiment in 1988. The new device, which is a 50% upgrade of the prototype centrifuge used on D-III, features a pellet feed mechanism capable of producing variable-size pellets (1.5 to 3.0 mm diameter) optimally shaped to survive acceleration stresses. Accelerating pellets to velocities in excess of 2 km/s is being pursued through two new development undertakings. A hydrogen plasma electrothermal gun is operational at 2 km/s with 10 mg hydrogen pellets; this facility has recently been equipped with a pulsed power supply capable of delivering 1.7 kJ millisecond pulses to low impedence arc loads.

Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.; Gouge, M.J.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Downhole steam injector. [Patent application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

1981-06-03

142

High current injector for heavy ion fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 ?s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (

1993-01-01

143

CAMAC control system for the UNILAC injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer control system for the UNILAC injector has been developed. To study the problems of injector operation under real conditions, a test bench was built which would generate nearly the same load on the control system as the injector. The control problems of source operation, ion beam extraction, focusing, beam diagnostics and spectra optimization have been studied intensively.

Jacoby, W.

1986-06-01

144

CAMAC control system for the UNILAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A computer control system for the UNILAC injector has been developed. To study the problems of injector operation under real conditions, a test bench was built which would generate nearly the same load on the control system as the injector. The control problems of source operation, ion beam extraction, focusing, beam diagnostics and spectra optimization have been studied intensively. (orig.)

1986-06-01

145

The FNAL Injector Upgrade Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new FNAL H- injector upgrade is currently being tested before installation in the Spring 2012 shutdown of the accelerator complex. This line consists of an H- source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), 200 MHz RFQ and medium energy beam transport (MEBT). Beam measurements have been performed to validate the design before installation. The results of the beam measurements are presented in this paper.

2012-01-01

146

INTOR neutral beam injector concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US INTOR phase 1 effort in the plasma heating area is described. Positive ion based sources extrapolated from present day technology are proposed. These sources operate at 175 keV beam energy for 6 s. Five injectors - plus one spare - inject 75 MW. Beam energy, source size, interface, radiation hardening, and many other studies are summarized

1981-10-29

147

First studies of ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The operational characteristics of the 10 kA, 60 ns, 2.5 MeV ATA injector are presented. Studies of beam emittance, beam profile, rf spectrum and other aspects of beam dynamics were performed, as was a detailed study of the operation and interaction of the plasma cathode and the extraction grid

1983-01-01

148

Commissioning of the SLC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For every cycle of the SLC, the injector is required to launch two electron bunches and a single positron bunch into their respective emittance damping rings. Each bunch is to have a population of 7.5x10/sup 10/ particles/bunch, an energy of 1.21 GeV, and a full width energy spread of less than 2%. The electron beams are produced from a thermionic cathode, bunched, and accelerated to about 200 MeV. Positrons are injected after electrons at the 200 MeV point. The three bunches, spaced by approximately 60 ns, are subsequently accelerated to the damping ring energy within a single RF pulse. As of September 1986, all of the injector hardware had been installed and tested. Single electron bunches were being produced, stabilized with respect to energy characteristics, and injected into the damping rings. Commissioning of two electron bunch operation is currently in progress. Three bunch running should be commissioned by early 1987 and the SLC injector is expected to be operational by April 1987. This paper reports on the hardware and software developments necessary for the injector. The operational status of the entire system is discussed

1987-01-01

149

First studies of ATA injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operational characteristics of the 10 kA, 60 ns, 2.5 MeV ATA injector are presented. Studies of beam emittance, beam profile, rf spectrum and other aspects of beam dynamics were performed, as was a detailed study of the operation and interaction of the plasma cathode and the extraction grid.

Prono, D.S.; Birx, D.L.; Briggs, R.J.; Chong, Y.P.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hester, R.E.; Lauer, E.J.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Struve, K.W.

1983-08-01

150

Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

Dowell, D

2010-12-10

151

Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

2010-01-01

152

Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

2003-12-01

153

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

1992-01-01

154

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single- stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. A new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

1992-01-01

155

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1992-01-01

156

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

1992-06-01

157

Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

2009-01-01

158

Injector for Hyogo hadrontherapy facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hyogo Hadrontherapy Center is a cancer therapy facility which is being constructed in Harima Garden City by the Hyogo Prefectural Government. The therapy system, which accelerates proton and helium beams up to 230 MeV/nucleon and a carbon beam to 320 MeV/nucleon, consists of an injector, a synchrotron, and a beam delivery system. The injector accelerates ion beams of H{sub 2}{sup +}, He{sup 2+} and C{sup 4+} to 5 MeV/nucleon (10.3% of light velocity). It was manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., and the performance test for the acceleration characteristics has been just finished. The observed beam intensity and quality satisfy the requirement for medical use, which is necessary for a dose rate of 5 Gy/min for a patient. (author)

Sawada, Kenji; Sakata, Toshio; Okanishi; Kenji; Uno, Kouichi [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-08-01

159

ATA injector-gun calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached.

Paul, A.C.

1981-08-03

160

ATA injector-gun calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Heavy ion fusion injector experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on three experiments performed in connection with the 2 MV electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Scaled experiments have been conducted to study possible beam emittance growth due to beam aberrations in an ESQ injector. The experiment uses the SBTE (Single Beam Transport Experiment) accelerator system, quarter-scale ESQ setup and a potassium ion diode source. Measured emittance growth changes significantly with variations in current and diode energy, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. In addition, beam transport experiments were performed in a 1 MV axisymmetric electrostatic aperture column using a zeolite 1 inch diameter potassium ion source. Experimental measurements in good agreement with 2-1/2 D simulations showed that low emittance beams can be produced in axisymmetric structures. Finally, ESQ breakdown voltage tests without beam were performed at up to two times the quadrupole working voltage.

1993-01-01

162

Improvements of injector RF system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several improvements have been done recently in injector RF system and were described. The frequency automatic tuning system and the amplitude stabilization system of the injector SFC have been improved. The accuracy of the frequency tuning and the stability of the amplitude are within +-1 x 10-5 and +-1 x 10-3 respectively after developing the two systems. The low energy buncher B0 was designed and constructed in order to modulate the continuous beams from ECR ion source and to match the RF accelerating phase of the injector SFC. The buncher B0 runs well and the extraction beams from SFC are three to seven times bigger than that without using it. The Dee box was redesigned and reconstructed in order to meet the requirement of the SFC centre region for injection condition of the ECR ion source. The multipactoring levels were much reduced after the Dee box was replaced by new one and the cavity is more stable in operation

1994-01-01

163

3 GeV Injector Design Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2009-12-16

164

LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

2007-03-01

165

Pneumatic pellet injectors for TFTR and JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the development of pneumatic hydrogen pellet injectors for plasma fueling applications on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). The performance parameters of these injectors represent an extension of previous experience and include pellet sizes in the range 2-6 mm in diameter and speeds approaching 2 km/s. Design features and operating characteristics of these pneumatic injectors are presented

1986-01-01

166

Pneumatic pellet injectors for TFTR and JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the development of pneumatic hydrogen pellet injectors for plasma fueling applications on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). The performance parameters of these injectors represent an extension of previous experience and include pellet sizes in the range 2-6 mm in diameter and speeds approaching 2 km/s. Design features and operating characteristics of these pneumatic injectors are presented

1987-01-01

167

Pneumatic pellet injectors for TFTR and JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of pneumatic hydrogen pellet injectors for plasma fueling applications on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) is described. The performance parameters of these injectors represent an extension of previous experience and include pellet sizes in the range 2-6 mm in diameter and speeds approaching 2 km/s. Design features and operating characteristics of these pneumatic injectors are presented. (author)

1986-01-01

168

Design status of heavy ion injector program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

1985-01-01

169

Design status of heavy ion injector program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10/sup -7/ torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column.

Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

1985-01-01

170

Pellet injectors for steady state plasma fuelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful steady state operation of a fusion reactor should be supported by repetitive pellet injection of solidified hydrogen isotopes in order to produce high performance plasmas. This paper presents pneumatic pellet injectors and its implementation for long discharge on the LHD and TORE SUPRA, and a new centrifuge pellet injector test results. All injectors are fitted with screw extruders well suited for steady state operation.

Vinyar, I. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vinyar@mail.wplus.net; Geraud, A. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CE de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Lukin, A. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Sakamoto, R. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Skoblikov, S. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Umov, A. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., 1-1 Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Gros, G. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CE de Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Krasilnikov, I. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Reznichenko, P. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation); Panchenko, V. [PELIN Laboratory Ltd., 2 Admiral Makarov Str., Moscow 125212 (Russian Federation)

2005-11-15

171

Cavity BPM design for PKU-FEL injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is designed for the injector of PKU-FEL Facility. The designed frequency of the dipole mode TM110 is 1.3 GHz, which is equal to the frequency of the main accelerator in PKU-FEL Facility. The cross-talk problem is solved by introducing two rectangular recesses into the cavity. The position resolution of the cavity BPM is about 10 ?m, the dynamic range is more than 30 mm and the time response is bunch to bunch, which are sufficient for the PKU-FEL injector. Compared with the bunch power, the power dissipation of the main resonant modes excited by e-bunches can be neglected. (authors)

2006-01-01

172

49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230.57 Transportation...and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a) Water delivery systems...

2010-10-01

173

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma.

1992-01-01

174

Engineering problems of future neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because there is no limit to the energy or power that can be delivered by a neutral-beam injector, its use will be restricted by either its cost, size, or reliability. Studies show that these factors can be improved by the injector design, and several examples, taken from mirror reactor studies, are given

1977-12-07

175

Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

Kim, J; Stewart, L D

1980-01-01

176

Candela photo-injector experimental results  

CERN Multimedia

The CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 500 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents energy spectrum measurements of the dark current and intense electron emission that occurs when the laser power density is very high.

Travier, C; Cayla, J N; Leblond, B; Georges, P; Thomas, P; Travier, C; Boy, L; Cayla, J N; Leblond, B; Georges, P; Thomas, P

1995-01-01

177

The advanced test accelerator (ATA) injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm/sup 2/ plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October, 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements.

Jackson, C.H.; Bubp, D.G.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hester, R.E.; Neil, V.K.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.

1983-08-01

178

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactors. The proposed ITER fueling system will use a combination of deuterium- tritium (D-T) gas puffing and pellet injection to achieve and maintain ignited plasmas. The pellet injection system will have to provide D-T fueling for much longer pulse lengths (up to {approx}1000 s) than present day applications (typically limited to less than several seconds). In this paper, we describe the ongoing pellet injector development activities at ORNL, including the following three in direct support of ITER: (1) an improved pellet feed system for the centrifuge injector, (2) a steady-state extruder feed system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. In addition to the major activities, a repeating two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection ({approx}2.5 km/s) has been developed in a collaboration with ENEA Frascati; also, the production of impurity pellets (Ne, Ar, and Kr) has been demonstrated using the DIII-D and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor pneumatic pellet injection system.

Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Baylor, L.R. [and others

1996-10-01

179

A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

Lewellen, J. W.

1999-04-13

180

A hot-spare injector for the APS linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

1999-04-02

 
 
 
 
181

Analytical study on large-scale steam injector to next-generation BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam injector is a simple, compact, passive device for water injection, such as the Passive Core Injection System (PCIS) or the Primary Loop Recirculation System with SI Driven Jet Pumps (PLR with SIDJP). The system needs no large turbo-machinery such as the current PLR pumps used in a PCV. The energy to drive the steam injector (SIDJP) is recovered as enthalpy of the feed water of a core. This is one of the great advantages of SIDJP: none of the driving energy for the PLR escapes to sea water or to air through the main turbine condenser. An analytical study has been conducted on a large-scale steam injector for a next-generation reactor, in order to check the feasibility of a large-scale steam injector for which a demonstration test was not able to be conducted at present. Analysis of characteristics of the steam injector was conducted for both small-scale and large-scale injectors using newly developed separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code. The models for analysis were examined with Toshiba's test data for the low-pressure visualized-model test and high-pressure small-size model test. The analysis results showed the SIDJP could not work in the high-pressure range over 7 MPa, and discharged over 12 MPa even at the large-scale rated-flow rate of 61.1 kg/s (220 t/h). (author)

1995-01-01

182

Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER).

1993-01-01

183

CONTACT-LENS INJECTOR DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contact-lens injector device, which device (1) comprises a hollow cylindrical body (2) a cylindrical body (3) accommodated within the hollow cylindrical body (2) a contact-lens receiver (4) and a gripper (5), the arms thereof being associated with the hollow cylindrical body (2), which arms, by one of the ends thereof, terminate in a slightly curved supporting element (6) such that the cylindrical body (3), accommodated within the hollow cylindrical body (2), has the contact-lens receiver (4) at one of the end faces thereof, the arms of the gripper (5) associated with the hollow cylindrical body (2) terminating, via one of the ends thereof, in a supporting element (6), whilst, at the other end thereof, each of said arms is connected rotatably to bands (8) via one of the ends thereof and, via the other end thereof, is connected to the cylindrical body (3), allowing the simple opening of the eyelids and the positioning of the contact lenses.

YZUEL SANZ FRANCISCO JAVIER

184

Drive Ram for Medical Injectors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A drive ram (26) for use with a medical fluid injector may include a central, longitudinal reference axis (24). First and second gripper members (92) may be pivotally interconnected with a plunger engaging end (266) of the drive ram. Each of the first and second gripper members may be pivotable about a common pivot axis (95) that intersects the reference axis. Each of the gripper members may further include a first end (102) that is remote from the common pivot axis. In some embodiments, the first and second gripper members may be pivotable between a first position and a second position. In the first position, the first ends of the gripper members may be spaced apart by a first distance, while in the second position, they may be spaced apart by a second distance that is greater than the first distance.

LEWIS FRANK M

185

Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

2006-11-21

186

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27

187

Improved performance of the ATA injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emission cathodes is we have increased the injector brightness by a factor of ten above the level we were able to reach using the low density plasma cathodes.

Weir, J.T.; Caporaso, G.J.; Prono, D.S.

1985-06-18

188

Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K+, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 ? mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse.

1995-01-01

189

An introduction to photo-injector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

1993-01-01

190

Design aspects of an ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is made for the main factors that must be considered on the design of an ion injector. These factors are: the current intensity limits, plasma potential and beam emittance, the current intensity is limited by the beam perveance which depends on the geometry of the extraction system, the type of the ion species and beam aberration factor. We take into account the influence of the plasma potential in determining the actual beam energy. Study of the appropriate design of the einzel lens is necessary in order to match the beam emittance with the accelerator acceptance. The study shows an optimal voltage ratio, which corresponds to the geometry of the lens. At this optimal voltage ratio the beam emittance at the output of the lens is minimum and the beam transport through the lens is without aberration and its intensity decreases with the increase of the atomic number of the ion species. The increase of the extraction voltage affects the increase of the extracted current and decreases the beam brightness which shows that an optimization is necessary to make a compromisation between the extracted current intensity and the beam brightness. (orig.)

2004-01-01

191

Design aspects of an ion injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study is made for the main factors that must be considered on the design of an ion injector. These factors are: the current intensity limits, plasma potential and beam emittance, the current intensity is limited by the beam perveance which depends on the geometry of the extraction system, the type of the ion species and beam aberration factor. We take into account the influence of the plasma potential in determining the actual beam energy. Study of the appropriate design of the einzel lens is necessary in order to match the beam emittance with the accelerator acceptance. The study shows an optimal voltage ratio, which corresponds to the geometry of the lens. At this optimal voltage ratio the beam emittance at the output of the lens is minimum and the beam transport through the lens is without aberration and its intensity decreases with the increase of the atomic number of the ion species. The increase of the extraction voltage affects the increase of the extracted current and decreases the beam brightness which shows that an optimization is necessary to make a compromisation between the extracted current intensity and the beam brightness. (orig.)

Bassal, N.I.; Ragheb, M.S.; Zakhary, S.G. [Accelerators Dept., Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

2004-07-01

192

A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

2011-10-27

193

Status of PRIMA, the test facility for ITER neutral beam injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The ITER project requires additional heating by two neutral beam injectors, each accelerating to 1MV a 40A beam of negative deuterons, delivering to the plasma about 17MW up to one hour. As these requirements have never been experimentally met, it was decided to build a test facility, PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator), in Italy, including a full-size negative ion source, SPIDER, and a prototype of the whole ITER injector, MITICA, aiming to develop the heating injectors to be installed in ITER. The Japan and the India Domestic Agencies participate in the PRIMA enterprise; European laboratories, such as KIT-Karlsruhe, IPP-Garching, CCFE-Culham, CEA-Cadarache and others are also cooperating. In the paper the main requirements are discussed and the design of the main components and systems are described.

Sonato, P.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; ITER International Team

2013-02-01

194

Overview on superconducting photo injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The success of most of the proposed ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR-FELs is contingent upon the development of an appropriate source. Electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required to meet future FEL specifications. An elegant way to create such an unique beam is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting RF photo guns with the superconducting technology. Such superconducting RF photo injectors (SRF guns) based on different approaches are under investigation at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Lot of progress could be achieved during the last years and first long term operation was demonstrated at the FZD. In the near future, this effort will lead to SRF guns, which are indispensable devices for future LINAC driven FEL facilities. Based on most prominent projects, this contribution covers status and progress of the state-of-the-art SRF gun developments in the world.

Arnold, Andre [FZD, Dresden (Germany)

2010-07-01

195

The LHC Lead Injector Chain  

CERN Document Server

A sizeable part of the LHC physics programme foresees lead-lead collisions with a design luminosity of 1027 cm-2 s-1. This will be achieved after an upgrade of the ion injector chain comprising Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS machines [1,2]. Each LHC ring will be filled in 10 min by almost 600 bunches, each of 7×107 lead ions. Central to the scheme is the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) [3,4], which transforms long pulses from Linac3 into high-brilliance bunches by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. Major limitations along the chain, including space charge, intrabeam scattering, vacuum issues and emittance preservation are highlighted. The conversion from LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) to LEIR involves new magnets and power converters, high-current electron cooling, broadband RF cavities, and a UHV vacuum system with getter (NEG) coatings to achieve a few 10-12 mbar. Major hardware changes in Linac3 and the PS are also covered. An early ion scheme with fewer bunches (but each at nominal...

Beuret, A; Blas, A; Burkhardt, H; Carli, Christian; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Hill, C E; Jowett, John M; Kahle, K; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Mahner, E; Manglunki, Django; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Schindl, Karlheinz; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Tranquille, G; Vretenar, Maurizio; Zickler, T

2004-01-01

196

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150/sup 0/ of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s.

Foster, C.A.

1982-01-01

197

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s.

1982-01-01

198

Electron gun - the LIU-5/5000 induction linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The description of an improved electron gun (EG) - the LIU-5/5000 induction linac injector - is presented. EG consists of three main units: two pulse transformers (cathode and anode) and cathode assembly. A desorption-slit cathode is used in EG. The cathode tests have shown, that when the gap is 35 mm it ensures 3 kA stable current at the voltage 400 kV. Emittance value equalled 0.2 cm x rad for 80% beam. The cathode operated faultlessly for a quarter of a years and its total operating efficiency constituted 2x105 pulses

1985-01-01

199

Hypodermoclysis (HDC) for symptom control vs. the Edmonton Injector (EI).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypodermoclysis (HDC) is a well-known method of providing symptom control in terminally ill patients. In this article we make reference to two previous reports describing our use of HDC and a new method of subcutaneous narcotic delivery called the Edmonton Injector (EI). The rationale for using HDC mainly for rehydration and the EI when subcutaneous narcotics are needed is explored. The controversy surrounding the treatment of dehydration in the terminally ill is examined. Finally, the advantages on our palliative care unit of the convenience, increased flexibility, and cost and time saving of these two treatment methods are discussed.

Fainsinger RL; Bruera E

1991-01-01

200

A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images.

Lee, Jin Wook [Korea Institue of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Doug [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-06-15

202

Photoinjector as pre-injector for BEPCII  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to use the two-bunch acceleration technology to further double the positron injection rate from BEPCII (Beijing Electron Positron Collider Upgrade Project) linac to the storage ring, a pre-injector with two SHBs (Sub-harmonic Buncher) is being constructed to replace the old BEPCII bunching system. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to use a photoinjector as the pre-injector, the performance of which is comparable with or better than the sub-harmonic bunching system, at most 25% emittance and energy spread, 100% transport efficiency, absence of satellite bunch, etc. Beam dynamics of the photoinjector based pre-injector in both low charge and high charge cases are studied and compared with both the pre-injector with SHBs and the old BEPCII pre-injector. The high charge beam produced by the new photoinjector can be used as drive beam for laser-plasma and for laser-dielectric wakefield acceleration studies in the future. (authors)

2008-01-01

203

Sensitivity and alternative operating point studies on a high charge CW FEL injector test stand at CEBAF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high charge CW FEL injector test stand is being built at CEBAF based on a 500 kV DC laser gun, a 1500 MHz room-temperature buncher, and a high-gradient ({approx}10 MV/m) CEBAF cryounit containing two 1500 MHz CEBAF SRF cavities. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations show that this injector should be an excellent high-brightness electron beam source for CW UV FELs if the nominal parameters assigned to each component of the system are experimentally achieved. Extensive sensitivity and alternative operating point studies have been conducted numerically to establish tolerances on the parameters of various injector system components. The consequences of degraded injector performance, due to failure to establish and/or maintain the nominal system design parameters, on the performance of the main accelerator and the FEL itself are discussed.

Liu, H.; Kehne, D.; Benson, S. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

1995-12-31

204

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

1980-09-19

205

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

1981-02-01

206

Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01

207

RADLAC-II upgrade injector experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The RADLAC-II upgrade is correcting pulsed power and beam injection and transport problems to increase the output beam energy and current and to improve beam quality. Initial experiments with a modified pulsed power module and injector are described and results, which agree with predictions, are presented. The pulsed power module generated >2.5 MVstage with >40 ns pulse width and >20 ns flattop. The output from the RADLAC-II injector, using two of these stages, was a 5 MeV, 40 kA, 1 cm radius annular beam with ..beta../sub /perpendicular// = 0.19. Particle code simulations show that the beam which the injector experiments produced will result in a 20 MeV, 40 kA, 1 cm radius beam with total ..beta../sub /perpendicular// < 0.2, when the upgrade is completed. This beam will allow high current conditioning, lead pulse stability, and current scaling experiments to be completed.

Hasti, D.E.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Leifeste, G.T.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Smith, D.L.

1988-05-01

208

Performance of upgraded JET neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JET neutral beam injection (NBI) system is undergoing an upgrade of both beam power and pulse duration, which will be completed in 2011. In order to obtain an early assessment of the performance of the upgraded injectors, two positive ion neutral injectors (PINIs) with modified ion source and accelerator configuration were installed on Octant 8 Neutral Injector Box and successfully commissioned in summer 2009. Both PINIs were routinely delivering ?2 MW of deuterium neutral beam power during the JET experimental campaign in autumn 2009. These early tests allowed us to predict with confidence that the JET NBI upgrade objective of injecting 34 MW of total deuterium neutral beam power into the JET plasma will be achieved.

2010-10-01

209

The Superconducting solution for the EURISOL Post Accelerator Injector  

CERN Document Server

In the framework of EURISOL design study*, the superconducting solution for the Post-Accelerator injector foresees the use of two RFQs, one Super Conducting and one Normal Conducting, both operating CW at 88 MHz. After the multiple ionization in the ECR breeder on low voltage platform, the rare ions beam (3 ? A/q ? 7) is bunched at the main frequency by the NC RFQ without both losses and transverse emittance increase and accelerated afterwards through the SC RFQ up to 560 keV/u. A 8.8 MHz pulsed beam can be delivered to experiments placing a 3 harmonic buncher before the NC RFQ with overall beam losses lower than 25%. The beam dynamics results of the study of this solution as well as the main RF design and construction analysis of the main components are presented.

Posocco, P.A; Palmieri, A; Bisoffi, G

210

Neutral beam injector system at IPR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses a 1.7 MW neutral beam injector. Its development was routed through prototyping of various components. These have have been developed and tested successfully. In the process several technologies related to material development, design and fabrication of large volume vacuum vessels, precision machining with strict tolerances, plasma spray coating, silver polishing, electroforming and jointing techniques have been developed and demonstrated. This paper presents a brief overview of the injector and its subsystems with a special emphasis on the test results obtained from the experiments on the prototypes. (author)

2005-01-01

211

Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

1992-01-01

212

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01

213

Diagnostics and camera strobe timers for hydrogen pellet injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen pellet injectors have been used to fuel fusion experimental devices for the last decade. As part of developments to improve pellet production and velocity, various diagnostic devices were implemented, ranging from witness plates to microwave mass meters to high speed photography. This paper will discuss details of the various implementations of light sources, cameras, synchronizing electronics and other diagnostic systems developed at Oak Ridge for the Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), a system built for the Oak Ridge Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) built for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Although a number of diagnostic systems were implemented on each pellet injector, the emphasis here will be on the development of a synchronization system for high-speed photography using pulsed light sources, standard video cameras, and video recorders. This system enabled near real-time visualization of the pellet shape, size and flight trajectory over a wide range of pellet speeds and at one or two positions along the flight path. Additionally, the system provides synchronization pulses to the data system for pseudo points along the flight path, such as the estimated plasma edge. This was accomplished using an electronic system that took the time measured between sets of light gates, and generated proportionally delayed triggers for light source strobes and pseudo points. Systems were built with two camera stations, one located after the end of the barrel, and a second camera located closer to the main reactor vessel wall. Two or three light gates were used to sense pellet velocity and various spacings were implemented on the three experiments. Both analog and digital schemes were examined for implementing the delay system. A digital technique was chosen.

1993-01-01

214

Near-to-Final MINOS Oscillation Results  

Science.gov (United States)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been collecting NuMI beam neutrino data since 2005 and atmospheric neutrino data since 2003. The NuMI beam delivered its last Proton on Target (POT) for MINOS neutrino production in April 2012 prior to its shutdown and upgrade for NO?A. This paper presents MINOS' near-to-final measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters obtained when using the complete MINOS data set.

de Jong, Jeffrey K.

2013-04-01

215

A study of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the results of an analysis of {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance with the MINOS experiment, which studies the neutrino beam produced by the NuMI facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The rates and energy spectra of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions are measured in two similar detectors, located at distances of 1 km and 735 km along the NuMI beamline. The Near Detector provides accurate measurements of the initial beam composition and energy, while the Far Detector is sensitive to the effects of neutrino oscillations. The analysis uses data collected between May 2005 and March 2007, corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. As part of the analysis, sophisticated software was developed to identify muon tracks in the detectors and to reconstruct muon kinematics. Events with reconstructed tracks were then analyzed using a multivariate technique to efficiently isolate a pure sample of charged current {nu}{sub {mu}} events. An extrapolation method was also developed, which produces accurate predictions of the Far Detector neutrino energy spectrum, based on data collected at the Near Detector. Finally, several techniques to improve the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement were implemented, and a full study of the systematic uncertainties was performed. Extrapolating from observations at the Near Detector, 733 {+-} 29 Far Detector events were expected in the absence of oscillations, but only 563 events were observed. This deficit in event rate corresponds to a significance of 4.3 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and clear distortion of the Far Detector energy spectrum is observed. A maximum likelihood analysis, which fully accounts for systematic uncertainties, is used to determine the allowed regions for the oscillation parameters and identifies the best fit values as {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.29{sub -0.14}{sup +0.14} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} > 0.953 (68% confidence level). The models of neutrino decoherence and decay are disfavored at the 5.0{sigma} and 3.2{sigma} levels respectively, while the no oscillation model is excluded at the 9.4{sigma} level.

Marshall, John Stuart; /Cambridge U.

2008-06-01

216

Plasma release with ferroelectric plasma injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A generator with a plasma opening switch employing a ferroelectric plasma injector has been designed, constructed, and studied in operation. The generator was tested in two regimes, being loaded on an electron-beam diode or vircator for the generation of Bremsstrahlung (X-ray) or microwave radiation, respectively[ru] ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ? ? ???????????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????: ? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ???-?????????

2005-02-26

217

High current injector for heavy ion fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 2 MV, 800 mA, K{sup +} injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 {mu}s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (< 5k{Omega}) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large ({approx} 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 {mu}s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

1993-05-01

218

Sector cyclotron as the DTs-1 injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is aimed at analytical and numerical investigation into a possibility of constructing an injector for the DTs-1 deuteron radial-sector cyclotron with relatively low mean magnetic field value (without superconductivity) to provide for a 100% beam extraction and maximum possibility of radial and axial strange focusing under assigner sector number to obtain the maximum intensity. 12 refs

1989-06-03

219

Beam test of the HIMAC injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heavy-ion synchrotron dedicated to medical use is under construction at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The injector system, which accelerates heavy ions up to 6 MeV/nucleon, has been completed. An operational test with {sup 4}He and {sup 40}Ar beams started and the system showed satisfactory performance. (author).

Murakami, Takeshi; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, Satoru [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

1994-12-31

220

Molten metal injector system and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Bigler, Nicolas (Morin Heights, CA); Arnaud, Guy (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R&D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment. The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed. The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R&D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; de Esch, H.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M.; Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W.

2011-09-01

222

Performance potential of the injectors after LS1  

CERN Document Server

The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons in the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB to PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than no...

Bartosik, H; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Mikulec, B; Raginel, V; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

2012-01-01

223

Final incision size after implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic aspheric intraocular lens: new motorized injector versus standard manual injector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To assess the impact on incision size of IOL implantation using a new motorized intraocular lens (IOL) injector versus a standard manual injector. SETTING: Cataract Treatment Centre, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Comparative case series. METHODS: All patients received an Acrysof SN60WF IOL implanted using a D cartridge and an Autosert motorized injector at fast speed, an Autosert motorized injector at slow speed, or a manual Monarch injector. Each group had a range of preimplantation incision sizes (1.9 mm, 2.0 mm, 2.1 mm, 2.2 mm, 2.3 mm). Incision gauges were used to measure the incision width before and immediately after IOL implantation. RESULTS: The study recruited 256 patients. All incisions that were 1.8 mm at the commencement of surgery increased in size by the end of irrigation/aspiration. The motorized injector used with a fast speed (4.4 mm/sec) caused significantly less incision enlargement than the manual injector for all preimplantation incision sizes tested (P<.02). For 4 of the 5 preimplantation incision size subgroups, the motorized injector used at slow speed (1.5 mm/sec) produced less incision stretch than the manual injector, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The motorized injector was easy to use, and its use with an injection speed of 4.4 mm/sec caused significantly less incision enlargement than the manual injector during IOL implantation.

Allen D; Habib M; Steel D

2012-02-01

224

Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs

1988-01-01

225

Flash X-Ray Injector Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

Paul, A C

2004-03-26

226

Wakefield Computations for the Injector (Part I)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this document, we report on basic wakefield computations used to establish the impedance budget for the LCLS injector. Systematic comparisons between analytic formulae and results from ABCI are done. Finally, a comparison between 2D and 3D wakefield calculations are given for a cross. The three parts of the document are presented as follows: (1) ABCI computations for a few structures (Flange, Bellows...); (2) Comparison analytic with ABCI runs; and (3) Comparison Cross and Cavity using MAFIA.

Limborg-Deprey, C.

2010-12-13

227

Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

1991-05-01

228

Design of the ITER Neutral Beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed in Europe, Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D0 to the ITER plasma for pulse length of ?1000 s. The injectors each use a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D-. This will be neutralized in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics.

1913-01-00

229

Argonne tandem as injector to a superconducting linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Argonne Tandem uses Pelletron chains, NEC accelerator tubes, and a dual closed-corona system. Its main function is to be an injector for a superconducting linear accelerator. As long as the transverse and longitudinal emittances are within the acceptance of the linac, the output beam quality of the tandem-linac system is essentially determined by the tandem. The sensitivity of the linac to the longitudinal emittance ?E?t of the incident beam makes the output beam quality dependent on the negative-ion velocity distribution in the source, transit-time effects in the tandem, molecular-beam dissociation, and stripper-foil uniformity. This paper discusses these beam-degrading effects

1980-06-12

230

Upgrade of the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector Bunching System  

CERN Document Server

Over the last few years, significant efforts were concentrated on improving the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) RF bunching system, consisting of a four-harmonic pre-buncher, Traveling Wave Chopper (TWC) and a single-frequency sinusoidal re-buncher. The primary goal was to improve RF field stability with a redesigned RF system and to improve buncher performance for higher current beams resulting in better bunch stability and time structure at the first PII superconducting resonator. The major parts of the system were redesigned and rebuilt, including the RF 12 - 48 MHz amplifiers for the harmonic pre-buncher and re-buncher, RF driver rack for the TWC, and the RF control chassis for both the pre-buncher and re-buncher. The four-harmonic resonant structure of the harmonic buncher itself was modified, too, mainly for better mechanical stability and better RF matching. These improvements will be described and the performance of the new system presented.

Sharamentov, Sergey I; Clifft, Benn; Pardo, Richard C

2005-01-01

231

Status of the Linear Accelerator-Injector at TNK Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial storage facility at Lukin State Research Institute for Problems in Physics, Zelenograd includes two electron storage rings: the main ring for energy of 2.5 GeV and booster ring for energy of 450 MeV. Linear accelerator for electron energy up to 80 MeV serves as an electron injector of TNK facility. The accelerator was commissioned in December, 2002. The accelerated current of ?50 mA at 55 MeV was obtained. The paper presents the linear accelerator scheme and time diagram for its parts operation. DAW accelerating structure and beam transportation channel to the booster ring are described. The electron beam parameters obtained are listed

2006-01-01

232

Upgrade of the ATLAS positive ion injector bunching system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last few years, significant efforts were concentrated on improving the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) RF bunching system, consisting of a four-harmonic pre-buncher, Traveling Wave Chopper (TWC) and a single-frequency sinusoidal re-buncher. The primary goal was to improve RF field stability with a redesigned RF system and to improve buncher performance for higher current beams resulting in better bunch stability and time structure at the first PII superconducting resonator. The major parts of the system were redesigned and rebuilt, including 12- 48 MHz RF power amplifiers for the harmonic pre-buncher and re-buncher, RF driver rack for the TWC, and the RF control chassis for both the pre-buncher and re-buncher. The four-harmonic resonant structure of the harmonic buncher itself was modified, too, mainly for better mechanical stability and better RF matching. These improvements will be described and the performance of the new system presented.

2005-01-01

233

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

2000-01-01

234

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements.

Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P.; Halaxa, E.; Henestroza, E.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Karpenko, V.; Sangster, T.C.

2000-07-24

235

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

2004-11-10

236

The control and diagnostics system for the CEBAF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present the first experience with the CEBAF injector control and diagnostics system. The computer architecture of the control system has been described elsewhere. The injector system is a model for the CEBAF controls. A computer system controls the gun, the steering magnets, and the focusing elements, and in the near future also the injector rf system. The beam parameters such as current, position, and emittance are measured by various monitors and are automatically analyzed by the computer. 5 refs., 11 figs.

1989-01-01

237

The Control and Diagnostics System for the CEBAF Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present the first experience with the CEBAF injector control and diagnostics system. The computer architecture of the control system has been described elsewhere. The injector system is a model for the CEBAF controls. A computer system controls the gun, the steering magnets, and the focusing elements, and in the near future also the injector rf system. The beam parameters such as current, position, and emittance are measured by various monitors and are automatically analyzed by the computer.

P. Adderley; W. Barry; R. Bork; R. Cucinotta; C. Grubb; J. Heefner; J. Kewisch; P. Kloeppel; G. Lahti; T. Mason; E. Navarro; R. Pico; H. Robertson; R. Rossmanith; J. Sage; M. Wise

1988-10-01

238

Project of a high-current injector at the UNILAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] GSI is going to extend the accelerator facility by a synchrotron and an experimental storage ring over a period of four years. The UNILAC will serve as injector. In order to take advantage of the space charge limit of the synchrotron, a new injector at the UNILAC will be constructed. An increase of beam intensity by about three orders of magnitude is expected. The different sections of the new injector described

1986-01-01

239

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

240

A compact injector for a small triton accelerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have constructed a very compact 350-keV injector for a triton accelerator. Because of restrictive boundaries, the whole system has been optimized: for example, a disktron for the high-voltage power supply, a highly efficient gas recycling system on a platform, and an insulating cooling system. In the first step, the injector was operated with a duoplasmatron ion source. In test runs, the injector was charged up to 330 kV without any problems. To date, the injector has been used to accelerate hydrogen beam currents of {similar to}0.2 to 0.4 mA.

Schlindwein, R.; Seki, S.; Korschinek, G. (Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 8046 Garching, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Static and transient behavior of the flow positioned injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The flow positioned injector can ensure invariant injecting speed and gives high combustion performance for variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engines. Static and dynamic mathematical models of the injector are developed, and basic design rules to ensure invariant injection pressure drop are deduced from the static model. In practical situations, the effect of the flow-coefficient variation on the injecting speed must be compensated by a special structure design. Based on the dynamic model, transient response of the injector is analyzed via a digital simulation method. The results show that the injector can maintain almost constant injecting speed during transient process if it has an adequate dynamic resistant coefficient.

Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Qizhi; Lu, Zhenglin

1991-06-01

242

The Supervisory Control System for the HL-2A Neutral Beam Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supervisory control and protection system of the neutral beam injector (NBI) in the HL-2A tokamak is presented. The system is used for a safe coordination of all the main NBI subsystems. Because the system is based on computer networks with its transmission medium of optical fiber, its advantages in high operational stability, reliability, security and flexible functional expandability are clearly shown during the NBI commissioning and heating experiment in HL-2A.

2009-01-01

243

High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with NB particles per bunch, spaced a distance SB apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed ?c, the luminosity is given by L = NB2?c/4??2SB, where ? is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity ? is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and ? is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of ? and SB, requires a large value for the ratio NB2/var-epsilon n, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed NB, the luminosity can be increased if var-epsilon n can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider

1990-01-01

244

ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K+ injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500keV-1MeV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes: in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the open-quotes energy effectclose quotes of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 KeV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented.

1993-01-01

245

CANDELA photo-injector: the drive laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the future linear colliders, a bright photo-injector named CANDELA is being constructed at LAL Orsay. To illuminate the photo-cathode, a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser has been developed. It consists of an oscillator that delivers a continuous train of femtosecond pulses at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. This train is then amplified in a regenerative amplifier pumped by a second harmonic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The status of the overall RF gun experiment is also mentioned. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig

1993-01-01

246

Radiotracer injector: An industrial application (RIA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention. (Author)

2011-01-01

247

An induction linac injector for scaled experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig.

1991-01-01

248

MMFL H+ and H- injectors: Computational studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported for a computational study of the output beam of the high-current Moscow Meson Factory (MMF) linac H+ and H- injectors for various ion source operation modes and a variety of accelerating tube optics. Values for the emittance and phase density of the beam at the exit of the accelerating tubes are presented. The possibility of increasing the pulse current and thus the beam brightness with limited emittance growth was investigated. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data. A computational application for monitoring the beam parameters in television is proposed.

2006-03-01

249

Upgrade Plans for the LHC injector complex  

CERN Multimedia

Challenging beams with much higher brightness than today are required for the LHC to achieve its high luminosity objective after the year 2020. It is the purpose of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project to achieve this result, consolidating and upgrading the existing set of synchrotrons (PSB, PS and SPS), and using the new linac presently in construction (Linac4). The anticipated beam characteristics are described and compared to the known limitations in the different accelerators. The foreseen solutions are outlined as well as the planning for their implementation.

Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Meddahi, M; Mikulec, B; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

2012-01-01

250

Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

1991-01-01

251

First operation of a femtosecond laser driven photo-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 200 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results. Measurements of the beam charge as a function of the laser/RF phase, the laser pulse energy, and the accelerating field are presented. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs

1994-07-01

252

First operation of a femtosecond laser driven photo-injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CANDELA photo-injector is a two cell S-band photo-injector. The copper cathode is illuminated by a 200 fs Ti:sapphire laser. This paper presents the preliminary experimental results. Measurements of the beam charge as a function of the laser/RF phase, the laser pulse energy, and the accelerating field are presented. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs.

Travier, C.; Bernard, M.; Leblond, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l`Accelerateur Lineaire]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Georges, P.; Roger, G.; Thomas, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. d`Optique Theorique et Appliquee

1994-07-01

253

Pellet injector systems for plasma refueling on LHD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hydrogen pellet injection is one of the leading candidates for a refueling to magnetic confined fusion plasmas, since it can provide particles directly to core plasma. In order to investigate appropriateness of the pellet injection as a plasma refueling method, two types of solid hydrogen pellet injector systems have been developed and plasma experiments with pellet injection have been carried out on LHD (Large Helical Device). One is an in-situ pipe gun type pellet injector, which is the simplest of all pellet injector concepts. The in-situ pipe gun injector has 10 independent controlled barrels and each barrel can inject 3 mm? x 3 mml pellets with a velocity of ?1200 m/s. The other is a repetitive pellet injector with a screw extruder. The screw extruder can form 2.5 mm? solid hydrogen rod continuously at a extruding rates of ?35 mm/s and, therefore, the repetitive pellet injector can inject pellets in infinitum with repetitive rate of 10 Hz. Common feature of these injectors is employing a compact cryocooler to solidify hydrogen and, therefore, these injectors can be operated with just electricity instead of liquid helium supply system. (author)

2005-01-01

254

Fuel injector having differential tip cooling system and method  

Science.gov (United States)

According to various embodiments, a system includes a gasification fuel injector. The gasification fuel injector includes a tip portion, an annular coolant chamber disposed in the tip portion, and a first structural support extending through the annular coolant chamber. The first structural support divides the annular coolant chamber into a first passage and a second passage.

Mishra; Niraj Kumar (Bangalore, IN)

2013-01-29

255

Methanol fueled diesel internal combustion engine fuel injector nozzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector is described comprising, a nozzle having an inner main cavity, an inner valve seat located between the main cavity and an inner second cavity portion all capable of flow communication with a pressurized fuel supply, the inner valve seat located below the inner main cavity and having a plurality of spray outlets extending outward substantially horizontally and radially to the surface of the nozzle spaced equidistant from each other, the inner second cavity portion located below the inner valve seat and being closed at its opposite end to provide a closed spherical chamber, the inner second cavity portion of the nozzle also having an insert loosely located with and substantially filling the spherical chamber, a retractable needle means having a nose portion and a shaft portion, the nose portion being correspondingly shaped to fully engage the inner valve seat completely blocking flow communication to the spray outlet and leaving substantially no volume interspaced between the inner valve seat and the nose potion of the needle means, and the nose portion being free of engagement with any portion of the inner second cavity portion and the insert.

Timmer, R.C.

1993-06-22

256

Performance of a CW RFQ Injector for the IUCF Cyclotron  

CERN Document Server

A 750 keV RFQ proton pre-injector was installed in place of a 600 keV Cockroft-Walton high voltage terminal for the IUCF k220 Cyclotron.* The pre-injector consists of a 20 keV microwave ion source and LEBT, a unique design 750 keV CW RFQ, and a short transfer beam line to the k15 injector cyclotron center region.** This pre-injector system was installed and commissioned in June of 2003 and is now in routine service as the sole injection system to the cyclotrons. This contribution will discuss the performance of the CW RFQ pre-injector and the transmission properties of the beam through the cyclotrons.

Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; East, Gary W; Friesel, Dennis; Hamm, Robert W; Jones, William P; Staples, John W

2005-01-01

257

SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional ray-trace code with a two-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model.

1992-01-01

258

SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs.

1992-01-01

259

Micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules. The injector is used for collecting and delivering controlled amounts of charged molecule samples for subsequent analysis. The injector delivery system can be scaled to large numbers (>96) for sample delivery to massively parallel high throughput analysis systems. The essence of the injector system is an electric field controllable loading tip including a section of porous material. By applying the appropriate polarity bias potential to the injector tip, charged molecules will migrate into porous material, and by reversing the polarity bias potential the molecules are ejected or forced away from the tip. The invention has application for uptake of charged biological molecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, polymers, etc.) for delivery to analytical systems, and can be used in automated sample delivery systems.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

1999-11-09

260

Pneumatic pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Advanced pneumatic-injector-based pellet fueling systems are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range from 1 to 2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumatic-based pellet fueling systems for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET), and a new simplified eight-shot injector has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These long-pulse devices operate reliably at up to 1.5 km/s with pellet sizes ranging between 1 and 6 mm. In addition to these activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies such as the electrothermal gun and the two-stage light-gas gun to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets to 1.4 km/s were recently demonstrated. (author). 27 refs, 10 figs

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Multi-beam injector development at LBL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

1990-01-01

262

Advanced, high energy neutral beam injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The BNL design of a high energy neutral beam injector is based on the neutralization of negative ions, a process that remains very efficient even at energies up to and above 1 MeV. The principal elements of such an injector are: source of negative ions, beam extraction and transport system, accelerator, neutralizing cell, and system for the removal and dumping (or energy recovery) of the remaining charged components of the beam. Among several possible source geometries, the most advanced is the BNL version of the magnetron. Best results have been obtained by using geometrical focusing of surface produced H/sup -/ ions and an asymmetric discharge chamber. A large water cooled model is being fabricated, to deliver 1-2 A of H/sup -//D/sup -/ beam currents in pulses longer than 5 s, with a source power efficiency of about 6 kW/A and a gas efficiency of 6-10%. First tests are scheduled for July 1980. Two options of the beam transport are being studied theoretically and experimentally: a weak focusing bending magnet and a strong focusing chain of electrostatic quadrupoles.

Alessi, J; Fink, J; Maschke, A; Prelec, K; Sluyters, T

1980-01-01

263

An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS  

CERN Document Server

The bunching system of the ATLAS positive ion injector (PII) has been improved by relocating the harmonic buncher to a point significantly closer to the second stage sine-wave buncher and the injector LINAC. The longitudinal optics design has also been modified and now employs a virtual waist from the harmonic buncher feeding the second stage sine-wave buncher. This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PH has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam while the population of the parasitic, unwanted rf bucket is typically less than 3% of the total transported beam. To remove this small residual parasitic component a new traveling-wave transmission- line chopper has been developed reducing both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth from the chopping process. This work was suppor...

Pardo, Richard C; Clifft, B E; Sherementov, S; Strickhorn, P

2002-01-01

264

Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 10{sup 21} particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5{sup o}-25{sup o} have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis.

Soukhanovskii, V A; Kugel, H W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M; Blanchard, W; Bush, C; Gernhardt, R; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Majeski, R; Menard, J; Provost, T; Sichta, P; Raman, R

2005-09-30

265

Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 1021 particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5o-25o have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis.

2005-01-01

266

Error analysis and lattice improvement for the C-ADS Injector-I  

CERN Document Server

The injector (Scheme-I) of the C-ADS linac is a 10-mA 10-MeV proton linac working in CW mode. It is mainly comprised of a 3.2-MeV room-temperature 4-vane RFQ and twelve superconducting single-spoke cavities housed in a long cryostat. Error analysis including alignment and field errors, static and dynamic ones for the injector are presented. Based on detailed numerical simulations, an orbit correction scheme has been designed. It shows that with correction the rms residual orbit errors can be controlled within 0.3 mm and a beam loss rate of 1.7*10^-6 is obtained. To reduce the beam loss rate further, an improved lattice design for the superconducting spoke cavity section has been studied.

Meng, Cai; Tang, Jingyu

2013-01-01

267

Can the proton injectors meet the HL-LHC requirements after LS2?  

CERN Document Server

The LIU project has as mandate the upgrade of the LHC injector chain to match the requirements of HL-LHC. The present planning assumes that the upgrade work will be completed in LS2, for commissioning in the following operational year. The known limitations in the different injectors are described, together with the various upgrades planned to improve the performance. The expected performance reach after the upgrade with 25 and 50 ns beams is examined. The project planning is discussed in view of the present LS1 and LS2 planning. The main unresolved questions and associated decision points are presented, and the key issues to be addressed by the end of 2012 are detailed in the context of the machine development programs and hardware construction activities.

Goddard, B; Bracco, C; Brüning, O; Carli, C; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mikulec, B; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Steerenberg, R; Vretenar, M

2012-01-01

268

Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 ?m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

Weierstall U; Spence JC; Doak RB

2012-03-01

269

Development of advanced pellet injector systems for plasma fueling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two types of solid hydrogen pellet injection systems have been developed, and plasma refueling experiments have been performed using these pellet injectors. One is an in-situ pipe-gun type pellet injector, which has the simplest design of all pellet injectors. This in-situ pipe-gun injector has 10 injection barrels, each of which can independently inject cylindrical solid hydrogen pellets (3.4 and 3.8 mm in diameter and length, respectively) at velocities up to 1,200 m/s. The other is a repetitive pellet injector with a screw extruder, which can form a 3.0 mm? solid hydrogen rod continuously at extrusion rates up to 55 mm/s. This extruder allows consecutive pellet injection up to 11 Hz without time limit. Both of these pellet injectors employ compact cryo-coolers to solidify hydrogen; therefore, they can be operated using only electrical input instead of a complicated liquid helium supply system. In particular, using a combination of the repetitive pellet injector with cryo-coolers provides a steady-state capability with minimum maintenance. (author)

2009-01-01

270

Performance monitoring and analysis of injector microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 MeV classical microtron is the injector to booster synchrotron of electron storage rings Indus-l and Indus-2. It delivers a current of 25 mA in pulses of 1 ?s duration at a pulse repetition rate of 1 Hz. The acceleration occurs in a type-II RF cavity energized by a 5 MW pulsed klystron at 2856 MHz in a magnetic field of 0.18T. A directly heated single crystal of LaB6 of diameter 3 mm is used as electron emitter. The 20 MeV, 25 mA, 1 ?s beam-pulse extracted from the microtron, is transported to the synchrotron. The variation in the operational parameters and possible interpretation of variations are essential for performance improvement. (author)

2006-01-01

271

NBS-LANL RTM injector installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The injector for the NBS-LANL CW racetrack microtron consists of a 100 KeV electron gun and beam transport line followed by a 5 MeV linac. The function of the gun and transport line, which have been installed at NBS, is to provide a chopped and bunched 100 KeV and up to 0.67 mA dc or pulsed beam of very low transverse emittance for matched insertion into the linac. In this paper the authors present both the design and construction details of the 100 KeV system and the results of preliminary beam tests. The tests conducted thus far show the gun and transport system to be performing well within design specifications

1983-01-01

272

A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current.

2002-01-01

273

ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K{sup +} injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500 keV-1MeV diode preinjector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the ``energy effect``: in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the ``energy effect`` by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the ``energy effect`` of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 keV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented.

Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Yu, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Grote, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-05-01

274

ILSE-ESQ injector scaled experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 2 MeV, 800 mA, K+ injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ISLE) is under development at LBL. It consists of a 500 keV-1MeV diode preinjector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ). One of the key issues for the ESQ centers around the control of beam aberrations due to the ''energy effect'': in a strong electrostatic quadrupole field, ions at beam edge will have energies very different from those on the axis. The resulting kinematic distortions lead to S-shaped phase spaces, which, if uncorrected, will lead eventually to emittance growth. These beam aberrations can be minimized by increasing the injection energy and/or strengthening the beam focusing. It may also be possible to compensate for the ''energy effect'' by proper shaping of the quadrupoles electrodes. In order to check the physics of the ''energy effect'' of the ESQ design a scaled experiment has been designed that will accommodate the parameters of the source, as well as the voltage limitations, of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE). Since the 500 keV pre-injector delivers a 4 cm converging beam, a quarter-scale experiment will fit the 1 cm converging beam of the SBTE source. Also, a 10 mA beam in SBTE, and the requirement of equal perveance in both systems, forces all the voltages to scale down by a factor 0.054. Results from this experiment and corresponding 3D PIC simulations will be presented.

1993-01-01

275

Fuel injector with hoop nozzle spray tip  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injection nozzle is described with hoop nozzle spray tip including a valve body means having a stepped bore therethrough to define at one end of the valve body means an outlet passage with a valve seat encircling the inboard end of the outlet passage; a passage means in the valve body means in flow communication at one end with the stepped bore inboard of the valve seat and being connectable at its opposite end to a source or pressurized fuel; an injector valve means movable in the valve body means relative to the valve seat to control flow to the outlet passage; a hollow, closed end, inner plug valve element operatively fixed to the valve body means so as to serve as an extension of the outlet passage; the inner plug valve element having an outer peripheral valve seat surface with an annular groove therein and having spaced apart port passages for effecting flow communication between the outlet passage and the annular groove; and, a cylindrical outer hoop valve element with a straight thin annular hoop-skirt valve of predetermined radial thickness operatively fixed to the valve body means with the hoop-skirt valve in shrink-fit encirclement of the inner plug valve element so as to overlie the annular groove whereby the hoop-skirt valve is prestressed and is operative as an integral hoop valve which is adapted to expand radially relative to the inner plug valve element, when the passage means and the outlet passage are supplied with fuel at a predetermined high pressure as controlled by the injector valve means, to form therewith a fuel discharge annulus.

Klomp, E.D.

1986-03-18

276

Improved brightness of the ATA injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of the ATA injector using the low density plasma cathode (flashboard cathode) have shown that the brightness of the injector was being limited by the non-uniform emission of the cathode surface. To avoid this difficulty, we rearranged the cathode-anode geometry to accommodate field shaping surfaces and a field emission cathode. Computer simulations of the cathode-anode geometry using the EBQ code led us to try a 5.5 cm radius cathode with an A-K gap of about 13 cm. There was no grid used during the experiment. The cathode was surrounded by a Pierce correcting shroud and the typical gap voltage was about 2.5 MeV. Our initial tests of the field emission cathodes were done using a woven carbon yarn that was laced through a fine mesh screen and then trimmed to a uniform height. Using these ''tufted'' cathodes, it was easy to vary the number of emission sites per square centimeter. We also varied the geometry of these cathodes by giving the screen a slight convex shape so that the center of the cathode was about 1 cm closer to the anode plane than the edge of the cathode. At the suggestion of R. Adler of MRC, we also tested commerically available velvet cloth. This was done by epoxying the cloth to the cathode surface using a conducting silver epoxy. We tested the velvet cathodes in both the flat and convex configurations to compare with the tufted carbon yarn cathodes.

Weir, J.T.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chambers, F.W.; Kalibjian, R.; Kallman, J.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.; Slominski, M.E.

1985-10-01

277

Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets.

Fathizadeh, M.

1995-07-01

278

Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

Viniar, I. [Saint-Petersburg State Technical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sudo, S.

1997-07-01

279

Computation of Cavitating Flows in a Diesel Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The flow inside Diesel injectors is important because of its effect on the spray and the atomization process in the combustion chamber. Due to huge stress at the orifice entrance, cavitation occurs in high-pressure Diesel injectors. In this study, we investigate numerically the cavitating steady flow in a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid and the standard k-e turbulence model are used to simulate the multiphase turbulent flow. The effects of some geometrical parameters on both the discharge coefficient and the vapor fraction are presented.

2010-01-01

280

Simulation of transient effects in the heavy ion fusion injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have used the 2-D PIC code, GYMNOS, to study the transient behaviors in the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) injectors. GYMNOS simulations accurately provide the steady state Child-Langmuir current and the beam transient behavior within a planar diode. The simulations of the LBL HIF ESAC injector experiments agree well with the experimental data and EGUN steady state results. Simulations of the nominal HIF injectors have revealed the need to design the accelerating electrodes carefully to control the ion beam current, particularly the ion loss at the end of the bunch as the extraction voltage is reduced.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hewett, D.W.

1993-05-12

 
 
 
 
281

Performance and Modeling of the JLab IR FEL Upgrade Injector  

CERN Multimedia

The JLab IR Upgrade Injector has delivered up to 9.1 mA CW of electron beam current at 9 MeV. The injector is driven by a 350 kV DC Photocathode Gun. Injector behavior and beam-based measurements are in very good agreement with PARMELA simulations. The injected beam envelopes were established by measuring beam spot sizes and comparing them with those predicted by a transport matrix based model. The emittances were measured by fitting an initial trial beam matrix to the measured data. The injected bunch length was established by measuring the energy spread downstream of the Linac while operating at either side of crest.

Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Benson, S V; Herman-Biallas, George; Bullard, Don; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred; Evans, Richard; Grippo, A; Gubeli, Joe; Jordan, Kevin; Neil, George; Shinn, Michelle D; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Shukui

2004-01-01

282

Operation of two-stage injectors with agglomerating atomizers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing the flexibility of gas- and oil-fired steam boilers produces an increased demand on the burners. Single-stage centrifugal atomizers cannot provide the required range-of-change in fuel flow. In order to minimize the disadvantages of mechanical-steam atomizers, two-stage injectors are now being used, which permit the same control range as mechanical-steam injectors to be obtained while maintaining the upper limit of fuel pressure. The performance of the two-stage injectors is discussed.

Kallas, P.K.; Shapalas, Yu.K.

1982-10-01

283

The 30-kV proton injector for PIGMI  

Science.gov (United States)

A 30 kV proton injector designed for matching a 31 mA proton beam into the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) section of the PIGMI (pion generator for medical irradiation) accelerator was constructed and tested. This injector uses a small efficient duoplasmatron ion source and a single gap extraction system for creating a convergent ion beam, and a three element unipotential einzel lens for focusing the ion beam into the RFQ. A description of this prototype injector is presented, along with the experimental data obtained during the testing of the system.

Hamm, R. W.; Mueller, D. W.; Sturgess, R. G.

284

30-kV proton injector for PIGMI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 30-kV proton injector designed for matching a 31-mA proton beam into the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) section of the PIGMI accelerator has been constructed and tested. This injector uses a small efficient duoplasmatron ion source and a single-gap extraction system for creating a convergent ion beam, and a three-element unipotential einzel lens for focusing the ion beam into the RFQ. A description of this prototype injector is presented, along with the experimental data obtained during the testing of this system.

Hamm, R.W.; Mueller, D.W.; Sturgess, R.G.

1981-01-01

285

Neutral-beam injectors for 1990 and 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anticipated developments in neutral-beam technology are described. Particular attention is given to gas efficiency, power efficiency, beam optics, and injector size. It is concluded that negative-ion sources can be made to operate with gas efficiencies in excess of 10%, while negative-ion neutral-beam injectors, using D/sub 2/ gas stripping cells, will operate at power efficiencies of roughly 50% in ten years. Twenty-five years from now, negative-ion neutral-beam injectors, using photodetachment, will operate at efficiencies approaching 70%.

Fink, J.H.

1981-04-01

286

Performance reach of the injector complex in 2012  

CERN Document Server

At the start of the 2011 physics run quite some margin in the performance of the injectors was available and identified. Following the fast increase of the performance of the LHC itself during 2011, these margins have very much been exploited and some have even been pushed further. In view of further increase in the LHC luminosity, the 2012 performance reach of the injectors will be reviewed. One of the arising topics is satellite bunches from the injectors. Until now concerted effort went into supressing satellite bunches to a minimum, but a recent successful test with "controlled" satellites might make their routine production and characterisation an important topic in 2012.

Steerenberg, R; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Manglunki, D; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Wenninger, J

2012-01-01

287

A driver-scale injector for heavy ion-fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A driver-scale injector for heavy-ion fusion has been constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This new machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (>2 MV), high current (>800 mA of K+), and low emittance. Design considerations of this new electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector for minimizing high voltage breakdown risks and beam emittance growth will be described. The construction and assembly of the injector, together with experimental results for establishing machine performance, and quantitative comparisons with 3D simulations, will be presented. -Abstract only-(Authors).

Deadrick, S.S.Y.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Vanecek, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Grote, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

288

A driver-scale injector for heavy ion-fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A driver-scale injector for heavy-ion fusion has been constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This new machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (>2 MV), high current (>800 mA of K+), and low emittance. Design considerations of this new electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector for minimizing high voltage breakdown risks and beam emittance growth will be described. The construction and assembly of the injector, together with experimental results for establishing machine performance, and quantitative comparisons with 3D simulations, will be presented. -Abstract only-(Authors).

1995-01-01

289

Progress in the injector for FEL at CIAE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intense current RF-linac for the far-infrared FEL is now under construction at CIAE. The normalized brightness of 3.4 x 10{sup 9} A/(m-rad) was obtained from the injector of the linac. An acceleration section with 9 cells will be connected with the injector to provide an electron beam for the 200 {mu}m FEL oscillator. In this paper, the late results from the injector beam test will be reported. The physical design and research progress in the acceleration section, beam transport, undulator as well as optical cavity will be introduced respectively.

Tianlu Yang; Wenzhen Zhou; Shinian Fu [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [and others

1995-12-31

290

Numerical and experimental study of the beam dynamics of CANDELA photo-injector and associated instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser triggered radiofrequency guns are the most luminous electron sources allowing to reach the performances requested by highly demanding applications like the e+/e-linear colliders and the short wave free electron lasers. CANDELA is a band S photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. It allows reaching peak currents of hundred of amperes at average energies higher than 2 MeV. The original concept of two accelerating cavities aims at minimizing the transverse and longitudinal emittances following the Gao's principles. From practical reasons the operating parameters, particularly the laser pulse duration, do not correspond to those considered in the design. Hence, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the gun's performances in experimental environment. The study of a stabile injector operation resulted in evolutions with consequences in the phase control systems implying the laser and the HF (Hyper Frequency) source. The beam transverse and longitudinal characteristics have been measured as a function of the main parameters i.e., the beam charge and the phase shift between the laser and the HF wave. Measurements of the transverse emittance energy dispersion and wave packed duration are presented for several injector configurations. The systems of existing beam measurements have been studied to determine the resolution and the experimental conditions to fulfill, in order to suggest improvements for the CANDELA beam. The experiments with the beam have been compared with numerical simulations. Agreement was obtained within wide ranges of parameters for most of the characteristic beam quantities

1999-01-01

291

Main systems development of K-band linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of our work is the creation of the small-sized linear electron accelerator on the energy up to 5 MeV on the base of such low-power X- and K- bands sources.The results on development of main systems for such an accelerator are represented:two versions of an injector system and accelerating section.The operating frequency of the accelerator is 12500 MHz.

1999-01-01

292

Design of an injector of Super SOR ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We present a design of the injector part for the Super-SOR ring of the University of Tokyo, which is a 3rd generation type vuv light source and is aimed to operate with top-up operation scheme. In order to realize top-up operation, this injector consists of a pre-injector and a synchrotron. The pre-injector is a 200MeV linac and injects the electron beam into the synchrotron. In the synchrotron, the electron beam is accelerated from 200MeV up to 1.8GeV and its emittance and energy spread are reduced. In order to realize this low emittance beam, modified FODO lattice is applied. The details are presented in this section

2004-05-12

293

The Injector of the VUV-FEL at DESY  

CERN Multimedia

The VUV-FEL is a free electron laser user facility being commissioned at DESY in Hamburg. In the current configuration, the linac accelerates an electron beam up to 800 MeV. The injector is a crucial part of the linac, since it has to generate and maintain a high brightness electron beam required for SASE operation. The injector includes a laser driven RF gun, a booster section, a bunch compressor, and diagnostic sections. The good performance of the injector was crucial for the first lasing of the VUV-FEL at a wavelength of 32 nm in January 2005. We report on the present layout of the injector, the properties of the electron beam and on upgrade plans scheduled in the near future.

Schreiber, S

2005-01-01

294

The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System  

CERN Multimedia

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

MacLean, J F

2001-01-01

295

Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

1993-01-01

296

Status of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The planned positive-ion injector for ATLAS consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platfrom and a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. The objective is to replace the present tandem injector with a system that can increase beam intensities by two orders of magnitude and extend the mass range up to uranium. In the first, developmental stage of the work, now in progress, the ECR source will be built, the technology of superconducting accelerating structures for low-velocity ions will be developed, and these structures will be used to form a 3-MV prototype injector linac. Even this small system, designed for ions with A

1986-01-01

297

Neutral beam injector research and development work in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief review covers the US neutral-beam-injector research and development work carried out at DOE Laboratories: The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), The Lawrence Berkeley and Livermore Laboratories (LBL/LLL), and The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

1978-08-31

298

Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system.

Combs, S.K.

1986-01-01

299

Non-destructive velocity monitor for the HIMAC injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-destructive monitor for measuring the velocities and intensities of beams from the HIMAC injector was developed. The beam velocity is estimated from the phase difference between the signals from the two electric pickups. (author)

Katoh, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Honda, Yasuo [Accelerator Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Yamada, Satoru; Yoshizawa, Jun; Hara, Syohbun

1997-12-31

300

DC-SC photocathode injector for high average power FEL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To obtain high average current electron beams for high average power Free Electron Laser (FEL), a DC-SC photocathode injector is designed. It consists of DC extraction gap, 1 + 1/2 superconducting cavity and coaxial input system. High quality electron beams of CW mode or high duty factor can be obtained. The optimization of the injector and simulation of beam dynamics have been done. Model cavity experiments proved the correctness of the simulation

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the design of the second and third generation pneumatic devices which are being developed at ORNL. A four shot injector has been designed and operated and is currently installed on the PDX device at PPPL. A modified four shot has been designed for use on the MIT Alcator C DEVICE. The Advanced Pneumatic Injector is a development project. It's purpose is to demonstrate acceleration of 2-mm pellets at a repetition rate of 10 s/sup -1/

1981-10-29

302

Development of six-shot pneumatic pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A six-shot pneumatic pellet injector has been developed by Kobe Steel in collaboration with Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, and installed on HELIOTRON E for plasma fueling applications. More than 90% of the pellet shots are successful in operation. Pellet velocity ranges from 400 m/s to 1 400 m/s. This paper outlines the configuration of the injector. The design of the fast solenoid valves and the guide line system are also described. (author).

Yamada, Kaneo; Fukuyama, Hirofumi; Kimura, Makoto; Kanno, Masahiro; Saka, Shigeki (Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)); Kataoka, Shin-ichi

1989-10-01

303

Injector design for high-current CW proton linacs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an injector design for high-power cw proton linacs with particular emphasis on intense neutron-spallation sources. Long-term operational reliability and availability dominate over specific beam parameters for these accelerators. We discuss technical requirements for the ion source and low-energy beam transport line and compare different options. A prototype design for a 75-kV, 110-mA cw proton injector is presented.

Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Sherman, J.D.; Schneider, J.D.

1993-01-01

304

Injector design for high-current CW proton linacs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an injector design for high-power cw proton linacs with particular emphasis on intense neutron-spallation sources. Long-term operational reliability and availability dominate over specific beam parameters for these accelerators. We discuss technical requirements for the ion source and low-energy beam transport line and compare different options. A prototype design for a 75-kV, 110-mA cw proton injector is presented.

Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Sherman, J.D.; Schneider, J.D.

1993-06-01

305

Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

1991-01-01

306

The Mmf Linac H- Injector Development  

CERN Multimedia

In addition to the existing proton injector the new H- injector with parameters as follows is under construction: energy of negative ions - 400keV; beam pulse duration - 200?s; pulse repetition rate - 50Hz; average beam current - 500?A The results of beam forming system synthesis and ion source power system automation control development are given. The television application for the beam parameters monitoring proposed.

Yakushev, V P; Feschenko, A V; Frolov, O T; Nikulin, E S

2004-01-01

307

Performance of the oxygen injector for the CERN Linac 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector system has been constructed to provide an oxygen beam for the CERN accelerators. An ECR source produces an O6+ ion beam, which is accelerated in an RFQ structure from 5.6 keV/u to 139.5 keV/u. The specifications of this preaccelerator are described and results of test measurements at GSI are presented. The oxygen injector is now installed at CERN. Preliminary experiences with oxygen and ?-particles are given. (orig.)

1986-01-01

308

The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

2011-02-11

309

The DEEPSSI project, design and modelling of steam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DEEPSSI project is supported by the European commission in the frame of the 5{sup th} R and D framework programme. DEEPSSI is a research programme dealing with steam injectors. Among thermalhydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific thermal-hydraulic quantities (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved : CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics.

Dumaz, P.; Geffraye, G.; Verloo, E. [CEA Cadarache, St Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

2003-07-01

310

The DEEPSSI project, design, testing and modeling of steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DEEPSSI project is a steam injector research programme. Among thermal-hydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific characteristics (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved: CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics.

2005-01-01

311

The DEEPSSI project, design and modelling of steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DEEPSSI project is supported by the European commission in the frame of the 5th R and D framework programme. DEEPSSI is a research programme dealing with steam injectors. Among thermalhydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific thermal-hydraulic quantities (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved : CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics.

2003-01-01

312

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design on an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-diam) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-diam) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-number. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented. The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. More recently, an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector next year. The new device will combine a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous pneumatic injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest injector system

1985-11-03

313

Recent progress in photo-injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed.

Ben-Zvi, I.

1996-10-01

314

Preparation of the SPS as LHC injector  

CERN Document Server

A major project (SLI) for the preparation the SPS in its role as the final link in the injector chain to the LHC was launched one year ago [1,2]. The major areas of work include the upgrade of the RF and the injection systems, together with the provision of a new extraction channel to serve ring 2 of the LHC. In addition, studies have been made on the ability of the SPS to meet the stringent trans verse and longitudinal beam requirements of the LHC. This has lead to several other programmes of work including upgrades to the beam instrumentation, the transverse damper and the shielding of over 8 00 inter-magnet pumping ports to reduce the impedance of the machine. The planning of the project is influenced by the continued operation of LEP and the proposed new long base-line neutrino facility (NGS). In addition, during the machine upgrades, the SPS must continue to deliver high quality proton beams to the fixed-target experimental community and for an extensive range of experimental detect or test beams. The ma...

Collier, Paul

1998-01-01

315

Fuel injector and fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel injector comprising; a housing having formed therein a fuel pressure control chamber and an accumulator, which temporarily retain fuel, a path leading into the fuel pressure control chamber and accumulator, so that they receive which is intermitently fed under pressure from a fuel source through the path, and formed with a nozzle hold through which fuel in the accumulator is injected; a piezo actuator accommodated in the housing, defining the fuel pressure control chamber and expanding and contracting in accordance with a voltage applied thereto to change the volume of the fuel pressure control chamber; needle valve, of a type which opens and closes a responsive to an applied pressure, provided reciprocally movable within the housing between the accumulator and the nozzle hold and which, responsive to a pressure from the fuel pressure control chamber an accumulator, opens and closes communication between the accumulator and the nozzle hold; check valve means for normally closing communication between the path and the fuel pressure control chamber and between the path and the accumulator and for opening the communication according to pressure in the path and/or in the fuel pressure control chamber; and an electric circuit which controls a voltage applied to the piezo-actuator.

Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Watanabe, K.; Takigawa, M.; Natsuyama, Y.; Daido, S.

1988-11-15

316

High-voltage power supplies for injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme of high-voltage power supply for an IREK injector of fast atoms intended for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor is given. Application of cascadeconnected rectifier tubes, one of which is controlled from the low (10 kV) voltage side as well as separation of functions of electron tubes under control and shaping of voltage fronts on the electrodes are peculiar features of the scheme. A scheme of thyristor pulse shaper for power supply of the accelerating gap at nominal voltage of 10 kV and current up to 100 A is given. Test results of the pulse shaper made on the base of two power cases of rectifier are presented. The amplitude of emergency current does not exceed 1.5 kA at a 150 ms switch-off time. Utilization of devices containing a controlled rectifier with a LC-filter supplied from 6-10 kV network and a converter of d.c. voltage containing a three-phase voltage inverter, step-up transformer and high-voltage noncontrolled rectifier is shown to be promising for 200 kV supply of accelerating gaps.

1982-01-01

317

Performance of the LHC Pre-Injectors  

CERN Multimedia

The LHC pre-injector complex, comprising Linac 2, the PS Booster (PSB) and the PS, has undergone a major upgrade in order to meet the very stringent requirements of the LHC. Whereas bunches with the nominal spacing and transverse beam brightness were already available from the PS in 1999 [1], their length proved to be outside tolerance due to a debunching procedure plagued by microwave instabilities. An alternative scenario was then proposed, based on a series of bunch-splitting steps in the PS. The entire process has recently been implemented successfully, and beams whose longitudinal characteristics are safely inside LHC specifications are now routinely available. Variants of the method also enable bunch trains with gaps of different lengths to be generated. These are of interest for the study and possible cure of electron cloud effects in both the SPS and LHC. The paper summarizes the beam dynamics issues that had to be addressed to produce beams with all the requisite qualities for the LHC.

Benedikt, Michael; Chanel, M; Garoby, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hancock, S; Martini, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Schindl, Karlheinz; Vallet, J L

2001-01-01

318

Mechanical properties of 3+1/2 cavity of PKU photon-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanical properties of the main part of PKU photo-injector (3+1/2 cavity) are introduced. By optimizing the number and position of the stiff rings of the cavity with ANSYS and SUPERFISH code, the Lorentz force detuning problem when the cavity worked at pulsed mode and the 'flat' field profile problem when the cavity was tuned at low temperature were solved. Besides, a tuner with a room temperature motor and a gear box for the cavity to work at the right frequency under 2 K circumstance was designed. (authors)

2007-01-01

319

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D{sup +} ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D{sup +} beam that passed through the {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16{pi} mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2012-02-15

320

A fuel pellet injector for the microwave tokamak experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can efficiently deliver fuel gas to the plasma core, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX, formerly Alcator-C) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Based on ''pipe-gun'' technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet guide section, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1 000 m/s. Pellet diameters at formation range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets' flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operation is already very consistent and reliable

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on 'pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable.

1990-01-01

322

Westport concludes tests of light-duty natural gas injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Westport Innovations of Vancouver, BC, recently announced the conclusion of initial testing on its first generation high speed natural gas injectors for light-duty vehicles. The injector uses Terfenol-D, an advanced metal alloy which quickly expands or contracts in the presence of a magnetic field. It governs the flow of fuel through the injector by opening and closing faster than the conventional mechanical solenoid technology which it is intended to replace. The injector achieved combustion in all cylinders of the test engine, with torque and power matching that of the same engine running on diesel fuel. The next step is to optimize combustion and determine basic functionality of the Ford diesel engine with the Westport fuel system. The ultimate goal is to create a fuel injector that allows a light-duty vehicle to run on natural gas, producing full diesel power and fuel efficiency. Engines equipped with such a fuel injection system will produce fewer emissions as well as save operating costs since natural gas is usually less expensive than diesel fuel.

Anon.

2000-07-21

323

INJECTOR AND CHEMICAL LIQUID PREPARATION APPARATUS HAVING THE SAME  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An injector capable of preventing contaminants from being mixed in a chemical liquidwhen sucking and discharging the chemical liquid and a chemical liquid preparationapparatus having the injector. The injector (1) comprises an injector body (11)having a cylinder (2) capable of reserving the chemical liquid, a piston (3) heldin the cylinder (2), a ball screw (4) formed at the end part of the piston (3), anda drive motor (5) as a drive means for rotating the ball screw (4) and a duct (6) surroundingthe injector body (11). The duct (6) comprises at tip part (6b) formed so that thecross sectional area of the inner peripheral surface thereof can be graduallyreduced toward the tip side of the cylinder (2). A plurality of holes (6a, 6c) circumferentiallytilted relative to the axial direction of the piston (3) are formed in the wallof the duct (6). An axial fan (7) as a suction means for sucking the contaminantsis installed in the duct (6), and when the axial fan (7) is driven, an upward airflow occurs in the duct (6) and dust in the air present in the duct (6), abrasionpowder of steel balls (4c) produced from the ball screw (4), and contaminantssuch as spattered lubricating oil are sucked to the upper part of the duct (6).

ONIKURA Hiromichi; SATO Takashi; KONDO Tsutomu

324

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)

Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mizumachi, Wataru [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Isogo Engineering Center; Mori, Michitugu

1997-12-31

325

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)

1997-10-04

326

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project  

Science.gov (United States)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D+ ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D+ beam that passed through the ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16? mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

2012-02-01

327

Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D(+) ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D(+) beam that passed through the ?5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16??mm?mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

Ren HT; Peng SX; Lu PN; Zhou QF; Yuan ZX; Zhao J; Zhang M; Song ZZ; Yu JX; Guo ZY; Chen JE

2012-02-01

328

Operation of the proton injector of the Moscow meson factory linear accelerator in the 50 Hz regime with the mean beam current of 600 mcA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the paper is to describe the main improvements of a set of units of the proton linear accelerator (LA) MMF. These improvements are conditioned by transition of LA operation into regime with the pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz instead of 1 Hz. The following units are improved: high-voltage pulse generator, pulse transformer, accelerating tube and proton injector

1998-01-01

329

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design of an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. The pellets are transported to the plasma in an injection line that also serves to minimize the gas loading on the torus; the injection line incorporates a fast shutter valve and two stages of guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations. A remote, stand-alone control and data acquisition system is used for injector and vacuum system operation. In early pellet fueling experiments on TFTR, the injector has been used to deliver deuterium pellets at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s into plasma discharges. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-dia) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-dia) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-3. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented

1985-11-03

330

An electron beam injector for pulse compression experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the physics of longitudal pulse compression in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction linac module. It produces a 50 ns, 40 mA electron pulse with a 2.5 to 7.5 keV, quadratically time-dependent energy shear. This beam will be injected into the existing 5-m long periodic transport channel with 38 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions the pulse will be compressed by a factor of 4 to 5 before reaching the end of the existing solenoid channel. This paper reports on the design features and the measured general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties

1990-01-01

331

Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01

332

Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an inline reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

Notestein, J.E.

1991-12-31

333

Flaws in Soviet marine engine fuel injectors analyzed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Observations and analysis of the use of the components of the M-400 and M-401 engines have confirmed that the short failure-free operation periods of these engines were largely due to deficiencies of the fuel system. The weak link in this system is the injector, whose operation is crucial for the quality of fuel combustion, the thermal load of the engine and its proper operation. Observing the individual cylinders in fast-revolution engines M-400 and M-401 is impossible. Observations of the combustion process in the cylinder have to be based on a limited number of indicators and their correlations. The operating manual does not specify the periodicity of preventive injector replacement. It only recommends testing them on occasions of general inspection after 540 operational hours. The results of operational tests reported in this study are an attempt at a general evaluation of the failures and the desired periodicity of injector replacement.

Drozdowski, J.; Sadowski, A.

1985-05-01

334

Superconducting RF Injector for High-Power Free Electron Lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL operation is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, photo-cathode injector operation. The physics and engineering conceptual design of a high-current superconducting RF injector has been completed and will be presented. The system, which is an outgrowth of the existing injector on the Jefferson Lab IRFEL[1], consists of an integrated room temperature DC photocathode gun and a 500 MHz superconducting RF accelerator. The device is compact and produces high-brightness beams. After DC acceleration in the gun, emittance compensation techniques are utilized to reduce the rms normalized emittance by over a factor of two to ?2-1/4 mm-mrad at the output of the RF accelerator. The design is based upon the existing geometry of the Jefferson Lab DC gun and will be capable of operation at 100 mA average beam current.

2001-01-01

335

Internal combustion engine with fuel injectors and heaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises an inlet channel leading to a cylinder intake valve opening for furnishing an air-fuel mixture to an engine cylinder through the opening, a fuel injector for directing fuel into the inlet channel to be mixed with air in the channel to form an air-fuel mixture, a heating device arranged in the inlet channel for heating fuel received from the fuel injector, and means regulating the direction of fuel flow from the injector between a first path wherein the fuel is intercepted and heated by the heating device before being furnished to the engine cylinder when the engine is below a predetermined temperature and a second path permitting the fuel to be furnished to the engine cylinder without being intercepted by the heating device when the engine is above a predetermined temperature.

Curhan, J.A.

1991-09-17

336

Diagnostics for the Photon Injector Test Facility in Desy Zeuthen  

CERN Multimedia

A Photo Injector Test facility (PITZ) is under construction at DESY-Zeuthen. The aim is to develop and operate an optimized photo injector for future free electron lasers and linear accelerators. This concerns especially minimal transverse emittances and proper longitudinal phase space. The commissioning of the photo injector will take place in summer 2001. In the rst phase the energy of the produced electrons is about 5 MeV. A short description of the setup and beam parameters are given. Optimization of an electron gun is only possible based on an extended diagnostics system. The diagnostics system for the analysis of the transversal and longitudinal phase space will be described. It consists of a measurement system of the transversal emittance, a TV-based image measurement system, a streakcamera measurement facility, a spectrometer using a dipole magnet and further detectors. Problems of the measurement of the longitudinal phase space are discussed in detail.

Bähr, J; Lipka, D; Lüdecke, H; Stephan, F; Zhao, Q

2001-01-01

337

A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples  

CERN Multimedia

We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and an in-vacuum microscope allows observation of the liquid jet for diagnostics while it is being exposed to the X-ray beam. A fiber optically coupled pump laser illuminating the jet is incorporated for pump-probe experiments. First results with this injector system have been obtained at the LCLS.

Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H

2011-01-01

338

Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.

Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

1985-01-01

339

Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

1997-01-01

340

The APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron has been completed. This paper describes the low-energy-transfer-line designed for the APS. The low energy transfer line constitutes two transport lines. One of these lines runs from linac to the positron accumulator ring, also called 'PAR,' and is 23.7138 m long. The second part of the low energy transport line runs from the 'PAR' to the injector synchrotron and is about 30.919 m long. The above length includes two quadrupoles, a bend magnet and a septum magnet in the injector synchrotron. The positron bunches of emittance ?N = 6.6 mm-mrad arriving at the end of the linac at 450 MeV have twiss parameters as given by Nassiri.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

1985-01-01

342

Retrieval of Additional Epinephrine From Auto-injectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaphylaxis is a challenging condition for any austere environment. It is unpredictable, has sudden onset and a high fatality rate, and is responsive only to epinephrine, a prescription medication. The Wilderness Medical Society has formally recommended that non-medical providers working in austere environments be trained to administer epinephrine. Medical providers frequently prescribe auto-injectors for this purpose due to their ease of use by nonmedical providers. However, auto-injectors have limitations in the wilderness environment, particularly due to their single-dose (or at most 2-dose) design. This paper describes an austere environment technique for obtaining multiple additional doses of epinephrine from auto-injectors that have already been used as designed.

Hawkins SC; Weil C; Baty F; Fitzpatrick D; Rowell B

2013-09-01

343

ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

2004-08-02

344

Combined fuel pressure regulator and fuel injector device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a combination fuel pressure regulator and fuel injector. It comprises: a housing comprising a cylindrical sidewall and having a hollow interior divided into a fuel chamber and a control chamber by a pressure regulating diaphragm that carries a valve element; an inlet via which pressurized fuel is delivered to the fuel chamber; a valve seat disposed within the fuel chamber; a spring that biases the diaphragm and valve element toward the valve seat for establishing the regulation pressure; an injector-receiving socket disposed directly on the cylindrical sidewall of the housing in direct fluid communication with the fuel chamber; and an electromechanical fuel injector having an inlet received in the socket in a fluid-tight manner and receiving pressurized fuel from the fuel chamber; and in which the socket is a separate element that is joined with the cylindrical sidewall in a fluid-tight manner.

Murphy, K.A.

1992-10-06

345

RHIC injector complex online model status and plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An online modeling system is being developed for the RHIC injector complex, which consists of the Booster, the AGS and the transfer lines connecting the Booster to the AGS and the AGS to RHIC. Historically the injectors have been operated using static values from design specifications or offline model runs, but tighter beam optics constraints required by polarized proton operations (e.g, accelerating with near-integer tunes) have necessitated a more dynamic system. An online model server for the AGS has been implemented using MAD-X [1] as the model engine, with plans to extend the system to the Booster and the injector transfer lines and to add the option of calculating optics using the Polymorphic Tracking Code (PTC [2]) as the model engine.

Schoefer,V.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.

2009-05-04

346

EBIS as an injector for heavy-ion linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), because of its high-charge states and pulsed operation, is ideally suited as an injector for a heavy-ion linac operating at a low duty factor. Although presently in use with conventional linacs, the low emittance and the large yield of highly charged ions in each pulse make the EBIS even more interesting as an injector for the new linac accelerating structures such as the alternating-phase-focusing (APF) structure or the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure. These new structures could be used with an EBIS to produce a small, efficient, low-duty-cycle accelerator. Coupled to a conventional linac, the resulting accelerator could be used for heavy-ion medical therapy or nuclear physics, or it could be used as an injector for a synchrotron or storage ring

1979-09-14

347

A Software-Implemented Fault Injector on Windows NT Platform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we present our experience in developing a tool for Software-Implement Fault Injection (SWIFI) into Windows operation system. The fault injector uses software-base strategies to emulate the effects of radiation-induced transients occurring in the system hardware components. The SWIFI tool called MOFI (Memory Oriented Fault Injector) is being used, in conjunction with an appropriate system fault model, to evaluate the applications, measure the injecting strength of injector and mean time to failure of injected applications and determine the sensitivity of applications to faults. The MOFI has been validated to inject faults into user-specified CPU registers and memory regions with many random distributions in location and uniform random distribution in time. The different random distributions chosen in location could produce different experiment results. The reason will be discussed in this study.

Qing-He Pan; Bing-Rong Hong; Qi-Shu Pan

2010-01-01

348

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80 pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5 nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 312 cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5 MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity.

Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

2007-07-01

349

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

2006-08-04

350

Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations) and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions). The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations) is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely avoid a use of the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. At the same time, semi-empirical expressions have the universal constant that does not depend on the injector design.

Filipovi? Ivan; Pikula Boran; Bibi? Dževad

2011-01-01

351

Proposed FNAL 750 KeV Linac Injector Upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present FNAL linac H{sup -} injector has been operational since 1978 and consists of a magnetron H{sup -} source and a 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerator. The proposed upgrade to this injector is to replace the present magnetron source having a rectangular aperture with a circular aperture, and to replace the Cockcroft-Walton with a 200 MHz RFQ. Operational experience at other laboratories has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable and require less manpower than the present system.

Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Schmidt, C.W.; /Fermilab

2009-04-01

352

Injector Control Unit for 750 keV DC accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The unit is designed for the supply of power to electron-gun of the 750 keV DC accelerator, floating at a potential of -750 kV w.r.t. earth. The filament current value is set by the beam current stabilizing unit located at ground potential. The stimulus signal is transmitted to the injector control unit through an optical communication link. The injector control unit generates a signal whose pulse-width is proportional to the filament current. This signal is then transmitted to the current stabilizing unit through another optical link where it is processed to realize a feedback signal for the filament current. (author)

2003-01-01

353

Highly charged ion injector in the terminal of tandem accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly charged heavy ion injector using an all permanent magnet type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Tokai. The new in-terminal injector made it possible to accelerate highly charged heavy ions which have not been obtained from the tandem accelerator. Beam energy and beam intensity have been remarkably increased and the noble gas ion beams have become available.

2009-04-01

354

Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

2005-01-18

355

Design and beam dynamics of SFEL high brightness injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The SFEL high brightness injector consists of a ns-grid gun driven at 476 MHz, a 476 MHz subharmonic buncher and a 2856 MHz travelling-wave buncher (TWB) with high field gradient. Electron beam leaving the injector is then injected into a constant gradient travelling-wave accelerating section (Accl, SLAC type). By using programs ETP, PARMELA, PLS-IM-60 etc., beam dynamics simulation was performed from the gun to the end of Accl in order to find the optimized gun electrode geometry, subharmonic buncher gap voltage, bunching drift distance, TWB injecting phase, TWB structure parameters and axial magnetic field profile for predicting beam quality requested

1998-01-01

356

The Berkeley 2 MV heavy ion fusion injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is an update on the development of the 500 mA per beam sixteen beam injector being built at LBL. An inductively graded Marx bank provides the acceleration potential on the electrostatic column. A carbon arc source provides the pulsed current for the injector. We report recent results on extracted beam parameters, column performance, the generator performance, and system design changes. The carbon ion beam is diagnosed with Faraday cups and with a double slit emittance measurement system. Controls for the final machine are also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Vanecek, D.; Pike, C.; Brodzik, D.; Johnson, R.M.; Meyer, E.A.; Humphries, S. Jr.

1989-03-01

357

Plans for the upgrade of the LHC injectors  

CERN Document Server

The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project has been launched at the end of 2010 to prepare the CERN accelerator complex for reliably providing beam with the challenging characteristics required by the high luminosity LHC until at least 2030. Based on the work already started on Linac4, PS Booster, PS and SPS, the LIU project coordinates studies and implementation, and interfaces with the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project which looks after the upgrade of the LHC itself, expected by the end of the present decade. The anticipated beam characteristics are described, as well as the status of the studies and the solutions envisaged for improving the injector performances.

Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Meddahi, M; Vretenar, M

2011-01-01

358

Average proton beam current increasing at the MMFL injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most essential results on the MMF Linac Injector beam current increase are given. The problem is solving in two ways: 1) reconstructing of the optics at the input part of the accelerating tube; 2) pulse repetition rate magnification. Possibility of the pulse current increase with the emittance growth being limited is studied. The emittance and phase density of the beam at the exit of the accelerating tube are presented. The experimental data are compared with the numerical calculations. Preliminary results on the injector transition to the 100 Hz repetition rate are given.

2004-01-01

359

SLC injector end to end simulation for high charge transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the end-to-end simulation of the SLC injector from the Gun through the first accelerating section. The purpose of these simulations is to aid the injector tuning for high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a 3 dimensional ray trace code with a two dimensional space charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The results from POISSON and SUPERFISH are used in PARMELA to simulate and prescribe experimental parameters.

1992-01-01

360

The Berkeley 2 MV heavy ion fusion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an update on the development of the 500 mA per beam sixteen beam injector being built at LBL. An inductively graded Marx bank provides the acceleration potential on the electrostatic column. A carbon arc source provides the pulsed current for the injector. We report recent results on extracted beam parameters, column performance, the generator performance, and system design changes. The carbon ion beam is diagnosed with Faraday cups and with a double slit emittance measurement system. Controls for the final machine are also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

1995-05-05

362

Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development.

2000-01-01

363

Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01

364

Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic (IIL) has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is saturated. d.c. and dynamic analysis of BIL-gate behaviour are given. A minimum gate delay of well below 1 ns is projected if collector areas are smaller than 10 ..mu..m/sup 2/ within an oxide isolated structure. A relation between maximum injector current density and device size is derived.

Mouthaan, A.J.

1987-12-01

365

Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic (IIL) has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is saturated. d.c. and dynamic analysis of BIL-gate behaviour are given. A minimum gate delay of well below 1 ns is projected if collector areas are smaller than 10 ?m2 within an oxide isolated structure. A relation between maximum injector current density and device size is derived. (author).

1987-01-01

366

Ion source operating at the Unilac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Unilac injection velocity (v = 0.005 X c) and the maximum potential difference between ion source and ground (320 kV) limit positive ion acceleration to a specific charge of not less than 0.0336 (corresponding to 238U8+). Ion sources qualified for the Unilac must be able to produce a charge spectrum with high intensities in the required charge states (1 - 10 particle ?A). This requirement is satisfied for all elements by the Dubna type heated cathode penning ion source. Obviously, for isotopes of low natural abundance high beam currents can only be produced by employing enriched isotopes as feeding materials. Presently the injector is equipped with one penning ion source and one duoplasmatron ion source. 90% of the noble gas ions are provided by the duoplasmatron ion source, whereas ion beams of solids are exclusively furnished by the penning source. In particular, this latter source is well suited and highly developped for producing ion beams from solids by means of the sputtering process. In the future, however, we intend to produce metal ions up to a mass of 100 by a sputter version of the duoplasmatron. (orig.)[de] Die Injektionsgeschwindigkeit des Unilac (v = 0,005 x c) und die hoechste Potentialdifferenz zwischen Ionenquelle und Erde (320 kV) begrenzen die Beschleunigung positiver Ionen auf eine spezifische Ladung von nicht weniger als 0,0336 (entsprechend 238U8+). Fuer den Unilac geeignete Ionenquellen muessen in der Lage sein, ein Ladungsspektrum mit hohen Intensitaeten in den erforderlichen Ladungszustaenden (1-10 Teilchen ?A) zu erzeugen. Diese Forderung wird fuer alle Elemente von der Penningionenquelle mit geheizter Kathode vom Typ Dubna erfuellt. Natuerlich koennen fuer Isotope in geringem natuerlichem Vorkommen hohe Strahlstroeme nur unter Verwendung von angereicherten Isotopen als Eingangsmaterial erzeugt werden. Zur Zeit ist der Injektor mit einer Penningionenquelle und einer Duoplasmatronionenquelle ausgeruestet. 90% der Edelgasionen werden von der Duoplasmatron-Ionenquelle geliefert, hingegen werden Ionenstrahlen von Festkoerpern ausschliesslich von der Penningquelle erzeugt. Insbesondere ist die letztgenannte Quelle fuer die Erzeugung von Ionenstrahlen von Festkoerpern durch einen Zerstaeubungsprozess gut ausgeruestet und hoch entwickelt. Fuer die Zukunft streben wir dagegen an, Metallionen bis zu einer Masse von 100 durch eine Zerstaeubungsversion des Duoplasmatron zu erzeugen. (orig.)

1977-06-16

367

Eight-shot pneumatic pellet injector for the Advanced Toroidal Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An eight-shot pneumatic pellet injector has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injector is based on the pipe-gun concept, which generates hydrogen and deuterium pellets by direct condensation in the barrel. An injector based on this design is in operation on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). 2 refs., 3 figs

1989-01-01

368

Solution of some pumping problems in the injector vacuum system of the T-20  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The fast neutral deuterium atom injection system in the T-20 includes 8 injectors. In the present paper an analysis is made of the vacuum system of the injectors with 160 keV rated fast atom energy, these being subjected to the largest gas loading. The pumping system for the 80 keV injectors is designed along similar lines. (UK)

1978-01-01

369

The results of research a steam-water injector with taper nozzle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations into the injector with conical nozzle were pursued in an effort to creation of circulator in the first loop of nuclear power unit. Based on experimental data the calculated recommendations for rating fundamental parameters and geometry of the vapor injector with conical nozzle are given. Design philosophy of the injector, start-up, efficiency of its operation and lifetime are considered

2001-01-01

370

Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2004-06-01

371

How to Successfully Renovate a Controls System? - Lessons Learned from the Renovation of the CERN Injectors’ Controls Software  

CERN Document Server

Renovation of the control system of the CERN LHC injectors was initiated in 2007 in the scope of the Injector Controls Architecture (InCA) project. One of its main objectives was to homogenize the controls software across CERN accelerators and reuse as much as possible the existing modern sub-systems, such as the settings management used for the LHC. The project team created a platform that would permit coexistence and intercommunication between old and new components via a dedicated gateway, allowing a progressive replacement of the former. Dealing with a heterogeneous environment, with many diverse and interconnected modules, implemented using different technologies and programming languages, the team had to introduce all the modifications in the smoothest possible way, without causing machine downtime. After a brief description of the system architecture, the paper discusses the technical and non-technical sides of the renovation process such as validation and deployment methodology, operational applicatio...

Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pace, M; Pera Mira, P; Roux, E; Pawel Wozniak, J

2013-01-01

372

Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

2007-01-01

373

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1{minus} to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Milora, S.L.; Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Wysor, R.B.; Fehling, D.T.; Foust, C.R.; Baylor, L.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1991-01-01

374

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1-to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC).

1991-10-03

375

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs.

1991-10-03

376

CANDELA photo-injector high-power tests  

Science.gov (United States)

CANDELA is an S-band photo-injector built at Orsay as a collaboration between the ``Laboratoire de l'Accélérateur Linéaire'' and the ``Institut d'Optique Théorique et Appliquée''. The first experimental results concerning vacuum and high-power RF conditioning are presented.

Travier, C.; Bernard, M.; Dufresne, P.; Michaud, G.; Omeich, M.; Roch, M.; Kodier, J.

1994-05-01

377

Drift velocity monitoring of SDDs using MOS charge injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report results of drift velocity monitoring in silicon drift detectors, obtained in beam test conditions using MOS charge injectors. We are able to correct velocity variations as small as 0.1% due to temperature variations of the order of 0.1 K and consequently maintain an optimal space resolution.

Nouais, D. E-mail: nouais@to.infn.it; Boetti, N.; Bonvicini, V.; Cerello, P.; Giubellino, P.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Mazza, G.; Nissinen, J.; Rashevsky, A.; Rivetti, A.; Tosello, F.; Vacchi, A

2000-08-11

378

Magnesium Film Photocathodes for High Brilliance Electron Injectors  

CERN Document Server

Advanced high brilliance electron injectors require photocathodes having low thermal emittance, high quantum efficiency (QE) and prompt response. They should be easy to handle and capable of working in the very high electric fileds of a RF gun. Magnesium films deposited by laser ablation and sputtering techniques are discussed and QE measurements are presented.

Tazzioli, Franco; Cialdi, Simone; Cultrera, Luca; Gatti, Giancarlo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Perrone, Alessio; Rossi, Marco; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Vicario, Carlo

2005-01-01

379

Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

Badgley, P.R.

1992-09-01

380

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FILLING NEEDLELESS INJECTOR CAPSULES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method is provided for filling needleless injector capsules with liquid drug, which eliminates or reduces trapped air bubbles in the drug. A two-stage vacuum method is disclosed which enables the capsule to be evacuated rapidly to very low pressure prior to filling. The method is also suitable for filling other small containers with liquids.

NUSSEY Matthew Simon

 
 
 
 
381

Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirement for higher intensity H- ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H- ion source and the rebuilding of the original H- injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H- beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H- beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H- injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H- beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

1984-01-01

382

Development of ion source for JIPP T-II injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-filament arc type ion source is tested as the proto-type source for JIPP-T-II injector. Displaced aperture electrodes are used to foculize the multi-beam and to inject the beam extracted from a large extraction electrode surface more effectively. Fundamental characteristics of the ion source and the power supply systems are described. (auth.)

1977-01-01

383

Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

1992-01-01

384

Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

1992-11-01

385

Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

1992-10-02

386

Development of steam injector analysis method using two fluid model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In case of transient or accident condition of NPP's, conventionally cooling water is injected from the lower pressure reservoir to the higher pressure system using an active system. In this case there is a possibility that an active system is failed to operate due to the component failures or loss of power. But steam injectors do not use electric power to operate, and do not contain any moving components, so component failure probability is very low, and can get very high pressure head which enables cooling water to inject just when it is needed. Recently, the steam injector concept is actively studied by many researchers to enhance the safety and the reliability of the water injection system, but by far the analysis method for steam injector is not completely developed. Steam injector is composed of three components, i.e, a steam nozzle, a water nozzle, and a mixing nozzle. In this paper, a mixing nozzle is analyzed by using the five equation two fluid model and SIMPLE algorithm, upwind shceme, a staggered grid mesh. And a steam nozzle is analyzed by using the three equation homogeneous model and a Maccormack's technique, a shock capturing method with conservation form of governing equations. Sensitivity studies are performed to determine the order of importance of several parameters for the dischange pressure calculation. It shows that the steam nozzle discharge velocity is the most important paramter for accurate predictions of the discharge pressure. Calculated discharge pressures are compared against the steam injectors experiments of ANL. Developed method predicts the discharge pressure with very high accuracy compared with the conventional control volume approach

1998-01-01

387

MI high power operation and future plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.

Kourbanis, Ioanis; /Fermilab

2008-09-01

388

Self-heat generation in piezoelectric stack actuators used in fuel injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are used in fuel injectors due to their quick response, high efficiency, accuracy, low power consumption, and excellent repeatability. Experimental results for soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack actuators have shown that a significant amount of heat is generated when they are driven under high frequency and/or high electric-field magnitudes, both of which occur in fuel injectors. Self-heat generation in these actuators, mainly caused by losses, can significantly affect their reliability and piezoelectric properties, and may also limit their application. Other studies have demonstrated that at large unipolar electric-field magnitudes, displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis) shows a direct relation with polarization–electric-field loss (dielectric hysteresis). In this paper, a simplified analytical self-heating model is presented. The model directly relates self-heating in multilayer piezoelectric actuators to displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis). The model developed is based on the first law of thermodynamics, and accounts for different parameters such as geometry, magnitude and frequency of applied electric field, duty cycle percentage, fuel type, and environmental properties. The model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results at low and high electric-field magnitudes

2009-01-01

389

Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron

1992-01-01

390

A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) [2], which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in {nu}{sub e} charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for {nu}{sub e} appearance searches from neutral current events with a {pi}{sup 0} are reduced well below the {approx} 0.5-1.0% {nu}{sub e} contamination of the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam [3]. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC [4], a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept [5] based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded) [6]. Continuing R&D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. Efforts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K [7]. The 2005 APS neutrino study [1] recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term R&D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our R&D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detector for neutrino physics.

Finley, D.; Jensen, D.; Jostlein, H.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; /Fermilab; Bromberg, C.; /Michigan State U.; Lu, C.; McDonald, T.; /Princeton U.; Gallagher,; Mann, A.; Schneps, J.; /Tufts U.; Cline, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Wang, H.; /UCLA; Curioni, A.; Fleming, B.T.; /Yale U.; Menary, S.; /York U., Canada

2005-09-01

391

Viability of $\\Delta m^2\\sim$ 1 eV$^2$ sterile neutrino mixing models in light of MiniBooNE electron neutrino and antineutrino data from the Booster and NuMI beamlines  

CERN Document Server

This paper examines sterile neutrino oscillation models in light of recently published results from the MiniBooNE Experiment. The new MiniBooNE data include the updated neutrino results, including the low energy region, and the first antineutrino results, as well as first results from the off-axis NuMI beam observed in the MiniBooNE detector. These new global fits also include data from LSND, KARMEN, NOMAD, Bugey, CHOOZ, CCFR84, and CDHS. Constraints from atmospheric oscillation data have been imposed.

Karagiorgi, G; Conrad, J; Shaevitz, M H; Sorel, M

2009-01-01

392

CTF3 drive-beam injector design  

CERN Multimedia

The Two-Beam Accelerator concept is one of the most promising methods for producing RF power for future linear colliders. In particular it allows upgrades to multi-TeV energies. One of its challenges is the production of the high current drive beam, which as it passes through decelerating structures, produces rf power for acceleration of the main beam. These challenges must be studied at a smaller scale test facility.

Yeremian, A D; Ruth, Ronald D; Braun, Hans Heinrich; Geschonke, Günther; Groening, L; Rinolfi, Louis; Thorndahl, L; Wilson, Ian H; Zhou, F

2002-01-01

393

Equipment of the accelerator and injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations are being done to understand the failure mechanism of insulating links from the laddertron. Several improvements were brought to the accelerator: new controls for the main pumping units allow automatic re-start; a shaft encoder was provided for the source wheel of ORION; an X steerer is available in the terminal; focusing of cluster ion beams is performed by an electrostatic quadrupole doublet. (authors)

1999-01-01

394

Shielding evaluation on injector test in quantum technology development facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

JNC is investigating the best way to treat high-level radioactive nuclear waste from reactors. For basic research into the transmutation of fission products, JNC developed a high-power CW electron linac. Shielding of the radiation which leaks from beam dump and accelerating tube, it is necessary to establish the technology which can deal with the current enlargement as well as other accelerator element. In this report, shielding evaluation injector test of high-power CW electron linac is reported. As a result of the shielding evaluation, it was obtained that the management of the radiation was possible in the injector test under the dose equivalent limit. And, it was possible that problems such as operation and maintenance. (author)

Omura, A.; Toyama, S.; Hasegawa, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Tani, S.

1999-03-01

395

Immediate topical drug delivery by natural submicron injectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transdermal delivery is an attractive but challenging solution for delivery of drugs. The sea anemone possesses a sophisticated injection system, which utilizes built-in high osmotic pressures. The system is folded within microcapsules and upon activation it injects a long, needle-like tubule of submicron diameter that penetrates the target in a fraction of a second. Here we show that this natural injection system can be adapted for active topical drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells, formulated into a topical gel, and uploaded with the desired drug. The formulated injectors retained their physical characteristics and were capable of penetrating the skin, achieving immediate delivery of a hydrophilic compound. We demonstrate quantitative rapid delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular and drug concentrations. The adaptation of natural injectors for drug delivery combines the benefits of short topical application with rapid delivery of physical devices, thereby presenting a promising alternative for transdermal drug delivery.

Ayalon A; Shichor I; Tal Y; Lotan T

2011-10-01

396

Immediate topical drug delivery by natural submicron injectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transdermal delivery is an attractive but challenging solution for delivery of drugs. The sea anemone possesses a sophisticated injection system, which utilizes built-in high osmotic pressures. The system is folded within microcapsules and upon activation it injects a long, needle-like tubule of submicron diameter that penetrates the target in a fraction of a second. Here we show that this natural injection system can be adapted for active topical drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells, formulated into a topical gel, and uploaded with the desired drug. The formulated injectors retained their physical characteristics and were capable of penetrating the skin, achieving immediate delivery of a hydrophilic compound. We demonstrate quantitative rapid delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular and drug concentrations. The adaptation of natural injectors for drug delivery combines the benefits of short topical application with rapid delivery of physical devices, thereby presenting a promising alternative for transdermal drug delivery. PMID:21839819

Ayalon, Ari; Shichor, Iris; Tal, Yossi; Lotan, Tamar

2011-08-03

397

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira Silvério; Antônio Augusto Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz

2012-01-01

398

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to (more) 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Pinho, Gevany Paulino de; Silvério, Flaviano Oliveira; Neves, Antônio Augusto; Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de

2012-01-01

399

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

400

Ion source development and injector design for ZEBRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The requirement for high and variable current in ZEBRA, and the acceptance limits (on both energy and phase space distribution) of the RFQ place stringent demands on the injector design. For variable current, the ion source extraction voltage must be varied over a wide range to maintain a matched beam, however the RFQ has a limited range of injection energy. The 75 keV injection energy made necessary by current limits in the RFQ will require that care be taken to ensure reliability. Beam spill limits in downstream structures and RFQ beam dynamics require minimal beam halo and precise control of the phase space distribution. Following a discussion of these problems, and the approaches being taken at Chalk River to solve them, a conceptual design for the ZEBRA injector is presented

1981-10-23

 
 
 
 
401

Design and constraints for the ZEBRA injector, RFQ and DTL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ZEBRA (Zero Energy Breeder Accelerator) is a proposed laboratory test accelerator designed to produce the full accelerator-breeder beam current of 300 mA at only 1% of the final energy of 1 GeV. Being an experimental prototype, it will be heavily instrumented to diagnose performance under conditions typical of the low energy portion of an accelerator breeder. It will consist of 3 sections - a dc injector, an RFQ buncher-preaccelerator, and a drift tube Alvarez linac. Several constraints are introduced by its eventual application as an injector for an accelerator breeder including variable beam current, economic accelerating gradients that will result in reliable operation, frequency choice and frequency multiplication between the RFQ and Alvarez linacs. This paper discusses the constraints and presents the rationale for the current reference design

1981-10-23

402

Pernifer 36 Z for actuator casings in piezo injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ThyssenKrupp VDM material Pernifer 36 Z was developed for the production of an actuator sleeve as a part of a piezo injector used in the latest automotive engine technology. The sleeve material has a very low thermal expansion in the temperature range -60 to +200 C which matches the expansion characteristics of the piezo actuator both in terms of magnitude and temperature dependence. Only an actuator sleeve with very low thermal expansion within the very narrowly specified tolerance window guarantees the required functionality of the injector. In order to set the thermal expansion and mechanical properties to the exact requirements, in addition to the chemical composition, the complete process path from melting to rolling and annealing the strip, as well as the annealing of the actuator sleeve, was optimized with respect to the necessary process parameters. (orig.)

Gehrmann, B. [R and D, ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany)

2006-07-01

403

Ion source and injector experiments at the HIF/VNL  

Science.gov (United States)

The heavy-ion fusion program is conducting several ion source and injector experiments to support ongoing HIF beam transport experiments and to develop new injector concepts for future fusion drivers. In the area of large diameter surface source, we studied the beam optics, experimented with aperturing, and benchmarked the computer simulation code. Steady progress was made in the merging beamlet experiment. The RF plasma source was optimized to produce high current density beamlets. Computer simulation of merging beamlets had produced a design and the hardware is being fabricated. We are examining a new concept based on accel-decel injection to produce super-high line charge density for application in driving targets for high energy density physics studies. Since trapping of secondary electrons in high current positive ion beams is still a concern for HIF, we consider a backup option using negative ion beams.

Kwan, J. W.; Baca, D.; Henestroza, E.; Kapica, J.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Waldron, W. L.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, S.; Westenskow, G. A.; Grote, D. P.; Halaxa, E.; Haber, I.; Grisham, L.

2005-05-01

404

Ion source and injector experiments at the HIF/VNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The heavy-ion fusion program is conducting several ion source and injector experiments to support ongoing HIF beam transport experiments and to develop new injector concepts for future fusion drivers. In the area of large diameter surface source, we studied the beam optics, experimented with aperturing, and benchmarked the computer simulation code. Steady progress was made in the merging beamlet experiment. The RF plasma source was optimized to produce high current density beamlets. Computer simulation of merging beamlets had produced a design and the hardware is being fabricated. We are examining a new concept based on accel-decel injection to produce super-high line charge density for application in driving targets for high energy density physics studies. Since trapping of secondary electrons in high current positive ion beams is still a concern for HIF, we consider a backup option using negative ion beams

2005-05-21

405

Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for thermonuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper describes a new injector for solid deuterium macroparticles designed to sustain the thermonuclear reaction in plasma in the established mode. Macroparticles were produced by means of continuous extrusion of solid deuterium. 2-mm diameter cylindric rod made of transparent solid deuterium was extruded from the screw extruder during 3000 s with 10-40 mm/s rate. Under the established conditions in the injector one produced over 16000 deuterium macroparticles characterized by 2 mm size that were continuously injected to diagnostic chamber during 2000 s with 1-12 Hz frequency and 200-600 m/s rate. Over 12500 macroparticles were injected with 10 Hz frequency continuously and 99% of them - nondestructed macroparticles

2000-01-01

406

What Have we Learned from the LCLS Injector?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LCLS injector reliably delivered a high quality electron beam since it started operations three years ago. Some initial commissioning results were described in Ref. [1]. This note is to summarize what we have understood from the LCLS injector including drive laser, cathode, RF gun, injector beam line elements, beam modeling and operations. What we have learned during the LCLS injector commissioning and operation has lead to modified specifications for the UV drive laser system. A flat temporal profile originally required in the LCLS design is not necessary to achieve a low emittance electron beam for the LCLS operations. According to our recent studies, a laser pulse with 3 ps Gaussian temporal profile (FWHM) can achieve a similar emittance compared to a flat temporal profile laser. The sensitivity of the emittance to the laser pulse length at 250 pC of bunch charge was studied, as shown in Figure 1. Only slight variations were observed for both projected and time-sliced emittances with laser pulses from 2.2 ps to 4.5 ps FWHM. Space charge forces certainly become weak but RF emittance which is proportional to the bunch length square increases due to the longer laser pulse. Thus, the projected emittance optimum may be a trade-off between space charge forces and RF emittance, while the time-sliced emittance determined by space charge forces may be slightly improved with a longer laser pulse length. Simulations and theory also show that spatial Gaussian-cut laser profile produces a better emittance compared to uniform profiles due to increased linearity of the space charge forces. Preliminary experimental data show that the emittance with a Gaussian-cut is almost as good as the one with uniform although not better than. In addition, the laser transmission through the iris for spatial Gaussian-cut is about twice the one for spatial uniform. More experimental studies with the new Coherent laser system are needed to make a more solid conclusion.

Zhou, Feng; Brachmann, Axel; /SLAC

2012-03-19

407

A CW RFQ injector for the IUCF cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Work has begun to upgrade the IUCF 210 MeV proton cyclotrons for use as a dedicated proton source for cancer treatment and other applications requiring medium energy dc proton beams. A major performance and reliability upgrade to replace the 600 kV Cockcroft Walton with a 700 keV proton CW RFQ as the pre-accelerator for the 15 MeV injector cyclotron is presented

2001-07-12

408

Pulsed plasma guns for intense ion beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma guns designed to provide high-pulsed fluxes of ions for intense ion beam injectors are described. The guns use pulsed radial magnetic fields to accelerate ions longitudinally into magnetically insulated extraction gaps. Plasma was supplied using both spark sources and pulsed gas injection. In typical operation, a 1-..cap omega.. pulse of nitrogen ions with an ion flux equivalent to 50 A/cm/sup 2/ was produced. A variety of ions ranging in mass from protons to argon was investigated.

Humphries, S. Jr.; Anderson, R.J.M.; Freeman, J.R.; Greenly, J.

1981-02-01

409

Diagnostics Neutral Beam Injector at the TCV Tokamak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within this report we summarize the technical and experimental effort made on diagnostics neutral beam injector (DNBI) which was installed at tokamak TCV last year. Basic components of DNBI are reviewed, its remote control is presented in more detail. Profile and attenuation studies are referred to. First experimental results obtained with DNBI, which led to a decision to upgrade the machine, are discussed in the last section. (author)

Mlynar, J.; Shukaev, A.N.; Bosshard, P.; Duval, B.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kollegov, M.; Kolmogorov, V.V.; Llobet, X.; Pitts, R.A.; Weisen, H

2001-10-01

410

Diagnostics Neutral Beam Injector at the TCV Tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within this report we summarize the technical and experimental effort made on diagnostics neutral beam injector (DNBI) which was installed at tokamak TCV last year. Basic components of DNBI are reviewed, its remote control is presented in more detail. Profile and attenuation studies are referred to. First experimental results obtained with DNBI, which led to a decision to upgrade the machine, are discussed in the last section. (author)

2001-01-01

411

Operation of the rf controls in the CEBAF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CEBAF injector has produced its first relativistic beam with two superconducting cavities. Six RF control modules are used to control amplitude and phase in the chopper cavities, the buncher, the capture section, and the two superconducting cavities. In this paper the required stability and actual performance of the modules are discussed. For the superconducting cavity control, performance is consistent with energy stability of ?10-4.

1990-01-01

412

Fast Beam Current Transformer Software for the CERN Injector Complex  

CERN Multimedia

The fast transfer-line Beam Current Transformers(BCTs) in the CERN injector complex are undergoing a complete consolidation to eradicate obsolete, maintenance intensive hardware. The corresponding low-level software has been designed to minimise the effect of identified error sources while allowing remote diagnostics and calibration facilities. This paper will present the front-end and expert application software with the results obtained.

Andersen, M

2011-01-01

413

Health physics aspects of nuclear radiations from deuterium beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations are made for X-ray generation from the accelerator column of various neutral beam injectors. For the case of deuterium beam operation where 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons pose a serious health physics concern, neutron and tritium production rates from beam targets are calculated for different beam energies. Biological doses from these radiations and shielding requirements are discussed

1978-01-01

414

Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

1991-05-01

415

70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

1976-01-01

416

Commissioning and operation of the Nuclear Physics Injector at SLAC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new Nuclear Physics Injector (NPI) approved for construction in October of 1983 was completed by September of 1984, and delivered short pulse beams for SPEAR ring checkout in mid-October. Long pulse beams of up to 1.6 microsecond length were also demonstrated. The paper describes the startup operation, reviews the performance characteristics, and discusses the beam transport optics used to deliver 1 to 4 GeV beams to nuclear physics experiments in End Station A.

Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.; Leger, G.K.; Iverson, R.

1985-03-01

417

The GSI-UNILAC - a Megawatt Beam Injector for Fair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For the FAIR project the present GSI accelerator complex, consisting of the heavy ion high current linac UNILAC and the synchrotron SIS 18, is foreseen to serve as an injector for up to 1012U28+ particles/s. Different hardware measures and careful fine tuning in all sections of the UNILAC resulted in an increase of the beam intensity to 1011U28+ ions or 2x1010U73+ -ions per 100 ?s. Further upgrade measures are described

2006-01-01

418

Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

1977-04-22

419

Comfort, ease of use and practicality of the pen injector for follitropin ? for assisted reproduction: an observational post-marketing study in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: We evaluated the ease of use of a pen injector for follitropin ? (recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone [r-hFSH]) during assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) in Egypt. Methods: One hundred women undergoing ART completed a questionnaire in a non-interventional, observational study. The primary endpoint was patients' rating of the comfort associated with the injector. The main limitations of the study were the design and lack of knowledge regarding any impact of failure of ART on perceptions of treatment for a minority of patients. Results: Patients rated the follitropin ? pen injector as 'very comfortable' (61%), 'comfortable' (29%), or 'somewhat comfortable' (10%). Understanding instructions and using it were 'very easy' or 'easy' for 97-99%; 94% reported 'no' or 'minimal' difficulty with injections, 83% were 'very confident' about altering doses, 77% reported no interference with normal daily activities and 94% reported 'no' or 'minimal' stress using the device. Women with previous experience of ART rated the device as more practical than their previous injection system. Overall, 96% were 'very satisfied' or 'satisfied' with the device and 99% would recommend its use to others. Pregnancy rates were consistent with previous clinical experience. Injection site reactions occurred in 10% (all of mild severity except one moderate event). Conclusions: Positive perceptions of the follitropin ? pen injector identify this device as suitable for use for Middle Eastern women undergoing ART. PMID:23899053

Yehia, Mohamed; El-Khayat, Waleed; Kortam, Ashraf; Mowafy, Aly Hossam; Aziz Khalifa, Amr A; Awad, Azza; Khattab, Sherif

2013-09-04

420

Performance test at the prototype injector unit for JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Plasma heating by neutral beam injection on the JT 60 project is scheduled to commence in the middle of 1986. Neutral beam power of 20 MW at energies ranging from 75 to 100 KeV are to be injected into the torus for up to 10 sec from 14 injector units. The prototype injector unit was constructed in November 1981 to test and demonstrate individual beam line performance. This unit, equipped with two ion sources, has succeeded in producing the nominal operating conditions of 75 kV, 70 A, 10 s in February 1982, and in the extended operating conditions of 100 kV,70 A,10 s in March 1983. Since the most distinctive feature of our injector is its beam duration time of up to 10 s, great care was given during these test to the heat loads on the beam line components, especially the ion dump and the water jacket (magnet protecting liner) which suffer the highest heat load of all the components

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D{sub 2} cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10{sup 20} atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D{alpha} intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

2001-03-01

422

Ion source and injector improvements at the superHILAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major improvements have been made on the Adam injector at the SuperHILAC heavy ion accelerator. Adam is a pressurized Cockcroft-Walton injector, typically run at voltages in excess of 2 MeV. The PIG ion source was redesigned to increase the length of the discharge column and the extraction slit, while remaining within the magnet poles of the source magnet. To maintain cooling, part of the thinner soft-iron end cap was replaced with a copper section, modifying the magnetic circuit. These modifications resulted in more than doubling the ion beam intensity. A large liquid nitrogen cryotrap within the pressure vessel was replaced by an RF shielded, commercial cryopump head with a custom pumping array. This reduced the pressure at the ground end of the injector by an order of magnitude and reduced that at the source by a factor of two, even with the additional gas load due to the longer slit. The pressure reduction was essential to minimize charge exchange loss of the highly charged ions, such as Fe4+. Plans are underway to replace a 3 watt cryopump in the terminal end with a 10 watt pump which is expected to result in a 50% faster cooldown time, and greater than a 50% increase in running time before regeneration of the cryopump is necessary. 3 refs., 4 figs

1990-01-01

423

Ion sources and injectors for HIF induction linacs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For heavy ion fusion (HIF) induction linac drivers, a typical injector requires total beam current of 50-100 A and is comprised of many individual beams of 0.5-1.0 A each. As a step towards developing a full ion driver for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants, an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) will be proposed within a few years [1]. The IRE will have a linac of more than 150 MeV and beam current about 18 A (ion mass 39). At present, a compact multiple-beam injector is being developed to meet the IRE specifications. In our design, about 100 miniature beamlets (of a few mA each) will be merged to form each 0.5 A beam at the matching section. The beamlets have current density up to 100 mA/cm2 at the ion source (as opposed to 3.5 mA/cm2 used in previous low current density large beam designs). With optimized positioning and aiming, the miniature beamlets can quickly merge and match into an ESQ channel thus minimizing the matching section size requirement. Simulation results have shown that when the beamlet current is small and the number of beamlets are large, the emittance of a 1.6 MeV, 0.5 A beam (after merging) at the end of the injector is 1.0 {pi} mm-mrad.

Henestroza, E.

2000-08-01

424

Ion sources and injectors for HIF induction linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For heavy ion fusion (HIF) induction linac drivers, a typical injector requires total beam current of 50-100 A and is comprised of many individual beams of 0.5-1.0 A each. As a step towards developing a full ion driver for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants, an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) will be proposed within a few years [1]. The IRE will have a linac of more than 150 MeV and beam current about 18 A (ion mass 39). At present, a compact multiple-beam injector is being developed to meet the IRE specifications. In our design, about 100 miniature beamlets (of a few mA each) will be merged to form each 0.5 A beam at the matching section. The beamlets have current density up to 100 mA/cm2 at the ion source (as opposed to 3.5 mA/cm2 used in previous low current density large beam designs). With optimized positioning and aiming, the miniature beamlets can quickly merge and match into an ESQ channel thus minimizing the matching section size requirement. Simulation results have shown that when the beamlet current is small and the number of beamlets are large, the emittance of a 1.6 MeV, 0.5 A beam (after merging) at the end of the injector is 1.0 ? mm-mrad

2000-01-01

425

High Brightness, High Average Current Injector Development at Cornell  

CERN Multimedia

Cornell University is constructing a 100 mA average current, high brightness electron injector for a planned Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) hard X-ray synchrotron radiation source. This injector will employ a very high voltage DC gun with a negative electron affinity photoemission cathode. Relatively long duration electron pulses from the photocathode will be drift bunched, and accelerated to 5-15 MeV with five two-cell, 1300 MHz superconducting cavities. The total beam power will be limited to 575 kW by the DC and RF power sources. A genetic algorithm based computational optimization of this injector has resulted in simulated rms normalized emittances of 0.1 mm-mrad at 80 pC/bunch, and 0.7 mm-mrad at 1 nC/bunch. The many technical issues and their design solutions will be discussed. Construction of the gun and the SRF cavities is well underway. The schedule for completion, and the planned measurements, will be presented.

Sinclair, C K

2005-01-01

426

High Brightness Hadron Injectors for TeV Colliders  

CERN Multimedia

The ambitious performance goals of present and future hadron colliders call for a chain of injectors that are specially designed to provide high quality beams. However, for many reasons, not the least of which is cost, all these colliders make use of existing accelerator complexes that were not built for this new task and have therefore to be upgraded. A key issue such hadron injectors have to deal with is the preservation of transverse normalised emittance. Small transverse emittances are important because (i) the collider luminosity is proportional to N(N/e) and becomes larger for smaller emit tance; (ii) particle losses at injection into the collider are reduced, thus reducing the risk of quenching a superconducting magnet. Sources of emittance blow-up, such as mis-steering and mismatch be tween machines, space charge, instabilities and intra-beam scattering, are covered along with corrective measures. Problems common to the Tevatron, HERA-p, RHIC, LHC injector chains (the latter two in cluding heavy ion p...

Schindl, Karlheinz

1998-01-01

427

Commissioning of the linear accelerator-injector at the TNK facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The industrial storage facility has been developed and manufactured at the Budker INP SB RAS. It contains an 80 MeV electron linear accelerator-injector and two electron storage rings: the lesser 450 MeV booster ring an he main .5 GeV storag ring. In 2002, the work on the accelerator assembling was begun. On December, 25 this year the accelerator was started up, and the current at the linear accelerator output was obtained. The linear accelerator schematic together with a description of the 6 eter long accelerating DAW structure which operates at 2.8 GHz, are presented in the paper. The first of the accelerator start-up are as follows: the accelerated electron current of approx 50 mA with the energy of approx 55...60 MeV

2004-01-01

428

The photo-injector option for CLIC past experiments and future developments  

CERN Multimedia

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) drive beam requires a long bunch train (92 us) consisting of 42880 bunches with a bunch charge of 17.5 nC in a bunch length of less than 20 ps. This train might be produced by an RF-photo-injector equipped with a Cs-Te cathode. After a short review of experience with such cathodes in the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF2), mainly focused on the production of short trains of high-charge bunches, we will present the scheme foreseen for CLIC and CTF3. The laser will be a diode-pumped MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier), operating at a repetition rate of 469 MHz for CLIC and 1.5 GHz for CTF3. The specific requirements of an RF-gun for this high-current operation are discussed. New experimental results on the photocathode lifetime at high average current are summarized.

Braun, Hans Heinrich; Hutchins, S; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H; Ross, I N; Bente, E

2001-01-01

429

Simulation for a New Polarized Electron Injector (SPIN) for the S-DALINAC  

CERN Multimedia

The Superconducting DArmstädter LINear ACcelerator (S-DALINAC) is a 130 MeV recirculating electron accelerator serving several nuclear and radiation physics experiments. For future tasks, the 250 keV thermal electron source should be completed by a 100 keV polarized electron source. Therefore a new low energy injection concept for the S-DALINAC has to be designed. The main components of the injector are a polarized electron source, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter spin-rotator and a Mott polarimeter. In this paper we report over the first simulation and design results. For our simulations we used the TS2 and TS3 modules of the CST MAFIA (TM) programme which are PIC codes for two and three dimensions and the CST PARTICLE STUDIO (TM).

Steiner, Bastian; Gräf, Hans Dieter; Richter, Achim; Roth, Markus; Weiland, Thomas

2005-01-01

430

Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

2003-01-01

431

Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

2003-07-01

432

Determination of the longitudinal phase space distribution produced with the TTF photo injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The longitudinal phase space distribution of the beam produced with the rf photo injector of the TESLA Test Facility at DESY is mainly determined by the longitudinal laser pulse shape and the compression due to the rf acceleration field in the rf gun. The longitudinal electron distribution is measured with a high resolution streak camera using synchrotron radiation at the spectrometer dipole (E - 200 MeV). The same streak camera is used to measure the UV laser pulse shape. The longitudinal distribution of the laser and the electron beam can alternatively be determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy. The energy spread of the beam is determined by measuring the beam profile in the dispersive section using optical transition radiation. Dephasing of the superconducting accelerating cavities and variation of bunch compression parameters allow further measurements of the longitudinal phase space distribution. (authors)

Bernard, M.; Leblond, B. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Geitz, M.; Schreiber, S.; Von Walter, G.; Sertore, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2000-06-01

433

Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors to muzzle velocities ranging from 2 to 2.25 km/s in the near term are outlined. Two-stage pneumatic injectors have the potential for much higher muzzle velocities (4--6 km/s) because of the higher gas pressures and temperatures achievable with the second-stage compression. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described

1989-01-01

434

An injector cyclotron for acceleration of polarised and heavy ions at the NAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An injector cyclotron for acceleration of polarised and heavy ions is being constructed at the National Accelerator Centre. It is a four-sector, k=11 MeV solid-pole cyclotron with two ninety-degree dees. Beams from a polarised ion source and an ECR-source, presently under construction, will be injected axially into the injector. The characteristics of the k=11 injector and especially the arguments which led to its choice and configuration, in preference to a k=40 injector cyclotron, a PIG-source and stripping between the injector and the SSC, are discussed. The influence of the rather low k-value of the SSC at injection on the choice of a suitable injector cyclotron is pointed out. (author)

1987-01-01

435

Photo-injector, accelerator chain and wiggler development programs for a high peak power RF-Free electron laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strong constraints are imposed on the main components of a RF linac to reach high peak power in a free electron laser. To get high beam qualities, development programs and prototype realizations have been engaged on the following topics: - a low-frequency photo-injector running at 144 MHz, - an accelerator chain prototype at 433 MHz including a 6 MW peak power klystron with 200 ?s pulse duration, a hard tube modulator and a 3-cell cavity, - an adjustable hybrid tapered wiggler with online feedback control.

1988-09-02

436

Design of deuterium and tritium pellet injector systems for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three pellet injector designs developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are planned for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to reach the goal of a tritium pellet injector by 1988. These are the Repeating Pneumatic Injector (RPI), the Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) and the Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI). Each of the pellet injector designs have similar performance characteristics in that they deliver up to 4-mm-dia pellets at velocities up to 1500 m/s with a dsign goal to 2000 m/s. Similar techniques are utilized to freeze and extrude the pellet material. The injector systems incorporate three gun concepts which differ in the number of gun barrels and the method of forming and chambering the pellets. The RPI, a single barrel repeating design, has been operational on TFTR since April 1985. Fabrication and assembly are essentially complete for DPI, and TPI is presently on hold after completing about 80% of the design. The TFTR pellet injector program is described, and each of the injector systems is described briefly. Design details are discussed in other papers at this symposium.

1985-01-01

437

Proton injector of the linear accelerator of the Moscow meson factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is developed to modernization of the linear accelerator (LA) proton injector at the Moscow meson factory (MMF). The above modernization was connected with installation of an additional resonator with quadrupole focusing at the MMF LA. This made it possible to reduce the proton beam energy from the injector from 750 up to 400 kV and increase the beam current duration from 80 up to 150 ?s. The measures, accomplished in the process of modernization (1998-1999), and results, obtained during one-year operation of the new proton injector, are described. The basic parameters of this injector are presented

2000-01-01

438

Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (11) Visualization Study on the Start-Up of the Steam Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Steam Injector is the superior system to pump the fluid without rotating machine. Because the water column is surrounded by the saturated steam, very high heat transfer is also expected with direct condensation. The inside of the Steam Injector is very complicated. To improve the efficiency of the Steam Injector, the water column behavior inside the Injector is visualized using the Dynamic PIV system. Dynamic PIV system consists of the high-speed camera and lasers. In this study, 384 x 180 pixel resolution with 30,000 fps camera is used to visualize the flow. For the illumination CW green laser with 300 mW is applied. To view inside the Injector, relay lens system is set at the Injector wall. Very high speed water column during the starting up of Steam Injector had been clearly visualized with 30,000 fps. The wave velocity on the water column had been analyzed using PIV technique. The instability of the water column is also detected. (authors)

2006-01-01

439

Using one-dimensional modeling to analyse the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Detailed injection system model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? One-dimensional model of a solenoid injection system has been developed in AmeSim. ? Complete characterization of the injector elements has been carried out. ? Experimental mass flow rate results have been used for validating the model widely. - Abstract: A combined experimental and computational investigation has been performed in order to evaluate the influence of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-direct injection system with second generation solenoid injectors. For that purpose, after a complete characterization of the system, which involved mechanical and hydraulic characterization, a one-dimensional model has been obtained and extensively validated. Simulations have then been performed with a standard diesel and a 100% rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel which allowed a comparison and analysis of the dynamic response of the injector to be done. Different injection strategies involving main injection and main plus post-injection have been used to explore the impact of the use of biodiesel on the performance and stability of solenoid injectors. As far as the dynamic response of the injector is concerned, the results obtained have clearly shown that the use of biodiesel affects the dynamic response of the needle, especially at low injection pressures. The behavior of the system under multi-injection strategies (main plus post-injection) has been also evaluated determining for different operating conditions (injection pressures and backpressures) the minimum dwell time between injections to assure a stable behavior in the injection process (mass flow rate). Important differences have been found between biodiesel and standard diesel in this critical parameter at low injection pressures, becoming less important at high injection pressure. Finally, a modification on the injector hardware has been proposed in order to compensate these differences.