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1

The Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed

2

Main Injector power distribution system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

3

Main Injector power distribution system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given

4

The Fermilab Main Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is an 8-150 GeV synchrotron designed to replace the Main Ring. The FMI soon to commence construction with completion scheduled for late 1996, will increase the luminosity of the Tevatron collider to 5*1031, double the intensity for Tevatron fixed target physics, and provide high intensity 120 GeV slow spill for test beams or dedicated experiments. The design of the accelerator and beamlines is described, and the construction schedule is presented, along with results from measurements of prototype magnets. (author) 1 ref.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

5

Operation of the NuMI beam monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system is four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation.

Zwaska, Robert M.; Indurthy, Dharma; Keisler, Ryan; Kopp, Sacha; Mendoza, Steven; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Viren, Brett; Harris,; Marchionni, Alberto; Morfin, Jorge; McDonald, Jeffrey; Naples, Donna; Northacker, David; Erwin, Albert; Ping, Huican; Velissaris, Cristos; /Texas U. /Brookhaven

2006-06-01

6

Operation of the NuMI beam monitoring system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system is four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation

7

Induction barrier rf and applications in main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two induction barrier rf systems have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab and installed in the Main Injector. They use the nanocrystal magnetic alloy called Finemet for the cavities and high voltage fast MOSFET switches for the modulators. Each system delivers ±10 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. They have been used for adiabatic beam stacking (beam compression), machine acceptance measurement and gap cleaning in the injection area for magnet protection, and will be tested for fast beam stacking for doubling the proton flux on the NuMI production target. The systems work reliably and cost much less than a resistive barrier rf system. Comparison with a similar system built at KEK reveals many similarities and also some important differences. This work is partially funded by the US-Japan collaborative agreement. (author)

8

Induction barrier RF and applications in Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two induction barrier rf systems have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab and installed in the Main Injector. They use the nanocrystal magnetic alloy called Finemet for the cavities and high voltage fast MOSFET switches for the modulators. Each system delivers ±10 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. They have been used for adiabatic beam stacking (beam compression), machine acceptance measurement and gap cleaning in the injection area for magnet protection, and will be tested for fast beam stacking for doubling the proton flux on the NuMI production target. The systems work reliably and cost much less than a resistive barrier rf system. Comparison with a similar system built at KEK reveals many similarities and also some important differences. This work is partially funded by the US-Japan collaborative agreement

9

Induction barrier RF and applications in Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two induction barrier rf systems have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab and installed in the Main Injector. They use the nanocrystal magnetic alloy called Finemet for the cavities and high voltage fast MOSFET switches for the modulators. Each system delivers {+-}10 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. They have been used for adiabatic beam stacking (beam compression), machine acceptance measurement and gap cleaning in the injection area for magnet protection, and will be tested for fast beam stacking for doubling the proton flux on the NuMI production target. The systems work reliably and cost much less than a resistive barrier rf system. Comparison with a similar system built at KEK reveals many similarities and also some important differences. This work is partially funded by the US-Japan collaborative agreement.

Chou, W.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab; Takagi, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2006-07-01

10

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 109 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

11

Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

NONE

1997-12-01

12

Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as A{sup a} where a is 0.46 {+-} 0.06 for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54 {+-} 0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo. The MIPP (Main Injector Particle Production) experiment (FNAL E907) [1] acquired data in the Meson Center beam line at Fermilab. The primary purposes of the experiment were to investigate scaling laws in hadron fragmentation [2], to obtain hadron production data for the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector [3]) target to be used for calculating neutrino fluxes, and to obtain inclusive pion, neutron, and photon production data to facilitate proton radiography [4]. While there is considerable data available on inclusive charged particle production [5], there is little data on neutron production. In this article we present results for forward neutron production using proton beams of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, bismuth, and uranium targets, and compare these data with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

Nigmanov, T.S.; /Michigan U.; Rajaram, D.; /Michigan U.; Longo, M.J.; /Michigan U.; Akgun, U.; /Iowa U.; Aydin, G.; /Iowa U.; Baker, W.; /Fermilab; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bergfeld, T.; /South Carolina U.; Bujak, A.; /Purdue U.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab; Dukes, E.C.; /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

2010-10-01

13

Progress in Multi-Batch Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector and Future Plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multi-batch slip stacking has been used for operations since January, 2008 and effectively increased proton intensity to the NuMI target by 50% in a Main Injector (MI) cycle. The MI accepts 11 batches at injection energy from the Booster, and sends two batches to antiproton production and nine to the NuMI beam line. The total beam power in a cycle was increased to 340 kW on average. We have been doing beam studies in order to increase the beam power to 400 kW and to control the beam loss. We will also discuss 12 batch slip stacking scheme which is going to be used for future neutrino experiments.

Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

2008-04-01

14

The NuMI Beam at FNAL and its Use for Neutrino Cross Section Measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab began operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense ?? beam of variable energy (2-20 GeV). Several aspects of the design and results from runs of the MINOS experiment are reviewed. I also discuss technique to measure directly the neutrino flux using a muon flux system at the end of the NuMI line

15

The NuMI Beam at FNAL and its use for Neutrino Cross Section Measurements  

CERN Document Server

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab began operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense muon neutrino beam of variable energy (2-20 GeV). Several aspects of the design and results from runs of the MINOS experiment are reviewed. I also discuss technique to measure directly the neutrino flux using a muon flux system at the end of the NuMI line.

Kopp, Sacha E

2007-01-01

16

Operational performance of a bunch by bunch digital damper in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have implemented a transverse and longitudinal bunch by bunch digital damper system in the Fermilab Main Injector, using a single digital board for all 3 coordinates. The system has been commissioned over the last year, and is now operational in all MI cycles, damping beam bunched at both 53MHz and 2.5MHz. We describe the performance of this system both for collider operations and high-intensity running for the NuMI project, operating with a full ring and sometimes with only a few buckets populated.

Adamson, P.; /Fermilab /University Coll. London; Ashmanskas, W.J.; Foster, G.W.; Hansen, S.; Marchionni, A.; Nicklaus, D.; Semenov, A.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab; Kang, H.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2005-05-01

17

The NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab began operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense ?? beam of variable energy (2-20 GeV) directed into the Earth at 58 mrad for short (?1km) and long (?700-900 km) baseline experiments. Several aspects of the design and results from early commissioning runs are reviewed

18

Operation of the NuMI Beam Monitoring System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system consists of four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation

19

Antiproton accumulator in the Main Injector era  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I propose a new lattice for Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. The lattice is designed with the aim of implementing higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems, thus enabling the Accumulator to handle antiproton beam intensities expected in the Main Injector era. The design proposed here satisfies very well all the requirements for the new Accumulator concerning the lattice functions, stochastic cooling parameters, and the tunability of the machine

20

Radiation shielding of the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases

 
 
 
 
21

Transition crossing in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a ''?T jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a ''clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h=588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs

22

Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

23

Addendum to NuMI shielding assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The original safety assessment and the Safety Envelope for the NuMI beam line corresponds to 400 kW of beam power. The Main Injector is currently capable of and approved for producing 500 kW of beam power2. However, operation of the NuMI beam line at 400 kW of power brings up the possibility of an occasional excursion above 400 kW due to better than usual tuning in one of the machines upstream of the NuMI beam line. An excursion above the DOE approved Safety Envelope will constitute a safety violation. The purpose of this addendum is to evaluate the radiological issues and modifications required to operate the NuMI beam line at 500 kW. This upgrade will allow 400 kW operations with a reasonable safety margin. Configuration of the NuMI beam line, boundaries, safety system and the methodologies used for the calculations are as described in the original NuMI SAD. While most of the calculations presented in the original shielding assessment were based on Monte Carlo simulations, which were based on the design geometries, most of the results presented in this addendum are based on the measurements conducted by the AD ES and H radiation safety group

24

A gap clearing kicker for Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Fermilab Main Injector has been operating at high Beam Power levels since 2008 when multi-batch slip stacking became operational. In order to maintain and increase the beam power levels the localized beam loss due to beam left over in the injection kicker gap during slip stacking needs to be addressed. A set of gap clearing kickers that kick any beam left in the injection gap to the beam abort have been built. The kickers were installed in the summer of 2009 and became operational in November of 2010. The kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described.

Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K; Ward, S R; Wu, G; Yang, M -J

2012-01-01

25

Study of stability of beam in the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed. Study of the stability of the beam in the Main injector will be discussed. Detuning and corrector scheme to improve the dynamic aperture of the Main Injector will be presented. Tune modulation caused by octupolar detuning will be discussed

26

Stability of beam in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV protron synchrotron, designed to remove the limitations of the Main Ring in the delivery of high intensity protron and antiproton beams to the Tevatron. Extensive studies have been made to understand the performance of the Main Injector. In this paper, we present a study of the Main Injector lattice, which includes magnetic and misalignment errors. These calculations shows the Main Injector's dynamical aperture is larger than its design value of 40? mm mradian at injection

27

Neutrino beams using the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TM-1946 summarizes the status of the NuMI project. This note presents more details on the technical design of the various NUMI beams. Several beam]Line options are investigated for producing neutrinos--(l) a wide-band beam(WBB) using horns, (2) a beam using a single lithium Lens, and (3) a two stage narrow-band beam(NBB) using a Lithium Lens, quadrupoles and dipoles. The first two are designed to maximize the muon neutrino event rate; the third is designed to have a tunable range of parent momenta from 5-60 GeV/c. In the context of NuMI, the Double Horns-and its target were concepts first described in 1991. The lithium Lens has been used at Fermilab for pbar production for several years. With recent upgrades, it forms the basis of what will be used by NuMI. Narrow band beams using conventional dipoles and quadrupoles have been studied, but have less acceptance than one using a lithium lens. The following practical limits are imposed on each of the systems: (1) Horns: The necks will not have a smaller radius than 1 cm; the maximum current will not exceed 170 kAmp. Keeping the inside diameter large allows the primary proton beam to vary in position, yet not strike the fragile neck. In addition, there is a trade-off between decreasing the radius and increasing the wall thickness to maintain the required strength in the conductor material. (2) Magnets: Reasonable conventional designs are used. The maximum gradient for quadrupoles is 12 kG/half-aperture; the maximum field for dipoles is about 16 kG; larger apertures scale the gradients and fields downward. Although not a primary consideration, optically it is desirable for the magnification in each plane to be comparable (within a factor of 2 or 3 is OK). (3) Lithium Lens: The maximum radius is 1.0 cm with a maximum gradient of 100 kG/cm. (4) Dumps: At the place where the primary protons are absorbed, the transverse beam center is ? 1 inch off the edge of the acceptance

28

Neutrino beams using the main injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TM-1946 summarizes the status of the NuMI project. This note presents more details on the technical design of the various NUMI beams. Several beam]Line options are investigated for producing neutrinos--(l) a wide-band beam(WBB) using horns, (2) a beam using a single lithium Lens, and (3) a two stage narrow-band beam(NBB) using a Lithium Lens, quadrupoles and dipoles. The first two are designed to maximize the muon neutrino event rate; the third is designed to have a tunable range of parent momenta from 5-60 GeV/c. In the context of NuMI, the Double Horns-and its target were concepts first described in 1991. The lithium Lens has been used at Fermilab for pbar production for several years. With recent upgrades, it forms the basis of what will be used by NuMI. Narrow band beams using conventional dipoles and quadrupoles have been studied, but have less acceptance than one using a lithium lens. The following practical limits are imposed on each of the systems: (1) Horns: The necks will not have a smaller radius than 1 cm; the maximum current will not exceed 170 kAmp. Keeping the inside diameter large allows the primary proton beam to vary in position, yet not strike the fragile neck. In addition, there is a trade-off between decreasing the radius and increasing the wall thickness to maintain the required strength in the conductor material. (2) Magnets: Reasonable conventional designs are used. The maximum gradient for quadrupoles is 12 kG/half-aperture; the maximum field for dipoles is about 16 kG; larger apertures scale the gradients and fields downward. Although not a primary consideration, optically it is desirable for the magnification in each plane to be comparable (within a factor of 2 or 3 is OK). (3) Lithium Lens: The maximum radius is 1.0 cm with a maximum gradient of 100 kG/cm. (4) Dumps: At the place where the primary protons are absorbed, the transverse beam center is {approx} 1 inch off the edge of the acceptance.

Malensek, A.J.

1995-11-01

29

Magnet end design: The main injector dipoles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the accelerator designer standpoint, one of the quantities of interest in a magnet is the axially integrated transverse field. It is easily shown that the latter satisfies the equations of 2D magnetostatics. This is the basic theoretical result needed to design accelerator magnet ends. Unfortunately, axially integrated fields must be obtained from accurate 3D field maps and magnets ends have historically been designed using a cut and try approach. To a certain extent, this remains true even today; however, the advent of reliable 3D magnet design codes now permits to substantially reduce the costs associated with the construction of various prototypes. In this paper, the theory of magnet end design is reviewed. The design of the end of the dipole magnets of the proposed Fermilab Main Injector is analyzed in a detailed manner using TOSCA, a well-established 3D finite element code. Provided the limitations of the code are well understood by the user, the integrated field profile is satisfactorily predicted

30

Beam deceleration performance of the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

The Fermilab Main Injector was designed to accelerate protons and antiprotons from a momentum of 8.889 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. In order to study antiproton deceleration, for the ultimate purpose of storing them in a Penning trap, the Main Injector was used to decelerate protons from the injection momentum down to the goal of 2.0 GeV/c. In this paper the operational experience of working with the Main Injector as a decelerator is presented. (1 refs).

Jackson, G P; Capista, D P; Chase, B E; Dey, J; Flora, R; Gattuso, C

2001-01-01

31

The NuMI Neutrino Beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermilab is due to begin operations in late 2004. NuMI will deliver an intense v? beam of variable energy 2-20 GeV directed into the Earth at 58 mrad for short (?1 km) and long (?700-900 km) baseline experiments. Several aspects of the design are reviewed, as are potential upgrade requirements to the facility in the event a Proton Driver is built at Fermilab to enhance the neutrino flux

32

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY v...

Scott, D. J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K. L.; Zwaska, R. M.; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T. P.; Palmer, M. A.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

2013-01-01

33

Simulations of space charge in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Project X plan for future high intensity operation relies on the Main Injector as the engine for delivering protons in the 60-120 GeV energy range. Project X plans call for increasing the number of protons per Main Injector bunch from the current value of 1.0 x 10{sup 11} to 3.0 x 10{sup 11}. Space charge effects at the injection energy of 8 GeV have the potential to seriously disrupt operations. We report on ongoing simulation efforts with Synergia, MARYLIE/Impact, and IMPACT, which provide comprehensive capabilities for parallel, multi-physics modeling of beam dynamics in the Main Injector including 3D space-charge effects.

Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

2011-03-01

34

The status of the Fermilab Main Injector Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector Project is a new 150 GeV synchrotron now under construction at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The FMI has been designed to support a luminosity in excess of 5x1031 cm-2sec-1 in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider while simultaneously providing a 2 microAmp resonantly extracted 120 GeV beam which will present unique capabilities in the realm of rare neutral K decays and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Expected performance characteristics of the Main Injector will be reviewed, and the status of the project and the schedule for completion will be discussed

35

Component study of the NuMI neutrino beam for NO?A experiment at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutrino beam, NuMI, from Fermilab's Main Injector accelerator is the most intense neutrino beam in the world. The experiment NO?A will use this neutrino beam to study neutrino oscillation where neutrino of a given flavor oscillates into another flavor

36

Simulations of transition crossing in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design goal for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is to accelerate a minimum of 6x1010 protons per bunch through the transition. We present here the results from simulation studies of the transition crossing in the FMI using the particle tracking code ESME

37

Beam Loss Control for the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Losses were at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C

2013-01-01

38

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab's Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

Scott, D J; Duel, K L; Zwaska, R M; Greenwald, S; Hartung, W; Li, Y; Moore, T P; Palmer, M A; Kirby, R; Pivi, M; Wang, L

2013-01-01

39

Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 1010 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20? mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations

40

Forward Neutron Production at the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

We have measured cross sections for forward neutron production from a variety of targets using proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector. Measurements were performed for proton beam momenta of 58 GeV/c, 84 GeV/c, and 120 GeV/c. The cross section dependence on the atomic weight (A) of the targets was found to vary as $A^(alpha)$ where $\\alpha$ is $0.46\\pm0.06$ for a beam momentum of 58 GeV/c and 0.54$\\pm$0.05 for 120 GeV/c. The cross sections show reasonable agreement with FLUKA and DPMJET Monte Carlos. Comparisons have also been made with the LAQGSM Monte Carlo.

Nigmanov, T S; Longo, M J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes, P D; Jr.,; Bergfeld, T; Bujak, A; Carey, D; Dukes, E C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Gülmez, E; Gunaydin, Y O; Graf, N; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L; Hartouni, E; Hanlet, P; Heffner, M; Johnstone, C; Kaplan, D M; Kamaev, O; Klay, J; Kostin, M; Lange, D; Lebedev, A; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K S; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Paley, J M; Park, H K; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Raja, R; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Seun, S; Solomey, N; Soltz, R; Swallow, E; Torun, Y; Wilson, K; Wright, D; Wu, K

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Survey and alignment overview: Fermilab main injector ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Fermilab main injector ring (FMI) is to replace and improve the performance of the existing main ring by simultaneously enhancing both Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI interacts with the Tevatron near the F-O straight section, and performs all the duties that currently the existing main ring does. The performance of the FMI as measured in terms of the protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron production target or the total protons delivered to the Tevatron is expected to exceed twice or thrice of those of the main ring. In addition, the FMI provides high duty factor 120 GeV beam for the experimental areas. The design geometry of the FMI is described. In order to achieve the smooth and successful startup, the desired absolute and relative alignment tolerances for 208 quadrupole and 344 dipole magnets have been defined. Ten concrete pillar type monuments with forced centering devices constitute the framework for the surface control network. Regarding tunnel control system, geodetic considerations, monumentation, secondary tunnel constraint network and tunnel control network are described. Magnet fiduciarization and alignment are reported. (K.I.)

42

Correction schemes to improve the dynamical aperture of the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracking simulations have revealed that the dominant factors limiting the dynamical aperture of the Main Injector are the large octupole component and the random errors in the recycled Main Ring quadrupoles. This paper describes a correction scheme that reduces the effect of these errors on the performance of the Fermilab Main Injector, especially for the slow extraction operation

43

Main Injector Lcw (low Conductivity Water) Control System  

CERN Document Server

There are six service buildings uniformly spaced along the perimeter of MI (Main Injector). A total of 18 LCW pumps were installed around the MI ring with 3 pumps per building. Approximately 8,000 GPM of LCW is required to cool magnets, bus and power supplies in the MI enclosure and service buildings. In each service building, a PLC control system controls pumps and valves, and it monitors pressures, flow, resistivities and temperatures. The PLC hardware system consists of a Gateway module and a variety of I/O modules, which are made by Sixnet of Clifton Park, NY. The control system communicates with other buildings including MCR (Main Control Room) via an Ethernet link and front-end computers. For more details of the MI LCW control system, refer to [1] and [2]. One of the key elements of the PLC software is called ISaGRAF workbench, which was created by CJ International of Seyssins, France. The workbench provides a comprehensive control-programming environment, where control programs can be written in five d...

Seino, K C

2001-01-01

44

Physics design for the C-ADS main linac based on two different injector design schemes  

Science.gov (United States)

The China ADS (C-ADS) project proposes to build a 1000 MW Accelerator Driven sub-critical System around 2032. The accelerator will work in CW mode with 10 mA in beam current and 1.5 GeV in final beam energy. The linac is composed of two major sections: the injector section and the main linac section. There are two different schemes for the injector section. The Injector- I scheme is based on a 325 MHz RFQ and superconducting spoke cavities of the same RF frequency and the Injector- II scheme is based on a 162.5 MHz RFQ and superconducting HWR cavities of the same frequency. The main linac design will be different for different injector choices. The two different designs for the main linac have been studied according to the beam characteristics from the different injector schemes.

Yan, Fang; Li, Zhi-Hui; Meng, Cai; Tang, Jing-Yu; Sun, Biao

2014-02-01

45

Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the value (and Q{sup 2} dependence) of R{sub QCD} = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}. A Main Injector experiment will check the scaling violation of the theory and provide solid measurements of the gluon distributions.

Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

1991-01-01

46

Barrier RF system and applications in Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel broadband RF system--the barrier RF--has been designed, fabricated and installed in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). It uses nanocrystal magnetic alloy called Finemet and high voltage fast MOSFET switches. The system delivers ±10 kV square pulses at 90 kHz. It can stack two proton batches injected from the Booster and squeeze them into the size of one so that the bunch intensity is increased. The high intensity beams have been successfully accelerated to 120 GeV with small losses. The problem of large longitudinal emittance growth is under investigation. A second system will be installed during the fall shutdown and be tested for the so-called fast stacking scheme to continuously stack up to 12 Booster batches in the MI. This system is also used for cleaning up the leaking-out dc beams from slip stacking to reduce beam loss. This work is part of the US-Japan collaborative agreement

47

The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software  

Science.gov (United States)

The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom-made timing board, and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron, The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation.

Piccoli, Luciano; Foulkes, Stephen; Votava, Margaret; Briegel, Charles

2006-11-01

48

KL0 ? ?minus-pluse± at the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the attempts to replace the Standard Model with more satisfactory theories result in predictions that lepton flavor (separate lepton number) is not absolutely conserved. A new generation of experiments is underway to study decays in which lepton flavor conservation might be violated, such as KL0 ? ?minus-pluse±, K+ ? ?+?+e-, ? ? e?, ? ? eee, and ?-A ? e-A. Since the form of a lepton number violating interaction is unknown, it is useful to probe all of these decays, and perhaps decays of B and D mesons, to whatever level is technically feasible. However, here we concentrate on the decay KL0 ? ?minus-pluse±. The three most recent experiments on this process have been E780 at BNL, E791 at BNL, and KEK E137, which currently report (90% C.L.) upper limits on the branching fraction of 1.9 x 10-9, 2.2 x 10-10, and 4.3 x 10-10 respectively. While E780 is complete, the two other experiments are in the process of collecting larger samples and a combined sensitivity of about 2 x 10-11 is likely (by sensitivity we mean the branching fraction which would produce one observed event). Any new experiment should aim at a sensitivity of 10-13. There are several places which might offer a suitable beam: the BNL AGS with the Booster, the Fermilab Main Injector (MI), and the TRIUMF KAON facility. 5 refs

49

The Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Front-End Software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The front-end software developed for the Main Injector (MI) BPM upgrade is described. The software is responsible for controlling a VME crate equipped with a Motorola PowerPC board running the VxWorks operating system, a custom-made timing board, and up to 10 commercial digitizer boards. The complete MI BPM system is composed of 7 independent units, each collecting data from 19 to 38 BPM pickups. The MI BPM system uses several components already employed on the successful upgrade of another Fermilab machine, the Tevatron, The front-end software framework developed for the Tevatron BPM upgrade is the base for building the MI front-end software. The framework is implemented in C++ as a generic component library (GBPM) that provides an event-driven data acquisition environment. Functionality of GBPM is extended to meet MI BPM requirements, such as the ability to handle and manage data from multiple cycles; perform readout of the digitizer boards without disrupting or missing subsequent cycles; transition between closed orbit and turn-by-turn modes within a cycle, using different filter and timing configurations; and allow the definition of new cycles during normal operation

50

Tevatron energy and luminosity upgrades beyond the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Tevatron will be the world's highest energy hadron collider until the LHC is commissioned, it has the world's highest energy fixed target beams, and Fermilab will be the leading high energy physics laboratory in the US for the foreseeable future. Following the demise of the SSC, a number of possible upgrades to the Tevatron complex, beyond construction of the Main Injector, are being discussed. Using existing technology, it appears possible to increase the luminosity of the bar pp Collider to at least 1033cm-2sec-1 (Tevatron-Star) and to increase the beam energy to 2 TeV (DiTevatron). Fixed target beam of energy about 1.5 TeV could also be delivered. Leaving the existing Tevatron in the tunnel and constructing bypasses around the collider halls would allow simultaneous 800 GeV fixed target and ?s = 4 TeV collider operation. These upgrades would give Fermilab an exciting physics program which would be complementary to the LHC, and they would lay the groundwork for the construction of a possible post-LHC ultra-high energy hadron collider

51

Simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and EM field maps have been generated. Various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results have been successfully benchmarked against the POSINST code for the 2D electrostatic case. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. While numerically accurate predictions can be made for a given secondary emission yield (SEY) and initial conditions, the large uncertainties in this SEY and in the spatial distribution of the EC prior to the exponential growth of the EC do make ab-initio prediction difficult. Note also that the RFA response is also uncertain due to the collection efficiency in unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program. Moreover, for a reasonable set of initial condition, this calculation shows that no dramatic, non-linear, increase of the EC density will occur when the bunch charges increases by a factor of three. Finally, electric field maps or parametric functions are being provided to the Synergia tracking code such that inst the Synergia tracking code such that instabilities due to the EC can be simulated over much longer periods of time.

52

A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations  

CERN Document Server

For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

Dey, J

2012-01-01

53

Experience with the Source Evaluation Board method of procuring technical components for the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermilab has adopted the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) method for procuring certain major technical components of the Fermilab Main Injector. The SEB procedure is designed to ensure the efficient and effective expenditure of Government funds at the same time that it optimizes the opportunity for attainment of project objectives. A qualitative trade-off is allowed between price and technical factors. The process involves a large amount of work and is only justified for a very limited number of procurements. Fermilab has gained experience with the SEB process in awarding subcontracts for major subassemblies of the Fermilab Main Injector dipoles.

Harding, D.J.; Collins, J.P.; Kobliska, G.R.; Chester, N.S.; Pewitt, E.G.; Fowler, W.B.

1993-05-01

54

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

55

Comments on the behavior of ?1 in main injector ?t jump schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracking studies of transition crossing in the Main Injector have shown that the Johnsen effect is the dominant cause of beam loss and emittance blow up. To suppress this effect one has to have control over ?1 (dispersion of the momentum compaction factor ?). Various ?t jump configurations are examined and the resulting changes in ?1 are assessed. These results are further validated by comparison between the simulation and simple analytic ?1--formulas derived for a model FODO lattice with full chromaticity compensation in the presence of an eddy current sextupole component. A scheme involving the introduction of a dispersion wave in the arcs of the Main Injector, around transition time, seems to be promising if one regards the strength of the eddy current sextupole family as an external ''knob'' to control values of ?1

56

The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control  

CERN Document Server

From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at ~400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

Brown, Bruce C; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

2013-01-01

57

Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements

58

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; /Fermilab; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; /Cornell U.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

2012-05-01

59

Narrowband beam loading compensation in the Fermilab Main Injector accelerating cavities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrowband beam loading compensation system was installed for the Main Injector Accelerating Cavities. This feedback operates solely on the fundamental resonant mode of the cavity. This paper describes modifications to the high level Radio Frequency system required to make the system operational. These modifications decreased the effect of steady-state beam loading by a factor of 10 and improved the reliability of paraphasing for coalescing.

Joseph E. Dey; John S. Reid and James Steimel

2001-07-12

60

Microwave Transmission Through the Electron Cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector: Simulation and Comparison with Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simulations of the microwave transmission properties through the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been implemented using the plasma simulation code 'VORPAL'. Phase shifts and attenuation curves have been calculated for the lowest frequency TE mode, slightly above the cutoff frequency, in field free regions, in the dipoles and quadrupoles. Preliminary comparisons with experimental results for the dipole case are showed and will guide the next generation of experiments.

 
 
 
 
61

Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector tracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose the authors have used old Main Ring dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to the authors, they have separated in their simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables them to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular they have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8-9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

62

Defining the systematic and random multipole errors for Main Injector Tracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) measurements of magnet field shape and strength have been performed. The tracking of the Fermi Main Injector (FMI) lattice requires a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field quality and its variation from magnet to magnet. As of this date only two prototype dipole magnets have been built, not enough to do a statistical analysis. For this purpose we have used old Main Ping dipole measurements. Measurements on a subset of Main Ring (MR) quadrupoles are also available. From the different sets of measurements available to us we have separated in our simulation the end multipoles from the body multipoles. Such a dissection of the magnet enables us to study more closely the effects of the end multipoles on the performance of the Main Injector. In particular we have studied the closed orbit errors due to variations in effective length of the long and short type dipoles. Tables of multipole errors are presented at both injection (8.9 GeV/c) and slow extraction (120 GeV/c) energies

63

Collimation system for beam loss localization with slip stacking injection in the Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slip stacking injection for high intensity operation of the Fermilab Main Injector produces a small fraction of beam which is not captured in buckets and accelerated. A collimation system has been implemented with a thin primary collimator to define the momentum aperture at which this beam is lost and four massive secondary collimators to capture the scattered beam. The secondary collimators define tight apertures and thereby capture a fraction of other lost beam. The system was installed in 2007 with commissioning continuing in 2008. The collimation system will be described including simulation, design, installation, and commissioning. Successful operation and operational limitations will be described.

Brown, Bruce C.; /Fermilab

2008-09-01

64

Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described

65

Operational use of ionization profile monitors in the Fermilab Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

Ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are used in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) to monitor injection lattice matching by measuring turn-by-turn sigmas at injection and to measure transverse emittance of the beam during the acceleration cycle. The IPMs provide a periodic, non-destructive means of performing turn-by-turn emittance measurements where other techniques are not applicable. As Fermilab is refocusing its attention on the intensity frontier, non-intercepting diagnostics such as IPMs are expected to become even more important. This paper gives an overview of the operational use of IPMs for emittance measurements and injection lattice matching measurements at Fermilab, and summarizes the future plans.

Morris, Denton K; Capista, David; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Meyer, Thomas; Seiya, Kiyomi; Slimmer, David; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zagel, James

2012-01-01

66

Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described.

G William Foster et al.

2004-07-09

67

A dynamic dispersion insert in the Fermilab Main Injector for momentum collimation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab Main Injector (MI) accelerator is designed as a FODO lattice with zero dispersion straight sections. A scheme will be presented that can dynamically alter the dispersion of one of the long straight sections to create a non-zero dispersion straight section suitable for momentum collimation. During the process of slip stacking DC beam is generated which is lost during the first few milliseconds of the ramp. A stationary massive primary collimator/absorber with optional secondary masks could be utilized to isolate beam loss due to uncaptured beam.

Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

68

Progress on electron cloud effects calculations for the FNAL main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the response of the beam to an electron cloud for the Fermilab Main Injector using the Quasistatic Model [1] implemented into the particle-in-cell code Warp [2]. Specifically, we have addressed the effects due to varying the beam intensity, electron cloud density and chromaticity. In addition, we have estimated the contribution to emittance evolution due to beam space-charge effects. We have carried out a comparison between how the beam responds at injection energy and at top energy. We also present some results on the validation of the computational model, and report on progress towards improving the computational model

69

The impact of deformation on the final alignment of the Fermilab main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of deformation of the reference points is very important for the final alignment process and the future performance of the FMI machine. In case of Main Injector Tunnel practically all points of the network were subject to deformation. The method of minimizing the first norm of the displacement vector of the reference points was chosen as the method to analyze the deformation experienced within the project. Basic principles of deformation determination and analysis evaluations movement of the network relative of the beam position will be exhibited in this poster. (authors)

70

A Study of Muon Neutrino Disappearance Using the Fermilab Main Injector Neutrino Beam  

CERN Document Server

We report the results of a search for muon-neutrino disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27e20 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336 +/- 14 muon-neutrino charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to delta m-squared = 2.74e-3 +0.44/-0.26e-3 eV^2 and sin^2(2 theta) > 0.87 at 68% confidence level.

Kordosky, Michael; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cabrera, A; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drakoulakos, D; Durkin, T; Dytman, S A; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, i L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, V; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2007-01-01

71

Design of a {gamma}{sub t}-jump system for Fermilab Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to control the beam emittance and reduce the particle losses during the transition crossing at high intensity, a conceptual design of a {gamma}{sub t}-jump system for the FNAL Main Injector is presented. It is a first-order system employing local dispersion inserts at existing dispersion free straight sections. The goal is to provide a jump of {Delta}{gamma}{sub t} from +1 to -1 within 0.5 ms. The system consists of 8 sets of pulsed quadrupole triplets. These quads have pole tips of the hyperbolic shape and thin laminations. The power supply uses a GTO as the fast switch and a resonant circuit with a 1 kHz resonant frequency. The elliptical beamtube is made of Inconel 718, which has high electrical resistivity and high strength. Details of the lattice layout and sub- systems design are presented.

Chou, W., Brown, B.C., Fang, S., Leibfritz, J., Ng, K.Y., Pfeffer, H., Terechkine, I.

1997-06-01

72

Proposal for Drell-Yan Measurements of Nucleon and Nuclear Structure with the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose measuring the fractional momentum (x) dependence of the ratio of the anti-down to anti-up quark distributions in the proton, {bar d}(x)/{bar u}(x), using proton induced Drell-Yan reactions at 120 GeV. Recent measurements by FNAL E866 unexpectedly show considerable x dependence in this ratio for x > 0.2. A lower energy primary proton beam from the Main Injector makes it possible to extend the E866 measurements to larger x with much higher precision. The apparatus will also be used with nuclear targets to measure parton energy loss and modifications to anti-quark distributions in nuclear targets at large x (x > 0.2).

Isenhower, L.D.; Sadler, M.E.; /Abilene Christian U.; Arrinton, J.; Geesamn, D.F.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E.; Potterveld, D.H.; /Argonne; Brown, C.N.; /Fermilab; Garvey, G.T.; Leitch, M.J.; /Los Alamos /Rutgers U. /Texas A-M /Valparaiso U.

2001-04-01

73

Analog Signal Pre-Processing For The Fermilab Main Injector BPM Upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency-selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton and 2.5 MHz antiproton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware

74

Measurements of beam pipe eddy current effects in Main Injector dipole magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dipole magnets for the proposed Main Injector project at Fermilab are designed to ramp to maximum field (1.7 T) at rates over 2.5 T/s. These ramp rates will produce eddy current effects which degrade overall field quality. A harmonics probe was constructed for the purpose of measuring eddy current field components during the ramp cycle. Three separate ramp rates were employed ranging from 1.3 T/s to 2.7 T/s. Tests were performed using beam pipes with two different resistivities. The dominant multipole contribution resulting from eddy current effects in each beam pipe was sextupole. The sextupole component closely matched the calculated prediction

75

Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max is ?> 1.4, and the average electron density is ne ?> 1010 m-3 at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3

76

Electron-Cloud Build-up in the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade [1] in a fieldfree region at the location of the RFA electron detector [2]. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding measurements obtained with the RFA we infer that the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} is {approx}> 1.4, and the average electron density is n{sub e} {approx}> 10{sup 10} m{sup -3} at transition energy for the specific fill pattern and beam intensities defined below. The sensitivity of our results to several variables remains to be explored in order to reach more definitive results. Effects from the electron cloud on the beam are being investigated separately [3].

Furman, M.A.

2007-06-04

77

A preliminary assessment of the electron cloud effect for the FNAL main injector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a preliminary assessment, via computer simulations, of the electron cloud density for the FNAL main injector upgrade at injection energy. Assuming a peak value for secondary emission yield (delta)max = 1.3, we find a threshold value of the bunch population, Nb,th ? 1.25 x 1011, beyond which the electron-cloud density ?e reaches a steady-state level that is ?104 times larger than for Nb b,th, essentially neutralizing the beam, and leading to a tune shift ?0.05. Our investigation is limited to a field-free region and to a dipole magnet, both of which yield similar results for both Nb,th and the steady-state value of ?e. Possible dynamical effects from the electron cloud on the beam, such as emittance growth and instabilities, remain to be investigated separately

78

Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMI Facility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13 and September 30, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report details the work done between June 13 and September 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, the facility produces (among other components) tritium in engineered materials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium is generated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to other regions within the facility, or be released to the environment

79

Ion Chambers for Monitoring the NuMI Neutrino Beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline will deliver an intense muon neutrino beam by focusing a beam of mesons into a long evacuated decay volume. The beam must be steered with 1-mRad angular accuracy toward the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. We have built 4 arrays of ionization chambers to monitor the neutrino beam direction and quality. The arrays are located at 4 stations downstream of the decay volume, and measure the remnant hadron beam and tertiary muons produced along with neutrinos in meson decays. We review how the monitors will be used to make beam quality measurements, and as well review chamber construction details, radiation damage testing, calibration, and test beam results

80

Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab's Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

Backfish, Michael

 
 
 
 
81

Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

2008-05-01

82

An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

D.A. Edwards

1998-11-01

83

Computation of electron cloud diagnostics and mitigation in the main injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron cloud parameters and induced phase shifts allows us to predict electron cloud density and evolution over many bunch periods. Long time-scale simulations using Blue Gene have allowed us to measure cloud evolution patterns under the influence of beam propagation with realistic physical parameterizations, such as elliptical beam pipe geometry, self-consistent electromagnetic fields, space charge, secondary electron emission, and the application of arbitrary external magnetic fields. Simultaneously, we are able to simulate the use of injected microwave diagnostic signals to measure electron cloud density, and the effectiveness of various mitigation techniques such as surface coating and the application of confining magnetic fields. These simulations provide a baseline for both RF electron cloud diagnostic design and accelerator fabrication in order to measure electron clouds and mitigate the adverse effects of such clouds on beam propagation.

84

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort (1). Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector (2-4). The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) (delta)max, which we let vary in the range 1.2 (le) (delta)max (le) 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 ?max ?e. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency fRF = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population Ntot. The density ne goes through a clear threshold as a function of Ntot in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in Ntot is a factor ? 2 higher for fRF = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor ? 2 when Ntot is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed

85

Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a precision simulation of the electron cloud (EC) in the Fermilab Main Injector using the code VORPAL. This is a fully 3d and self consistent treatment of the EC. Both distributions of electrons in 6D phase-space and E.M. field maps have been generated. This has been done for various configurations of the magnetic fields found around the machine have been studied. Plasma waves associated to the fluctuation density of the cloud have been analyzed. Our results are compared with those obtained with the POSINST code. The response of a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) to the EC has been simulated, as well as the more challenging microwave absorption experiment. Definite predictions of their exact response are difficult to obtain,mostly because of the uncertainties in the secondary emission yield and, in the case of the RFA, because of the sensitivity of the electron collection efficiency to unknown stray magnetic fields. Nonetheless, our simulations do provide guidance to the experimental program.

86

Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI). Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance. An upgrade to the MI is being considered that would increase the bunch intensity Nb, from the present ? 1 x 1011 to 3 x 1011, corresponding to a total pulse intensity Ntot = 16.4 x 1013, in order to generate intense beams for the neutrino program. Such an increase in beam intensity would place the MI in a parameter regime where other storage rings have seen a significant EC effect. Motivated by this concern, efforts have been undertaken over the recent past to measure and simulate the magnitude of the effect and to assess its operational implications on the proposed upgrade. We report here a summary of simulation results obtained with the code POSINST, and certain benchmarks against measurements. Unless stated otherwise, the simulation parameters used are shown in Tab. 1. Some of these represent a slightly simplified version of the MI operation.

87

The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are -33.6 and -33.9 respectively. The ?p/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the ?p/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be ±5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here

88

Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL Main Injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary on ongoing simulation results for the electron-cloud (EC) buildup in the context of the proposed FNAL Main Injector (MI) intensity upgrade effort [1]. Most of the results presented here are for the field-free region at the location of the retarding field analyzer (RFA) electron detector [2-4]. The primary input variable we exercise is the peak secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}, which we let vary in the range 1.2 {le} {delta}{sub max} {le} 1.7. By combining our simulated results for the electron flux at the vacuum chamber wall with the corresponding RFA measurements we infer that 1.25 {approx}< {delta}{sub max} {approx}< 1.35 at this location. From this piece of information we estimate features of the EC distribution for various fill patterns, including the average electron number density n{sub e}. We then compare the behavior of the EC for a hypothetical RF frequency f{sub RF} = 212 MHz with the current 53 MHz for a given total beam population N{sub tot}. The density n{sub e} goes through a clear threshold as a function of N{sub tot} in a field-free region. As expected, the higher frequency leads to a weaker EC effect: the threshold in N{sub tot} is a factor {approx} 2 higher for f{sub RF} = 212 MHz than for 53 MHz, and ne is correspondingly lower by a factor {approx} 2 when N{sub tot} is above threshold. We briefly describe further work that needs to be carried out, sensitivities in the calculation, and puzzles in the results that remain to be addressed.

Furman, Miguel .A.

2008-08-25

89

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here.

Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini,Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

2006-04-15

90

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector(MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrostatic particle-in-cell codeWARP is currently being expanded in order to study electron cloud effects on the dynamics of the beam in storage rings. Results for the Fermilab main injector (MI) show the existence of a threshold in the electron density beyond which there is rapid emittance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an upgrade as part of the high intensity neutrino source (HINS) effort, which will result in a significant increasing of the bunch intensity relative to its present value, placing it in a regime where electron-cloud effects are expected to become important. Various results from the simulations using WARP are discussed here

91

Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb = 25 ns or tb = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta)max. For tb = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta)max is below ? 1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

92

Studies of e-cloud build up for the FNAL main injector and for the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity Nb at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing tb=19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in Nb beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings tb=25 ns or tb=75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are Nb and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) ?max. For tb=25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if ?max is below ?1.2 at nominal Nb. For tb=75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2. (author)

93

Activation Products from Copper and Steel Samples Exposed to Showers Produced by 8 GeV Protons Lost in the Fermilab Main Injector Collimation System  

CERN Document Server

In conjunction with efforts to predict residual radiation levels in the Fermilab Main Injector, measurements of residual radiation were correlated with the time history of losses. Detailed examination suggested that the list of radioactive isotopes used for fitting was incomplete. We will report on activation studies of magnet steel and copper samples which we irradiated adjacent to the Fermilab Main Injector collimation system. Our results identified several additional radioactive isotopes of interest. The MARS15 studies using a simplified model are compared with measurements. The long half-life isotopes will grow in importance as operation stretches to a second decade and as loss rates rise. These studies allow us to predict limits on these concerns.

Brown, Bruce C; Pronskikh, Vitaly S

2015-01-01

94

MECAR (Main Ring Excitation Controller and Regulator): A real time learning regulator for the Fermilab Main Ring or the Main Injector synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real time computer for controlling and regulating the FNAL Main Ring power supplies has been upgraded with a new learning control system. The learning time of the system has been reduced by an order of magnitude, mostly through the implementation of a 95 tap FIR filter in the learning algorithm. The magnet system consists of three buses, which must track each other during a ramp from 100 to 1700 amps at a 2.4 second repetition rate. This paper will present the system configuration and the tools used during development and testing

95

Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

96

Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for theLHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity N{sub b} at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing t{sub b} = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in N{sub b} beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings t{sub b} = 25 ns or t{sub b} = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are N{sub b} and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max}. For t{sub b} = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if {delta}{sub max} is below {approx} 1.2 at nominal N{sub b}. For t{sub b} = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2.

Furman, M.A.

2006-06-14

97

Observation of deficit in NuMI neutrino-induced rock and non-fiducial muons in MINOS Far Detector and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has observed muon neutrino disappearance consistent with the oscillation hypothesis tested by Super-Kamiokande and K2K. The survival probability for ?? is given approximately by 1 - sin22?23sin2(1.27?m232L/E), where?23 and ?m232 are the mixing angle and difference in mass squared in eV2/c4 between the mass eigenstates ?3 and ?2, L is the distance traveled in km, and E is the neutrino energy in GeV. In the Near Detector at Fermilab, a measurement of the energy spectrum of the NuMI neutrino beam is made 1 km from the beam target. The neutrinos travel to the Far Detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, where another measurement of the energy spectrum is made 735 km from the target. MINOS measures |?m322| and sin22?23 by comparing the ND and FD neutrino energy spectra. In this dissertation, a n alternate method is presented that utilizes rock muons, a class of events that occur when a ?? interaction takes place in the rock surrounding the FD. Many muons that result from these interactions penetrate the rock and reach the detector. Muon events from ?? interactions in the non-fiducial volume of the FD are also used in this analysis. The distribution of reconstructed muon momentum and dstructed muon momentum and direction relative to the beam is predicted by Monte Carlo simulation, normalized by the measured ?? energy spectrum at the ND. In the first year of NuMI running (an exposure of 1.27x1020 protons on target) 117 selected events are observed below 3.0 GeV/c, where 150.2±16.1 events are expected. When a fit is performed to events below 10.0 GeV/c, the null (no disappearance) hypothesis is ruled out at significance level ? = 4.2 x 10-3. The data are consistent with the oscillation hypothesis given parameter values |?m232| = 2.32 ±1.060.75 x 10-3 eV2/c4 (stat+sys) and sin22?23 > 0.48 (68% CL) which is in agreement with the published MINOS result |?m232| = 2.74 ±0.440.26 x 10-3 eV2/c4 (stat+sys) and sin22?23 > 0.87 (68% CL)

98

Fast electrodynamic ring gas injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design anO resuits of experimentat investigation of fast response electrodynamic ring gas injector with the subvalve volume of 1.6x10-3 m3 with gas pressure 2x106 Pa intended for a powerful plasma accelerator, are described. The motion rate of the blocking injector mechanism and gas distribution in fixed moments of time are measured. The main characteristics of the injector are maximum rate of motion of the edge of the blocking mechanism is 30 m/s; time of open injector state is 0.35x10-3 s; amount of injected gas is 6x1023 particles; gas expense is 2x1026 s-1 (9x106 Paxm3xs-1); maximum gas density in the discharging stream is 4x1023 m-3

99

Event Rates for Off Axis NuMI Experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neutrino interaction rates for experiments placed off axis in the NuMI beam are calculated. Primary proton beam energy is 120 GeV and four locations at 810 km from target and 6, 12, 30 and 40 km off axis are considered. This report is part of the Joint FNAL/BNL Future Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Study.

Viren, B.

2006-01-01

100

CFD simulation of coaxial injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of improved performance models for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is an important, ongoing program at NASA MSFC. These models allow prediction of overall system performance, as well as analysis of run-time anomalies which might adversely affect engine performance or safety. Due to the complexity of the flow fields associated with the SSME, NASA has increasingly turned to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques as modeling tools. An important component of the SSME system is the fuel preburner, which consists of a cylindrical chamber with a plate containing 264 coaxial injector elements at one end. A fuel rich mixture of gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen is injected and combusted in the chamber. This process preheats the hydrogen fuel before it enters the main combustion chamber, powers the hydrogen turbo-pump, and provides a heat dump for nozzle cooling. Issues of interest include the temperature and pressure fields at the turbine inlet and the thermal compatibility between the preburner chamber and injector plate. Performance anomalies can occur due to incomplete combustion, blocked injector ports, etc. The performance model should include the capability to simulate the effects of these anomalies. The current approach to the numerical simulation of the SSME fuel preburner flow field is to use a global model based on the MSFC sponsored FNDS code. This code does not have the capabilities of modeling several aspects of the problem such as detailed modeling of the coaxial injectors. Therefore, an effort has been initiated to develop a detailed simulation of the preburner coaxial injectors and provide gas phase boundary conditions just downstream of the injector face as input to the FDNS code. This simulation should include three-dimensional geometric effects such as proximity of injectors to baffles and chamber walls and interaction between injectors. This report describes an investigation into the numerical simulation of GH2/LOX coaxial injectors. The following sections will discuss the physical aspects of injectors, the CFD code employed, and preliminary results of a simulation of a single coaxial injector for which experimental data is available. It is hoped that this work will lay the foundation for the development of a unique and useful tool to support the SSME program.

Landrum, D. Brian

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The injector cyclotrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPC1 injector cyclotron has been running very reliably. Beam interruptions due to injector failures amounted to only 6.2% of the total running time. A few minor modifications were made to improve the reliability even more, and the control of the rf-system has been automated to a point where almost no action is required from the operators during runs. Progress with the second injector cyclotron SPC2 has been slower than originally planned. Final preparations are being made for the magnetic field mapping of the main magnet. Most of the calculations for the central region have been completed, but the design of the central region has been delayed. Manufacture of the extraction system, which is basically the same as that of SPC1, the diagnostic system and the design of the vacuum control system are progressing well. The ECR-source has been delivered and is being installed. Manufacturing of the ion source for polarized protons and deuterons has been completed and the source is now being tested at the factory. Delivery is expected by the end of 1988. 1 fig., 2 refs., 2 tabs

102

Electron injector for UHF generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns the techniques for injecting an electron beam into a cavity resonator or electromagnetic structure. It features an injector of simple construction for injecting a tubular beam of monokinetic electrons in a helical orbit and which, by a very easy adjustment, makes it possible to obtain at will annular beams of monokinetic electrons the thickness of which is variable at will in significant proportions and of which the slope angle of the helical trajectories of each electron in relation to the centre of the corresponding helix can reach high figures. This injector is of the kind that include an annular electron gun in an axisymmetrical vacuum vessel and having also as main characteristic electric coils able to create the cyclotron effect by a static magnetic field varying progressively and continuously according to the axis of the injector

103

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included

104

Groundwater protection for the NuMI project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included.

Wehmann, A.; Smart, W.; Menary, S.; Hylen, J.; Childress, S.

1997-10-01

105

H- injector for ADRIA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synchrotron of the ADRIA project, proposed for the upgrading of LNL accelerator complex, have the capability to accelerate protons with an injection energy of 210 MeV, repetition rate of 50 Hz and an average current of about 32 ?A. In this paper we shall spell out a new proposal for the H- injector in this mode of operation. The main components of the linac are a double frequency (32.5 MHz, 65 MHz), an RFQ and DTL cavities (425 MHz). The buncher gives to the bunch sequences the time structure corresponding to the Synchrotron RF frequency at injection. The shunt impedance in DTL cavities (equipped with rare earth quadrupoles) remains sufficiently high up to the synchrotron injection energy. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

106

The electron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron injector with an electron gun type-M-24, received from Leningrad (USSR) and mounted in the accelerators division is described. The operation processes such as: evacuation of the injector volume, decomposition and activation of the cathode and calibration of the filament power are also discussed. The primary examination of the injector at 67 KV extraction voltage, and 560 pulse/sec, gave 780 ?A average emission current and 460 ?A average injector current, collected at a Faraday cup. From the results obtained, the efficiency coefficient is calculated and the beam distribution is predicted

107

MINERvA: A Dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment

108

MINERvA: a dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI  

CERN Document Server

MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment.

McFarland, K S

2006-01-01

109

Modification of the Ganil injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the upgrading project of the GANIL accelerator complex, we have modified the two injector cyclotrons in order to increase their energy, which implies a larger extraction radius and a change of the harmonic mode operation from 4 to 3. The main consequence of this last point is to compel us to use a 1800C dee and to double the number of turns (N=25) which leads to replace the flat poles by spiraled sector poles and to redesign the central and extraction regions with the new isochronous field topology. Beam orbit dynamics computation results are presented. The first injector is now coupled to the present axial injection beam line (23 kV) with a CAPRICE ECR source. The second cyclotron, nearly identical to the first one, will be connected to the future 100 kV axial injection line (described in this conference). This implies a new inflector and a new central region

110

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment Status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MIPP (FNAL-E907) is a large acceptance spectrometer to measure hadronic particle production - TPC and wire chambers to measure track parameters - TPC dE/dx, ToF, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov give ?/K/p separation up to 100 GeV/c

111

The ArgoNeuT Detector in the NuMI Low-Energy beam line at Fermilab  

CERN Document Server

The ArgoNeuT liquid argon time projection chamber has collected thousands of neutrino and antineutrino events during an extended run period in the NuMI beam-line at Fermilab. This paper focuses on the main aspects of the detector layout and related technical features, including the cryogenic equipment, time projection chamber, read-out electronics, and o?-line data treatment. The detector commissioning phase, physics run, and first neutrino event displays are also reported. The characterization of the main working parameters of the detector during data-taking, the ionization electron drift velocity and lifetime in liquid argon, as obtained from through-going muon data complete the present report.

Anderson, C; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Guenette, R; Haug, S; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lathrop, A; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Linden, S; McKee, D; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Rossi, B; Sanders, R; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Wongjirad, T; Zeller, G

2012-01-01

112

Particle injector for fluid systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A particle injector device provides injection of particles into a liquid eam. The device includes a funnel portion comprising a conical member having side walls tapering from a top opening (which receives the particles) down to a relatively smaller exit opening. A funnel inlet receives a portion of the liquid stream and the latter is directed onto the side walls of the conical member so as to create a cushion of liquid against which the particles impact. A main section of the device includes an inlet port in communication with the exit opening of the funnel portion. A main liquid inlet receives the main portion of the liquid stream at high pressure and low velocity and a throat region located downstream of the main liquid inlet accelerates liquid received by this inlet from the low velocity to a higher velocity so as to create a low pressure area at the exit opening of the funnel portion. An outlet opening of the main section enables the particles and liquid stream to exit from the injector device.

Ruch, Jeffrey F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1997-01-01

113

Injector losses on Mite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses injector losses on the Mite accelerator at the Sandia National Laboratories. Topics considered in the paper include energy losses, energy transfer, electron beam injection, and electron beams

114

Test fusion reactor injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injection system of a test fusion tokamak reactor which should ensure injection of deuterium fast atoms of total power equal to 77 MW is described. Particle energy will achieve 160 keV and pulse duration - 600 s. The system comprises four simultaneously operating injectors. Ion sources with peripheral magnetic field are intended for deuterium ion beam production with 110 A current. Energy efficiency of the injector makes up 20 %

115

Fuel flexible fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

2015-02-03

116

The SSRL injector beam position monitoring systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beam position monitoring system of the SSRL injector forms a vital component of its operation. Several different types of instrumentation are used to measure the position or intensity of the electron beam in the injector. These include current toroids, fluorescent screens, Faraday cups, the 'Q' meter, a synchrotron light monitor, and electron beam position monitors. This paper focuses on the use of the electron beam position monitors to measure electron trajectories in the injector transport lines and the booster ring. The design of the beam position monitors is described in another paper to be presented at this conference. There are three different beam position monitor systems in the injector. One system consists of a set of five BPMs located on the injection transport line from the linac to the booster (known as the LTB line). There is a second system of six BPMs located on the ejection transport line (known as the BTS line). Finally, there is an array of 40 BPMs installed on the main booster ring itself. This article describes the software and processing electronics of the systems used to measure electron beam trajectories for the new SSRL injector for SPEAR

117

NuMI proton beam diagnostics and control: achieving 2 megawatt capability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI proton beam at Fermilab currently delivers 120 GeV protons to the neutrino production target with design beam power capability to 400 kW. Upgrade capability to 700 kW is being prepared, with planning toward delivering 2.3 MW beam provided by the Project X accelerator upgrade plan. We report on the system of beam diagnostics and control used in operation of the NuMI beam. Also considered are the steps to provide a robust system for transport and targeting beam of 2 MW and beyond

118

Pellet injector on JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pneumatic gun type 4 pellet injector of JT-60 (JT-60 pellet injector) has been constructed in May 1988. The objective of this system is to inject the hydrogen ice pellets into plasmas. JT-60 pellet injector consists of a gun assembly, pumping units, a control system and stages. It is operated following JT-60 operation sequence. In this paper, the system configuration and the performance test results of JT-60 pellet injector are described. (author)

119

Downhole steam injector  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01

120

Construction of HIMAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is now under construction. The HIMAC is dedicated to the medical use especially for the clinical treatment of tumor and will be the first heavy ion synchrotron complex in a hospital environment of Japan. This paper describes an outline of the design and construction of the HIMAC injector. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Cyclotron HF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration of alternative variants of injection into a cyclotron, being capable of forming a micropulse with duration upto the tenth of a nanosecond, has lead to construction of a high-frequency injector based on a quarter - wave coaxial resonator. In the resonator, consisting coaxial copper tubes, a high-frequency field with the frequency, being equal to the frequency of the cyclotron accelerating voltage, is excited. In the resonator central electrode of the cyclotron electron model the electron source in the form of a tungsten filament is placed. The whole construction of the injector has a clearance of 2 m, the external electrode being 55 mm in diameter. The mean intensity of a cyclotron beam with the high-frequency injector will be in the range from tens to hundreds of microamperes, when using the ion source, which is capable to provide ion emission above 100 mA. At the optimal ratio between the diameter of external and internal electrodes the high-frequency injector can consume upto 30-40 kW, when the diameter of the external electrode being 30-40 cm

122

Linac pre-injector  

CERN Multimedia

New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

1965-01-01

123

NLCTA injector experimental results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC is to integrate the new technologies of X-band accelerator structures and RF systems for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), demonstrate multibunch beam-loading energy compensation and suppression of high-order deflecting modes, measure the transverse components of the accelerating field, and measure the dark current generated by RF field emission in the accelerator. For beam loading R and D, an average current of about 1 A in a 120 ns long bunch train is required. The initial commissioning of the NLCTA injector, as well as the rest of the accelerator have been progressing very well. The initial beam parameters are very close to the requirement and they expect that injector will meet the specified requirements by the end of this summer

124

SSC linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parameters for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) linac injector system are obtained from the established requirements of the low-energy booster (LEB). The first element of this injector system is a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) that bunches the H- ions and accelerates these ion bunches to 2.5 MeV. With a suitable matching section, this beam is injected into a drift-tube linac (DTL), which takes the ions to 120 MeV. The final element is a coupled-cavity linac (CCL) designed to accelerate the H- ions to 600 MeV for injection into the LEB. In this paper the conceptual beam dynamics design for the various elements of this linac injection system is described

125

Tritium pellet injector results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

126

Pellet injectors for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity (3). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

127

LER-LHC injector workshop summary, and super-Ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel  

CERN Document Server

A Workshop on a Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as a main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS).

Ambrosio, G; Huang, Y; Johnstone, J; Kashikhin, V; MacLachlan, J; Mokhov, N; Piekarz, H; Sen, T; Shiltsev, V; de Rijk, G

2007-01-01

128

Injector of solid hydrogen pellets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pellet injection (solid hydrogen pellets) intended for experiments on the thermonuclear devices Tokamak T-10 and T-15 is described. The injector consists of a helium cryostat, an injector tube, a hydrogen filling system and a diagnostics system containing a velocity meter, a piezoelectric transducer, a low-temperature thermometer, a photodetector. The pellet is frozen in the injector tube. The fast-acting valve is used in the injector that allows to obtain the velocity 2,07 km/s at the moderate pressure in the valve (12 MPa). 6 refs., 5 figs

129

NLC electron injector beam dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Next Linear Collider (NLC) being designed at SLAC requires a train of 90 electron bunches 1.4 ns apart at 120 Hz. The intensity and emittance required at the interaction point, and the various machine systems between the injector and the IP determine the beam requirements from the injector. The style of injector chosen for the NLC is driven by the fact that the production of polarized electrons at the IP is a must. Based on the successful operation of the SLC polarized electron source a similar type of injector with a DC gun and subharmonic bunching system is chosen for the NLC

130

Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described

131

Assembly process of the ITER neutral beam injectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are used for heating and diagnostics operations. There are 4 injectors in total, 3 heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and one diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). Two HNBs and the DNB will start injection into ITER during the hydrogen/helium phase of ITER operations. A third HNB is considered as an upgrade to the ITER heating systems, and the impact of the later installation and use of that injector have to be taken into account when considering the installation and assembly of the whole NB system. It is assumed that if a third HNB is to be installed, it will be installed before the nuclear phase of the ITER project. The total weight of one injector is around 1200 t and it is composed of 18 main components and 36 sets of shielding plates. The overall dimensions are length 20 m, height 10 m and width 5 m. Assembly of the first two HNBs and the DNB will start before the first plasma is produced in ITER, but as the time required to assemble one injector is estimated at around 1.5 year, the assembly will be divided into 2 steps, one prior to first plasma, and the second during the machine second assembly phase. To comply with this challenging schedule the assembly sequence has been defined to allow assembly of three first injectors in parallel. Due to the similar design between the DNB and HNBs it has been decided to use the same tools, which will be designed to accommodate the differences between the two sets of components. This reduces the global cost of the assembly and the overall assembly time for the injector system. The alignment and positioning of the injectors is a major consideration for the injector assembly as the alignment of the beamline components and the beam source are critical if good injector performance is to be achieved. The theoretical axes of the beams are defined relative to the duct liners which are installed in the NB ports. The concept adopted to achieve the required alignment accuracy is to use the main rail of the overhead crane associated with offset tooling when necessary. The overhead crane is used for the assembly of the components, and the final positioning of the beamline components and the beam source will be adjusted with respect to laser targets referring to the optimum beam axis and source position. This paper describes the installation tasks and the alignment and positioning solutions and the complexity of operations within the NB cell. Particular constraints on the HNB installation sequence due to the planned testing of the 1 MV high voltage supply are also described.

Graceffa, J., E-mail: joseph.graceffa@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.; Petrov, V.; Schunke, B.; Urbani, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Pilard, V. [Fusion for Energy, C/ Josep Pla, n°2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

2013-10-15

132

MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

2011-05-01

133

Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

2006-01-01

134

The JET High Frequency Pellet Injector Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new High Frequency Deuterium Pellet Injector is in preparation, as part of the JET programme in support of ITER approved by the EFDA Steering Committee in early 2005. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localised Modes, responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. Indeed it has been recently demonstrated on AUG that the ELM frequency can be imposed by the pellet injection frequency. The energy ejected during each ELM being inversely proportional to the frequency, the capacity of injecting small pellets at typically three times the intrinsic ELM frequency (up to 50-60 Hz) is the main performance required for the new injector. The injector is being designed and built by PELIN LCC (St Petersburg, Russia) on the basis of the injector installed in 2003 on Tore Supra. A prototype is in preparation which will demonstrate the capacity to reach the required performance both for ELM control (pellet volume 1-2 mm3, pellet speed 50-200 m/s and frequency up to 60 Hz) and for plasma fuelling (pellet volume 35-70 mm3, pellet speed 100-500 m/s and frequency up to 15 Hz). The injector is based on the screw extruder technology, which allows injection of an unlimited number of pellets per plasma pulse with a very high level of reliability. One single extruder with two small nozzles and one large nozzle allows the formation of either two simultaneous continuous ribbons of ice or one continuous large rod of ice. A set of electromagnetic cutters and fast valves for pneumatic acceleration is used to cut and accelerate the pellets. The high frequency for the small pellets is obtained by cutting alternatively pellets in the two small ribbons of ice. The injector is connected to the JET machine via a pumping line, required to pump the propellant gas, including a four way fast selector to choose the flight tube to be used to convey the pellets towards the plasma (3 tracks are available on JET for injection from the Low Field Side, from the High Field side or vertically). After a brief presentation of the project organisation, the overall design will be discussed as well as the first results obtained with the prototype. (author)

135

MINERV?A : A High Statistics Neutrino Scattering Experiment in the NuMI Neutrino Beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MINER?A experiment at Fermilab propose a fully-active scintillator based fine grained neutrino detector exposed to the high rate NuMI neutrino beam. Minerva will measure low energy neutrino interaction properties and cross-sections to a new level of precision. These measurements will be critical input to neutrino oscillations measurements from accelerator neutrino oscillations experiments which will be performed in this energy range

136

Deuterium pellet injector gun design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging

137

Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATA injector, developed from experience gained from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) linac, has recently been completed. The injector consists of ten 0.25 MV cells that are used to develop 2.5 MV across a single diode gap. The 10 kA beam is extracted from a 500 cm2 plasma cathode at average rates of up to 5 Hz and burst rates to 1 kHz. Pulsed power from 20 water filled blumleins is divided and introduced symmetrically through four ports on each cell. All major insulators are fabricated from filled epoxy castings. With these improvements, the ATA injector is smaller than the ETA injector; has a faster pulse response; has lower voltage stress on insulators and higher ultimate performance. Injector characterization tests began in October 1982. These tests include beam current, energy, and emittance measurements

138

Injector for negative ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes an injector for negative ions at a predetermined energy level along an injection axis, the injector comprising: A. ion source means for producing He+ ions, B. vacuum chamber means connected to the ion source for providing a vacuum environment through which the ions pass, C. vapor canal means in the vacuum chamber for producing charge exchange vapor in a contained space, D. first permanent magnet means in the vacuum chamber for deflecting the He+ ions from the ion source means onto an axis through the vapor and for focusing the positive ion beam to a focal point in the vapor, the vapor transferring electrons to the ions to produce He- ions, E. second permanent magnet means in the vacuum chamber at the exit of the canal means for focusing the He- ions and deflecting the negative ions onto the injection axis, F. power supply means connected to the ion source or elevating the energy of the ions to the predetermined energy level

139

The light-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an extensive field mapping program the magnetic fields of the main coils and various pole-gap coils of the light-ion injector (SPC1) were measured. As a further test, the measured field maps were used to calculate the excitation currents through the various coils for a specific field shape. Orbit calculations, based on the electric potential fields measured is the electrolytic tank on the 3:1 scale model of the central region, made it possible to optimise the ion-source position, improve the axial focussing of the beam and specify an approximate position for the second axial. The coils for the first magnetic channel were manufactured and field measurements with the channel in position in the pole-gap have been performed. The radio-frequency system of SPC1 consists of three main sections, namely resonators, power amplifiers and the control systems. The purpose of the rf-system is to provide the accelerating voltages of up to 70 kV peak in the 8,6 to 26 MHz frequency range, which are required to accelerate the particle beams

140

Steam injectors modelling with CATHARE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among thermal-hydraulic passive systems, the Steam Injectors are one of the most interesting apparatus. In a Steam Injector (SI), steam is used as an energy source to pump low pressure and low temperature water. The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency Feed Water System (EFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The DEEPSSI program was supported by the European Commission in the framework of the 5th R and D program. The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative Steam Injector (SI) design. In the frame of the DEEPSSI project, the development of a specific 1D module of the CATHARE code for the Steam Injector has been achieved. A set of modified correlations - the interfacial friction and the bulk condensation rate in the mixing chamber is used in the presented studies. The first results have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE to well describe the studied steam injectors. The proposed SI modeling was qualified in different test conditions (different inlet vapor pressures, different liquid flow rates, different injectors: CLAUDIA, IETI, IMP-PAN) and it seems rather satisfactory. A simple model of closed circuit has been proposed. It proved the capability of the steam injector model for the CATHARE computer code to work in a closed circuit under relevant reactor conditions. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

High-brightness electron injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

142

Present status of HIMAC injectors at NIRS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A HIMAC injector is equipped with three ion sources, and provides heavy ions from H to Xe with three ion sources. A heavy-ion beam, as accelerated with the injectors, can be transported to the HIMAC synchrotrons as well as the medium beam-energy line with time sharing operation. Furthermore, a compact injector is recently installed as a second injector of HIMAC, and will be used for treatment operation. In this paper, we report an overview of the HIMAC injectors. (author)

143

Superconducting positive-ion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In last year's report, the authors described a long-range plan to upgrade the performance of ATLAS by replacing the present negative-ion source and tandem injector with a positive-ion system consisting of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a superconducting injector linac. The ultimate objective of this upgrade is to (1) increase the beam current by a large factor and (2) to extend the mass range up to uranium. Planning for the positive-ion injector is progressing vigorously. At this stage of the work, the most critical activity is the development of a suitable accelerating structure for slow-moving ions. A first prototype of such a structure is nearing completion. In addition considerable effort has been devoted to a study of the beam dynamics of the injector linac

144

Heavy Ion Fusion Injector Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program is underway to construct a 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion. The Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector configuration consists of a zeolite source, a diode of up to 1 MV, together with several electrostatic quadrupole units to simultaneously focus and accelerate the beam to 2 MV. The key issues of source technology, high voltage breakdown, beam aberrations, and transient effects will be discussed. Results from ongoing experiments and simulations will be presented

145

Steady state neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Learning from operational reliability of neutral beam injectors in particular and various heating schemes including RF in general on TFTR, JET, JT-60, it has become clear that neutral beam injectors may find a greater role assigned to them for maintaining the plasma in steady state devices under construction. Many technological solutions, integrated in the present day generation of injectors have given rise to capability of producing multimegawatt power at many tens of kV. They have already operated for integrated time >105 S without deterioration in the performance. However, a new generation of injectors for steady state devices have to address to some basic issues. They stem from material erosion under particle bombardment, heat transfer > 10 MW/m2, frequent regeneration of cryopanels, inertial power supplies, data acquisition and control of large volume of data. Some of these engineering issues have been addressed to in the proposed neutral beam injector for SST-1 at our institute; the remaining shall have to wait for the inputs of the database generated from the actual experience with steady state injectors. (author)

146

Assessment of radiological releases from the NuMI facility during MINOS and NOvA operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report makes projections of the radiological releases from the NuMI facility during operations for the MINOS and NO ?A experiments. It includes an estimate of the radionuclide levels released into the atmosphere and the estimated tritium and sodium-22 concentrations in the NuMI sump water and Fermilab pond system. The analysis was performed for NuMI operations with a beam power on target increased from the present 400 kW design up to a possible 1500 kW with future upgrades. The total number of protons on target was assumed to be 18 x 10{sup 20} after the completion of MINOS and 78 x 10{sup 20} after the completion of NO ?A.

Martens, Mike; /Fermilab

2007-04-01

147

Measurement of Neutrino Oscillations with the MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Beam  

CERN Document Server

This letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2|=(2.43\\pm 0.13)\\times10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ (68% confidence level) and mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta)>0.90$ (90% confidence level). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight, namely neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard deviation levels, respectively.

Adamson, P; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; De Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfn, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

2008-01-01

148

Testing CPT conservation using the NuMI neutrino beam with the MINOS experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The MINOS experiment was designed to measure neutrino oscillation parameters with muon neutrinos. It achieves this by measuring the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor composition of the man-made NuMI neutrino beam 1km after the beam is formed and again after 735 km. By comparing the two spectra it is possible to measure the oscillation parameters. The NuMI beam is made up of 7.0% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, which can be separated from the {nu}{sub {mu}} because the MINOS detectors are magnetized. This makes it possible to study {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations separately from those of muon neutrinos, and thereby test CPT invariance in the neutrino sector by determining the {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillation parameters and comparing them with those for {nu}{sub {mu}}, although any unknown physics of the antineutrino would appear as a difference in oscillation parameters. Such a test has not been performed with beam {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} before. It is also possible to produce an almost pure {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam by reversing the current through the magnetic focusing horns of the NuMI beamline, thereby focusing negatively, instead of positively charged particles. This thesis describes the analysis of the 7% {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} component of the forward horn current NuMI beam. The {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} of a data sample of 3.2 x 10{sup 20} protons on target analysis found 42 events, compared to a CPT conserving prediction of 58.3{sub -7.6}{sup +7.6}(stat.){sub -3.6}{sup +3.6}(syst.) events. This corresponds to a 1.9 {sigma} deficit, and a best fit value of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} = 18 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23} = 0.55. This thesis focuses particularly on the selection of {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} events, and investigates possible improvements of the selection algorithm. From this a different selector was chosen, which corroborated the findings of the original selector. The thesis also investigates how the systematic errors affect the precision of {Delta}{bar m}{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}. Furthermore, it describes a study to determine the gains of the PMTs via the single-photoelectron spectrum. The results were used as a crosscheck of the gains determined at higher intensities by an LED-based light-injection system.

Auty, David John; /Sussex U.

2010-05-01

149

A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |{Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}|, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 23}. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

Ling, Jiajie; /South Carolina U.

2010-07-01

150

Discharge characteristics of a hydrocyclone with built-in injector  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of experimental research and numerical simulation, flow regularities in a 50-millimeter hydrocyclone with injector have been revealed. It is shown that the injected liquid comes out mostly through the lower outlet. At tangential injection toroidal vortex impeding main flow discharge through the lower outlet is formed.

Minkov, L. L.; Krokhina, A. V.; Dueck, I. G.

2011-09-01

151

A new biolistic intradermal injector  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

2013-07-01

152

ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

2007-08-29

153

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

154

Pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several advanced plasma fueling systems are under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for present and future magnetic confinement devices. These include multishot and repeating pneumatic pellet injectors, centrifuge accelerators, electrothermal guns, a Tritium Proof-of-Principle experiment, and an ultrahigh velocity mass ablation driven accelerator. A new eight-shot pneumatic injector capable of delivering 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, and 4.0 mm diameter pellets at speeds up to 1500 m/s into a single discharge has been commissioned recently on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor. The so-called Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) is a prototype of a Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) scheduled for use on TFTR in 1990. Construction of the TPI will be preceded by a test of tritium pellet fabrication and acceleration using a 4 mm bore ''pipe gun'' apparatus. A new repeating pneumatic pellet injector capable of 2.7 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm operation is being installed on the Joint European Torus to be used in ORNL/JET collaborative pellet injection studies. A 1.5 m centrifuge injector is being developed for application on the Tore Supra experiment in 1988. The new device, which is a 50% upgrade of the prototype centrifuge used on D-III, features a pellet feed mechanism capable of producing variable-size pellets (1.5 to 3.0 mm diameter) optimally shaped to survive acceleration stresses. Accelerating pellets to velocities in excess of 2 km/s is being pursued through two new development undertakings. A hydrogen plasma electrothermal gun is operational at 2 km/s with 10 mg hydrogen pellets; this facility has recently been equipped with a pulsed power supply capable of delivering 1.7 kJ millisecond pulses to low impedence arc loads

155

Pellet injector research at ORNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several advanced plasma fueling systems are under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for present and future magnetic confinement devices. These include multishot and repeating pneumatic pellet injectors, centrifuge accelerators, electrothermal guns, a Tritium Proof-of-Principle experiment, and an ultrahigh velocity mass ablation driven accelerator. A new eight-shot pneumatic injector capable of delivering 3.0 mm, 3.5 mm, and 4.0 mm diameter pellets at speeds up to 1500 m/s into a single discharge has been commissioned recently on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor. The so-called Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI) is a prototype of a Tritium Pellet Injector (TPI) scheduled for use on TFTR in 1990. Construction of the TPI will be preceded by a test of tritium pellet fabrication and acceleration using a 4 mm bore ''pipe gun'' apparatus. A new repeating pneumatic pellet injector capable of 2.7 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm operation is being installed on the Joint European Torus to be used in ORNL/JET collaborative pellet injection studies. A 1.5 m centrifuge injector is being developed for application on the Tore Supra experiment in 1988. The new device, which is a 50% upgrade of the prototype centrifuge used on D-III, features a pellet feed mechanism capable of producing variable-size pellets (1.5 to 3.0 mm diameter) optimally shaped to survive acceleration stresses. Accelerating pellets to velocities in excess of 2 km/s is being pursued through two new development undertakings. A hydrogen plasma electrothermal gun is operational at 2 km/s with 10 mg hydrogen pellets; this facility has recently been equipped with a pulsed power supply capable of delivering 1.7 kJ millisecond pulses to low impedence arc loads.

Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Foust, C.R.; Gethers, F.E.; Gouge, M.J.

1987-01-01

156

Construction and test of a high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions  

CERN Document Server

A high power injector of hydrogen cluster ions, rated for 1 MV and 100 kW, is described. The injector is split in three separate tanks connected by a 1 MV transfer line. The cluster ion beam source and all its auxiliary equipment is placed at high voltage, insulated by SF/sub 6/ gas at pressure of 4 bar. The main components of the injector are: The cluster ion beam source with integrated helium cryopumps, the CERN type acceleration tube with 750 mm ID, the beam dump designed to handle the mass and energy flux under DC conditions, a 1 MV high voltage terminal for the auxiliary equipment supplied by its 40 kVA power supply with power, and the 1 MV 120 kW DC high voltage generator. This injector is installed in Karlsruhe. Performance tests were carried out successfully. It is intended to use this injector for refuelling experiments at the ASDEX Tokamak. (12 refs).

Becker, E W; Hagena, O F; Henkes, P R W; Klingelhofer, R; Moser, H O; Obert, W; Poth, I

1979-01-01

157

Performance of SSC LINAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) LINAC Injector consists of an Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole accelerator (RFQ). The LINAC Injector is required to provide 25 mA of H- beam (pulse width of 9.6-48 ?s at 10 Hz repetition rate) at 2.5 MeV with transverse normalized rms emittance (et-n-rms) of less than 0.2 ? mm-mrad and longitudinal normalized rms emittance (e1) of less than 0.82*10-6 eV-s. An RF-driven volume source was chosen for the initial commissioning of the SSC LINAC Injector. The RF volume source generates beams with et-n-rms as low as 0.06 ? mm-mrad while meeting all other SSC ion source operating requirements (30 mA at 35 keV). The highly converging input beam required by the SSC RFQ is provided by a dual einzel lens. The initial experimental results from commissioning of the SSC LINAC Injector and experimental results pertinent to the performance of the SSC ion source and LEBT will be discussed

158

First studies of ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operational characteristics of the 10 kA, 60 ns, 2.5 MeV ATA injector are presented. Studies of beam emittance, beam profile, rf spectrum and other aspects of beam dynamics were performed, as was a detailed study of the operation and interaction of the plasma cathode and the extraction grid

159

The effect of spray angles of the injector on the power of compressed natural gas direct injection (CNGDI) engine  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out on the new design of fuel injectors for Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection (CNGDI) engine. There are two injectors designed with 30° and 70° spray angle was developed and tested. The tests on the injectors were carried out using Single Cylinder Research Engine SCRE with compression ratio of 14:1. The SCRE test bed used computerized data acquisition system. There are two main parameters for the selection of the best injector i.e. the spray angle (30° and 70°) and the operating pressure is set at 2.0 MPa. From the study, the engine performance and the emission were recorded from the test. The results indicated that the injector with 70° spray angle achieved higher performance than the other injector.

Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Aziz, Abd Rashid Abd

2012-06-01

160

Tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

 
 
 
 
161

Search for the disappearance of muon antineutrinos in the NuMI neutrino beam  

CERN Document Server

We report constraints on muon antineutrino oscillation parameters that were obtained by using the two MINOS detectors to measure the 7% antineutrino component of the NuMI neutrino beam. In the Far Detector, we select 130 events in the charged-current muon antineutrino sample, compared to a prediction of 136.4 +/- 11.7(stat) ^{+10.2}_{-8.9}(syst) events under the assumption |dm2bar|=2.32x10^-3 eV^2, snthetabar=1.0. A fit to the two-flavor oscillation approximation constrains |dm2bar|<3.37x10^-3 eV^2 at the 90% confidence level with snthetabar=1.0.

Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mathis, M; Mayer, N; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

2011-01-01

162

The PEANUT experiment in the NuMI beam at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PEANUT experiment was designed to study neutrino interactions in the few GeV range using the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The detector uses a hybrid technique, being made of nuclear emulsions and scintillator trackers. Emulsion films act as a tracking device and they are interleaved with lead plates used as neutrino targets. The detector is designed to reconstruct the topology of neutrino interactions at the single particle level. We present here the full reconstruction and analysis of a sample of 147 neutrino interactions that occurred in the PEANUT detector and the measurement of the quasielastic, resonance and deep-inelastic contributions to the total charged-current cross section. This technique could be applied for the beam monitoring at future neutrino facilities.

163

Measurement of neutrino oscillations with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI beam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |Deltam2| = (2.43+/-0.13) x 10(-3) eV2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle sin2(2theta) > 0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two alternative explanations for the disappearance of neutrinos in flight: namely, neutrino decays into lighter particles and quantum decoherence of neutrinos, at the 3.7 and 5.7 standard-deviation levels, respectively. PMID:18851439

Adamson, P; Andreopoulos, C; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehm, J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Bower, C; Buckley-Geer, E; Cavanaugh, S; Chapman, J D; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Coleman, S J; Culling, A J; de Jong, J K; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Dytman, S A; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Harris, E Falk; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Godley, A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E W; Grossman, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Kim, J J; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kotelnikov, S K; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Ma, J; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Metelko, C J; Michael, D G; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, W P; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovi?, Z; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Peck, C W; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Rahaman, A; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Seun, S-M; Shanahan, P; Smart, W; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Symes, P; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tavera, M A; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Yang, T; Zois, M; Zhang, K; Zwaska, R

2008-09-26

164

Proposal for continuously-variable neutrino beam energy for the NuMI facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI Facility was intended to be flexibly changed between 3 energies of beams, LE, ME, and HE. However, the changeover requires extensive downtime to move and realign horns and the target. We propose to implement a flexible arrangement where the target can be remotely moved in the beamline direction to change the beam energy and the horns remain fixed. In addition to having the attractive feature of keeping the horn optics fixed, the motion of the target can be performed more quickly and hence on a more frequent basis. We discuss potential increases in statistics in the high energy region, systematic cross-checks available, and the improved beam monitoring capabilities with such variable energy beams

165

ATA injector-gun calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ATA is a pulsed, 50 ns 10 KA, 50 MeV linear induction electron accelerator at LLNL. The ETA could be used as an injector for ATA. However the possibility of building a new injector gun for ATA, raised the question as to what changes from the ETA gun in electrode dimensions or potentials, if any, should be considered. In this report the EBQ code results for the four electrode configurations are reviewed and an attempt is made to determine the geometrical scaling laws appropriate to these ETA type gun geometries. Comparison of these scaling laws will be made to ETA operation. The characteristic operating curves for these geometries will also be presented and the effect of washer position determined. It will be shown that emittance growth will impose a limitation on beam current for a given anode potential before the virtual cathode limit is reached

166

Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ? Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ? ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ? Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times

167

Status of the JET high frequency pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? JET pellet injection system operational for plasma fuelling and ELM pacing. ? Good reliability of the system for Low Field Side injection of fuelling size pellets. ? ELM triggered by small pellets at up to 4.5 times the intrinsic ELM frequency. ? Pellet parameters range leading to a high probability to trigger ELM identified. -- Abstract: A new high frequency pellet injector, part of the JET programme in support of ITER, has been installed on JET at the end of 2007. Its main objective is the mitigation of the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), responsible for unacceptable thermal loads on the wall when their amplitude is too high. The injector was also required to have the capability to inject pellets for plasma fuelling. To reach this double goal, the injector has to be capable to produce and accelerate either small pellets to trigger ELMs (pace making), allowing to control their frequency and thus their amplitude, or large pellets to fuel the plasma. Operational since the beginning of the 2009 JET experimental campaign, the injector, based on the screw extruder technology, suffered from a general degradation of its performance linked to extrusion instability. After modifications of the nozzle assembly, re-commissioning on plasma has been undertaken during the first half of 2012 and successful pellet ELM pacing was achieved, rising the intrinsic ELM frequency up to 4.5 times.

Géraud, A., E-mail: alain.geraud@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [JET-EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alarcon, T. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bennett, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Frigione, D. [ENEA, CP 65, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Garnier, D. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lang, P.T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lukin, A. [PELIN LLC, 27 Gzhatskaya St., Saint-Petersburg 195220 (Russian Federation); Mooney, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vinyar, I. [PELIN LLC, 27 Gzhatskaya St., Saint-Petersburg 195220 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

168

Centrifuge pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An engineering design of a centrifuge pellet injector for JET is reported as part of the Phase I contract number JE 2/9016. A rather detailed design is presented for the mechanical and electronic features. Stress calculations, dynamic behaviour and life estimates are considered. The interfaces to the JET vacuum system and CODAS are discussed. Proposals for the pellet diagnostics (velocity, mass and shape) are presented. (orig.)

169

3 GeV Injector Design Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

2009-12-16

170

Investigations of injectors for scramjet engines  

Science.gov (United States)

Three, coordinate experimental studies were undertakes. First, an experimental study of an aerodynamic ramp (aeroramp) injector was conducted at Virginia Tech. The aeroramp consisted of an array of two rows with two columns of flush-wall holes that induce vorticity and enhance mixing. The holes were spaced four diameters apart in the streamwise direction with two diameters transverse spacing between them. For comparison, a single-hole circular injector with the same area angled downstream at 30 degrees was also examined. Test conditions involved sonic injection of helium heated to 313 K, to safely simulate hydrogen into a Mach 4 air cross-stream with average Reynolds number 5.77 · 107 per meter at a jet to freestream momentum flux ratio of 2.1. Sampling probe measurements were utilized to determine the local helium concentration. Pitot and cone-static pressure probes and a diffuser thermocouple probe were employed to document the flow. The main results of this work was that the mixing efficiency value of this aeroramp design which was originally optimized at Mach 2.4 for hydrocarbon injectants was only slightly higher than that of the single-hole injector at these high Mach number flow conditions with a low molecular weight injectant. The mass-averaged total pressure loss parameter showed that the aero-ramp and single-hole injectors had the same overall losses. The natural extension of the investigation was then to look in detail at two major physical phenomena that occur in a complex injector design such the aeroamp as well as in Scramjet combustors in general: the jet-shock interaction and the interaction of the vortical structures produced by the jets injection into a supersonic cross flow with an added axial vortex. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the effects of impinging shocks on injection of heated helium into a Mach 4 crossflow. Helium concentration, Pitot pressure, total temperature and cone-static measurements were taken during the mixing studies. It was found that the addition of a shock behind gaseous injection into a Mach 4 crossflow enhances mixing only if the shock is closer to the injection point where the counter-rotating vortex pair (always associated with transverse injection in a crossflow) is not yet formed, and the deposition of baroclinic generated of vorticity is the highest. The final investigation was concerned with the interaction of the usual vortex structure produced by jet injection into a supersonic crossflow and an additional axial vortex typical of those that might be produced by the inlet of a scramjet or the forebody of a vehicle to be controlled by jet interaction phenomena. The cases treated are for sonic, heated Helium injection from a circular jet inclined at 30 degrees to a Mach 4 flow at high Reynolds number conditions. The additional axial vortices were generated by a strut-mounted, diamond cross-section wing mounted upstream of the injection location. The wing was designed to produce a tip vortex of a strength comparable to that of one of the typical counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) found in the plume of a jet in a crossflow. For this purpose a separate study of the detailed vortex structure produced by jet injection into a supersonic crossflow was conducted. The profound interaction of supersonic vortices supported by a quantitative description and characterization of the flowfield was been demonstrated. The results show an higher value of the helium maximum concentration in all the cases investigated, but also higher penetration with a wider fuel plume compared to the case without a vortex. The decrease in mixing is attributed to severe disruption of the usual counter-rotating vortex pair in a jet plume.

Maddalena, Luca

171

Fermilab Antiproton Source, Recycler Ring, and Main Injector  

CERN Document Server

At the end of its operations in 2011, the Fermilab antiproton production complex consisted of a sophisticated target system, three 8-GeV storage rings (namely the Debuncher, the Accumulator and the Recycler), 25 independent multi-GHz stochastic cooling systems, the world's only relativistic electron cooling system and a team of technical experts equal to none. The accelerator complex at Fermilab supported a broad physics program including the Tevatron Collider Run II, neutrino experiments using 8-GeV and 120-GeV proton beams, as well as a test beam facility and other fixed target experiments using 120-GeV primary proton beams. This paper provides a brief description of Fermilab accelerators as they operated at the end of the Collider Run II (2011).

Nagaitsev, Sergei

2014-01-01

172

Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

2003-12-01

173

LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

2007-03-01

174

Cavity BPM design for PKU-FEL injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is designed for the injector of PKU-FEL Facility. The designed frequency of the dipole mode TM110 is 1.3 GHz, which is equal to the frequency of the main accelerator in PKU-FEL Facility. The cross-talk problem is solved by introducing two rectangular recesses into the cavity. The position resolution of the cavity BPM is about 10 ?m, the dynamic range is more than 30 mm and the time response is bunch to bunch, which are sufficient for the PKU-FEL injector. Compared with the bunch power, the power dissipation of the main resonant modes excited by e-bunches can be neglected. (authors)

175

Injector of multicharged ions for electrostatic accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction and the results of preliminary tests of multicharged ions in ector, which can be situated inside the high-voltage electrode of the electrttic accelerator, are described. The injector consists of a multicharged ion source, beam shaping system and system of charge ions division. Injector characteristics are: length - 700 mm, maximum diameter - 250 mm, mass - 56 kg, total power consumption - 200 W. The outlet ion current injector obtained is Ar2+ approximately 30 ?A, Ar3+ approximately 3 ?A

176

Numerical analysis of coaxial swirl injectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A growing recognition exists in the United States that injector dynamics play a pivotal role in the combustion instabilities of some Liquid Rocket Engines (LREs). Russian researchers believe injector dynamics can lead to unsteady mass flow from the injector to the combustion chamber resulting in unsteady heat release. Unsteady heat release coupled with the chamber modes, could cause combustion instability and the destruction of the rocket. The research described herein focused on the use of c...

Canino, James Vincent

2006-01-01

177

Design status of heavy ion injector program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

178

49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230.57 Transportation...and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a) Water delivery systems...

2010-10-01

179

21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1670 Syringe actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an...

2010-04-01

180

Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES and H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, re on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope

 
 
 
 
181

Pellet injector for diagnostics purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the design, construction and the testbed results for a novel compact gas gun injector for solid diagnostic pellets of different sizes and materials. The injector was optimized for the diagnostic requirements of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, yielding the possibility of a widely varying deposition profile of ablated material inside the plasma. This allows variation of the pellet velocity and the total number of injected atoms. The use of different propellant gases (He, N2, H2) results in an accessible velocity range from about 150 m/s to more than 600 m/s in the case of spherical carbon pellets with masses ranging from 2x1018 to 1020 atoms. Both the scattering angle (?1 ) and the maximum propellant gas throughput to the tokamak (less than 1016 gas particles) were found to be sufficiently low. The injector provided both high efficiency (?85%) and high reliability during the whole testbed operation period and also during the first injection experiments performed on ASDEX Upgrade. The pellet velocities achieved for different propellant gas pressures, pellet diameters, and pellet materials were analyzed. We found that, although the pellet diameters range from 0.45 to 0.85 times the barrel diameter, the pellet acceleration is mostly caused by gas drag. Pellet velocities in excss of those calculated on the basis of the gas drag model were observed. Additional acceleration that increases with the pellet diameter contrary to the gas drag model may be explained by the influence of the pellet on the gas dynamics in the barrel. (orig.)

182

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma.

Milora, S.L.; Argo, B.E.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Whealton, J.H.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schmidt, G.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

1992-12-31

183

Pellet injector development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma fueling systems for magnetic confinement experiments are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has recently provided a four-shot tritium pellet injector with up to 4-mm-diam capability for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This injector, which is based on the in situ condensation technique for pellet formation, features three single-stage gas guns that have been qualified in deuterium at up to 1.7 km/s and a two-stage light gas gun driver that has been operated at 2.8-km/s pellet speeds for deep penetration in the high-temperature TFTR supershot regime. Performance improvements to the centrifugal pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak are being made by modifying the storage-type pellet feed system, which has been redesigned to improve the reliability of delivery of pellets and to extend operation to longer pulse durations (up to 400 pellets). Two-stage light gas guns and electron-beam (e-beam) rocket accelerators for speeds in the range from 2 to 10 km/s are also under development. A repeating, two-stage light gas gun that has been developed can accelerate low-density plastic pellets at a 1-Hz repetition rate to speeds of 3 km/s. In a collaboration with ENEA-Frascati, a test facility has been prepared to study repetitive operation of a two-stage gas gun driver equipped with an extrusion-type deuterium pellet source. Extensive testing of the e-beam accelerator has demonstrated a parametric dependence of propellant burn velocity and pellet speed, in accordance with a model derived from the neutral gas shielding theory for pellet ablation in a magnetized plasma

184

Pneumatic pellet injector for JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injection is a useful tool for plasma diagnostics of tokamaks. Pellets can be applied for investigation of particle, energy and impurity transport, fueling efficiency and magnetic surfaces. Design, operation and control of a single shot pneumatic pellet gun is described in detail including all supplies, the vacuum system and the diagnostics of the pellet. The arrangement of this injector in the torus hall and the interfaces to the JET system and CODAS are considered. A guide tube system for pellet injection is discussed but it will not be recommended for JET. (orig.)

185

Status and performance of PF injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

186

Performance of the injectors with ions after LS1  

CERN Document Server

We review the performance of the ion injector chain at the light of the improvements which will take place during LS1, and we derive the expected luminosity gain for Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions in the LHC. We suggest a baseline plan of upgrades that will allow the requirements of the ALICE experiment after LS2 to be reached. An alternative plan is also presented. Finally, we examine the possibility for different ions species for which some of the other experiments have expressed an interest. The main outcomes of the presentation ‘Work effort in the injector complex (including the Linac4 connection)’ will be reminded with emphasis on their consequences on the ion operations.

Manglunki, D

2014-01-01

187

Intensity Upgrade Plans for CERN-LHC Injectors  

CERN Document Server

With LHC coming into operation very soon an upgrade plan for the whole CERN accelerator complex has been proposed to allow full exploitation of the LHC potential in the future as well as giving increased support to traditional and possible new experiments at lower beam energies. This plan foresees replacing during the period 2011 - 2017 all the accelerators in the LHC injector chain (Linac2,Booster, PS) by new machines (Linac4, SPL and PS2) except for the last - the SPS. In this scenario the SPS should be able to reliably accelerate twice higher beam intensity than achieved so far and therefore significant improvements to the machine performance, in addition to the increased injection energy due to PS2, should be found and implemented at the same time scale. The present status of proposals and ongoing studies for all accelerator injector chain is described with main emphasis on the SPS challenges and upgrade plans.

Shaposhnikova, Elena

2008-01-01

188

A hot-spare injector for the APS linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

189

Design of a megawatt neutral injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power neutral injection plays an increasingly important role in controlled fusion research as a means of heating a magnetically-confined plasma; there is also considerable interest in various beam-fusion energy amplifier systems in which efficient neutral injection plays an essential role. Next generation neutral injection systems will require energies approximately 60-80 keV (H0) for periods approximately 1 sec with power levels approximately 1 MW in the neutral beam. The main features of the design of a prototype megawatt neutral injection system now under construction at Culham is described. The injector is based on the extraction and acceleration of a beam of positive ions followed by conversion to neutral atoms by charge transfer collisions in a gas cell. Details of the design of the four-electrode multi-slot extraction system will be given along with estimates of the (large) gas flow required for the neutralizer gas cell. This large gas load can be handled conveniently only by means of high speed cryopumps and one of the first aims of the programme is to evaluate the performance of large (1 m2) liquid helium cooled cryo-panels for this application. A brief description of the main high voltage and auxiliary power supplies along with some aspects of the novel high voltage protection system we have proposed are also discussed

190

Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

2013-06-01

191

Hydrodynamics of shear coaxial liquid rocket injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodynamic instabilities within injector passages can couple to chamber acoustic modes and lead to unacceptable levels of combustion instabilities inside liquid rocket engines. The instability of vena-contracta regions and mixing between fuel and oxidizer can serve as a fundamental source of unsteadiness produced by the injector, even in the absence of upstream or downstream pressure perturbations. This natural or "unforced" response can provide valuable information regarding frequencies where the element could conceivably couple to chamber modes. In particular, during throttled conditions the changes in the injector response may lead to an alignment of the injector and chamber modes. For these reasons, the basic unforced response of the injector element is of particular interest when developing a new engine. The Loci/Chem code was used to perform single-element, 2-D unsteady CFD computations on the Hydrogen/Oxygen Multi-Element Experiment (HOMEE) injector which was hot-fire tested at Purdue University. The Loci/Chem code was used to evaluate the effects of O/F ratio, LOX post thickness, recess length and LOX tube length on the hydrodynamics of shear co-axial rocket injectors.

Tsohas, John

192

Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 ?m and 733 ?m with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 ?m and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

2010-04-01

193

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

Science.gov (United States)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for more than 15 years. Recent major applications of the ORNL development program include: (1) a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; (2) a centrifuge pellet injector for the Tore Supra tokamak, and most recently; (3) a three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector for the DIII-D tokamak. In addition to applications, ORNL is developing advanced technologies, including high-speed pellet injectors, tritium injectors, and long-pulse pellet feed systems. The high-speed research involves a collaboration between ORNL and ENEA-Frascati in the development of a repeating two-stage light gas gun based on an extrusion-type pellet feed system. Construction of a new tritium-compatible, extruder-based repeating pneumatic injector (8-mm-diam) is complete and will replace the pipe gun in the original tritium proof-of-principle experiment. The development of a steady-state feed system in which three standard extruders operate in tandem is under way. These research and development activities are relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and are briefly described in this paper.

Combs, S. K.; Barber, G. C.; Baylor, L. R.

194

Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

2014-12-01

195

Present status and future of compact injector at NIRS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A HIMAC injector is equipped with three ion sources, and provides heavy ions from H to Xe with the sources. The compact injector, which developed at the NIRS, was recently installed in the HIMAC as the second injector, and the beam tests were successfully performed in April, 2011. In this report, we report a summary and the future of the compact injector. (author)

196

Internal baffling for fuel injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

2014-08-05

197

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

CERN Document Server

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. As part of this development program, we are constructing a prototype of the front end of the Project X linac at Fermilab. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) can be constructed over the period FY12-16 and will include an H- ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two SC cryomodules providing up to 30 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA. Successful operations of the facility will demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that will find applications beyond Project X in the longer term.

Ostroumov, P N; Kephart, R D; Kerby, J S; Lebedev, V A; Mishra, C S; Nagaitsev, S; Shemyakin, A V; Solyak, N; Stanek, R P; Li, D

2013-01-01

198

The SSRL injector control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control system for the new SSRL injector for SPEAR is based on one central VAX/VMS workstation with additional workstations as consoles and standard CAMAC equipment for data transmission and hardware interfacing. The CAMAC crates are connected to the central workstation by using a serial highway. The central computer has the data base that describes all the accelerator hardware characteristics and the actual accelerator status information. The application software is built on top of the central data base and is independent of the specific hardware characteristics. The operator interface uses DECWindows (X-Windows) and provides menu driven access to all machine parameters and control applications. The application programs can react on parameter changes on an event driven basis

199

Status of the CEBAF injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The injector for the CEBAF CW superconducting linac consists of a 100 keV electron gun, two choppers and a buncher. A short, room temperature, graded-beta, sidecoupled accelerator is used to increase the electron beam energy to about 500 keV to produce a good match into the first superconducting accelerator cavity. Eighteen five-cell superconducting cavities are used to produce an energy of 45 MeV before injection into the first linac. All of the room temperature centerline hardware was installed on a strongback. Testing of the 100 keV electron gun and transport system is in progress. The RF system for the choppers and buncher is nearly complete and the first tests are in progress.

Diamond, W. T.; Pico, Randolph

1989-09-01

200

Status of the CEBAF injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector for the CEBAF cw superconducting linac consists of a 100 keV electron gun, two choppers and a buncher. A short, room temperature, graded-?, sidecoupled accelerator is used to increase the electron beam energy to about 500 keV to produce a good match into the first superconducting accelerator cavity. Eighteen five-cell superconducting cavities are used to produce an energy of 45 MeV before injection into the first linac. All of the room temperature centerline hardware has been installed on a strongback. Testing of the 100 keV electron gun and transport system is in progress. The rf system for the choppers and buncher is nearly complete and the first rf tests are in progress. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
201

Status of the VICKSI tandem injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VICKSI accelerator facility is being enlarged by the addition of an 8 MV tandem as second injector. This will allow the acceleration of ions up to mass 30 u to energies of 32 MeV/A and furthermore will produce a variety of ions which are not available from the present Penning ion source installed in the terminal of the existing injector. At present installation and testing of all subsystems are in progress and the authors anticipate completion of the project before the end of this year. Routine operation with the tandem injector can start in early 1985

202

Status of the VICKSI tandem injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VICKSI accelerator facility is being enlarged by the addition of an 8 MV tandem as second injector. This will allow the acceleration of ions up to mass 30 ? to energies of 32 MeV/A and furthermore will produce a variety of ions which are not available from the present Penning ion source installed in the terminal of the existing injector. At present installation and testing of all sub-systems are in progress and it is anticipated completion of the project before the end of this year. Routine operation with the tandem injector can start in early 1985

203

Improved performance of the ATA injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last year we re-configured the ATA injector to accommodate field emission cathodes. The injector is now run as a diode machine with a 7 cm radius cathode, an A-K gap of 12.9 cm and a field stress of 190 kV/cm. The advantage of using field emission cathodes is we have increased the injector brightness by a factor of ten above the level we were able to reach using the low density plasma cathodes

204

Diode diagnostics for 3 MV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector for the 'DRAGON-I' LIA is being designed and manufactured in CAEP. The injector consists of a single gap diode, extracting at 90 nanoseconds, 3 kA, up to 3.2 MV electrons from a velvet cathode. The diode is powered through high voltage blumlein lines by two Marx generators. The authors shall present an overview of the 3.2 MV diode diagnostics, including: the A-K gap voltage measurement using capacitive voltage probes (CVPs), cathode (source) current using inductance beam probe (IBP) located on the gap between the cathode and anode, beam current and position at the injector exit using beam position monitor (BPM)

205

Academic Training: A walk through the LHC injector chain  

CERN Multimedia

2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...

Françoise Benz

2005-01-01

206

Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ? Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ? Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization.

Mazzucco, G., E-mail: gianluca.mazzucco@dicea.unipd.it [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Muraro, D.; Salomoni, V.; Majorana, C. [Department ICEA, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Marcuzzi, D.; Rigato, W.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Inoue, T.; Takemoto, J.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

2013-10-15

207

A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. locity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

208

Cryopumping system for TFTR neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cryocondensation pumping system for the TFTR neutral beam injectors is described. Topics include hardware design, differential pumping and beam loss, operational modes, and response to massive vacuum breaks

209

Injector linac for the MESA facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present several possible configurations of an injector linac for the upcoming Mainz Energy-recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) [1] and discuss their suitability for the project.

Heine, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2013-11-07

210

Hydrodynamics of shear coaxial liquid rocket injectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrodynamic instabilities within injector passages can couple to chamber acoustic modes and lead to unacceptable levels of combustion instabilities inside liquid rocket engines. The instability of vena-contracta regions and mixing between fuel and oxidizer can serve as a fundamental source of unsteadiness produced by the injector, even in the absence of upstream or downstream pressure perturbations. This natural or “unforced” response can provide valuable information regarding frequencie...

Tsohas, John

2009-01-01

211

Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K+, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 ? mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than ± 0.2% over the 1 micros pulse

212

Ramp injector scale effects on supersonic combustion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combustion field downstream of a 10 degree compression ramp injector has been studied experimentally using wall static pressure measurement, OH-PLIF, and 2 kHz intensified video filtered for OH emission at 320 nm. Nominal test section entrance conditions were Mach 2, 131 kPa static pressure, and 756K stagnation temperature. The experiment was equipped with a variable length inlet duct that facilitated varying the boundary layer development length while the injector shock structure in re...

Trebs, Adam

2012-01-01

213

Calculation of steam-water injector properties  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of this article is a calculation of steam-water injector properties using simplified one dimensional global model. In this case the injector is used as combined mixing heat exchanger and water pump. It mixes steam with water and inject water into an area with a set back-pressure. At the exit only liquid phase is present, which is caused by a shock wave which occurs in highly wet steam.

Pavlicek, Petr; Linhart, Jiri

2014-08-01

214

Beam acceleration test of the HIMAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy-ion synchrotron dedicated to medical use is under construction at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The injector system, comprising a PIG source, an ECR source, an RFQ linac, and an Alvarez linac of 100MHz, accelerates heavy ions with a charge-to-mass ratio as small as 1/7, up to 6 MeV/u. First operation of the injector system has shown satisfactory performance. (author)

215

CARE-JRA2* Activities on Photo-Injectors and CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

In the frame of the CARE project, there is a Joint Research Activity (JRA2) called PHIN (PHoto-INjectors). The main objective of this JRA is to perform Research and Development on charge-production by interaction of a laser pulse with material within RF fields and improve or extend existing infrastructures. Another activity of PHIN is the coordination of the activities of various Institutes concerning photo-injectors. A brief review of the work of the eight European laboratories involved in PHIN is presented. One of these R&D topics is the construction of a photo-injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). In this context the status of CTF3 and its main goals - the demonstration of the feasibility of the key issues of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme - is also presented.

Rinolfi, Louis

2005-01-01

216

Status of PRIMA, the test facility for ITER neutral beam injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The ITER project requires additional heating by two neutral beam injectors, each accelerating to 1MV a 40A beam of negative deuterons, delivering to the plasma about 17MW up to one hour. As these requirements have never been experimentally met, it was decided to build a test facility, PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator), in Italy, including a full-size negative ion source, SPIDER, and a prototype of the whole ITER injector, MITICA, aiming to develop the heating injectors to be installed in ITER. The Japan and the India Domestic Agencies participate in the PRIMA enterprise; European laboratories, such as KIT-Karlsruhe, IPP-Garching, CCFE-Culham, CEA-Cadarache and others are also cooperating. In the paper the main requirements are discussed and the design of the main components and systems are described.

Sonato, P.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Chitarin, G.; Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Zaccaria, P.; ITER International Team

2013-02-01

217

Efficient GO2/GH2 Injector Design: A NASA, Industry and University Cooperative Effort  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing new propulsion components in the face of shrinking budgets presents a significant challenge. The technical, schedule and funding issues common to any design/development program are complicated by the ramifications of the continuing decrease in funding for the aerospace industry. As a result, new working arrangements are evolving in the rocket industry. This paper documents a successful NASA, industry, and university cooperative effort to design efficient high performance GO2/GH2 rocket injector elements in the current budget environment. The NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program initially consisted of three vehicle/engine concepts targeted at achieving single stage to orbit. One of the Rocketdyne propulsion concepts, the RS 2100 engine, used a full-flow staged-combustion cycle. Therefore, the RS 2100 main injector would combust GO2/GH 2 propellants. Early in the design phase, but after budget levels and contractual arrangements had been set the limitations of the current gas/gas injector database were identified. Most of the relevant information was at least twenty years old. Designing high performance injectors to meet the RS 2100 requirements would require the database to be updated and significantly enhanced. However, there was no funding available to address the need for more data. NASA proposed a teaming arrangement to acquire the updated information without additional funds from the RLV Program. A determination of the types and amounts of data needed was made along with test facilities with capabilities to meet the data requirements, budget constraints, and schedule. After several iterations a program was finalized and a team established to satisfy the program goals. The Gas/Gas Injector Technology (GGIT) Program had the overall goal of increasing the ability of the rocket engine community to design efficient high-performance, durable gas/gas injectors relevant to RLV requirements. First, the program would provide Rocketdyne with data on preliminary gas/gas injector designs which would enable discrimination among candidate injector designs. Secondly, the program would enhance the national gas/gas database by obtaining high-quality data that increases the understanding of gas/gas injector physics and is suitable for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation. The third program objective was to validate CFD codes for future gas/gas injector design in the RLV program.

Tucker, P. K.; Klem, M. D.; Fisher, S. C.; Santoro, R. J.

1997-01-01

218

Preliminary considerations about the injectors of the HE-LHC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A hadron collider operating at an energy much larger than the LHC ("HE-LHC") would be a logical successor to the LHC itself, especially if its cost can be minimized by reusing a significant part of the CERN infrastructure like the existing tunnels and/or accelerators. The injector complex must however be extended to reach a beam energy of ~1.2 TeV and. in view of the time span of the HE-LHC project, the replacement of ageing accelerators can also be necessary. The main possi...

Garoby, R.

2011-01-01

219

Magnet design issues and concepts for the new injector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possible layouts of superconducting dipoles for the main injector of High Energy LHC (HE-LHC) are proposed on the basis of the experience matured with ongoing R&D activities at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), targeted at developing the technologies for high field fast cycled superconducting magnets for the SIS300 synchrotron of FAIR. Two different magnets are analysed: a) a 4 T dipole ramped up to 1.5 T/s, and b) a 6 T dipole to be operated at lower...

P Fabbricatoreinfn, Genoa

2014-01-01

220

Magnet design issues and concepts for the new injector  

CERN Document Server

Possible layouts of superconducting dipoles for the main injector of High Energy LHC (HE-LHC) are proposed on the basis of the experience matured with ongoing R&D activities at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), targeted at developing the technologies for high field fast cycled superconducting magnets for the SIS300 synchrotron of FAIR. Two different magnets are analysed: a) a 4 T dipole ramped up to 1.5 T/s, and b) a 6 T dipole to be operated at lower ramp rates.

Fabbricatore, P

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Electron gun - the LIU-5/5000 induction linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description of an improved electron gun (EG) - the LIU-5/5000 induction linac injector - is presented. EG consists of three main units: two pulse transformers (cathode and anode) and cathode assembly. A desorption-slit cathode is used in EG. The cathode tests have shown, that when the gap is 35 mm it ensures 3 kA stable current at the voltage 400 kV. Emittance value equalled 0.2 cm x rad for 80% beam. The cathode operated faultlessly for a quarter of a years and its total operating efficiency constituted 2x105 pulses

222

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength Kevlar/epoxy composite. This arbor has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

223

Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 1500 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

224

PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R and D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H- ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

225

BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun  

Science.gov (United States)

The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 ?mm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%.

Liu, Sheng-Guang; Huang, Tong-Ming; Xu, Jin-Qiang

2011-09-01

226

BXERL photo-injector based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beijing X-ray Energy Recovery Linac (BXERL) test facility is proposed in Institute of High Physics (IHEP). In this proposal, the main linac requires the injector to provide an electron beam with 5 MeV energy and 10 mA average current. An injector based on DC gun technology is the first candidate electron source for BXERL. However, the field emission in the DC gun cavity makes it much more difficult to increase the high voltage to more than 500 kV. Another technology based on a 217 MHz normal conducting RF gun is proposed as the backup injector for this test facility. We have designed this RF gun with 2D SUPERFISH code and 3D MICROWAVE STUDIO code. In this paper, we present the optimized design of the gun cavity, the gun RF parameters and the set-up of the whole injector system. The detailed beam dynamics have been done and the simulation results show that the injector can generate electron bunches with RMS normalized emittance 1.0 ?mm·mrad, bunch length 0.77 mm, beam energy 5.0 MeV and energy spread 0.60%. (authors)

227

TJ-II neutral beam injectors control and data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Control and Data Acquisition System for the Neutral Beam Injectors of TJ-II are described in this paper. The DAQ and Control architecture is based on a distributed system including VME-OS9 real-time computers and personal computers (PCs) with Linux and Windows NT. One OS9-VME local computer located near each injector performs the timing, local signal processing, signal interlock, and operation of the injector mechanical and electrical components. A main OS9-VME interfaces and controls some peripheral systems, such as the high voltage power supplies, water cooling, safety and protection systems. Control is performed from the OS9-VME machines, in which the software elements are basically C/C++ programs performing real time processing and a web server enabling access to the HTML pages acting as user graphic interface

228

Error analysis and lattice improvement for the C-ADS Injector- I  

Science.gov (United States)

The injector Scheme- I (or Injector- I) of the C-ADS linac is a 10 mA 10 MeV proton linac working in CW mode. It is mainly comprised of a 3.2 MeV room-temperature 4-vane RFQ and twelve superconducting single-spoke cavities housed in a long cryostat. Error analysis including alignment and field errors, and static and dynamic ones for the injector are presented. Based on detailed numerical simulations, an orbit correction scheme has been designed, which shows that with correction the rms residual orbit errors can be controlled within 0.3 mm and a beam loss rate of 1.7×10-6 is obtained. To reduce the beam loss rate further, an improved lattice design for the superconducting spoke cavity section has been studied.

Meng, Cai; Li, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Jing-Yu

2014-06-01

229

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures

230

Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

1981-02-01

231

Power supply of a betatron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-voltage pulse power supply of small-sized 8 MeV electron energy betatron injector is described. The supply is made on the basis of step-up pulse transformer with the accumulator total discharge. Voltage amplitude at the injector cathode reaches 100 kW at up to 5 A load current. Duration of voltage pulse of semisimesoidal form constitutes by basis 0.5 ?s. Dimensions of pilse transformer in combination with oil tank are equal to 150x140x150 mm, mass - 5.2 kg. Heating of the injector cathode, which is under high voltage conditions, is conducted using alternative voltage generator connected to primary coil of pulse transformer. Operation of power supply is considered

232

LTP fibre injector qualification and status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the current state of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) fibre injector qualification project in terms of vibration and shock tests. The fibre injector is a custom built part and therefore must undergo a full space qualification process. The mounting structure and method for sinusoidal vibration and random vibration tests as well as shock tests will be presented. Furthermore a proposal will be presented to use the fibre injector pair qualification model to build an optical prototype bench. The optical prototype bench is a full-scale model of the flight model. It will be used for development and rehearsal of all the assembly stages of the flight model and will provide an on-ground simulator for investigation as an updated engineering model.

233

Numerical simulations of a lobed fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical modeling of the nonreactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates strong streamwise vorticity, producing locally high strain rates which can enhance the molecular mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. Vortex element modeling is used to simulate flow field evolution and fuel element mixing characteristics for this lobed fuel injector. Quantitative predictions for vorticity generation and qualitative results for streamwise rollup compare well qualitatively with recent experimental investigations of this flow field [Smith {ital et al.}, Phys. Fluids {bold 9}, 667 (1997)]. Parametric studies of the effects of lobe amplitude-to-wavelength ratio, lobe angle, and lobe shape for given flow conditions suggest that geometrical features may be optimized to enhance mixing and control reaction processes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Strickland, J.H. [Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87185-0836 (United States); Selerland, T.; Karagozian, A.R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, 90095-1597 (United States)

1998-11-01

234

Numerical Simulations of a Lobed Fuel Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical modeling of the nonreactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates strong streamwise vorticity, producing locally high strain rates which can enhance the molecular mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. Vortex element modeling is used to simulate flow field evolution and fuel element mixing characteristics for this lobed fuel injector. Quantitative predictions for vorticity generation and qualitative results for streamwise rollup compare well qualitatively with recent experimental investigations of this flow field [Smith et al, Phys. Fluids 9, 667 (1997)]. Parametric studies of the effects of lobe amplitude-to-wavelength ratio, lobe angle, and lobe shape for given flow conditions suggest that geometrical features may be optimized to enhance mixing and control reaction processes.

Strickland, J. H.; Selerland, T.; Karagozian, A. R.

1998-01-01

235

Linear and nonlinear dynamics of swirl injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of a classical swirl injector has been studied using a linear analytic model and a nonlinear computational model using the boundary element method (BEM). A methodology was developed to compare the responses of both these models. The existing linear inviscid analytical model has been amended to account for additional wave interactions arising from two rows of channels within the vortex chamber. As expected, such an injector has better overall stability characteristics. A perturbing chamber pressure boundary condition was incorporated along with a more accurate integration of mass flow at the exit plane in the BEM code. The amplitude and phase response for various operating frequencies are studied. A linear stability analysis of an infinitely long annular swirling liquid sheet with an outer wall and inner gas core was performed to study the growth of small disturbances on the liquid surface. It was validated by introducing simplifying constraints and comparing it with the classic Kelvin-Helmotlz solution for wind over water. Trade studies show that surface tension is a stabilizing force when Rossby number is greater than unity. The effects of swirl, velocity ratio and density ratio are also examined. However, results indicate that this type of wave growth plays no part in the dynamics of a realistic swirl injector under consideration whose operating conditions are beyond the range wherein such a phenomenon would occur. The linear and nonlinear dynamics of swirl injectors are characterized for various frequencies. Although the injector does not show any nonlinear behavior there is a deviation from the linear model results after a certain frequency. A thorough analysis indicates that this phenomenon is dependent on the axial momentum of the liquid. It is theorized that this is associated with the flow turning from the inlet channels into the vortex chamber. Also the effect of oscillating chamber pressure boundary condition on the dynamics of the classic swirl injector is small and an analysis that assumes a pulsed mass flow gives nearly identical results.

Richardson, Renith

236

Progress of the VICKSI-tandem injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VICKSI-accelerator combination will be enlarged by installing an 8 MV Pelletron tandem injector. The addition of the new injector will allow acceleration of ions up to 32 MeV/A for masses up to approx.= 30 u and will produce a variety of ions which are not available from the Penning ion source installed in the existing CN injector. The progress of the various subsystems for the new injector is described. (orig.)

237

ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

Soderberg, M.

2009-10-01

238

Hydrogen pellet injector for Doublet III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid hydrogen pellet injector has been developed for the Doublet III experimental fusion device. A once-through liquid helium refrigeration system maintains a hydrogen extruder cylinder at a temperature of 10 kelvin. The hydrogen is extruded into a 2 to 3 mm diameter rod which is cut off in 3 to 4 mm lengths and launched into the Doublet III vacuum vessel just prior to plasma initiation. The solenoid launcher is capable of initial pellet velocities up to 15 meters per second. This hydrogen pellet injector is now in operation on Doublet III and is beginning to produce interesting physics results

239

Overview of neutral beam injector technology developments at universities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activities of universities on the neutral beam injector developments have been overviewed. The subjects consist of NBI construction, components developments and system analyses, which are intensively studied at universities. Although neutral beam injector technologies are present day top topics, however, still a lot of efforts with flexible ideas are necessary to realize reactor relevant neutral beam injector system. (author)

240

Pellet injector research and development at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL including single-shot guns that inject one pellet, multiple-shot guns that inject four and eight pellets, machine gun-types (single- and multiple-barrel) that can inject up to >100 pellets, and centrifugal accelerators (mechanical devices that are inherently capable of high repetition rates and long-pulse operation). With these devices, macroscopic pellets (1--6 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are typically accelerated to speeds of ?1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. In the past few years, steady progress has been made at ORNL in the development and application of pellet injectors for fueling present-day and future fusion devices. In this paper, we briefly describe some research and development activities at ORNL, including: (1) two recent applications and a new one on large experimental fusion devices, (2) high-velocity pellet injector development, and (3) tritium injector research

 
 
 
 
241

High current injector for heavy ion fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 2 MV, 800 mA, K+ injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 ?s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (< 5k?) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (? 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 ?s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented

242

Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines  

Science.gov (United States)

A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be rapidly scaled from small in-space applications [500-5,000 lbf (2.2 22.2 kN)] to large thrust engine applications [80,000 lbf (356 kN) and beyond]. The triaxial injector is also less sensitive to eccentricities, manufacturing tolerances, and gap width of many traditional coaxial and pintle injector designs. The triaxial-injector injection orifice configuration provides for high injection stiffness. The low parts count and relatively large injector design features are amenable to low-cost production.

Muss, Jeff

2010-01-01

243

SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R and D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment.The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R and D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

244

Performance potential of the injectors after LS1  

CERN Document Server

The main upgrades of the injector chain in the framework of the LIU project will only be implemented in the second long shutdown (LS2), in particular the increase of the PSB energy to 2 GeV or the implementation of cures/solutions against instabilities/e-cloud effects. On the other hand, Linac4 will become available by the end of 2014. Until the end of 2015 it may replace Linac2 at short notice, taking 50 MeV protons in the PSB via the existing injection system but with reduced performance. Afterwards, the H- injection equipment will be ready and Linac4 could be connected for 160MeV H- injection into the PSB during a prolonged winter shutdown before LS2. The anticipated beam performance of the LHC injectors after LS1 in these different cases is presented. Space charge on the PS flat-bottom will remain a limitation because the PSB to PS transfer energy will stay at 1.4 GeV. As a mitigation measure new RF manipulations are presented which can improve brightness for 25 ns bunch spacing, allowing for more than no...

Bartosik, H; Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Hancock, S; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Mikulec, B; Raginel, V; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Vretenar, M

2012-01-01

245

Electromagnetic railgun hydrogen pellet injector: Progress and prospect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system suitable for hydrogen pellet acceleration has been developed and successfully tested. The first stage is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, which is responsible for injecting a medium-velocity hydrogen pellet into the second-stage railgun through a coupling piece. As the pellet enters the railgun, a specially designed arc-initiation scheme electrically breaks down the propellant gas which has followed the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun, thus forming a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet. This arc formation event coincides with the triggering of the main railgun current and allows the plasma-arc armature to subsequently propel the hydrogen pellet to a high velocity. Using this two-stage acceleration scheme with a 1-m-long railgun barrel, solid hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.2 km/s have been achieved for a pellet 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in length. The objectives of this paper are two-fold: first, a critical review of the achievements thus far on the railgun hydrogen-pellet injector and second, a description of the most recent technological developments and their implications for future work, in particular, the prospect of employing a railgun pellet injector for future large devices. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

246

Ion beam properties for ECR ion source injector systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources are essential components of heavy-ion accelerators due to their ability to produce the wide range of ions required by these facilities. The ever-increasing intensity demands have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR injector systems mainly due to advances in magnet technology as well as an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics. At the same time, enhanced diagnostics and simulation capabilities have improved the understanding of the injector beam transport properties. However, the initial ion beam distribution at the extraction aperture is still a subject of research. Due to the magnetic confinement necessary to sustain the ECR plasma, the ion density distribution across the extraction aperture is inhomogeneous and charge state dependent. In addition, the ion beam is extracted from a region of high axial magnetic field, which adds a rotational component to the beam, which leads to emittance growth. This paper will focus on the beam properties of ions extracted from ECR ion sources and diagnostics efforts at LBNL to develop a consistent modeling tool for the design of an optimized beam transport system for ECR ion sources.

247

Using one-dimensional modeling to analyze the influence of the use of biodiesels on the dynamic behavior of solenoid-operated injectors in common rail systems: Results of the simulations and discussion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Effect of using diesel or biodiesel on injector hydraulic behavior has been analyzed. ? Single and main + post injections have been studied for different injection pressures. ? Higher viscosity affects needle dynamics, especially for low injection pressure. ? The post injection masses are lower for biodiesel fuel despite its higher density. ? Modified injector has been proposed to compensate the differences between the fuels. - Abstract: The influence of using biodiesel fuels on the hydraulic behavior of a solenoid operated common rail injection system has been explored by means of a one-dimensional model. This model has been previously obtained, including a complete characterization of the different components of the injector (mainly the nozzle, the injector holder and the electrovalve), and extensively validated by means of mass flow rate results under different conditions. After that, both single and multiple injection strategies have been analyzed, using a standard diesel fuel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as working fluids. Single long injections allowed the characterization of the hydraulic delay of the injector, the needle dynamics and the discharge capability of the couple injector-nozzle for the two fuels considered. Meanwhile, the effect of biodiesel on main plus post injection strategies has been evaluated in several aspects, such as the separation of the two injections or the effect of the main injection on the post injection fuelction on the post injection fueling. Finally, a modification in the injector hardware has been proposed in order to have similar performances using biodiesel as the original injector configuration using standard diesel fuel.

248

NOvA Proposal to Build a 30 Kiloton Off-Axis Detector to Study Neutrino Oscillations in the Fermilab NuMI Beamline  

CERN Document Server

This is an updated version of the NOvA proposal. The detector is a 30 kiloton tracking calorimeter, 15.7 m by 15.7 m by 132 m long, with alternating horizontal and vertical rectangular cells of liquid scintillator contained in PVC extrusion modules. Light from each 15.7 m long cell of liquid scintillator filled PVC is collected by a wavelength shifting fiber and routed to an avalanche photodiode pixel. The reach of NOvA for sin^2(2_theta_13) and related topics is increased relative to earlier versions of the proposal with the assumption of increased protons available from the Fermilab Main Injector following the end of Tevatron Collider operations in 2009.

Ayres, D

2005-01-01

249

SSME fuel preburner injector characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

A project has been initiated at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine if preburner inter- or intra-element mixture ratio maldistributions are the cause of temperature variations in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) turbine inlet region. Temperature nonuniformity may contribute to the many problems experienced in this region. The project will involve high pressure cold-flow testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling.

Hutt, John J.

1993-11-01

250

The ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions

251

LS1 Report: injectors 2.0  

CERN Multimedia

Launched in 2009, the Accelerator Controls Renovation Project (ACCOR) will come to an end this year. It was brought in to replace the approximately 450 real-time control systems of the LHC injector complex, some of which were based on technology more than 20 years old.   One of the approximately 450 real-time systems that have been modified in the ACCOR project. These systems, which use special software and thousands of electronics boards, control devices that are essential to the proper functioning of the injectors – the radiofrequency system, the instrumentation, the injection kicker system, the magnets, etc. – and some of them were no longer capable of keeping pace with the LHC. As a result, they urgently needed to be upgraded. "In 2009, after assessing the new technology available on the market, we signed contracts with Europe's most cutting-edge electronics manufacturers," explains Marc Vanden Eynden, ACCOR Project Leader. We then quickly m...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2014-01-01

252

Integrated design of the SSC linac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linac act as a unit (referred to as the Linac Injector), the Ion Source and LEBT being cantilevered off of the RFQ. Immediately adjacent to both ends of the RFQ cavity proper are endwall chambers containing beam instrumentation and independently-operated vacuum isolation valves. The Linac Injector delivers 30 mA of H- beam at 2.5 MeV. This paper describes the design constraints imposed on the endwalls, aspects of the integration of the Ion Source and LEBT including attachment to the RFQ, maintainability and interchangeability of LEBTs, vacuum systems for each component, and the design of necessary support structure. (Author) 2 tab

253

The electron test accelerator beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A beam chopper and buncher system has been designed to improve the capture efficiency and reduce the beam spill in the Electron Test Accelerator. The buncher increases the dc beam capture from 30 to 70%. 100% beam transmission through the accelerator structures is obtained with the chopper. This report describes results of experimental tests with the beam injector. Results from computer modeling and from measurements with prototypes that have led to the design of the beam chopper and buncher system are discussed

254

Comissioning Of The Linear Accelerator-injector Of Tnk Facility  

CERN Document Server

The industrial storage facility has been developed and manufactured at Budker INP SB RAS. It contains an 80 MeV electron linear accelerator-injector and two electron storage rings: the lesser 450 MeV booster ring and the main 2.5 GeV storage ring. In 2002, the work on the accelerator assembling was begun. On December, 25 of this year the accelerator was started up, and the current at the linear accelerator output was obtained. The linear accelerator schematic together with a description of the 6 meter long accelerating DAW structure which operates at 2.8 GHz, are presented in the paper. The first results of the accelerator start-up are as follows: the accelerated electron current of ~50 mA with the energy of ~55-60 MeV.

Zagorodnikov, E I; Chernov, K N; Churkin, I N; Dolgov, A M; Filiptchenko, A V; Grachev, N N; Khramtsov, V P; Kildisheva, O E; Kokin, E N; Korchuganov, V N; Krylov, Yu V; Matveev, Yu G; Matyash, N V; Medvedko, A S; Odintsov, D G; Ostreiko, G N; Repkov, V V; Ruvinsky, S I; Serdobintsev, G V; Shvedov, D A; Sinyatkin, S V; Spinko, N V; Steshov, A G; Tararyshkin, S V; Ushakov, V A; Valentinov, A G; Yudin, V D; Yupinov, Yu L

2004-01-01

255

Study of RF-asymmetry in photo-injector  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the RF-asymmetry existing in the full cell of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell type photo-injector has been investigated. The fields of the multi-pole modes have been analyzed respectively, and lastly, a simple and reliable technique is presented to eliminate the dipole mode with the RF-asymmetry induced by dipole mode. In the process of simulation, the time domain module of CST Microwave Studio is mainly used as the tool to calculate the electro-magnetic fields. The FFT technique is employed to conduct frequency domain analysis for the fields. The results of FFT are utilized to estimate emittance growth induced by higher multi-pole modes, according to the framework of Panofsky-Wenzal theorem. Based on the above analysis, efforts have been made to eliminate dipole fields by modifying the length of vacuum port on the opposite side of RF-coupling port.

Guan, Xin; Tang, Chuanxiang; Chen, Huaibi; Huang, Wenhui; He, Xiaozhong; Xu, Peng; Li, Renkai

2007-04-01

256

Upgrade of the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector Bunching System  

CERN Document Server

Over the last few years, significant efforts were concentrated on improving the ATLAS Positive Ion Injector (PII) RF bunching system, consisting of a four-harmonic pre-buncher, Traveling Wave Chopper (TWC) and a single-frequency sinusoidal re-buncher. The primary goal was to improve RF field stability with a redesigned RF system and to improve buncher performance for higher current beams resulting in better bunch stability and time structure at the first PII superconducting resonator. The major parts of the system were redesigned and rebuilt, including the RF 12 - 48 MHz amplifiers for the harmonic pre-buncher and re-buncher, RF driver rack for the TWC, and the RF control chassis for both the pre-buncher and re-buncher. The four-harmonic resonant structure of the harmonic buncher itself was modified, too, mainly for better mechanical stability and better RF matching. These improvements will be described and the performance of the new system presented.

Sharamentov, Sergey I; Clifft, Benn; Pardo, Richard C

2005-01-01

257

Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described.

G. Gettelfinger; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; H. Kugel; P. Sichta; J. Timberlake

2003-12-04

258

Ramp injector scale effects on supersonic combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

The combustion field downstream of a 10 degree compression ramp injector has been studied experimentally using wall static pressure measurement, OH-PLIF, and 2 kHz intensified video filtered for OH emission at 320 nm. Nominal test section entrance conditions were Mach 2, 131 kPa static pressure, and 756K stagnation temperature. The experiment was equipped with a variable length inlet duct that facilitated varying the boundary layer development length while the injector shock structure in relation to the combustor geometry remained nearly fixed. As the boundary within an engine varies with flight condition and does not scale linearly with the physical scale of the engine, the boundary layer scale relative to mixing structures of the engine becomes relevant to the problem of engine scaling and general engine performance. By varying the boundary layer thickness from 40% of the ramp height to 150% of the ramp height, changes in the combustion flowfield downstream of the injector could be diagnosed. It was found that flame shape changed, the persistence of the vortex cores was reduced, and combustion efficiency rose as the incident boundary layer grew.

Trebs, Adam

259

Negative ion based neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The third IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, organized by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Japan, 11-13 November 1991, aimed to review progress made in the development of negative ion sources and to obtain a common understanding for the realization of neutral beam injectors based on negative ions. The subjects covered at the meeting were: (i) status reports and negative ion beam programs (summary of the ITER neutral beam meeting, and of the Russian, US, European and Japanese programs); (ii) negative hydrogen/deuterium sources (volume and surface sources); (iii) acceleration and neutralization of negative ions (acceleration and transport, plasma neutralizer); and (iv) the design of neutral beam injectors using negative ions (neutral beam system for the ITER HARD (high aspect ratio design) option; conceptual design of the beamline test facility; design study of a 1 MV, 4 A, D-minus test bed; NBI system for the Large Helical Device and for JT-60U). During the meeting, 35 presentations were given and two panel discussions were held

260

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

 
 
 
 
261

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

2004-11-10

262

Radionuclides in the Cooling Water Systems for the NuMi Beamline and the Antiproton Production Target Station at Fermilab  

CERN Document Server

At the 120-GeV proton accelerator facilities of Fermilab, USA, water samples were collected from the cooling water systems for the target, magnetic horn1, magnetic horn2, decay pipe, and hadron absorber at the NuMI beamline as well as from the cooling water systems for the collection lens, pulse magnet and collimator, and beam absorber at the antiproton production target station, just after the shutdown of the accelerators for a maintenance period. Specific activities of {\\gamma} -emitting radionuclides and 3H in these samples were determined using high-purity germanium detectors and a liquid scintillation counter. The cooling water contained various radionuclides depending on both major and minor materials in contact with the water. The activity of the radionuclides depended on the presence of a deionizer. Specific activities of 3H were used to estimate the residual rates of 7Be. The estimated residual rates of 7Be in the cooling water were approximately 5% for systems without deionizers and less than 0.1% f...

Matsumura, Hiroshi; Bessho, Kotaro; Sekimoto, Shun; Yashima, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Oishi, Koji; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran

2014-01-01

263

The 3 GeV synchrotron injector for SPEAR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dedicated 3 GeV injector synchrotron for the storage ring SPEAR has been constructed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SSRL, and has become operational by November 1990. The injector consists of an rf-gun, a 120 MeV linear accelerator, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and associated beam transport lines. General design features and special new developments for this injector are presented together with operational performance

264

Photographic characterization of spark-ignition engine fuel injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Manifold port fuel injectors suitable for use in general aviation spark-ignition engines were evaluated qualitatively on the basis of fuel spray characteristics. Photographs were taken at various fuel flow rates or pressure levels. Mechanically and electronically operated pintle injectors generally produced the most atomization. The plain-orifice injectors used on most fuel-injected general aviation engines did not atomize the fuel when sprayed into quiescent air.

Evanich, P. L.

1978-01-01

265

Influence of variable thrust parameters on swirl injector fluid mechanics  

Science.gov (United States)

Current swirl injector design methodologies do not consider elevated chamber pressure and less than design mass flow rate operation found in variable thrust liquid rocket engines. The objective of this work is to study the effects of elevated chamber pressure and off-design mass flow rate operation on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a high pressure chamber, water flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of elevated chamber pressure and reduced mass flow rate. The optically-accessible swirl injector allowed for determination of the film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section. High speed video and digital stills showed significant increases in the film thickness profile at high chamber pressure and low mass flow rate operation. At prescribed combinations of chamber pressure and mass flow rate, a jump was noted in the film thickness profile. This jump was assumed related to a vortex breakdown phenomenon. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber pressure at low mass flow rate operation as opposed to near-design mass flow rate operation. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber pressure worked to decrease the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. A new set of fundamental relations linking swirl injector design parameters to injector geometry and flow conditions were derived. Impacts of the research findings to the swirl injector design process were assessed.

Kenny, Robert J.

266

Nanoscale carrier injectors for high luminescence Si-based LEDs  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present the increased light emission for Si p-i-n light emitting diodes (LEDs) by geometrical scaling of the injector size for p- and n- type carriers. Simulations and electrical and optical characteristics of our realized devices support our findings. Reducing the injector size decreases the leakage of minority carriers in the injector regions, availing more carriers for effective radiative recombination in the intrinsic volume of the device. A comparison is made between reference large-scale and nano-size injector p-i-n diodes.

Piccolo, G.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; Schmitz, J.

2012-08-01

267

The Supervisory Control System for the HL-2A Neutral Beam Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supervisory control and protection system of the neutral beam injector (NBI) in the HL-2A tokamak is presented. The system is used for a safe coordination of all the main NBI subsystems. Because the system is based on computer networks with its transmission medium of optical fiber, its advantages in high operational stability, reliability, security and flexible functional expandability are clearly shown during the NBI commissioning and heating experiment in HL-2A.

268

The Supervisory Control System for the HL-2A Neutral Beam Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Supervisory control and protection system of the neutral beam injector (NBI) in the HL-2A tokamak is presented. The system is used for a safe coordination of all the main NBI subsystems. Because the system is based on computer networks with its transmission medium of optical fiber, its advantages in high operational stability, reliability, security and flexible functional expandability are clearly shown during the NBI commissioning and heating experiment in HL-2A.

Li, Bo; Li, Li; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xueyun; Yang, Jiaxing; Huang, Zhihui; Kang, Zihua; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Guoqing; Lei, Guangjiu; Rao, Jun

2009-06-01

269

First coupled CH power cavity for the FAIR proton injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The main acceleration of this room temperature linac will be provided by six CH cavities operated at 325 MHz. Each cavity will be powered by a 2.5 MW Klystron. For the second acceleration unit from 11.5 MeV to 24.2 MeV a 1:2 scaled model has been built. Low level RF measurements have been performed to determine the main parameters and to prove the concept of coupled CH cavities. In Summer 2012, the assembly and tuning of the first power prototype was finished. Until then, the cavity was tested with a preliminary aluminum drift tube structure, which was used for precise frequency and field tuning. Before Spring 2013 the final drift tube structure will be welded inside the main tanks and the preparation for copper plating will take place. This paper reports on the main tuning and commissioning steps towards that novel type of DTL and it shows the latest results measured on a fully operational CH proton cavity.

Brodhage, Robert; Ratzinger, Ulrich [IAP, Frankfurt University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Clemente, Gianluigi [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-07-01

270

Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodynamic turbulence and cavitation are known to play a significant role in high-pressure atomizers, but the small geometries and extreme operating conditions hinder the understanding of the flow’s characteristics. Diesel internal flow experiments are generally conducted using x-ray techniques or on transparent, and often enlarged, nozzles with different orifice geometries and surface roughness to those found in production injectors. In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a 3D laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160?MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently found in the spectrograms between 6 and 7.5?kHz for all nozzles and injection pressures. Further evidence of a similar spectral peak was obtained from the fuel pressure transducer and a needle lift sensor mounted into the injector body. Evidence of propagation of the nozzle oscillations to the liquid sprays was obtained by recording high-speed videos of the near-nozzle diesel jet, and computing the fast Fourier transform for a number of pixel locations at the interface of the jets. This 6–7.5?kHz frequency peak is proposed to be the natural frequency for the injector’s main internal fuel line. Other spectral peaks were found between 35 and 45?kHz for certain nozzle geometries, suggesting that these particular frequencies may be linked to nozzle dependent cavitation phenomena.

Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

2014-12-01

271

CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by these investigators to be very valuable for code validation because combustion kinetics, turbulence models and atomization models based on low pressure experiments of hydrogen air combustion do not adequately verify analytical or CFD submodels which are necessary to simulate rocket engine combustion. We wish to emphasize that the simulations which we prepared for this meeting are meant to test the accuracy of the approximations used in our general purpose spray combustion models, rather than represent a definitive analysis of each of the experiments which were conducted. Our goal is to accurately predict local temperatures and mixture ratios in rocket engines; hence predicting individual experiments is used only for code validation. To replace the conventional JANNAF standard axisymmetric finite-rate (TDK) computer code 2 for performance prediction with CFD cases, such codes must posses two features. Firstly, they must be as easy to use and of comparable run times for conventional performance predictions. Secondly, they must provide more detailed predictions of the flowfields near the injector face. Specifically, they must accurately predict the convective mixing of injected liquid propellants in terms of the injector element configurations.

Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

272

Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm3), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented

273

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) has been designed and is being fabricated. The injector will be installed on the STOR-M tokamak (R = 0.46 m, a = 0.12 m) to study CT injection into tokamak discharges. The injector is of coaxial configuration consisting of formation, compression and acceleration sections. Discharge of a 500 ?F (2 kV) capacitor bank through a solenoid is capable of inducing a quasi-steady magnetic flux up to 1 mWb. Four fast-acting gas puffing valves inject up to 4 x 1019 hydrogen particles within 100 ?sec into the formation region. Two 20 ?F (20 kV) capacitor banks are used for the formation, compression and acceleration of a CT. High density tungsten coating, ac glow discharge cleaning and on-line baking are among the efforts to produce high quality CTs with low impurity contents. The envisaged CT parameters are: ro (outer radius) ? 0.05 m, ri (inner radius) ? 0.018 m, L (length) ? 0.15 m, n (density) ? 4 x 1021 m-3 and v (velocity) ? 400 km/sec. CT with these parameters should be able to penetrate 1 Tesla magnetic field in the STOR-M tokamak. Magnetic probes and He-Ne laser interferometer will be used to measure the CT velocity, density, magnetic field, and length. Spectroscopic measurements will be performed to investigate impurity contents in the CT. The CT parameters, especially its particle inventory, are designed to allow disruption-free CT injection intruption-free CT injection into the STOR-M tokamak. The emphasis of this research program is to study physics involved in tokamak plasma refueling by CT injection. Feasibility of plasma heating and current drive will also be investigated. In particular, the dependence of injection processes on the injection angle (130 degree to 40 degree with respect to the plasma current direction) will be studied in detail

274

Numerical analysis of coaxial swirl injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing recognition exists in the United States that injector dynamics play a pivotal role in the combustion instabilities of some Liquid Rocket Engines (LREs). Russian researchers believe injector dynamics can lead to unsteady mass flow from the injector to the combustion chamber resulting in unsteady heat release. Unsteady heat release coupled with the chamber modes, could cause combustion instability and the destruction of the rocket. The research described herein focused on the use of computational fluid dynamics to describe the frequency and amplitude of unsteady mass flow rate from a gas-centered coaxial swirl injector with varying geometries and fluid properties. An incompressible model, therefore, was utilized to investigate the effects of density ratio, liquid swirl velocity, liquid film thickness, collar thickness, and recess length. Present findings showed that the frequency at which the liquid film oscillates increases as the density ratio and collar thickness increase, decreases as the film thickness and liquid swirl velocity increases, and is unaffected by the recess length. Thus, the frequency seems dependent on the behavior of the vortex shedding/reattachment from the collar and the dynamic pressure imbalance on the liquid surface. The vortex behavior has been included as an important parameter for determining the behavior of the film given that the collar thickness affects the frequency. Since these studies lead to the belief that the vortex dynamics aft of the collar are important, a more fundamental study concerning the vortex dynamics behind a splitter plate/post was undertaken. For this study a compressible model was utilized to investigate the effects of momentum ratio, axisymmetry, the presence of a wall near the splitter, and swirl. Shedding frequency was found to increase as the momentum ratio varies from unity. Furthermore, axisymmetry reduced the shedding frequency over all momentum ratios. The presence of a wall near the splitter, in contrast, increased the shedding frequency when the higher momentum stream was adjacent to the wall. Finally, swirl caused complex interactions aft of the splitter rendering distinct trends in shedding frequency difficult to discern for high amounts of swirl.

Canino, James Vincent

275

An induction linac injector for scaled experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10-18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level

276

Solid hydrogen pellet injector for T-10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the first Soviet high-speed hydrogen pellet injector operating on T-10. An experimental investigation was done of the interaction process between the fuel pellet and the tokamak plasma and the diagnostics of the transfer process in the plasma. The system is calculated on the injection during the discharge pulse of a single pellet containing hydrogen with a velocity of up to 700 m/sec. The experiments conducted in T-10 have included an investigation of the limits of stability of the injection, the heat and particle transfer processes in the plasma and the effect of the injection on MHD perturbation

277

An induction linac injector for scaled experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig

278

Development of a PIG ion source for HIRFL injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and improvement of the PIG ion source for the injector of HIRFL project are presented. Using this PIG source the beam currents of 5 ? A and 10 ? A for O5+ and C4+ respectively have been extracted from the injector m the

279

Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

Ipe, N.

1991-09-01

280

Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs

 
 
 
 
281

Injector for RFQ using electrostatically focused transport and matching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the principles and performance of a new type of high- current H- injector for RFQs. The distinguishing feature of our injector is that we replace the conventional gas-neutralized transport and matching units by electrostatic focusing units. Our system prevents plasma formation along the beam instead of utilizing it. Some advantages of this approach are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs

282

Injector for RFQ using electrostatically focused transport and matching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the principles and performance of a new type of high-current H{sup {minus}} injector for RFQs. The distinguishing feature of our injector is that we replace the conventional gas-neutralized transport and matching units by electrostatic focusing units. Our system prevents plasma formation along the beam instead of utilizing it. Som advantages of this approach are discussed.

Anderson, O.A.; Soroka, L.; Kwan, J.W.; Wells, R.P. (Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-08-05

283

Component of astronauts survival equipment backpack - medical injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The automatic medical injectors were carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts space suit.

1963-01-01

284

Measurements of Inclusive Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged Current Differential Cross Sections on Argon in the NuMI Antineutrino Beam  

CERN Document Server

The ArgoNeuT collaboration presents measurements of inclusive muon neutrino and antineutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon in the Fermilab NuMI beam operating in the low energy antineutrino mode. The results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum at a mean neutrino energy of 9.6 GeV (neutrinos) and 3.6 GeV (antineutrinos), in the range $0^\\circ < \\theta_\\mu < 36^\\circ$ and $0 < p_\\mu < 25$ GeV/$c$, for both neutrinos and antineutrinos.

Acciarri, R; Asaadi, J; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Hatcher, R; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G P

2014-01-01

285

Pitfalls when using a contrast medium injector in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a power injector to applicate GD-DTPA we found a contrast enhancement of the pyelo-caliceal system even in the native studies, and hence we analysed pitfalls when using power injectors in MRI. Material and methods: We used a power injector Spectris trademark (MedRad, Maastricht, Netherlands). In vitro artifacts were achieved by the mixture of contrast media and saline solution. We substituted contrast media by red water, NaCl by clear water. Results: Using power injectors in MRI, some pitfalls must be avoided, which can render investigations useless, especially dynamic contrast-enhanced investigations. Conclusion: In our study we showed an easy way to overcome some pitfalls and use a power injector in MRI in a diagnostically helpful way. The simple use of valves inhibits the mixture of contrast media and saline solution. (orig.)

286

Development of a high average current rf linac thermionic injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermionic electron guns are capable of operating at high average currents in a variety of vacuum electronic applications, including conventional microwave tubes, but have been replaced by laser photocathode injectors for most applications requiring high-brightness electron beams. However, while laser photocathode guns are capable of providing the very high-brightness beams, they provide an increased level of system complexity and do not extrapolate well to injectors for high average current applications requiring high beam quality. We are developing a 714 MHz injector based on a gridded thermionic electron gun for these applications. This paper presents an experimental study, computer simulations, and analysis of the performance of an existing gridded thermionic electron gun as an injector prototype, and a design concept for an improved injector configuration based on these results.

Gold, S. H.; Ting, A.; Jabotinski, V.; Zhou, B.; Sprangle, P.

2013-08-01

287

Error analysis and lattice improvement for the C-ADS Injector-I  

CERN Document Server

The injector (Scheme-I) of the C-ADS linac is a 10-mA 10-MeV proton linac working in CW mode. It is mainly comprised of a 3.2-MeV room-temperature 4-vane RFQ and twelve superconducting single-spoke cavities housed in a long cryostat. Error analysis including alignment and field errors, static and dynamic ones for the injector are presented. Based on detailed numerical simulations, an orbit correction scheme has been designed. It shows that with correction the rms residual orbit errors can be controlled within 0.3 mm and a beam loss rate of 1.7*10^-6 is obtained. To reduce the beam loss rate further, an improved lattice design for the superconducting spoke cavity section has been studied.

Meng, Cai; Tang, Jingyu

2013-01-01

288

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4+, Ne 3+, and He 2+ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4+ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ? cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the A.C. distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a D.C. power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. A.C. power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer

289

Multi-beam injector development at LBL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LBL is developing a multi-beam injector that will be used for scaled accelerator experiments related to Heavy Ion Fusion. The device will produce sixteen 0.5 Amp beams of C+ at 2 MeV energy. The carbon arc source has been developed to the point where the emittance is within a factor of four of the design target. Modelling of the source behavior to find ways to reduce the emittance is discussed. Source lifetime and reliability is also of paramount importance to us and data regarding the lifetime and failure modes of different source configurations is discussed. One half of the accelerating column has been constructed and tested at high voltage. One beam experiments in this half column are underway. The second half of the column is being built and the transition 2 MV experiments should begin soon. In addition to beam and source performance we also discuss the controls for the injector and the electronics associated with the source and current injection. 3 refs., 2 figs

290

Pneumatic pellet injector research at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced pneumatic-injector-based pellet fueling systems are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range from 1 to 2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumatic-based pellet fueling systems for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET), and a new simplified eight-shot injector has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These long-pulse devices operate reliably at up to 1.5 km/s with pellet sizes ranging between 1 and 6 mm. In addition to these activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies such as the electrothermal gun and the two-stage light-gas gun to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets to 1.4 km/s were recently demonstrated. 27 refs., 10 figs

291

Improved Bevatron local injector ion source performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests of the improved Bevatron Local Injector PIG Ion Source using particles of Si 4+, Ne 3+, and He 2+ are described. Initial measurements of the 8.4 keV/nucleon Si 4+ beam show an intensity of 100 particle microamperes with a normalized emittance of .06 ? cm-mrad. A low energy beam transport line provides mass analysis, diagnostics, and matching into a 200 MHz RFQ linac. The RFQ accelerates the beam from 8.4 to 200 keV/nucleon. The injector is unusual in the sense that all ion source power supplies, the ac distribution network, vacuum control equipment, and computer control system are contained in a four bay rack mounted on insulators which is located on a floor immediately above the ion source. The rack, transmission line, and the ion source housing are raised by a dc power supply to 80 kilovolts above earth ground. All power supplies, which are referenced to rack ground, are modular in construction and easily removable for maintenance. AC power is delivered to the rack via a 21 kVA, 3-phase transformer. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

292

Steam injector development for ALWR's application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam Injectors (SI's) can be used in Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's) for high pressure makeup water supply; this solution seems to be very attractive because of the ''passive'' features of SI's, that would take advantage of the available energy from steam without introduction of any rotating machinery. In particular, SI's could be used for high pressure safety injection in BWR's or for emergency feedwater in the secondary side of evolutionary PWR's. An instrumented Steam Injector (SI) prototype, operating at high pressures, has been built and tested. The experimental results confirm the capability of tested SI to operate at constant inlet water pressure (about 0.3 MPa) and inlet water temperature up to 50 deg. C, with steam pressure ranging from 2.5 to 9 MPa (4.5-9 MPa at maximum inlet water temperature). The discharge pressure target (10% higher than steam pressure) was fulfilled in the operating range. It should be noted that the minimum operating limit can be lowered to 1.5 MPa with some modifications. To achieve these results an original double-overflow flowrate-control/startup system, patented by ENEL/CISE in 1993, has been used. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

293

Progress in the study and construction of the TESLA test facility injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 500 MeV, 1.3 GHz superconducting linear accelerator is being studied and built to serve as a test facility for the TESLA linear collider project. The phase 1 injector consists of a 250 keV electron gun, buncher and a superconducting capture cavity at the main linac frequency. The main characteristics (intensity, position, emittance, bunch length, energy spread) are to be measured using different techniques. A particular effort will be made on the use of optical transition radiation (OTR) for the determination of the transverse beam emittance as well as the bunch length. (K.A.)

294

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

2014-02-01

295

Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented

296

Emittance compensation for an SRF photo injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a superconducting photo injector is an ongoing challenge at the HZDR in Dresden. Several milestones like the first operation of a half cell niobium cavity in 2002 and the worldwide first beam transfer from a 3 1/2-cell SRF gun into an actual accelerator structure have already been accomplished. Nevertheless, as superconducting electron sources are of great interest for future ERL or cw operated FEL projects, studies to improve their output parameters and stability continue to get them on the same level as their normal conducting counterparts. The talk discusses several of the current approaches to reduce the transversal emittance of the next 3 1/2-cell cavity at the HZDR including the installation of a superconducting solenoid within the gun's cryostat.

Vennekate, H.; Lu, P. [HZDR (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Arnold, A.; Mucek, P.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R. [HZDR (Germany); Kamps, T. [HZB (Germany); Kneisel, P. [JLab (Germany); Voelker, J. [HZB (Germany); Humboldt Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Volkov, V. [BINP (Germany); Will, I. [MBI (Germany)

2013-07-01

297

PLT and ISX neutral beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six high power (40 keV--60 A) injection systems, four for PLT (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) and two for ISX (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) tokamaks, have been developed, fabricated, and operated. Each injector delivers 750 kW (1000 kW) of H (D) neutral power to the tokamak plasma. An in-depth system parameter study has revealed unique features: high atomic yield (approximately 85%), improved ion optics due to a preacceleration technique, near steady-state operation (up to 500 msec), and a possible technique to control species yield. Routine operation includes high duty cycle (approximately 10%), long filament lifetime (several months), high arc efficiency, and the reliability necessary for application on a fusion device. The program status and injection parameters will be discussed

298

Emittance compensation for an SRF photo injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a superconducting photo injector is an ongoing challenge at the HZDR in Dresden. Several milestones like the first operation of a half cell niobium cavity in 2002 and the worldwide first beam transfer from a 3 1/2-cell SRF gun into an actual accelerator structure have already been accomplished. Nevertheless, as superconducting electron sources are of great interest for future ERL or cw operated FEL projects, studies to improve their output parameters and stability continue to get them on the same level as their normal conducting counterparts. The talk discusses several of the current approaches to reduce the transversal emittance of the next 3 1/2-cell cavity at the HZDR including the installation of a superconducting solenoid within the gun's cryostat.

299

NBS-LANL RTM injector installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The injector for the NBS-LANL CW racetrack microtron consists of a 100 KeV electron gun and beam transport line followed by a 5 MeV linac. The function of the gun and transport line, which have been installed at NBS, is to provide a chopped and bunched 100 KeV and up to 0.67 mA dc or pulsed beam of very low transverse emittance for matched insertion into the linac. In this paper the authors present both the design and construction details of the 100 KeV system and the results of preliminary beam tests. The tests conducted thus far show the gun and transport system to be performing well within design specifications

300

A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current

 
 
 
 
301

Multibarrel repetitive injector with a porous pellet formation unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New repetitive multibarrel pellet injector for steady-state fueling and diagnostics purposes in large fusion devices has been designed. The injector is intended to apply in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Japan. The steady-state operation is provided by ten pipe-guns with unique porous units forming solid hydrogen pellets for 5 - 9 s in every barrel. Over one thousand hydrogen pellets have been formed and accelerated to 1.2 km/s at the different repetitive rates. The injector design and experimental results are presented. (author)

Viniar, I. [Saint-Petersburg State Technical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sudo, S.

1997-07-01

302

Neutral-beam injectors for 1990 and 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anticipated developments in neutral-beam technology are described. Particular attention is given to gas efficiency, power efficiency, beam optics, and injector size. It is concluded that negative-ion sources can be made to operate with gas efficiencies in excess of 10%, while negative-ion neutral-beam injectors, using D2 gas stripping cells, will operate at power efficiencies of roughly 50% in ten years. Twenty-five years from now, negative-ion neutral-beam injectors, using photodetachment, will operate at efficiencies approaching 70%

303

Computation of Cavitating Flows in a Diesel Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

The flow inside Diesel injectors is important because of its effect on the spray and the atomization process in the combustion chamber. Due to huge stress at the orifice entrance, cavitation occurs in high-pressure Diesel injectors. In this study, we investigate numerically the cavitating steady flow in a Diesel injector. The mixture model based on a single fluid and the standard k-e turbulence model are used to simulate the multiphase turbulent flow. The effects of some geometrical parameters on both the discharge coefficient and the vapor fraction are presented.

Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H.

2010-11-01

304

Numerical and experimental study of the beam dynamics of CANDELA photo-injector and associated instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser triggered radiofrequency guns are the most luminous electron sources allowing to reach the performances requested by highly demanding applications like the e+/e-linear colliders and the short wave free electron lasers. CANDELA is a band S photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. It allows reaching peak currents of hundred of amperes at average energies higher than 2 MeV. The original concept of two accelerating cavities aims at minimizing the transverse and longitudinal emittances following the Gao's principles. From practical reasons the operating parameters, particularly the laser pulse duration, do not correspond to those considered in the design. Hence, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the gun's performances in experimental environment. The study of a stabile injector operation resulted in evolutions with consequences in the phase control systems implying the laser and the HF (Hyper Frequency) source. The beam transverse and longitudinal characteristics have been measured as a function of the main parameters i.e., the beam charge and the phase shift between the laser and the HF wave. Measurements of the transverse emittance energy dispersion and wave packed duration are presented for several injector configurations. The systems of existing beam measurements have been studied to determine the resolution and the experimental conditions to fulfill, in order to suggest improvements for the CANDELA beam. The experiments with the beam have been compared with numerical simulations. Agreement was obtained within wide ranges of parameters for most of the characteristic beam quantities

305

Operation of the repeating pneumatic injector on TFTR and design on an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector, which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been installed and operated on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The injector combines high-speed extruder and pneumatic acceleration technologies to propel frozen hydrogen isotope pellets repetitively at high speeds. First, single large (nominal 4-mm-diam) pellets provided high densities in TFTR (1.8 x 1014 cm-3 on axis); after conversion to smaller (nominal 2.7-mm-diam) pellets, up to five pellets were injected at 0.25-s intervals into a plasma discharge, giving a line-averaged density of 1 x 1014 cm-number. Operating characteristics and performance of the injector in initial tests on TFTR are presented. The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. More recently, an 8-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector next year. The new device will combine a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous pneumatic injectors at ORNL have been utilized in t injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest injector system

306

Review of LHC and injector upgrade plans - Summary  

CERN Document Server

From 29 to 31 October 2013 the Review of the LHC and Injector Upgrade Plans (RLIUP) took place in Archamps (Haute Savoie). This paper summarizes the RLIUP conclusions, which were presented at CERN on 8 November 2013.

Myers, S

2014-01-01

307

Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system

308

Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 ? mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

309

Diesel Engine Injector Faults Detection Using Acoustic Emissions Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of the method of identifying injector faults in a JCB 444T2 diesel engine using acoustic emission (AE technique. Different kinds of injector faults were seeded in the four-cylinder, four-stroke, and turbo-engine. Then, faulty injectors are tested to evaluate AE based injection fault detection. The AE signals recorded from the tests were processed in the angular, frequency and joint angular-frequency domain. The results from joint angular-frequency analysis have shown that AE can clearly monitor the changes in the combustion process due to its high signal to noise ratio, where other vibro-acoustic sources have little influence. Using features in the AE signal, faults of injector can be identified during the operation of the engine.

F. Elamin

2010-08-01

310

Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

2001-05-01

311

Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

312

Neutral beam injector research and development work in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief review covers the US neutral-beam-injector research and development work carried out at DOE Laboratories: The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), The Lawrence Berkeley and Livermore Laboratories (LBL/LLL), and The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

313

Manufacturing of beamline system for 'JT-60' neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the critical-plasma-experiment apparatus JT-60, the construction of the second stage plasma heating device for attaining the critical plasma condition is in progress, and in Hitachi Ltd., the exhaust system which is the main part of a neutral particle injection heating device is manufactured at present. Prior to the manufacture of the actual heating device comprising 14 injectors, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute completed a prototype unit having the same performance as one of them. In its general test, the maximum rated output 100 keV, 70A, 10s of hydrogen ion beam have been attained, which were the highest performance in the world. Hitachi Ltd. took part in the planning of this prototype unit from the beginning, and after having carried out the analysis and the trial manufacture of elements, the exhaust system was manufactured. These results were reflected to the design and manufacture of the actual exhaust system. Besides, the new techniques such as the aluminum coating and the measures for reducing thermal loss of cryo-panels were adopted for the actual machine after the verification of performance by the trial manufacture of the elements. The test of the actual beamline on an adjustment stand was started in June, 1984, and the installation will be started in July, 1985. (Kako, I.)

314

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule  

CERN Document Server

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule.

Rathke, John; Bluem, Hans; Campisi, Isidoro E; Cole, Michael; Daly, Edward; Hogan, John; Mammosser, John; Neil, George R; Peterson, Ed; Preble, Joseph P; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Todd, Alan M M; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark

2005-01-01

315

Design and Fabrication of an FEL Injector Cryomodule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced Energy Systems has recently completed the design of a four cavity cryomodule for use as an FEL injector accelerator on the JLAB Injector Test Stand. Fabrication is nearing completion. Four 748.5 MHz single cell superconducting cavities have been completed and are currently at Jefferson Lab for final processing and test prior to integration in the module. This paper will review the design and fabrication of the cavities and cryomodule

316

A homemade autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA) was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B) connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator. PMID:17671617

de Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; de Souza, Leandro Ruela; de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

2006-01-01

317

Design and construction of a new DC proton injector  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past 14 months, an experimental team within the accelerator operations and technology division at Los Alamos National Laboratory has completed the design, construction and partial testing of a new, very promising cw (or DC) proton injector that should meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) programs. This ion injector incorporates much of the best available technology to provide an impressive compact and high-performance system.

Schneider, J. David; Stevens, Ralph R.

1995-01-01

318

A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator.

Pedro Orival Luccas

2006-07-01

319

Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-12-01

320

Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the design of the second and third generation pneumatic devices which are being developed at ORNL. A four shot injector has been designed and operated and is currently installed on the PDX device at PPPL. A modified four shot has been designed for use on the MIT Alcator C DEVICE. The Advanced Pneumatic Injector is a development project. It's purpose is to demonstrate acceleration of 2-mm pellets at a repetition rate of 10 s/sup -1/

 
 
 
 
321

Injector for RFQ using electrostatically focused transport and matching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the principles and performance of a new type of high- current H{sup -} injector for RFQs. The distinguishing feature of our injector is that we replace the conventional gas-neutralized transport and matching units by electrostatic focusing units. Our system prevents plasma formation along the beam instead of utilizing it. Some advantages of this approach are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Anderson, O.A.; Soroka, L.; Kwan, J.W.; Wells, R.P.

1989-11-01

322

A Homemade Autosampler/Injector Commutator for Flow Injection Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An autosampler/injector commutator for flow injection analysis (FIA) was constructed with electronic components of used equipments. The apparatus is controlled by commercially available multifunctional interface (PCL711B) connected to a personal computer, and the software was written in Visual Basic language. The system was applied to water analysis and it presented satisfactory results. The low cost and simplicity are the principal characteristics of the autosampler/injector commutator.

Pedro Orival Luccas; Lio Wisniewski, C.; Cristiana Schmidt de Magalhães; Leandro Ruela de Souza; Eduardo Costa de Figueiredo

2006-01-01

323

The DEEPSSI project, design and modelling of steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DEEPSSI project is supported by the European commission in the frame of the 5th R and D framework programme. DEEPSSI is a research programme dealing with steam injectors. Among thermalhydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific thermal-hydraulic quantities (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved : CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics

324

The DEEPSSI project, design, testing and modeling of steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DEEPSSI project is a steam injector research programme. Among thermal-hydraulic passive systems, the steam injectors (also called 'condensing ejectors' or 'steam jet pumps') are very interesting apparatus with very specific characteristics (high velocity, very low pressure). The envisaged reactor application is the Steam Generator Emergency FeedWater System (EFWS) of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The heart of this project is the development and the testing of an innovative steam injector design. Three experimental facilities are involved: CLAUDIA in France, IETI in Italy and IMP-PAN in Poland. In these facilities, different design options have been tested and some significant improvements of the initial design have been obtained. In addition to the experimental studies, the development of a steam injector computational model has been undertaken in order to model industrial systems based on steam injectors. The one-dimensional module of the system code CATHARE2 has been chosen to be the basis of this model. The first results obtained have confirmed the capabilities of CATHARE2 to describe the steam injector thermal-hydraulics

325

Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of ??'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO?A experiment will search for the transition ????e and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented

326

Long-baseline neutrino physics in the U.S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of ??'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NOvA experiment will search for the transition ?? ? ?e and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented

327

Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO{nu}A experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

Kopp, Sacha E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2007-06-15

328

Mechanical properties of 3+1/2 cavity of PKU photon-injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanical properties of the main part of PKU photo-injector (3+1/2 cavity) are introduced. By optimizing the number and position of the stiff rings of the cavity with ANSYS and SUPERFISH code, the Lorentz force detuning problem when the cavity worked at pulsed mode and the 'flat' field profile problem when the cavity was tuned at low temperature were solved. Besides, a tuner with a room temperature motor and a gear box for the cavity to work at the right frequency under 2 K circumstance was designed. (authors)

329

Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic 3He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering 3He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

330

Ion source operating at the Unilac injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Unilac injection velocity (v = 0.005 X c) and the maximum potential difference between ion source and ground (320 kV) limit positive ion acceleration to a specific charge of not less than 0.0336 (corresponding to 238U8+). Ion sources qualified for the Unilac must be able to produce a charge spectrum with high intensities in the required charge states (1 - 10 particle ?A). This requirement is satisfied for all elements by the Dubna type heated cathode penning ion source. Obviously, for isotopes of low natural abundance high beam currents can only be produced by employing enriched isotopes as feeding materials. Presently the injector is equipped with one penning ion source and one duoplasmatron ion source. 90% of the noble gas ions are provided by the duoplasmatron ion source, whereas ion beams of solids are exclusively furnished by the penning source. In particular, this latter source is well suited and highly developped for producing ion beams from solids by means of the sputtering process. In the future, however, we intend to produce metal ions up to a mass of 100 by a sputter version of the duoplasmatron. (orig.)

331

Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic {sup 3}He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering {sup 3}He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.

Fisher, P.W.

1991-07-01

332

An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

Colby, E., (ed.); /SLAC

2007-03-14

333

Low-energy injector design for SSC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An injector is being designed for SSC that will deliver 30 mA of H{sup {minus}} at 35 keV, matched to the RFQ input. The H{sup {minus}} ions are produced by a new rf-driven multicusp source that uses no cesium. The ions are extracted by a high-perveance accelerator designed to handle the large electron content of this type of source. The low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) uses electrostatic focusing; gas-neutralized magnetic focusing is ruled out because pulse lengths (7--35 {mu}s) are shorter than plasma buildup times and because pulse intervals are longer than plasma decay times. Plasma buildup is prevented by the LEBT electric fields, so the system is noise free and stable. The advantages of electrostatic LEBTs were demonstrated by a previous design tested at LBL, which showed negligible emittance growth, confirming the results of computer modeling. The object of our new LEBT design is to preserve the emittance of the rf-driven source, which is less than 0.01 {pi} mrad cm (normalized rms), and thereby produce a beam well within the SSC RFQ acceptance of 0.018 {pi} mrad cm.

Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Leung, K.N.; Soroka, L.; Wells, R.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1992-04-01

334

PHIN photo-injector as the CLIC drive beam source  

Science.gov (United States)

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study proposes a multi-TeV, high luminosity, electron-positron linear collider in order to fulfill the current need for a lepton collider. The study has been started in the late 80s at CERN and currently is a joint effort with a collaboration of 40 institutes. An innovative scheme of high peak RF power production for the high accelerating gradient has been proposed for CLIC. The so called "two-beam scheme" consists of two beams that are running parallel to each other. One of the beams is to be accelerated for the collision experiments and called "the main beam". The second beam of the CLIC scheme is "the drive beam" and will be employed for the power production. The quality of the main beam acceleration depends on the stability of the power that is generated by the drive beam. Therefore, the optimization of the drive beam production with the proper time structure and within the required beam dynamics tolerances is one of the most important accelerator physics aspects of the project. Currently in the conceptual level, the baseline design of the drive beam injector consists of a thermionic gun. This electron source has to be combined with a sub-harmonic bunching system in order to provide the required time structure of the drive beam. However, a big disadvantage of this scheme is the parasitic satellite bunches that are produced due to the sub-harmonic bunching system. PHIN photoinjector has been raised as another option in order to replace the existing thermionic gun of CLIC test facility (CTF3) and to form the bases of a source for the CLIC drive beam. The PHIN project is in the framework of the European CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) program.

Chevallay, Eric; Csatari, Marta; Dabrowski, Anne; Doebert, Steffen; Egger, Daniel; Fedosseev, Valentine; Mete, Oznur; Olvegaard, Maja; Petrarca, Massimo

2012-02-01

335

Inherent stability of central element coaxial liquid-liquid injectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Most TRW liquid bi-propellant rocket engines built over the past thirty-plus years have employed a central element coaxial pintle injector and have operated with liquid/liquid propellant injection. This injector is a patented design exclusive to TRW and has unique features that make the rocket engine combustion characteristics different from those of other types of injector engine designs. Its many benefits include excellent combustion performance, efficient deep throttling, adaptability to low cost manufacturing, and high reliability. Approximately 200 pintle injector engines of various sizes and operating on a variety of propellants have been flown without a single inflight failure. An especially important feature of the pintle injector engine is its apparent inherent combustion stability. In over thirty years of development, testing, and production, TRW has never experienced combustion instability in any of its pintle injector engine designs. This has been true of engines operating over a range of thrust from 5 to 250,000 lbs. on earth-storable hypergolic propellants and a large number of smaller engines operating on a variety of propellants (21 combinations) in long duration-firing, pulsing (down to 2 msec), and deep throttling (as much as 19:1) modes. Operating chamber pressures have ranged from 10 to 3,500 psia. This record is particularly impressive given that typical TRW design practice does not consider combustion instability as an issue and no pintle engine has ever employed stability-enhancing features, such as baffles or acoustically resonant chambers. In spite of this, TRW engines have operated stably in regimes not possible with other types of injectors. Various physical explanations and combustion process models for this favorable stability characteristic have been postulated. However, a definitive study that unequivocally establishes the important stabilizing mechanisms still remains to be conducted.

Stoddard, Frank J.

1993-11-01

336

Impact of palm biodiesel blend on injector deposit formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • 250 h Endurance test on 2 fuel samples; diesel fuel and PB20. • Visual inspection of injectors running on DF and PB20 showed deposit accumulation. • SEM and EDS analysis showed less injector deposits for DF compared to PB20 blend. • Engine oil analysis showed higher value of wear particles for PB20 compared to DF. - Abstract: During short term engine operation, renewable fuels derived from vegetable oils, are capable of providing good engine performance. In more extended operations, some of the same fuels can cause degradation of engine performance, excessive carbon and lacquer deposits and actual damage to the engine. Moreover, temperatures in the area of the injector tip due to advanced diesel injection systems may lead to particularly stubborn deposits at and around the injector tip. In this research, an endurance test was carried out for 250 h on 2 fuel samples; DF (diesel fuel) as baseline and PB20 (20% palm biodiesel and 80% DF) in a single cylinder CI engine. The effects of DF and PB20 on injector nozzle deposits, engine lubricating oil, and fuel economy and exhaust emissions were investigated. According to the results of the investigation, visual inspection showed some deposit accumulation on injectors during running on both fuels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed greater carbon deposits on and around the injector tip for PB20 compared to the engine running with DF. Similarly, lubricating oil analysis presented excessive wear metal concentrations, decreased viscosity and increased density values when the engine was fuelled with PB20. Finally, fuel economy and emission results during the endurance test showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and NOx emissions, and lower HC and CO emissions, for the PB20 blend compared to DF

337

Design, fabrication and delivery of a high pressure LOX-methane injector  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector for 3000 psia chamber pressure using liquid oxygen and gaseous methane propellants is presented. The injector is intended to be evaluated during a series of pressure-fed test firings using a water-cooled calorimeter chamber and a milled-slot regenerative chamber. Combustion efficiency, combustion stability, ignition and injector face heat transfer assessments were made for candidate injector body and pattern design approaches. This evaluation resulted in baselining an oxidizer post type manifold with a 60 element platelet coaxial swirler injector pattern. An axial acoustic resonator cavity was created at the injector/chamber interface.

Valler, H. W.

1979-01-01

338

Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)

339

Cryopump design for the ITER heating neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) is developing the cryopumps for the ITER neutral beam injectors (NBI). The cryopumps are pumping all gas fluxes from the ion beam source and the beam line components. The main gas source of all beam line components is the neutralizer with a protium flow of 25.4 Pa m3s-1 next to the smaller gas flows from beam source and the residual ion dump. The cryopumps are based on sorption pumping by charcoal coated cryopanels at a temperature between 4.5K and 6.5K. During detailed investigations of the gas dynamics in the Neutral Beam System it showed up that in the close geometry of the beam line design a cryopump with a gas capture probability of at least 30% is needed to cover the needed low pressures. Therefore, a novel cryopump has been developed which is characterised by an increase in capture probability of 50% which could be achieved at a corresponding increase of the heat load of only 20% compared to a classical cryopump. The new cryopump design is now the reference design for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam System and the mechanical engineering has been started to come up with the detailed design in terms of a CATIA5 model. Two of these cryopumps will be integrated in the beam line vessel, each of them 8 m long and 2.8 m high resulting in an overall pumping speed for hydrogen of 5000 m3 s-1. We discuss the investigations on the gas dynamic calculations for the ITER Heating Neutral Beam system afor the ITER Heating Neutral Beam system and we summarize the resulting requirements to cover the needed gas profile. The development of the cryopump design is presented in detail accompanied by the results of calculated pumping properties and an outlook to the future work. (author)

340

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector  

Science.gov (United States)

A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80 pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5 nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 3{1}/{2} cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5 MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity.

Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 312 cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELchnical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity

342

Development of the platelet micro-orifice injector. [for liquid propellant rocket engines  

Science.gov (United States)

For some time to come, liquid rocket engines will continue to provide the primary means of propulsion for space transportation. The injector represents a key to the optimization of engine and system performance. The present investigation is concerned with a unique injector design and fabrication process which has demonstrated performance capabilities beyond that achieved with more conventional approaches. This process, which is called the 'platelet process', makes it feasible to fabricate injectors with a pattern an order of magnitude finer than that obtainable by drilling. The fine pattern leads to an achievement of high combustion efficiencies. Platelet injectors have been identified as one of the significant technology advances contributing to the feasibility of advanced dual-fuel booster engines. Platelet injectors are employed in the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. Attention is given to injector design theory as it relates to pattern fineness, a description of platelet injectors, and test data obtained with three different platelet injectors.

La Botz, R. J.

1984-01-01

343

[Single use insulin injector evaluated by patients (questionnaire study)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was the analysis of perception of the disposable pen injector HumaJect by diabetic patients. Selected features of the insulin delivery systems were evaluated, and on that basis, the comparison between HumaJect and other insulin injectors was made. Research material was collected in questionnaires filled out by doctors after interviewing patients who were using HumaJect for at least one month. 1802 diabetic individuals aged 9 to 88 participated in the study. HumaJect was ranked "very good" (which is the highest possible rank) by 71% of patients. Among specific features, the highest ranks were assigned to "Ease of dose setting", "Dosing range" and "Disposable form". Most of patients assigned higher ranks to HumaJect than to other insulin delivery systems. 89% of patients indicated desire to continue treatment with this injector. PMID:11081325

Markiewicz, K; Chrzanowski, G; Falkowska-Gilska, B; Janczarska, M; Kurzawa, J; Pyrzyk, B; Szperkowska, B; Toczkowski, M; Wi?niewski, J

2000-08-01

344

ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

2004-08-02

345

Linac injector options for a relativistic heavy ion synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A growing interest in medical uses for high energy heavy ion beams has led to two recent proposals to build dedicated medical heavy ion synchrotrons. Linear accelerators are generally preferred as injectors for synchrotrons, but in the case of heavy ions with relatively low charge to mass ratios, the required linacs are extremely large, and/or complex, low frequency structures. Cyclotrons were therefore initially proposed as the injectors for the medical synchrotrons. Recently a new radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure has been developed. Its excellent capture, beam transport and acceleration characteristics for low velocity ion beams makes it ideally suited as a heavy ion synchrotron injector either alone or in combination with a drift tube linac

346

Tritium pellet injector design for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q ? 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper

347

Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an inline reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

Notestein, J.E.

1991-12-31

348

Platelet injectors for Space Shuttle orbit maneuvering engine  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering Subsystem Rocket Engine employs a platelet element injector concept. This injector has demonstrated 316-sec vacuum specific impulse performance under simulated altitude conditions when tested with a milled slot/electroformed nickel close-out regenerative chamber and a full 71 area ratio nozzle. To date, over 300 altitude engine tests and 300 stability bomb tests have demonstrated stable, erosion free operation with this concept to test durations of 150 seconds. The injector and chamber also meet the reusable requirements of the shuttle with a cycle life capability in excess of 1000 cycles. An extensive altitude restart program has also demonstrated OMS-engine operation over large variations in the burn and coast times with helium saturated propellants.

Kahl, R. C.; Labotz, R. J.; Bassham, L. B.

1974-01-01

349

Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s

350

Development of the centrifugal pellet injector in JT-60U  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In JT-60, pellet injection experiment aims at achieving a high density and high performance plasma. The centrifugal pellet injector was chosen to attain our purpose of repetitive injection in high frequency. New techniques were applied to the pellet production and the acceleration systems because the centrifugal type injector has some technically complicated components, such as fuel extruder and straight line-type rotor. Those were mesh structured components of the pellet generator to exhaust sublimated gas from pellets and a funnel design with an appropriate angle to prevent pellet destruction. The most suitable technical condition in the operation of the injector was studied and the following performance was confirmed: the pellet size is 2.l mm cubic, the variable injection speed of pellet is from 300-690 m/s, and the frequency of repetitive pellet injection is from 1 to 10 Hz at the duration time of 7 s. (author)

Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kizu, Kaname; Ichige, Hisashi; Honda, Masao; Iwahashi, Takaaki; Sasaki, Noboru; Miya, Naoyuki; Hosogane, Nobuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Oda, Yasushi; Yoshida, Kazuto [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works

2000-11-01

351

Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

352

An electron beam injector for pulse compression experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron beam injector has been constructed to study the physics of longitudal pulse compression in the University of Maryland electron beam transport experiment. The injector consists of a variable-perveance gridded electron gun followed by three matching lenses and one induction linac module. It produces a 50 ns, 40 mA electron pulse with a 2.5 to 7.5 keV, quadratically time-dependent energy shear. This beam will be injected into the existing 5-m long periodic transport channel with 38 short solenoid lenses. With the given beam parameters and initial conditions the pulse will be compressed by a factor of 4 to 5 before reaching the end of the existing solenoid channel. This paper reports on the design features and the measured general performance characteristics of the injector system including its mechanical, electrical, and beam-optical properties

353

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

2006-08-04

354

Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development

355

Commissioning of the new heavy ion injector at GSI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Unilac has been upgraded by a new injector linac. It consists of an ECR source, a 108 MHz RFQ linac and an inter-digital H-type accelerator structure. Highly charged ions (as U28+) are extracted from the ion source and accelerated by the RFQ structure up to 300 keV/u. The IH tank accelerates with a very high rf efficiency up to the energy of 1.4 MeV/u. The commissioning of the new injector will be reported

356

An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

A parametric study of a class of contoured wall fuel injectors is presented. The injectors were aimed at enabling shock-enhanced mixing for the supersonic combustion ramjet engines currently envisioned for applications on hypersonic vehicles. Short combustor residence time, a requirement for fuel injection parallel to the freestream, and strong sensitivity of overall vehicle performance to combustion efficiency motivated the investigation. Several salient parametric dependencies were investigated. Injector performance was evaluated in terms of mixing, losses, jet penetration and heating considerations.A large portion of the research involved a series of tests conducted at the NASA Langley High - Reynolds Number Mach 6 Wind-Tunnel. Helium was used as an injectant gas to simulate hydrogen fuel. The parameters investigated include injector spacing, boundary layer height, and injectant to freestream pressure and velocity ratios. Conclusions concerning injector performance and parameter dependencies are supported by extensive three-dimensional flow field surveys as well as data from a variety of flow visualization techniques including Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren, spark-shadowgraph, and surface oil flow.As an adjunct to these experiments, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to conduct a parametric study which closely tracked the experimental effort. The results of these investigations strongly complemented the experimental work. Use of the code also allowed research beyond the fairly rigid bounds of the experimental test matrix. These studies included both basic investigations of shock-enhanced mixing on generic injectors, and applied efforts such as combining film-cooling with the contoured wall injectors.Location of an oblique shock at the base of the injection plane was found to be a loss-effective method for enhancing hypervelocity mixing through baroclinic generation of vorticity and subsequent convection and diffusion. Injector performance was strongly dependent on the displacement effect of the hypersonic boundary layer which acted to modify the effective wall geometry. Strong dependence on injectant to freestream pressure ratio was also displayed. Mixing enhancement related to interaction of the unsteady component of the boundary layer with both steady and unsteady components of the flow field was found to be secondary, as were effects due to variation in mean shear between the injectant and the freestream in the exit plane.

Waitz, Ian A.

357

Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines  

Science.gov (United States)

This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

1994-06-01

358

Recent trouble cases and improvements of HIMAC injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest fault example in HIMAC injector is reported. Many of troubles on HIMAC injector are depended on the electric discharge of RF equipment and ion source power supply. On the other hand, long time stoppage of beam deliveries is caused in the bad condition of ion source equipment. We report some improvement examples; HEC ion source: Generation study of new ionic species, RF: Development of new AGC and APC control unit and install plan of 30 kW semiconductor amplifier, Control and generalization system: Replacement from the special existing equipment to PLC as the flexible use. (author)

359

PERFORMANCE OF THE PHIN HIGH CHARGE PHOTO INJECTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The high charge PHIN photo injector is studied at CERN as an electron source for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) drive beam as an alternative to the present thermionic gun. The objective of PHIN is to demonstrate the feasibility of a laser-based electron source for CLIC. The photo injector operates with a 2.5 cell, 3 GHz RF gun using a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated by UV laser pulses generated by amplifying and frequency quadrupling the signal from a Nd:YLF oscillator running at 1.5GHz. The ch...

Egger, Daniel; Mete, O?znur

2010-01-01

360

Status of the positive ion injector for ATLAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as ? = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. (2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.)

 
 
 
 
361

Summary, Working Group 1: Electron guns and injector designs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We summarize the proceedings of Working Group 1 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Workshop. The subject of this working group, the electron gun and injector design, is arguably the most critical part of the ERL as it determines the ultimate performance of this type of accelerators. Working Group 1 dealt with a variety of subjects: The technology of DC, normal-conducting RF and superconducting RF guns; beam dynamics in the gun and injector; the cathode and laser package; modeling and computational issues; magnetized beams and polarization. A short overview of these issues covered in the Working Group is presented in this paper

362

Design and beam dynamics of SFEL high brightness injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SFEL high brightness injector consists of a ns-grid gun driven at 476 MHz, a 476 MHz subharmonic buncher and a 2856 MHz travelling-wave buncher (TWB) with high field gradient. Electron beam leaving the injector is then injected into a constant gradient travelling-wave accelerating section (Accl, SLAC type). By using programs ETP, PARMELA, PLS-IM-60 etc., beam dynamics simulation was performed from the gun to the end of Accl in order to find the optimized gun electrode geometry, subharmonic buncher gap voltage, bunching drift distance, TWB injecting phase, TWB structure parameters and axial magnetic field profile for predicting beam quality requested

363

Construction of prototype injector unit for JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype neutral beam injector unit for JT-60 has been constructed prior to fabrication of 14 injector units for JT-60 to confirm system performances of a beam line and a power supply unit. Basic performance for the prototype unit is an injection power of 1.5MW neutral hydrogen atoms at 75keV, up to 100 kV, with a pulse length of as long as 10 sec for every 600 seconds. The prototype unit has been already fabricated and installed in JAERI and is now under testing

364

Construction of prototype injector unit for JT-60  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype neutral beam injector unit for JT-60 has been constructed prior to fabrication of 14 injector units for JT-60 to confirm system performances of a beam line and a power supply units. Basic performance for the prototype unit is an injection power of 1.5MW neutral hydrogen atoms at 75kV, up to 100 kV, with a pulse length of as long as 10 sec for every 600 seconds. The prototype unit has been already fabricated and installed in JAERI and is now under testing. The total system of the unit will be completed by the end of October 1981

365

High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

Kwan, Joe W.

2005-02-15

366

Exergy analysis of two-phase steam-water injector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Exergy analysis is used as a tool for the evaluation of exergy losses in a two-phase steam-water injector in an effort to improve its overall performance in respect to exit pressure. The aim of this paper is to study irreversible losses in the component parts of the injector, including the steam nozzle, water nozzle and diffuser as well as the two-phase region comprising the mixing chamber and the condensation shock wave. Calculations based on experimental data revealed th...

Trela, Marian; Kwidzinski, Roman; Butrymowicz, Dariusz

2009-01-01

367

Small gas-turbine combustor study: Fuel injector evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a continuing effort at the Lewis Research Center to improve performance, emissions, and reliability of turbine machinery, an investigation of fuel injection technique and effect of fuel type on small gas turbine combustors was undertaken. Performance and pollutant emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions for a reverse flow combustor configuration using simplex pressure-atomizing, spill-flow return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types was obtained. Jet A and an experimental referee broad specification fuel were used to determine the effect of fuel type.

Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

1981-01-01

368

The Berkeley 2 MV heavy ion fusion injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an update on the development of the 500 mA per beam sixteen beam injector being built at LBL. An inductively graded Marx bank provides the acceleration potential on the electrostatic column. A carbon arc source provides the pulsed current for the injector. We report recent results on extracted beam parameters, column performance, the generator performance, and system design changes. The carbon ion beam is diagnosed with Faraday cups and with a double slit emittance measurement system. Controls for the final machine are also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

369

Plans for the upgrade of the LHC injectors  

CERN Document Server

The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project has been launched at the end of 2010 to prepare the CERN accelerator complex for reliably providing beam with the challenging characteristics required by the high luminosity LHC until at least 2030. Based on the work already started on Linac4, PS Booster, PS and SPS, the LIU project coordinates studies and implementation, and interfaces with the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project which looks after the upgrade of the LHC itself, expected by the end of the present decade. The anticipated beam characteristics are described, as well as the status of the studies and the solutions envisaged for improving the injector performances.

Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Meddahi, M; Vretenar, M

2011-01-01

370

Project of a new type of neutral injector based on negative deuterons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a new approach to D- injectors based on double charge-exchange. The characteristics of a conceptual injector line are given and compared to other systems. The importance of the magnetic field is emphasized. A new type of D- injector immersed in a magnetic field is proposed. (orig.)

371

LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”  

CERN Multimedia

The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

2014-01-01

372

First beam measurements at the photo injector test facility at DESY Zeuthen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) was built to develop electron sources for the TESLA Test Facility Free Electron Laser and future linear colliders. The main goal is to study the production of minimum transverse emittance beams with short bunch length at medium charge (?1 nC). The facility includes a 1.5 cell L-band cavity with coaxial RF coupler, a solenoid for space charge compensation, a laser capable to generate long pulse trains, an UHV photo cathode exchange system, and different diagnostics tools. Besides an overview of the facility, its main components and their commissioning, this contribution will concentrate on the first measurements at PITZ with photoelectrons. This will include measurements of the transverse and longitudinal laser profile, charge and quantum efficiency, momentum and momentum spread, transverse electron beam profiles at different locations and first results on transverse emittance

373

Study liquid length penetration results obtained with a direct acting piezo electric injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A direct acting injector capable of controlling needle lift has been used to determine liquid phase penetration. ? The influence of injection pressure, chamber density and chamber temperature have been measured. ? When needle lift is reduced the stabilized liquid length is shortened. ? The relationship between needle lift and liquid length makes needle lift as a new way to control the injection event. - Abstract: A state of the art prototype common rail injector featuring direct control of the needle by means of a piezo stack (direct acting) has been tested. Liquid phase penetration of the sprays in diesel engine-like conditions has been studied via imaging technique in a novel continuous flow test chamber that allows an accurate control on a wide range of thermodynamic conditions (up to 1000 K and 15 MPa). This state of the art injector fitted with a 7-hole nozzle, allows a fully flexible control on the nozzle needle movement, enabling various fuel injection rate typologies. The temporal evolution of the seven sprays has been studied recording movies of the injection event in evaporative conditions via Mie scattering imaging technique and using a high speed camera. The results showed a strong influence of needle position on the stabilized liquid length while the effect of the injection pressure is negligible: the decrease of the needle lift causes a pressure drop in the needle seat and thus a reduction in the effective pressure upstream of the orifices (in the nozzle sac). According to known literature the stabilized liquid-length depends mainly on effective diameter, spray cone-angle and fuel/air properties and does not depend on fuel velocity at the orifice outlet. Therefore, due to small change in the spray cone-angle, higher injection pressures give slightly lower liquid length. However, partial needle lifts has an opposite effect: when needle is partially lifted a dramatic increase of the spray cone-angle and a consequent reduction of the liquid length are observed. A deeper analysis revealed that low charges are linked also to higher hole to hole dispersion and flow instabilities. Needle vibrations caused by the fuel-needle interactions with fuel flow at partial needle lift and the onset of cavitation in the needle seat are likely the causes of this unexpected behavior. Finally, the effect of injection rate shaping on the transient liquid penetration is presented, showing the capability of the injector to control the liquid length along the injection event. This feature, when applied in a real engine, yields to develop new injection strategies to avoid fuel wall impingement

374

An isotope separation magnet for the injector test experiment (MITE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A magnet has been designed for space-charge neutralization studies on the Injector Test Experiment at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Augmented by suitable collectors, the magnet could also be used for pilot-scale isotope separations. The present report documents the design of this particular magnet and illustrates the process of designing beam transport magnets in general

375

Initial operation of the new Bevatron local injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV DC platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A ? 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2?? mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A ? 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the SuperHILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs

376

Injector of multiply charged ions for accelerators and implanters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An injector of separated ions based on the use of the PIG ion source is developed of the Institute of Nuclear Research (Kiev). The efficiency of the beam transport is increased by the radial focusing of the beam in the field of the source magnet and axial focusing at the output boundary formed by a magnetic screen. (authors)

377

Initial operation of the new bevatron local injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial operational characteristics of a new Bevatron injector system are described. It is capable of providing an independent source of ions to the Bevatron through mass 40. The new injector consists of a sputter ion PIG source, operating on a 60 kV DC platform, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, all operating at 199 MHz. Beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 are accelerated to 200 keV/n in the RFQ and to 800 keV/n in the first Alvarez tank. Each Alvarez operates in the 2?lambda mode, and each is followed by a foil stripper. Beams with a q/A greater than or equal to 0.32 are accelerated through the second Alvarez to 5 MeV/n, fully stripped, and injected into the Bevatron. Because the Bevatron can be efficiently switched between this injector and the Super HILAC injector, a more efficient operations schedule is made possible to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the Biomedical and Nuclear Science research programs

378

Wakefields in the beamline of TTF Injector II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of wakefield calculations for a collection of beamline elements in the TTF Injector II are presented. These elements include crosses, bellows, and steps in the beamline, valves and the bunch compressor. Methods to reduce the wakefield effects due to these elements are also investigated

379

Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

380

Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

Franke, Sylvain; Ackermann, Wolfgang; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Optimization framework for a radio frequency gun based injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear accelerator based light sources are used to produce coherent x-ray beams with unprecedented peak intensity. In these devices, the key parameters of the photon beam such as brilliance and coherence are directly dependent on the electron beam parameters. This leads to stringent beam quality requirements for the electron beam source. Radio frequency (RF) guns are used in such light sources since they accelerate electrons to relativistic energies over a very short distance, thus minimizing the beam quality degradation due to space charge effects within the particle bunch. Designing such sources including optimization of its beam parameters is a complex process where one needs to meet many requirements simultaneously. It is useful to have a tool to automate the design optimization in the context of the injector beam dynamics performance. Evolutionary and genetic algorithms are powerful tools to apply to nonlinear multi-objective optimization problems, and they have been successfully used in injector optimizations where the electric field profiles for the accelerating devices are fixed. Here the genetic algorithm based approach is extended to modify and optimize the electric field profile for an RF gun concurrently with the injector performance. Two field modification methods are used. This dissertation presents an overview of the optimization system and examples of its application to a state of the art RF gun. Results indicate improved injector performance is possible with unbalanced electric field profiles where the peak field in the cathode cell is larger than in subsequent cells.

Hofler, Alicia S.

382

An injector for the CLIC test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Rinolfi, L; Pittin, R; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, D

2008-01-01

383

Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirement for higher intensity H- ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H- ion source and the rebuilding of the original H- injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H- beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H- beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H- injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H- beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

384

Design of a tritium pellet injector for TFTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TFTR tritium pellet injector (TPI) is designed to provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3 km/s-range for the TFTR D-T phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector is being modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a fourshot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns a two -stage light gas gun driver. The pipe gun concept has been qualified for tritium operation by the tritium proof-of-principle injector experiments conducted on the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In these experiments, tritium and D-T pellets were accelerated to speeds near 1.5 km/s. The TPI is being designed for pellet sizes in the range from 3.43 to 4.0 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation will be controlled by a programmable logic controller. 7 refs., 4 figs

385

The implementation of the Spiral2 injector control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPICS framework was chosen for the Spiral2 project control system in 2007. Four institutes are involved in the command control: GANIL (Caen), IPHC (Strasbourg) and IRFU (Saclay) and LPSC (Grenoble), the IRFU institute being in charge of the Injector controls. This injector includes two ECR sources (one for deuterons and one for A/q=3 ions) with their associated low-energy beam transport lines (LEBTs). The deuteron source is developed at Saclay and the A/q=3 ion source at Grenoble. Both lines will merge before injecting beam in a RFQ cavity for pre acceleration. This paper presents the control system for both injector beam lines with their diagnostics (Faraday cups, ACCT/DCCT, profilers, emittance-meters) and slits. This control relies on COTS VME boards and an EPICS software platform. Modbus/TCP protocol is also used with industrial devices like power supplies and Siemens PLCs. The Injector graphical user interface is based on EDM while the port to CSS BOY is under evaluation; also high level applications are developed in Java. This paper also emphasizes the EPICS development for new industrial VME boards ADAS ICV108/178 with a sampling rate ranging from 100 K Samples/s to 1.2 M Samples/s. This new software is used for the beam intensity measurement by diagnostics and the acquisition of sources. (authors)

386

An Injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)  

CERN Document Server

The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is an intermediate step to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the key concepts of the new RF power source for CLIC. CTF3 will use electron beams with an energy range adjustable from 170 MeV (3.5 A) to 380 MeV (with low current). The injector is based on a thermionic gun followed by a classical bunching system embedded in a long solenoidal field. As an alternative, an RF photo-injector is also being studied. The beam dynamics studies on how to reach the stringent beam parameters at the exit of the injector are presented. Simulations performed with the EGUN code showed that a current of 7 A can be obtained with an emittance less than 10 mm.mrad at the gun exit. PARMELA results are presented and compared to the requested beam performance at the injector exit. Sub-Harmonic Bunchers (SHB) are foreseen, to switch the phase of the bunch trains by 180 degrees from even to odd RF buckets. Specific issues of the thermionic gun and of the SHB with fast phase switch are discussed.

Braun, H; Rinolfi, Louis; Zhou, F; Mouton, B; Miller, R; Yeremian, A D

2000-01-01

387

Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

388

Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

389

Swirl Coaxial Injector Development. Part I: Test Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Sierra Engineering, in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate, has undertaken a program to develop a gas-centered, swirl coaxial injector. This injector design will be used in the multi-element Advanced Fuels Tester (AFT) engine to test a variety of hydrocarbon propellants. As part of this program, a design methodology is being developed which will be applicable to future injector design efforts. The methodology combines cold flow data, acquired in the AFRL High Pressure Injector Flow facility, uni-element hot fire data, collected in AFRL Test Cell EC-1, and a computational effort conducted at University of Alabama-Birmingham, to identify key design features and sensitivities. Results from the computational effort will be presented in the Part II companion paper (9). Three different gas-centered swirl coaxial element concepts were studied: a converging design, a diverging design, and a pre-filming design. The cold flow experiments demonstrated that all three classes of elements produced an extremely dense, solid cone spray, with the highest mass density in the center. The atomization of all of these injectors was excellent, producing mean drop sizes 1/3 to 1/4 of that typically measured for shear coaxial elements operating under similar conditions. Uni-element hot fire testing of these elements has begun, but the elements have not yet been tested at the design operating conditions. Preliminary low chamber pressure test results show the converging design performs better than the pre-filming and diverging design. Uni-element C* efficiencies in excess of 90% have been measured over a wide-range of mixture ratios.

Muss, J. A.; Johnson, C. W.; Cohn, R. K.; Strakey, P. A.; Bates, R. W.

2002-03-01

390

Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Impinging Injector Element  

Science.gov (United States)

An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) impinging injector element. The unlike impinging element, a fuel-oxidizer- fuel (F-O-F) triplet, is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub o), combustor length, L(sub comb), and impingement half-angle, alpha, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 163 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface which includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio. Finally, specific variable weights are further increased to illustrate the high marginal cost of realizing the last increment of injector performance and thruster weight.

Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

2001-01-01

391

Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

392

Self-heat generation in piezoelectric stack actuators used in fuel injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multilayer piezoelectric actuators are used in fuel injectors due to their quick response, high efficiency, accuracy, low power consumption, and excellent repeatability. Experimental results for soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack actuators have shown that a significant amount of heat is generated when they are driven under high frequency and/or high electric-field magnitudes, both of which occur in fuel injectors. Self-heat generation in these actuators, mainly caused by losses, can significantly affect their reliability and piezoelectric properties, and may also limit their application. Other studies have demonstrated that at large unipolar electric-field magnitudes, displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis) shows a direct relation with polarization–electric-field loss (dielectric hysteresis). In this paper, a simplified analytical self-heating model is presented. The model directly relates self-heating in multilayer piezoelectric actuators to displacement–electric-field loss (displacement hysteresis). The model developed is based on the first law of thermodynamics, and accounts for different parameters such as geometry, magnitude and frequency of applied electric field, duty cycle percentage, fuel type, and environmental properties. The model shows reasonable agreement with experimental results at low and high electric-field magnitudes

393

Final steps towards cool-down of the new injector module for the S-DALINAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The S-DALINAC is a superconducting electron accelerator, operated at the Technical University Darmstadt since 1991. In a CEBAF like design it delivers electron beams up to 130 MeV, provided by a 10 MeV injector and a 40 MeV main linac, accelerating the electrons up to 3 times by recirculation. Currently, the injector of the S-DALINAC delivers electron beams with a current of up to 60 ?A. This limit arises from the RF feed-through allowing only 500 W per cavity. With the new cryostat-module an increase in energy ranging to 14 MeV and in current of up to 250 ?A are projected. To accommodate the increased power demand the RF has to be supplied by a WR-284 transition line which is connected to the resonator by a new waveguide-to-coax power coupler. We report the latest qualification measurements and the final mounting steps allowing the first cool-down shortly. (author)

394

Present status of the negative ion sources and injectors at JAERI tandem accelerator facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JAERI tandem accelerator began regular operation with the 350 kV negative ion jnjector and 3 kinds of nagative ion sources (Direct Extraction Duoplasmatron Ion Source, Heinickie Penning Ion Source, Negative Ion Sputter Source (Refocus-UNIS)) since 1982. An extension with the injector was constructed in 1984, (1) to increase reliability of all devices in the injector, (2) to exclude completely any unsafe operation in the injector, and (3) to tune several ion sources simultaneously, while a certain ion source is in operation. After the extended injector became available, we have been able to run the whole injector system very safely, steadily and effectively, and have had few troubles. Currently, the second injector has been constructed in order to obtain a full strength of resistance against any sudden troubles in the injector. Several other operational and developmental items will be discussed in the text briefly. (author)

395

Minimally Intrusive and Nonintrusive Supersonic Injectors for LANTR and RBCC/Scramjet Propulsion Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A family of supersonic injectors for use on spaceplanes, rockets and missiles and the like is disclosed and claimed. Each injector maintains a specific constant (uniform) Mach number along its length when used while being minimally intrusive at significantly higher injectant pressure than combuster freestream total pressure. Each injector is substantially non-intrusive when it is not being used. The injectors may be used individually or in a group. Different orientations of the injectors in a group promotes greater penetration and mixing of fuel or oxidizer into a supersonic combustor. The injectors can be made from single piece of Aluminum, investment cast metal, or ceramic or they can be made from starboard and port blocks strapped together to accurately control the throat area. Each injector includes an elongated body having an opening which in cross section is an hour glass (venturi shaped) and the opening diverges in width and depth from the bow section to the stem section of the opening.

Buggele, Alvin E.; Gallagher, John R.

2002-10-01

396

Effect of injector geometry on the performance of an internally mixed liquid atomizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of injector's geometry on the performance of an internally mixed, air-assisted, liquid injector. In this type of injector a small amount of air is injected into a liquid stream within the injector. The interaction of the liquid with the atomizing air inside the injector induces atomization. The results presented in this paper show that the size of the droplets produced by the investigated injector decreases with a decrease in the air injection area. This is due to the increase in atomizing air injection velocity that accompanies the decrease in the air injection area, which improves atomization. This study also shows that the droplet sizes decrease with an increase in the injector's length, which is attributed to the increase in total interactive force. (author)

Kushari, A.

2010-11-15

397

Digital holographic diagnostics of near-injector region  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of primary breakup of liquid jets is important because it is motivated by the application to gas turbine fuel injectors, diesel fuel injectors, industrial cleaning and washing machine, medical spray, and inkjet printers, among others. When it comes to good injectors, a liquid jet has to be disintegrated into a fine spray near injector region during primary breakup. However the dense spray region near the injectors is optically obscure for Phase Doppler Interferometer like Phase Doppler Particle Analyzers (PDPA). Holography can provide three dimensional image of the dense spray and eliminate the problem of the small depth of focus associated with shadowgraphs. Traditional film-based holographic technique has long been used for three dimensional measurements in particle fields, but it is time consuming, expensive, chemically hazardous. With the development of the CCD sensor, holograms were recorded and reconstructed digitally. Digital microscopic holography (DMH) is similar to digital inline holography (DIH) except that no lens is used to collimate the object beam. The laser beams are expanded with an objective lens and a spatial filter. This eliminates two lenses from the typical optical path used for in-line holography, which results in a much cleaner hologram recording. The DMH was used for drop size and velocity measurements of the breakup of aerated liquid jets because it is unaffected by the non-spherical droplets that are encountered very close to the injector exit, which would cause problems for techniques such as Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, otherwise. Large field of view was obtained by patching several high resolution holograms. Droplet velocities in three dimensions were measured by tracking their displacements in the streamwise and cross-stream direction and by tracking the change in the plane of focus in the spanwise direction. The uncertainty in spanwise droplet location and velocity measurements using single view DMH was large at least 33%. This large uncertainty in the spanwise direction, however, can be reduced to 2% by employing double view DMH. Double view DMH successfully tracked the three dimensional bending trajectories of polymer jets during electrospinning. The uncertainty in the spatial growth measurements of the bending instability was reduced using orthogonal double view DMH. Moreover, a commercial grade CCD was successfully used for single- and double-pulsed DMH of micro liquid jet breakup. Using a commercial grade CCD for the DMH, the cost of CCD sensor needed for recording holograms can be reduced.

Lee, Jaiho

398

Progress in SLIP stacking and barrier bucket  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The slip stacking for pbar production has been operational in the Main Injector(MI) since December 2004 and has increased the beam intensity on the pbar target by more than 60%. We plan to use slip stacking for the NuMI neutrino experiment to effectively increasing the beam intensity to NuMI target by about a factor two in a MI cycle. In parallel with slip stacking, we plan to study fast momentum stacking using barrier buckets. One barrier rf system has been installed and tested, and a second system is being installed during the current shutdown. (author)

399

An Approach to Improved Credibility of CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by simulating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to. the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process.. This paper documents the status of an effort to understand and compare the predictive capabilities and resource requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of model problem injectors. Preliminary results from a steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), an unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier Stokes (URANS) and three different Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques used to model a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants are presented. Initial observations are made comparing instantaneous results, corresponding time-averaged and steady-state solutions in the near -injector flow field. Significant differences in the flow fields exist, as expected, and are discussed. An important preliminary result is the identification of a fundamental mixing mechanism, accounted for by URANS and LES, but missing in the steady BANS methodology. Since propellant mixing is the core injector function, this mixing process may prove to have a profound effect on the ability to more correctly simulate injector performance and resulting thermal environments. Issues important to unifying the basis for future comparison such as solution initialization, required run time and grid resolution are addressed.

Tucker, Paul K.; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

2007-01-01

400

Main beam diagnostics at GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main diagnostics designed at GANIL are: 1) a probe in 3 yokes of each SSC (The pick-up probe consists of differential interceptive targets for the measurement of the vertical and radial beam positions and a semi-interceptive wire target, using secondary electron emission, for the measurement of the time-length of the bunches. The pick-up probe is supported by a tube which moves through the yoke; it covers a 2.5 m range). 2) central phase diagnostics (15 couples of 50 ohm capacitive probes are located in one valley of each SSC. They mainly allow to adjust the isochronism by measuring the central phase of the beam. 8 high impedance capacitive probes are located in the beam line. They measure the beam phase in order to control the RF phase of the accelerating and bunching voltages. The phase measurement is made on the second harmonic of the beam signal with an analogic multiplier between the beam signal and the pilot. Amplifier gain, fundamental rejection filters, noise rejection and other parameters are microprocessor controlled according to the magnitude of the picked-up signal and the working frequency). 3) profile monitors (The GANIL extracted beam is going to be tuned with the help of secondary emission monitors. They are multiwire chambers operating in the beam line vacuum. They provide two simultaneous beam profiles in the vertical and horizontal planes. The profiles are displayed on a scope or processed by a Camac-unit. They give informations on the location,t. They give informations on the location, width, emittance and intensity of the beam. The number of monitors for the whole GANIL is about 80). These diagnostics have been tested at GANIL (ion soure, that means to very low energy beams, and injector extracted beam), at ALICE and at ISN cyclotron

 
 
 
 
401

Heavy ion upgrade of the Bevatron local injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new heavy ion injector system for the Bevatron, consisting of a PIG ion source, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, is nearing completion. It will make available to the Bevatron a source of ions up to mass 40 independent of the SuperHILAC, enhancing the operational flexibility of the Bevalac complex. The RFQ accelerator, made operational in mid 1983, accelerates ions with q/A>=0.14 to 200 keV/n. The RFQ is followed by a new 200 MHz Alvarez linac operating in the 2?lambda mode which further accelerates the ions to 800 keV/n. This linac is followed by a foil stripper and a portion of the old injector linac, rebuilt to accelerate beams with q/A>=0.35 to 5 MeV/n in the 2?lambda mode. Details are given of the configuration, equipment modifications, and project status. (orig.)

402

GMAG Dissertation Award: Tunnel spin injectors for semiconductor spintronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Spin-based electronics aims to develop novel sensor, memory and logic devices by manipulating the spin states of carriers in semiconducting materials. This talk will focus on electrical spin injection into semiconductors, which is a prerequisite for spintronics and, in particular, on tunnel based spin injectors that are potentially operable above room temperature. The magneto-transport properties of two families of tunnel spin injectors will be discussed. The spin polarization of the electron current within the semiconductor is detected by measuring the circular polarization of the electroluminescence (EL) from a quantum well light emitting diode structure. The temperature and bias dependence of the EL polarization provides insight into the mechanism of spin relaxation within the semiconductor heterostructure. Collaborators: Roger Wang^1,2, Sebastiaan van Dijken^1,*, Robert Shelby^1, Roger Macfarlane^1, Seth Bank^2, Glenn Solomon^2, James Harris^2, and Stuart S. P. Parkin^1 * Currently at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

Jiang, Xin

2004-03-01

403

Laser-based alignment experiment at the KEKB injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new laser-based alignment system for the precise alignment of accelerator components along an ideal straight line is under development for the Super KEKB project at the KEKB injector linac. The laser propagation characteristics both in vacuum and at atmospheric pressure have been systematically investigated in an 82-m-long straight section of the injector linac. The laser-based alignment measurements based on the new laser optics have been carried out with a measurement resolution of ±0.1 mm level by using existing laser detection electronics. The horizontal and vertical displacements from the reference laser line are in good agreement with those measured using the standard telescope-based optical alignment technique. In this report, we describe the experimental study in detail along with the basic designs and the recent developments in the new alignment system. (author)

404

Modelling of two-phase flow in a steam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: Two-phase steam and water flow in a steam injector is characterised by a wide spectrum of interface area concentration. The steam injector consists of mixing chamber, nozzle and diffuser. Superheated steam of high velocity and low pressure enters the mixing chamber, where its momentum and energy is transferred into water. Water flows into the mixing chamber in a form of thin annular jet, parallel to the injector walls. Contrary to steam, initial velocity of water is low, approximately few meters per second. In the inlet part of the mixing chamber water flow is annular and boundary of interface is clearly visible. In a some distance from the inlet water film becomes unstable and droplets of water are entrained from the film surface. The flow structure changes into droplet pattern. In the vicinity of the steam nozzle, where shock wave appears, pressure grows rapidly and droplet flow changes into bubble pattern. Inside the shock wave the steam is almost completely condensed. Water pressure downstream of the nozzle is higher than the pressure at the steam injector inlet. Flow in the injector is characterized by high gradients of velocity, pressure, void fraction and very different flow patterns. These changes were observed in the steam injector of 40 cm in length, built in IFFM. The water and steam flow through the steam injector was described by means of one dimensional, two fluid model together with interfacial area transport equation. with interfacial area transport equation. Source terms in the balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are functions of interfacial area concentration. Source term in interfacial area transport equation is assumed to be in a simple relaxation form. The model is completed by transport equations of mass, momentum and heat fluxes. These equations describe transfer of the fluxes along the axial direction due to gradient of physical variables between phases. Intensity of these fluxes depend strongly on the flow patterns. In the case of annular flow the intensity is negligible, while for the bubble pattern it is significant. The feature of the model includes the existence of real eigenvalues of the equations system, what means the model is of the hyperbolic type. The numerical calculations are based on the experimental data. Part of the boundary conditions come from experiment, the rest is approximated. The solution of the two-phase water and steam flow in the steam injector is performed for the steady-state conditions, though measurements show high fluctuations of physical variables as well as fluctuations of the flow pattern. This effect is especially visible in the jet nozzle. Numerical calculations are performed by means of Runge-Kutta method for the two-phase model described by the system of 10 ordinary differential equations. The results of numerical solution are compared with the experimental data and analysed. (author)

405

High-current injector for the proposed SLAC linear collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new, high-current injector has been designed to yield the 7.5 x 1010e- per S-band bunch necessary for the proposed linear collider. The injector consists of two prebunchers at the 16th subharmonic, a 0.75 c traveling wave buncher, and a three-meter velocity of light traveling wave structure. The e- beam is confined by a solonoidal magnetic field in the buncher and capture regions. A computer simulation similar to that used by Mavrogenes et al., has been used to calculate the bunching. The calculation indicates it is possible to achieve approx. 1 x 1011e- in 160 of S-band from a 15 amp gun pulse of 1.5 nsec duration

406

Status of the ATLAS Positive-Ion Injector Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of the Argonne Positive Ion Injector project is to replace the ATLAS tandem injector with a facility which will increase the beam currents presently available by a factor of 100 and to make available at ATLAS essentially all beams including uranium. The beam quality expected from the facility will be at least as good as that of the tandem based ATLAS. The project combines two relatively new technologies - the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, which provides high charge state ions at microampere currents, and RF superconductivity which has been shown to be capable of generating accelerating fields as high as 10 MV/m, resulting in an essentially new method of acceleration for low-energy heavy ions. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

407

Upgrade of PF injector linac for B-factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upgrade of the PF injector linac has been planed for the KEK B-factory project, and its energies will be reinforced from 2.5 GeV to 8.0 GeV in order to inject directly both beams of electron and positron into the collider rings. This upgrade will be performed by combination with the subjects as developments of high power source and of rf-power multipling techniques and extension of the linac length. A feasibility study of endurable discharges into applicated accelerator structure with high field have also been executed continuously. R and D have been steadily advanced for an upgrade of klystron, power multipling installations as SLED, reconstructions of klystron modulators, and etc. This paper describes the results of R and D and the outline of the new injector. (author)

408

Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993

409

Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program  

Science.gov (United States)

A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

1975-01-01

410

Pneumatic injector of hydrogen pellets for the LHD stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel pellets into plasma of the LHD stellarator in a continuous mode for an infinitely long time is described. The continuous injection is ensured by a screw extruder and two cryorefrigerators that allow extrusion of solid hydrogen rods with diameters of 2 and 2.5 mm at a speed of up to 40 mm/s in a steady-state mode. A cylindrical cutter and a valve with compressed hydrogen form solid-hydrogen pellets with diameters of 2 and 2.5 mm from the rod and inject them into plasma at a frequency of up the 11 Hz and a speed of 150-550 m/s. The reliability of the injector operation is 99%

411

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de Pinho

2012-01-01

412

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticid [...] es chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de, Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira, Silvério; Antônio Augusto, Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de, Queiroz.

413

Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns  

Science.gov (United States)

To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

Griffin, Steven T.

2003-01-01

414

The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.  

CERN Document Server

The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

2010-01-01

415

Small gas-turbine combustor study - Fuel injector evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a continuing effort at the Lewis Research Center to improve performance, emissions, and reliability of turbine machinery, an investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of fuel injection technique and fuel type on similar improvements for small gas-turbine combustors. Performance and pollutant emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions for a reverse-flow combustor configuration using simplex pressure-atomizing, spill-flow return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types was obtained. Jet A and an experimental referee broad specification fuel were used to determine and compare effects of burning different types of fuels in a small experimental gas turbine combustor.

Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

1981-01-01

416

The GSI-UNILAC - a Megawatt Beam Injector for Fair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the FAIR project the present GSI accelerator complex, consisting of the heavy ion high current linac UNILAC and the synchrotron SIS 18, is foreseen to serve as an injector for up to 1012U28+ particles/s. Different hardware measures and careful fine tuning in all sections of the UNILAC resulted in an increase of the beam intensity to 1011U28+ ions or 2x1010U73+ -ions per 100 ?s. Further upgrade measures are described

417

Peripheral optoelectronic system for remote control of the SPIN injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remote control system (RCS) on the base of fiber-optical communication lines (FOCL) of the SPIN facility injector is described. The RCS is disposed in two CAMAC crates. One of them is installed on the control desk, the other one- on the high-voltage terminal. Communication between the crates is realized by eight 10 m parallel transmission FOCL channels used for digital and analog data transmission

418

Current Leads for Superconducting Magnets of ADS Injector I  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In ADS Injector I, there are six superconducting magnets in each cryomodule. Each superconducting magnet contains a solenoid magnet, a horizontal dipole corrector (HDC) and a vertical dipole corrector (VDC). Six current leads will be required for powering the electrical circuits, from room temperature to the 2.1K liquid helium bath. Two leads carry 100A current for the solenoid magnet while the other four carry 12A for the HDC and the VDC. This paper presents the principle f...

Wang, Bing; Peng, Quan-ling; Yang, Xiang-chen; Li, Shao-peng

2013-01-01

419

70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

420

Synchrotron injectors based on high charge state ion sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of any injector contemplated to replace the electrostatic tandem accelerators some time in the future should evidently match or surpass the characteristics of the tandems. It is a fortunate coincidence that the performance of the BNL tandem satisfies in most respects the requirements of the proposed collider, although originally tandems were not built with this application in mind. Requests for heavy ion beams with parameters suitable for injection into the rings of a heavy ion collider have appeared rather recently, at a stage when the high charge state ion sources, which in principle are capable of producing many ion species, have not yet reached such a level of performance. Therefore, consideration of such sources as part of a future injector replacing the tandem accelerators will have to rely on the extrapolation of results from existing models, developed for a different purpose. At the same time, present and future collider requirements for heavy ion beams should serve as a stimulus for the development of sources producing ions with adequate charge states and intensities. Injectors based on such sources may present a better alternative than the tandem accelerators because a higher charge-to-mass ratio of ions from the source results in a more efficient and less costly accelerator. In this report, two candidates for a high charge state, heavy ion source will be considered: an EBIS and an ECR. Other approaches, e.g. laser ion sources, are much further away in the development of a device to be used in a synchrotron injector. 25 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

 
 
 
 
421

Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy recovery tests performed on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high energy potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy, are presented. The operation of the suppressor grid is studied in two different experiments. These tests underline the problems to be solved for an efficient recovery of the energy of the unneutralized beam fraction

422

Health physics aspects of nuclear radiations from deuterium beam injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations are made for X-ray generation from the accelerator column of various neutral beam injectors. For the case of deuterium beam operation where 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons pose a serious health physics concern, neutron and tritium production rates from beam targets are calculated for different beam energies. Biological doses from these radiations and shielding requirements are discussed

423

Pressure pulsation dampers for injectors; Druckpulsationsdaempfer fuer Injektoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressure pulsations in the fuel injection system impede the formation of optimum spray properties and mixture formation. FMP Technology and KW Technologie have developed a porous body-based pulsation damper for gasoline engines that is suitable for all injectors. It suppresses opening and closing pulsations, thus allowing reproducible injection quantities to be achieved, even for short injection periods of fractions of a millisecond. (orig.)

Durst, Franz; Haspel, Dominik; Schilling, Lars [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Handtmann, Arthur [Albert Handtmann Holding GmbH und Co. KG, Biberach (Germany)

2012-11-15

424

Development of The High Speed Pellet Injector For Ignitor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENEA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are collaborating on the development of a four barrel, two-stage pneumatic injector for the Ignitor experiment, featuring two innovative concepts: (i) the proper shaping of the propellant pressure pulse to improve pellet acceleration, and (ii) the use of fast closing (< 10 ms) valves to drastically reduce the expansion volumes of the propellant gas removal system. Two independent sub-systems have been built and tested separately by ENEA and ORNL. ...

Coppi, Bruno; Roveta, G.; Fehling, D.; Meitner, S.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Ronci, G.; Capobianchi, M.; Migliori, S.; Bombarda, F.; Frattolillo, A.

2009-01-01

425

Explosive plasma injectors in the study of circumterrestrial space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors review the use of plasma jets as injectors of vaporized metal ions into the ionosphere from a spacecraft for purposes of ionospheric diagnostics in such areas as the study of charged-particle transport and precipitation from clouds of ionospheric particles as well as the effect of magnetic and electric fields on ionospheric particle motion. Various types of jets based on the explosive vaporization and ionization of the probe metals are described.

Ruzhin, Yu.Ya.; Skomarovskii, V.S.; Stadnichenko, I.A.; Titov, V.M.; Shvetsov, G.A.

1987-11-01

426

Combustion apparatus having a coaxial-pintle reactant injector  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide combustion stability in burners over a wide range of flow conditions, a coaxial injector is provided which includes an outer annular sleeve for introduction of one reactant and a hollow pintle with spaced slots for introduction of another reactant to impinge on the first reactant. The slots are staggered in location and size to permit initial interlocking of the reactants and, therefore, increased mixing and improved combustion performance.

Elverum, Jr., Gerard W. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

427

The low of formation of accelerating voltage frequency change in the IHEP ring booster injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Block-diagram of a new section for accelerating field frequency formation in the ring injector - the IHEP booster is described. To obtain the effective tuning range of 0.7-2.8 MHz, heterodyne method with two controlled oscillators was used. Two oscillators are connected in the same circuit, their circuits have similar inductance coils and are placed into an aggregate thermostat. Block-diagrams of a master oscillator, an initial frequency oscillator and a function converter are given. Digital control application permitted not only to improve main section characteristics but to gain new possibilities for using computers. Control program provides work with equipment, dialogue with an operator, and a specialized operational system provides regime rescuing and restoration

428

Initial commissioning of high power, long pulse klystrons for SSC injector linacs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

H- ions are injected into the SSC boosters and main ring at a energy of 600 MeV by means of a three stage injector. It is composed of a RF quadrupole, a drift tube Linac, both operated in UHF-band, and a coupled cavity Linac operated in L-band at the third harmonic of the two first stages. These Linacs are powered by two types of klystron, and their procurement contracts were awarded to Thomson Tubes Electroniques in October 1991. A design review held in January 1992 finalized the proposed design and fixed the final details concerning the operation and specifications of the tubes optimized for SSC requirements. Since November 1992, the commissioning of both type of klystrons has been underway and several tubes of each type have so far been accepted in accordance with the tight contractual schedule. It is expected that all deliveries will be completed by the end of 1993

429

Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs.

McCarthy, K. J.; Balbin, R.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

2003-07-01

430

The photo-injector option for CLIC past experiments and future developments  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) drive beam requires a long bunch train (92 us) consisting of 42880 bunches with a bunch charge of 17.5 nC in a bunch length of less than 20 ps. This train might be produced by an RF-photo-injector equipped with a Cs-Te cathode. After a short review of experience with such cathodes in the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF2), mainly focused on the production of short trains of high-charge bunches, we will present the scheme foreseen for CLIC and CTF3. The laser will be a diode-pumped MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier), operating at a repetition rate of 469 MHz for CLIC and 1.5 GHz for CTF3. The specific requirements of an RF-gun for this high-current operation are discussed. New experimental results on the photocathode lifetime at high average current are summarized.

Braun, Hans Heinrich; Hutchins, S; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H; Ross, I N; Bente, E

2001-01-01

431

Feasibility Study on a Neutral Beam Diagnostic Injector for TJ-II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic neutral beam system is proposed for the TJ-II stellarator. The main goal of installing such a system in TJ-II is to increase the signal to noise ratio and provide spatial resolution in diagnostic systems based on Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies in this magnetically confined plasma device. After outlining the unique characteristics of the TJ-II and reviewing available diagnostic injector systems, the compact system selected for TJ-II is presented together with estimates of the resulting increased signal levels Finally other important aspects are discussed, in particular its location and orientation, as well as possible solutions to avoid perturbing the TJ-II magnetic configurations in the heliac device. (Author) 31 refs

432

Design of a Pulse Injector for DME Propellant  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT), which has advantages such as smallness, lightweight and low power consumption, has attracted attention again for the application to small satellites. Liquid propellant like water or alcohol provides higher specific impulse in comparison with conventional Teflon propellant. Nevertheless, water and alcohol propellants have problems: higher freezing point or contamination to satellites by the exhaust gas. In this study, we propose to apply DME (Di-methyl ether) to the PPT's propellant. DME can be stored as liquid, and requires no pressurant because DME has a vapor pressure of 0.6 MPa at 298 K. DME would also be potentially usable as heat transfer media, coolant, working fluid of heat pipe etc. We have designed and tested a prototyped pulse injector supplying liquid DME to discharge channels of the PPTs. Experimental results showed that the pulse injector successfully injected liquefied DME of 1.16 mg/shot, which is equivalent to the mass shot of a high power class PPT. The shape of injected liquid was dependent on the duration of the gating-pulse applied to the injector; a group of droplets were provided with a 20 ms gating-pulse duration, and a single stream with 25 ms or longer gating-pulse duration.

Fukunaga, Masato; Kakami, Akira; Tachibana, Takeshi

433

Ion source and injector improvements at the SuperHILAC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major improvements have been made on the Adam injector at the SuperHILAC heavy ion accelerator. Adam is a pressurized Cockcroft-Walton injector, typically run at voltages in excess of 2 MeV. The PIG ion source was redesigned to increase the length of the discharge column and the extraction slit, while remaining within the magnet poles of the source magnet. To maintain cooling, part of the thinner soft-iron end cap was replaced with a copper section, modifying the magnetic circuit. These modifications resulted in more than doubling the ion beam intensity. A large liquid nitrogen cryotrap within the pressure vessel was replaced by an RF shielded, commercial cryopump head with a custom pumping array. This reduced the pressure at the ground end of the injector by an order of magnitude and reduced that at the source by a factor of two, even the additional gas load due to the longer slit. The pressure reduction was essential to minimize charge exchange loss of the highly charged ions, such as Fe4+. Plans are underway to replace a 3 watt cryopump in the terminal end with a 10 watt pump which is expected to result in a 50% faster cooldown time, and greater than a 50% increase in running time before regeneration of the cryopump is necessary

434

Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

2010-07-01

435

Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D{sub 2} cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x10{sup 20} atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D{alpha} intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Ichige, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

2001-03-01

436

BPM DAQ system upgrade for SuperKEKB injector linac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KEK electron/positron linac is a 600-m-long injector providing the beams of different energies with four independent storage rings. A non-destructive beam position monitor (BPM) is an indispensable diagnostic tool for a long-term stable beam operation. In the KEK linac, around one hundred BPMs with the four strip-line type electrodes are utilized for the beam position and charge measurement. The measured beam positions can be used for the beam orbit and energy feedback loops. The current BPM data acquisition (DAQ) system comprises 23 fast digital oscilloscopes based on Windows-XP, and the precision of measurement precision is approximately 50 ?m. Toward the SuperKEKB project, the upgrade of injector linac is now going on for increasing the beam intensity and reducing the beam emittance. For the SuperKEKB linac, the emittance of electron beam should be reduced one-fifth smaller than that of former KEKB injector. For this reason, a high precision of the beam position measurement less than 10 ?m is strongly required. In this paper, we present the system description and performance evaluation of a new BPM DAQ system in detail. (author)

437

CERN Upgrade Plans for the LHC and its Injectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that LHC is operated efficiently, that it achieves nominal performance in the shortest term, and that its performance steadily improves. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for maximizing the physics reach of the LHC by upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injectors, in a phased approach. The first phase comprises construction of LINAC4 and the LHC IR upgrade, with the goal of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2 to 3 1034 cm-2s-1, while maximising the use of mature magnet technologies and of the existing infrastructure. These two projects were approved by Council in December 2007 and are scheduled for completion, together with ATLAS and CMS upgrades, in 2014. The second phase foresees further substantial improvements in the injector chain, with replacement of the aging PS and its booster with SPL and PS2, modifications in the existing SPS, and finally with significant modifications of the magnet technology for the LHC interaction regions and upgrade of the infrastructure. Completion of this phase around 2020 should allow to increase further the luminosity of the LHC towards 1035 cm-2s-1. In this report, a summary is given of the on-going projects and studies for the upgrade of the LHC and its injectors. (author)

438

Development of the centrifugal pellet injector for JT-60U  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For core fueling of JT-60U plasmas, a repetitive pellet injector which centrifugally accelerates D2 cubic pellets using a straight rod has been developed. This centrifugal pellet injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic pellets at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and velocities of 0.3-1.0 km/s. The average pellet mass is 3.6x1020 atoms/pellet below 0.7 m/s. Key techniques for the development were a mesh structured acceleration component for removing gas sublimated from the pellet and a funnel with an appropriate angle connected just behind the acceleration chamber for introducing the pellet to plasma without destruction. Using the mesh structured components, the horizontal angular distribution of pellets ejected became narrow, because irregular pellet motion caused by sublimated gas was reduced. To investigate the performance of the injector, pellet injection experiments from the low magnetic field side (LFS) were conducted using ohmic heating plasmas. Central fueling and enhanced fueling rate have been observed. D? intensity around the divertor region was reduced in a pellet injection plasma compared to gas puffing, indicating low recycling rate was maintained with the pellet injection. (author)

439

Microcomputer control system for the SuperHILAC third injector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new control system using the latest technology in microcomputers will be used on the third injector at the SuperHILAC. It incorporates some new and progressive ideas in both hardware and software design. These ideas were inspired by the revolution in microprocessors. The third injector project consists of a high voltage pre-injector, a Wideroe type linear accelerator, and connecting beam lines, requiring control of 80 analog and 300 boolean devices. To solve this problem, emphasizing inexpensive, commercially available hardware, we designed a control system consisting of 20 microcomputer boards with a total of 700 kilobytes of memory. Each computer board using a 16-bit microprocessor has the computing power of a typical minicomputer. With these microcomputers operating in parallel, the programming can be greatly simplified, literally replacing software with hardware. This improves system response speed and cuts costs dramatically. An easy to use interpretive language, similar to BASIC, will allow operations personnel to write special purpose programs in addition to the compiled procedures

440

Steam injectors as passive components for high pressure water supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam injectors are static devices in which steam and subcooled water are mixed together and the outflowing subcooled water can reach a pressure significantly higher than both inlet pressures. A specific application, addressed in this paper, concerns the use of this kind of device in Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's) for high pressure makeup water supply; this solution would take advantage of the available steam energy without introduction of any rotating machinery. The design requirements of this system were defined according to the following considerations: water discharge pressure must be at least ten percent more than steam pressure; the device will have to operate in a quite wide range of steam pressures (e.g. from 9 MPa down to 1 MPa or less). At present, two different calculation approaches were developed and used to evaluate the feasibility of a steam injectors for this application: an overall control volume analysis; a more detailed, one-dimensional analysis. The results, summarized in the paper, confirm the capability of a suitable steam injector to satisfy the mentioned requirements. An instrumented prototype, at present in the design phase, will be used for an experimental activity in order to confirm the theoretical results. (author). 3 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

 
 
 
 
441

Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron

442

Measuring the needle lift and return timing of a CRDI injector using an accelerometer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The needle lift and return timing of a CRDI (common rail direct injection injector were investigated using an accelerometer and the Bosch injection rate measurement method. The Bosch method was used to measure the fuel injection rate shape when fuel was injected with several patterns. An accelerometer was mounted on the outside of the injector to catch the needle lift and return timing of the injector according to the switching signal of the injector driving voltage. The accelerometer accurately caught the timing of the injector needle lift and return for a single-injection pattern, but it could not for the second or third injection when multiple injections occurred. Only the first needle lift timing of the injector was caught with the injection rate shape obtained from the Bosch method, however, this method cannot identify any other lift or return timing values after the first lift timing.

Choong Hoon Lee

2014-10-01

443

Effect of fuel injector type on performance and emissions of reverse-flow combustor  

Science.gov (United States)

The combustion process in a reverse-flow combustor suitable for a small gas turbine engine was investigated to evaluate the effect of fuel injector type on performance and emissions. Fuel injector configurations using pressure-atomizing, spill-flow, air blast, and air-assist techniques were compared and evaluated on the basis of performance obtained in a full-scale experimental combustor operated at inlet conditions corresponding to takeoff, cruise, low power, and idle and typical of a 16:1-pressure-ratio turbine engine. Major differences in combustor performance and emissions characteristics were experienced with each injector type even though the aerodynamic configuration was common to most combustor models. Performance characteristics obtained with the various fuel injector types could not have been predicted from bench-test injector spray characteristics. The effect of the number of operating fuel injectors on performance and emissions is also presented.

Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

1981-01-01

444

Photo-injector, accelerator chain and wiggler development programs for a high peak power RF-Free electron laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strong constraints are imposed on the main components of a RF linac to reach high peak power in a free electron laser. To get high beam qualities, development programs and prototype realizations have been engaged on the following topics: - a low-frequency photo-injector running at 144 MHz, - an accelerator chain prototype at 433 MHz including a 6 MW peak power klystron with 200 ?s pulse duration, a hard tube modulator and a 3-cell cavity, - an adjustable hybrid tapered wiggler with online feedback control

445

A large liquid argon time projection chamber for long-baseline, off-axis neutrino oscillation physics with the NuMI beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from neutrino oscillation experiments in the last ten years have revolutionized the field of neutrino physics. While the overall oscillation picture for three neutrinos is now well established and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters are underway, crucial issues remain. In particular, the hierarchy of the neutrino masses, the structure of the neutrino mixing matrix, and, above all, CP violation in the neutrino sector are the primary experimental challenges in upcoming years. A program that utilizes the newly commissioned NuMI neutrino beamline, and its planned upgrades, together with a high-performance, large-mass detector will be in an excellent position to provide decisive answers to these key neutrino physics questions. A Liquid Argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), which combines fine-grained tracking, total absorption calorimetry, and scalability, is well matched for this physics program. The few-millimeter-scale spatial granularity of a LArTPC combined with dE/dx measurements make it a powerful detector for neutrino oscillation physics. Scans of simulated event samples, both directed and blind, have shown that electron identification in ?e charged current interactions can be maintained at an efficiency of 80%. Backgrounds for ?e appearance searches from neutral current events with a ?0 are reduced well below the ? 0.5-1.0% ?e contamination of the ?? beam. While the ICARUS co>? beam. While the ICARUS collaboration has pioneered this technology and shown its feasibility with successful operation of the T600 (600-ton) LArTPC, a detector for off-axis, long-baseline neutrino physics must be many times more massive to compensate for the low event rates. We have a baseline concept based on the ICARUS wire plane structure and commercial methods of argon purification and housed in an industrial liquefied-natural-gas tank. Fifteen to fifty kton liquid argon capacity tanks have been considered. A very preliminary cost estimate for a 50-kton detector is $100M (unloaded). Continuing Rand D will emphasize those issues pertaining to implementation of this very large scale liquid argon detector concept. Key hardware issues are achievement and maintenance of argon purity in the environment of an industrial tank, the assembly of very large electrode planes, and the signal quality obtained from readout electrodes with very long wires. Key data processing issues include an initial focus on rejection of cosmic rays for a surface experiment. E.orts are underway at Fermilab and a small number of universities in the US and Canada to address these issues with the goal of embarking on the construction of industrial-scale prototypes within one year. One such prototype could be deployed in the MiniBooNE beamline or in the NuMI surface building where neutrino interactions could be observed. These efforts are complementary to efforts around the world that include US participation, such as the construction of a LArTPC for the 2-km detector location at T2K. The 2005 APS neutrino study recommendations recognize that ''The development of new technologies will be essential for further advances in neutrino physics''. In a recent talk to EPP2010, Fermilab director P. Oddone, discussing the Fermilab program, states on his slides: ''We want to start a long term Rand D program towards massive totally active liquid Argon detectors for extensions of NOvA''. [8]. As such, we are poised to enlarge our Rand D efforts to realize the promise of a large liquid argon detec