WorldWideScience

Sample records for luminosity factor

  1. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Balabram, LE; The ATLAS collaboration; Filho, LM

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Among them, the Constrained Optimal Filter (COF) is showing good capacity in handling such luminosity rise by using a deconvolution technique, which revocers physics signals from out of time pile up. When pile up noise is low, COF switches to MF estimator for optimal performance. Currently, the OF measure for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low-muninosity scenario, such QF measure has been used as a way to describe how the acquired singal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditio...

  2. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Seixas, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Sotto-Maior-Peralva, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measure for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measure has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measure to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superposed information, and the QF may be us...

  3. Luminosity and Redshift Dependence of the Covering Factor of AGNs viewed with WISE and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki; Matsuhara, Hideo; Malkan, Matthew A; Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao; Isobe, Naoki; Shirahata, Mai; Oi, Nagisa; Ohyama, Youichi; Takita, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Chisato; Yano, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (i) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and (ii) on the redshift. We constructed 12- and 22-micron luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 < z < 0.3 using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 micron and 25,721 galaxies at 22 micron for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 micron and 4,683 AGNs at 22 micron by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that (i) the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of type 2 AGN classification criteria, and (ii) the CF did not change significantly ...

  4. Glowing greys and surface-white: the photo-geometric factors of luminosity perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavagno, Daniele; Caputo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The perception of luminosity is thought to depend upon the intensity of the stimulus: a surface begins to appear self-luminous when it emits or reflects a certain amount of light. This is known as the luminosity threshold. It is a common opinion among vision scientists that such a threshold is correlated to the intensity of a perceptually white surface, in the sense that only an area of the visual field with luminance higher than perceived surface-white will appear luminous. Here we show grey colours that appear luminous in virtue of surrounding luminance ramps. These ramps are intended to mimic halos seen around light sources in natural environments. The results of three experiments indicate that the phenomenon is in direct contradiction to the aforementioned assumptions and suggest the existence of separate perceptual pathways for self-luminosity perception and for surface-colour perception. PMID:15895626

  5. Luminosity Regained

    OpenAIRE

    Berker, A. Selim

    2008-01-01

    The linchpin of Williamson (2000)'s radically externalist epistemological program is an argument for the claim that no non-trivial condition is luminous—that no non-trivial condition is such that whenever it obtains, one is in a position to know that it obtains. I argue that Williamson's anti-luminosity argument succeeds only if one assumes that, even in the limit of ideal reflection, the obtaining of the condition in question and one's beliefs about that condition can be radically disjoint f...

  6. Light, Luminosity and the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Short interview to Lucio Rossi, project leader of the High Luminosity LHC, about the concept of light in physics, light and luminosity in particle accelerators and the High Luminosity LHC project. On the occasion of International Year of Light 2015.

  7. High Luminosity LHC Project Description

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Rossi, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design, to allow increasing the integrated luminosity, in the high luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS, from the 300 fb-1 of the LHC original design up to 3000 fb-1 or more. This paper contains a short description of the main machine parameters and of the main equipment that need to be developed and installed. The preliminary cost evaluation and the time plan are presented, too. Finally, the international collaboration that is supporting the project, the governance and the project structure are discussed, too.

  8. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the luminosity delivered by the LHC is pivotal for several key physics analyses. During the first three years of running, tremendous steps forwards have been made in the comprehension of the subtleties related to luminosity monitoring and calibration, which led to an unprecedented accuracy at a hadron collider. The detectors and corresponding algorithms employed to estimate online and offline the luminosity in CMS are described. Details are given concerning the procedure based on the Van der Meer scan technique that allowed a very precise calibration of the luminometers from the determination of the LHC beams parameters. What is being prepared in terms of detector and online software upgrades for the next LHC run is also summarized.

  9. properties and luminosity functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version, studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V or (b-y colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.

  10. Luminosity enhancements at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several ideas are discussed that have been proposed to improve the luminosity at the SPEAR and PEP electron-positron storage rings and to insure good luminosity at the SLAC Linear Collider. There have been two proposals studied recently for SPEAR: a Microbeta insertion using Samarium Cobalt permanent magnets, and a Minibeta insertion using conventional quadrupole magnets. The notations Microbeta and minibeta used here are somewhat arbitrary since the front faces of the first quadrupole magnets for both insertions are at nearly the same distance from the interaction point

  11. CLIC Luminosity Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, Armen; Gschwendtner, Edda; Lefevre, Thibault; Tygier, Sam; Appleby, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC post-collision line is designed to transport the un-collided beams and the products of the collided beams with a total power of 14 MW to the main beam dump. Luminosity monitoring for CLIC is based on high energy muons produced by beamstrahlung photons in the main dump. Threshold Cherenkov counters are proposed for the detection of these muons. The expected rates and layout for these detectors is presented. Another method for luminosity monitoring is to directly detect the beamstrahlung photons in the post-collision line. Full Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to address its feasibility.

  12. High luminosity particle colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e+e-, ?+?-) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  13. Hydrogen-Ion Potential of Antibiotics According to the Environment Factors Temperature and Luminosity Potencial hidrogenionico de antimicrobianos, según los factores ambientales de temperatura y luminosidad Potencial hidrogeniônico de antimicrobianos, segundo os fatores ambientais temperatura e luminosidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Coelho Crepaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experimental study was to measure the pH of antibiotics administered by intravenous infusion - ceftriaxone sodium, vancomycin hydrochloride, metrodinazole, penicillin G potassium and amikacin sulfate - after reconstitution with sterile water and dilution with NaCl 0.9% or dextrose 5% in water, according to temperature and luminosity of the environment. The results showed that variation in the drugs' pH was less than 1.0 value and that some antibiotics remained acidic after dilution and maintained this chemical profile in all situations studied, suggesting that the studied environmental factors did not change the solutions' acid base characteristic. Some pH values measured characterize risk for the development of chemical phlebitis and infiltration, and it is important for clinical practice to emphasize the profile of intravenous solutions of antibiotics, considering method of dilution, and time to infusion.El objetivo de este estudio experimental fue medir el pH de los antibióticos de administración intravenosa ceftriaxona sódica, clorhidrato de vancomicina, metronidazol, penicilina G potásica y sulfato de amikacina, después de reconstitución con agua destilada y dilución con NaCl a 0,9%, o suero glucosado a 5%, considerando la influencia de la temperatura y luminosidad ambientales, así como el tiempo de exposición, en el comportamiento químico de esos fármacos. Los resultados demostraron variaciones que no ultrapasaron 1,0 (valor de pH y que algunos antimicrobianos, eminentemente ácidos después de la dilución, mantuvieron ese comportamiento en todas las situaciones estudiadas, no sugiriendo la influencia de factores ambientales en el comportamiento químico de las soluciones. Considerando que algunos valores de pH encontrados pueden contribuir para el desarrollo de flebitis química e infiltración, es importante enfatizar que para la práctica clínica en salud, existe la necesidad de conocer las características de las soluciones de infusión intravenosa, considerando el tipo de dilución y el tiempo de infusión.O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi medir o pH dos antibióticos de administração intravenosa ceftriaxona sódica, cloridrato de vancomicina, metronidazol, penicilina G potássica e sulfato de amicacina, após reconstituição com água destilada e diluição com NaCl 0,9%, ou soro glicosado 5%, considerando a influência da temperatura e luminosidade ambientais, assim como do tempo de exposição, no comportamento químico desses fármacos. Os resultados demonstraram variações que não ultrapassaram 1,0 valor de pH e que alguns antimicrobianos, eminentemente ácidos após a diluição, mantiveram esse comportamento em todas as situações estudadas, não sugerindo a influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento químico das soluções. Como alguns valores de pH encontrados podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de flebite química e infiltração, é importante enfatizar para a prática clínica em saúde, a necessidade de conhecer as características das soluções de infusão intravenosa, considerando tipo de diluição e tempo de infusão.

  14. Hydrogen-Ion Potential of Antibiotics According to the Environment Factors Temperature and Luminosity / Potencial hidrogenionico de antimicrobianos, según los factores ambientales de temperatura y luminosidad / Potencial hidrogeniônico de antimicrobianos, segundo os fatores ambientais temperatura e luminosidade

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Maria Coelho, Crepaldi; Cíntia, Monteiro; Maria Angélica Sorgini, Peterlini; Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves, Pedreira.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi medir o pH dos antibióticos de administração intravenosa ceftriaxona sódica, cloridrato de vancomicina, metronidazol, penicilina G potássica e sulfato de amicacina, após reconstituição com água destilada e diluição com NaCl 0,9%, ou soro glicosado 5%, conside [...] rando a influência da temperatura e luminosidade ambientais, assim como do tempo de exposição, no comportamento químico desses fármacos. Os resultados demonstraram variações que não ultrapassaram 1,0 valor de pH e que alguns antimicrobianos, eminentemente ácidos após a diluição, mantiveram esse comportamento em todas as situações estudadas, não sugerindo a influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento químico das soluções. Como alguns valores de pH encontrados podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de flebite química e infiltração, é importante enfatizar para a prática clínica em saúde, a necessidade de conhecer as características das soluções de infusão intravenosa, considerando tipo de diluição e tempo de infusão. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio experimental fue medir el pH de los antibióticos de administración intravenosa ceftriaxona sódica, clorhidrato de vancomicina, metronidazol, penicilina G potásica y sulfato de amikacina, después de reconstitución con agua destilada y dilución con NaCl a 0,9%, o suero gluc [...] osado a 5%, considerando la influencia de la temperatura y luminosidad ambientales, así como el tiempo de exposición, en el comportamiento químico de esos fármacos. Los resultados demostraron variaciones que no ultrapasaron 1,0 (valor de pH) y que algunos antimicrobianos, eminentemente ácidos después de la dilución, mantuvieron ese comportamiento en todas las situaciones estudiadas, no sugiriendo la influencia de factores ambientales en el comportamiento químico de las soluciones. Considerando que algunos valores de pH encontrados pueden contribuir para el desarrollo de flebitis química e infiltración, es importante enfatizar que para la práctica clínica en salud, existe la necesidad de conocer las características de las soluciones de infusión intravenosa, considerando el tipo de dilución y el tiempo de infusión. Abstract in english The objective of this experimental study was to measure the pH of antibiotics administered by intravenous infusion - ceftriaxone sodium, vancomycin hydrochloride, metrodinazole, penicillin G potassium and amikacin sulfate - after reconstitution with sterile water and dilution with NaCl 0.9% or dextr [...] ose 5% in water, according to temperature and luminosity of the environment. The results showed that variation in the drugs' pH was less than 1.0 value and that some antibiotics remained acidic after dilution and maintained this chemical profile in all situations studied, suggesting that the studied environmental factors did not change the solutions' acid base characteristic. Some pH values measured characterize risk for the development of chemical phlebitis and infiltration, and it is important for clinical practice to emphasize the profile of intravenous solutions of antibiotics, considering method of dilution, and time to infusion.

  15. SLHC: The LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LHC will provide unprecedented sensitivity to Standard Model and beyond the Standard Model Physics. However, some important Standard Model measurements as well as a wide part of the spectrum of particles predicted by many promising theoretical models of New Physics are likely beyond the LHC reach. For such observations, a factor-of-ten increase in LHC statistics will have a major impact. A luminosity upgrade is therefore planned for the LHC. The SLHC as well as offering the possibility to increase the Physics potential will create an extreme operating environment for the detectors, particularly the tracking devices. An increase in the number of minimum bias events per beam crossing by at least an order of magnitude beyond the levels envisioned for LHC design luminosity creates the need to handle much higher occupancies and for the innermost layers unprecedented levels of radiation. This will require a fully upgraded tracking system giving a higher granularity, while trying not to exceed the material budget and power levels of the current trackers. The much higher rate of interactions may also push the limits of the Level-1 trigger system. Efforts have already begun to address these issues. This paper presents the possible Physics reaches at SLHC and the current understanding of what systems will need to be upgraded.

  16. SLHC: The LHC luminosity upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricomi, Alessia

    2008-10-01

    The LHC will provide unprecedented sensitivity to Standard Model and beyond the Standard Model Physics. However, some important Standard Model measurements as well as a wide part of the spectrum of particles predicted by many promising theoretical models of New Physics are likely beyond the LHC reach. For such observations, a factor-of-ten increase in LHC statistics will have a major impact. A luminosity upgrade is therefore planned for the LHC. The SLHC as well as offering the possibility to increase the Physics potential will create an extreme operating environment for the detectors, particularly the tracking devices. An increase in the number of minimum bias events per beam crossing by at least an order of magnitude beyond the levels envisioned for LHC design luminosity creates the need to handle much higher occupancies and for the innermost layers unprecedented levels of radiation. This will require a fully upgraded tracking system giving a higher granularity, while trying not to exceed the material budget and power levels of the current trackers. The much higher rate of interactions may also push the limits of the Level-1 trigger system. Efforts have already begun to address these issues. This paper presents the possible Physics reaches at SLHC and the current understanding of what systems will need to be upgraded.

  17. Luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Bozovic Jelisavcic, I; Milutinovic Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Smiljanic,I

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method of luminosity measurement at the future linear collider ILC that estimates and corrects for the impact of the dominant sources of systematic uncertainty originating from the beam-induced effects and the background from physics processes. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainty is reduced to a permille independently of the precision with which the beam parameters are known. With the specific event selection, different from the isolation cuts based on topology of the signal used at LEP, combined with the corrective methods we introduce, the overall systematic uncertainty in the peak region above 80% of the nominal center-of-mass energy meets the physics requirements to be at the few permille level at all ILC energies.

  18. Luminosity measurement at ILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božovi? Jelisav?i?, I.; Luki?, S.; Milutinovi? Dumbelovi?, G.; Pandurovi?, M.; Smiljani?, I.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we describe a method of luminosity measurement at the future linear collider ILC that estimates and corrects for the impact of the dominant sources of systematic uncertainty originating from the beam-induced effects and the background from physics processes. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainty is reduced to a permille independently of the precision with which the beam parameters are known. With the specific event selection, different from the isolation cuts based on topology of the signal used at LEP, combined with the corrective methods we introduce, the overall systematic uncertainty in the peak region above 80% of the nominal center-of-mass energy meets the physics requirements to be at the few permille level at all ILC energies.

  19. Luminosity function of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, L J Rangel; Ruffini, R; Malheiro, M

    2013-01-01

    The luminosity function (LF) statistics applied to the BATSE GRBs (sources of GUSBAD catalog) is the theme approached in this work. The LF is a strong statistical tool to extract useful information from astrophysical samples, where the key point of this statistical analysis is in the detector sensitivity, where we have performed careful analysis. We applied the tool of the LF statistics to three GRB classes predicted by the Fireshell model. One of the main differences between the Fireshell and Fireball models is the explanation of the GRB prompt emission, where the first claims that it is divided in two physical processes: 1) transparency of a optically thick Freshell producing the P-GRB emission and 2) interaction of a relativistic shell (composed by baryons electron-positron-photon) against the CBM (circumburst medium), producing the emission so-called extended afterglow peak (EAP). However, the Fireball model, the most quoted one, claims that the prompt emission is caused by interactions among several rela...

  20. Luminosity Effects in Projected Fractals

    OpenAIRE

    Thieberger, R.; SPIEGEL, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze examples of projected two dimensional fractals for the case where the objects studied have a Schechter luminosity function. Our results indicate that two dimensional catalogues of sources could be of value in detecting the effects of luminosity functions as well as of large scale structure.

  1. Luminosity determination at proton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafström, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    2015-03-01

    Luminosity is a key parameter in any particle collider, and its precise determination has proven particularly challenging at hadron colliders. After introducing the concept of luminosity in its multiple incarnations and offering a brief survey of the pp and p p bar colliders built to date, this article outlines the various methods that have been developed for relative-luminosity monitoring, as well as the complementary approaches considered for establishing an absolute luminosity scale. This is followed by a survey, from both a historical and a technical perspective, of luminosity determination at the ISR, the S p p ¯ S, the Tevatron, RHIC and the LHC. For each of these, we first delineate the interplay between the experimental context, the specificities of the accelerator, and the precision targets suggested by the physics program. We then detail how the different methods were applied to specific experimental environments and how successfully they meet the precision goals.

  2. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    OpenAIRE

    LHCb Collaboration, .; Bernet, R.; Mu?ller, K.; Steinkamp, O.; Straumann, U.; Vollhardt, A.; et al, ...

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employe...

  3. Sprite Luminosity and Radio Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullekrug, M.; Evans, A.; Mezentsev, A.; van der Velde, O.; Soula, S.

    2013-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010) with diameters 50-100 m at 60-80 km height (Kanmae et al., 2012). The sprite luminosity coincides in time and space with extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation video cameras. The sprite luminosity is inferred from video recordings by use of sophisticated image processing techniques which are applied for the first time to video footage of sprites.

  4. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LHCb collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy ?s. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for ?s = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for ?sNN = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at ?s = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determines the luminosity with a precision of 1.16%. This represents the most precise luminosity measurement achieved so far at a bunched-beam hadron collider.

  5. Luminosity measurement in H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At HERA, luminosity is determined on-line and bunch by bunch by measuring the Bremsstrahlung spectrum from e-p collisions. The Hl collaboration has built a completely new luminosity system in order to sustain the harsh running conditions after the fourfold luminosity increase. Namely, the higher synchrotron radiation doses and the increased event pile-up have governed the design of the two major components, a radiation resistant quartz-fibre electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a fast read-out electronic with on-line energy histogram loading at a rate of 500 kHz. The group was in charge of the electronic and the on-line data analysis of the new luminosity system. In this thesis, I present analysis tools and methods to improve the precision of the luminosity measurement. The energy scale and acceptance calculation methods set out in this thesis permit these values to be determined every four minutes, to an accuracy of 0.5 parts per thousand for the energy scale and 2 parts per thousand for the acceptance. From these results, the degree of accuracy obtained on the luminosity measurement is between 6.5 and 9.5 parts per thousand. These results are currently undergoing validation, with the aim of becoming the standard H1 method. I also studied quasi-elastic Compton events to cross-check the luminosity measurement using the 2003- 2004 and 2005 data. Indeed, this process has a well calculable cross section and a clear experimental signature. The leptonic final state consists of a coplanar e-gamma system, both observable in the central H1 detector. (author)

  6. Luminosity Function at the End of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Stiavelli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Deep photometric fields, such as GOODS and HUDF, have been extensively and successfully investigated for the high-redshift galaxies and quasars by dropout technique. The UV luminosity function (LF), a key factor to the study of the universe at the end of reionization, remains, however, not well constrained, particularly at the faint end. We present here a derivation of LF at redshift six by a new application of the maximum likelihood method by exploring the deepest available fields, including the first analysis of HUDF NICP34.

  7. Technology of high luminosity detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Collider Detectors: Present Capabilities and Future Possibilities focused on the problems posed by high luminosity and high energy at hadron colliders. Four working groups considered problems in individual detector elements, tracking chambers, calorimeters, triggers and particle identification devices. A fifth group reviewed the general problems of detector systems. The working groups concluded that there are technical solutions for the problems of a luminosity of 1033 cm-2 sec-1. Everything is difficult and continued R and D is necessary to improve detectors

  8. High Luminosity Muon Collider Design

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, R B; Gallardo, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadrons and electron machines. They should be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of a 4 TeV high luminosity muon-muon collider, and of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon collider.

  9. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  10. Triggering at High Luminosity Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Hans Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the techniques used to select online promising events at high energy and high luminosity colliders. After a brief introduction, explaining some general aspects of triggering, the more specific implementation options for well established machines like the Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider are presented. An outlook on what difficulties need to be met is given when designing trigger systems at the Super Large Hadron Collider, or at the International Line...

  11. Luminosity--time and luminosity--luminosity correlations for GRB prompt and afterglow plateau emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Dainotti, M G; Willingale, R; Brien, P O'; Ostrowski, M; Nagataki, S

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 123 Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshifts possessing an afterglow plateau phase. We reveal that $L_a-T^{*}_a$ correlation between the X-ray luminosity $L_a$ at the end of the plateau phase and the plateau duration, $T^*_a$, in the GRB rest frame has a power law slope different, within more than 2 $\\sigma$, from the slope of the prompt $L_{f}-T^{*}_{f}$ correlation between the isotropic pulse peak luminosity, $L_{f}$, and the pulse duration, $T^{*}_{f}$, from the time since the GRB ejection. Analogously, we show differences between the prompt and plateau phases in the energy-duration distributions with the afterglow emitted energy being on average $10\\%$ of the prompt emission. Moreover, the distribution of prompt pulse versus afterglow spectral indexes do not show any correlation. In the further analysis we demonstrate that the $L_{peak}-L_a$ distribution, where $L_{peak}$ is the peak luminosity from the start of the burst, is characterized with a considerably higher Spearman ...

  12. Absolute luminosity determination for the ATLAS experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four big experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In order to accurately measure cross sections, the precise knowledge of the integrated luminosity is a prerequisite. The relative luminosity is measured with various detectors and algorithms. The purpose of the algorithms is to convert raw rates measured by a detector into a quantity which is proportional to the luminosity. In this work, three algorithms linked to the two main ATLAS luminosity detectors are absolutel...

  13. RHIC 100 GeV Polarized Proton Luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-01-17

    A big problem in RHIC 100 GeV proton run 2009 was the significantly lower luminosity lifetime than all previous runs. It is shown in this note that the beam intensity decay in run 2009 is caused by the RF voltage ramping in store. It is also shown that the beam decay is not clearly related to the beam momentum spread, therefore, not directly due to the 0.7m. ?* Furthermore, the most important factor regarding the low luminosity lifetime is the faster transverse emittance growth in store, which is also much worse than the previous runs, and is also related to the RF ramping. In 100 GeV proton run 2012a, the RF ramping was abandoned, but the ?* was increased to 0.85m, with more than 20% loss of luminosity, which is not necessary. It ?* in 100 GeV polarized proton run 2015/2016

  14. Luminosity Dependence and Search Doppler

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanParadijs, Johannes A.

    1998-01-01

    The research supported by this grant covered two projects: (1) a study of the luminosity dependence of the properties of atoll sources; and (2) a search for Doppler shifts in the pulse arrival times of the anomalous pulsar 4U 0142+61. Following the discovery of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in Sco X-1 studies of the X-ray properties of atoll sources have been dominated by searches for these QPOS, and the study of their dependence on other source properties, such as X-ray luminosity and spectral state. In the project supported by grant NAG5-3269 we have detected kHz QPOs for several atoll sources. The physical interpretation of these QPO is as yet unclear, but simple models (such as the Keplerian beat frequency model) can probably be excluded. The results of this research have been reported. We have studied the X-ray pulsations of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 using the Rossi XTE. A detailed search for Doppler shifts did not lead to a positive detection. The upper limits exclude almost all types of possible companion stars, except white dwarfs. However, the latter can be excluded since anomalous X-ray pulsars are very young objects. We therefore conclude that anomalous X-ray pulsars are single neutron stars.

  15. The Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of the Earliest Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Brian W; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of extremely high-resolution and physics-rich AMR calculations of high redshift galaxy formation performed on the Blue Waters supercomputer. These simulations contain hundreds of well-resolved galaxies at $z \\sim 25-8$, and make several novel, testable predictions. Most critically, we show that the ultraviolet luminosity function of our simulated galaxies is consistent with observations of high-z galaxy populations at the bright end of the luminosity function (M$_{1600} \\leq -17$), but at lower luminosities is essentially flat rather than rising steeply, as has been inferred by Schechter function fits to high-z observations. This flattening of the luminosity function is due to two factors: (i) the strong dependence of the stellar fraction on halo virial mass in our simulated galaxy population, with lower-mass halos having systematically lower stellar fractions and thus lower luminosities at a given halo virial mass; and (ii)...

  16. The Galaxy Luminosity Function during the Reionization Epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, M; Bouwens, R J; Oesch, P; Shull, J M; Illingworth, G D; Bradley, L D; Carollo, C M

    2010-01-01

    The new Wide Field Camera 3/IR observations on the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field started investigating the properties of galaxies during the reionization epoch. To interpret these observations, we present a novel approach inspired by the conditional luminosity function method. We calibrate our model to observations at z=6 and assume a non-evolving galaxy luminosity versus halo mass relation. We first compare model predictions against the luminosity function measured at z=5 and z=4. We then predict the luminosity function at z>=7 under the sole assumption of evolution in the underlying dark-matter halo mass function. Our model is consistent with the observed z>6.5 galaxy number counts in the HUDF survey and suggests a possible steepening of the faint-end slope of the luminosity function: alpha(z>8) 10^{-4}) might provide >75% of the total reionizing flux. Assuming escape fraction f_{esc}~0.2, clumping factor C~5, top heavy-IMF and low metallicity, galaxies below the detection limit produce complete reionization at z...

  17. Ether, Luminosity and Galactic Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    An interpretation of the cosmological redshift in terms of a cosmic ether is given. We study a Robertson-Walker cosmology in which the ether is phenomenologically defined by a homogeneous and isotropic permeability tensor. The speed of light becomes so a function of cosmic time like in a dielectric medium. However, the cosmic ether is dispersion free, it does not lead to a broadening of spectral lines. Locally, in Euclidean frames, the scale factors of the permeability tensor get absorbed in the fundamental constants. Mass and charge scale with cosmic time, and so do atomic energy levels. This substantially changes the interpretation of the cosmological redshift as a Doppler shift. Photon frequencies are independent of the expansion factor; their time scaling is determined by the permeability tensor. The impact of the ether on the luminosity-distance, on the distance-redshift relation, and on galactic number counts is discussed. The Hubble constant is related to the scale factors of the metric and the permeab...

  18. The Local Galaxy 8 micron Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, J -S; Barmby, P; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Caldwell, N; Cool, R J; Eisenhardt, P; Eisenstein, D; Fazio, G G; Le Floc'h, E; Green, P; Kochanek, C S; Lu, N Y; Pahre, M A; Rigopoulou, D; Rosenberg, J L; Smith, H A; Wang, Z; Willmer, C N A; Willner, S P

    2007-01-01

    A SST survey in the NOAO Deep-Wide Field in Bo\\"otes provides a complete, 8-micron-selected sample of galaxies to a limiting (Vega) magnitude of 13.5. In the 6.88 deg$^2$ field sampled, 79% of the 4867 galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts, allowing an accurate determination of the local (z<0.3) galaxy luminosity function. Stellar and dust emission can be separated on the basis of observed galaxy colors. Dust emission (mostly PAH) accounts for 80% of the 8 micron luminosity, stellar photospheres account for 19%, and AGN emission accounts for roughly 1 %. A sub-sample of the 8 micron-selected galaxies have blue, early-type colors, but even most of these have significant PAH emission. The luminosity functions for the total 8 micron luminosity and for the dust emission alone are both well fit by Schechter functions. For the 8 micron luminosity function, the characteristic luminosity is \

  19. Luminosity monitoring and calibration of BLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhen; Xu, Zi-Zong; Wang, Xiao-Lian; Hu, Tao; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Yan, Wen-Biao; Lü, Jun-Guang; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Shi, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Gang; An, Zheng-Hua; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Hong-Bang; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The BEPCII Luminosity Monitor (BLM) monitors relative luminosity per bunch. The counting rates of gamma photons, which are proportional to the luminosities from the BLM at the center of mass system energy of the ? (3770) resonance, are obtained with a statistical error of 0.01% and a systematic error of 4.1%. Absolute luminosities are also determined by the BESIII End-cap Electro-Magnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) using Bhabha events with a statistical error of 2.3% and a systematic error of 3.5%. The calibration constant between the luminosities obtained with the EEMC and the counting rates of the BLM are found to be 0.84±0.03 (×1026 cm-2·count-1). With the calibration constant, the counting rates of the BLM can be scaled up to absolute luminosities.

  20. Luminosity spectrum reconstruction at linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Stéphane; Sailer, André

    2014-04-01

    A good knowledge of the luminosity spectrum is mandatory for many measurements at future colliders. As the beam-parameters determining the luminosity spectrum cannot be measured precisely, the luminosity spectrum has to be measured through a gauge process with the detector. The measured distributions, used to reconstruct the spectrum, depend on Initial State Radiation, cross-section, and Final State Radiation. To extract the basic luminosity spectrum, a parametric model of the luminosity spectrum is created, in this case the spectrum at the 3 TeV compact linear collider. The model is used within a reweighting technique to extract the luminosity spectrum from measured Bhabha event observables, taking all relevant effects into account. The centre-of-mass energy spectrum is reconstructed within 5 % over the full validity range of the model. The reconstructed spectrum does not result in a significant bias or systematic uncertainty in the exemplary physics benchmark process of smuon pair production.

  1. First Results from the LHC Luminosity Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, Alessandro; Turner, William; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Bravin, Enrico; White, Simon; Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Luminosity Monitor (BRAN) is ready for operation during the planned 2009-2011 run. The device is a gas ionization chamber designed to resolve bunch-bybunch luminosity in the high luminosity regions IP1 and IP5 whilst surviving extreme radiation levels. Two devices are installed in the TAN absorbers located ±140m downstream the IPs and monitor the energy associated to the showers produced by high energy neutrons originating from the pp collisions. Designed to provide real time information on the relative luminosity the instruments are used as a collider operations tool for optimizing the luminosity at ATLAS and CMS. A photo-multiplier-based PMT system is also used at low luminosities. We present early test results, noise and background studies and correlation between the BRAN and the PMT monitors. Comparison with ongoing modelling efforts is included

  2. The Luminosity Function of Cluster Radio Relics

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggen, M.; Ensslin, T. A.; Miniati, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we compute the luminosity function of radio relics. In our calculation we include only those relics that are produced by the compression of former radio cocoons. This compression is provided by shocks that are generated in the process of structure formation. Starting from an analytical model for the luminosity evolution of ageing radio cocoons, the luminosity function of radio galaxies and the statistics of shocks as inferred from cosmological simulations, we a...

  3. The AGN Contribution to Galaxy Merger Infrared Luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lee; Hayward, Christopher C.; Smith, Howard; Ashby, Matthew; Hung, Chao-Ling; Martinez-Galarza, Rafael; Weiner, Aaron; Zezas, Andreas; Lanz, Lauranne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of AGN activity to the infrared luminosity of interacting galaxies by analyzing dust radiative transfer calculations of a hydrodynamically simulated merger, created with the code GADGET-2. We focus on emission in the mid-IR to far-IR wavelength ranges, and trace the luminosity density of an interacting gas-rich galaxy pair throughout its evolution. We find that the AGN contribution to IR luminosity is greatest during and immediately after coalescence of the galaxies' central black holes. This period lasts roughly 80 Myr, during which time the increased influx of gas to the center of the merger increases the total luminosity by a factor of a thousand or more due to both increased star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion. We compare different interstellar medium models used to describe sub-resolution gas and dust clouds in the radiative transfer calculations by studying the color evolution of our merger in the Herschel Space Observatory photometric filter bands, and compare the results to Herschel observations. We conclude that using infrared luminosity as a simple surrogate for SFR can overestimate the true rate, due to the contribution of AGN or other dust heating mechanisms. This conclusion has an especially significant impact in assessing the star formation activity in high-redshift galaxies for which luminosity (the best measured property) may not accurately measure the SFR, and in cases where the molecular gas content can differ from that of local systems. Further work will extend this analysis to simulations of mergers between late-type galaxies. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851, by the Smithsonian Institution and by NASA grant NNX14AJ6IG.

  4. Luminosity and Crab Waist Collision Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wanwei

    2015-01-01

    In high energy physics, the luminosity is one useful value to characterize the performance of a particle collider. To gain more available data, we need to maximize the luminosity in most collider experiments. With the discussions of tune shift involved the beam dynamics and a recently proposed "crabbed waist" scheme of beam-beam collisions, we present some qualitative analysis to increase the luminosity. In addition, beam-beam tune shifts and luminosities of $e^{+}e^{-}$, $pp$/$p\\bar{p}$, and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ colliders are discussed.

  5. Beam-beam interactions and luminosity considerations in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the RHIC machine is largely determined by the intrabeam scattering process. However, beam-beam interactions due to both nuclear scattering and intrinsic Coulomb excitation of the heavy ions will result in beam loss and luminosity reductions. The transverse electric field, responsible for Coulomb excitation, is multiplied by a Lorentz Gamma factor at relativistic energies. For 197Au beams in RHIC (Lab. Frame) this factor is 108. Once Coulomb excitation has occurred, the nucleus may fragment or emit a proton, and thus be lost from the beam. Estimates of the beam lifetime will be presented, based on perturbative calculations for the Coulomb excitation process. In addition, di-lepton production from the enormous transverse electric field will be discussed and related to the more general luminosity questions

  6. Luminosity distance in GX cosmological models

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, H. G.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Yegorian, G

    2007-01-01

    We derive luminosity distance equation in Gurzadyan-Xue cosmological models and compared it with available supernovae and radio galaxies data sets. We found that the luminosity distance does not depend explicitly the speed of light and the gravitation constant, and depends only on the matter parameter (GX-invariant) and curvature.

  7. ZEUS Luminosity Photon Calorimeter Linearity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report presents the test results of the linearity measurement of the Luminosity Photon Calorimeter readout electronics. Nonlinearity of the preamplifiers, amplifiers, 140 meters long analog signal transmission, integrators and FADC have been measured and analyzed. This allows making data correction and results in increased luminosity measurement precision for off-line processing. (author)

  8. Operational Results from the LHC Luminosity Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, R; Matis, H S; Ratti, A; Turner, W C; Yaver, H; Stezelberger, T

    2011-01-01

    The Luminosity Monitors for the high luminosity regions in the LHC have been operating to monitor and optimize the luminosity since the beginning of the 2009 run. The device is a gas ionization chamber, which has the ability to resolve bunch-by-bunch luminosity as well as survive the extreme levels of radiation at nominal high intensity LHC operations. The chambers are installed at the zero degree collision angle inside the neutral absorbers 140 m from the interaction point and monitor showers produced by high energy neutral particles from the collisions. A second device, a photo-multiplier based system (PMT) located directly behind the gas ionization chamber, has been also used at low luminosities. We will present operational results for the ionization chambers for both pp and Pb-Pb collisions. These measurements include signal, noise and background studies, and correlation between the gas ionization detector and the PMT. Also, comparison with ongoing modeling efforts will be included.

  9. On the red-giant luminosity bump

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2015-01-01

    The increase in luminosity as a star evolves on the red-giant branch is interrupted briefly when the hydrogen-burning shell reaches the vicinity of the composition discontinuity left behind from the first convective dredge-up. The non-monotonic variation of luminosity causes an accumulation of stars, known as the `bump', in the distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams of stellar clusters, which has substantial diagnostic potential. Here I present numerical results on this behaviour and discuss the physical reason for the luminosity variation, with the goal of strengthening the understanding of origin of the phenomenon and hence of its diagnostic potential.

  10. Luminosity determination at HERA-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description of an original method used to measure the luminosity accumulated by the HERA-B experiment for a data sample taken during the 2002-2003 HERA running period is reported. We show that, with this method, a total luminosity measurement can be achieved with a typical precision, including overall systematic uncertainties, at a level of 5% or better. We also report evidence for the detection of ?-rays generated in the target and comment on the possible use of such delta rays to measure luminosity. (orig.)

  11. ATLAS RPC detector as Luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS RPC Detector Control System has been mainly used to monitor and safely operate the RPC detector during 2010 and 2011 LHC run. The large number (~3500) of gap currents, individually monitored with nA accuracy, allowed us to study the detector behavior with a growing Luminosity and beam currents. A clear linear correlation between the average gap current and the luminosity has been observed over more than four decades. In this presentation will be shown how this method has a good potential for improving the accuracy and the stability of the standard luminosity measurements on a long time basis.

  12. Prospects for the high-luminosity LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note reviews the main physics topics accessible with the high-luminosity LHC program (HL-LHC). It should deliver p-p collisions at ?(s)=14TeV with an integrated luminosity of 3000fb?1. Results are presented in perspective with the previous period with ten times less luminosity. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations released expected results for this program assuming similar detector performance as today within more difficult conditions. The Higgs boson branching ratios and couplings to fermions/bosons will be measured at few percent level. The main discovery limits for the search of new particles or phenomena beyond the Standard Model are presented

  13. Galaxy correlations and the luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the simple assumption that any excess of correlated galaxies seen close on the sky to a galaxy of known distance are also at the same distance, a galaxy luminosity function can be determined from the variation in excess number with magnitude. Averaged over many 'centre' galaxies this luminosity function has good statistical accuracy at the faint end compared to the usual direct estimation from magnitude-limited surveys since the latter necessarily contain few intrinsically faint objects. The form of the luminosity function found from recent redshift surveys is confirmed. (author)

  14. A fast luminosity monitor for BEPCII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhen; Shan, Qing; Xu, Zi-Zong; Wang, Xiao-Lian; Wu, Jian; Wang, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Tao; Cai, Xiao; Wang, Yi-Fang

    2010-04-01

    The fast luminosity monitor counting the ? photons above a given energy threshold emitted from radiative Bhabha scattering has been operated in the BEPCII to measure the relative luminosity bunch by bunch for the first time and used successfully in beam tuning of BEPCII. In the relative mode the monitor is able to deliver the relative luminosities with an accuracy of 0.8%. By steering the electron beam while observing the counting rate changes of the monitor the horizontal and vertical sizes of the bunch spots can be estimated as: sxe+ = sxe- = 0.356 mm, sye+ = sye- = 0.011 mm.

  15. BDS tuning and luminosity monitoring in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, Barbara; Latina, Andrea; Marin, Eduardo; Pfingstner, Jurgen; Schulte, Daniel; Snuverink, Jochem; Tomas, Rogelio; Zamudio, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The emittance preservation in the Beam Delivery System (BDS) is one of the major challenges in CLIC. The fast detuning of the final focus optics requires an on-­line tuning procedure in order to keep luminosity close to the maximum. Different tuning techniques have been applied to the CLIC BDS and in particular to the Final Focus System (FFS) in order to mitigate static and dynamic imperfections. Some of them require a fast luminosity measurement. Here we study the possibility to use beam-­beam backgrounds processes at CLIC 3 TeV CM energy as fast luminosity signal. In particular the hadrons multiplicity in the detector region is investigated.

  16. Luminosity determination at HERA-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adams, M. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Agari, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (DE)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A detailed description of an original method used to measure the luminosity accumulated by the HERA-B experiment for a data sample taken during the 2002-2003 HERA running period is reported. We show that, with this method, a total luminosity measurement can be achieved with a typical precision, including overall systematic uncertainties, at a level of 5% or better. We also report evidence for the detection of {delta}-rays generated in the target and comment on the possible use of such delta rays to measure luminosity. (orig.)

  17. Luminosity performance reach after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on past experience (2010/2011), in particular expected limitations from beam-beam effects, and taking into account the expected beam quality from the LHC injectors, the peak and integrated luminosity at top energy is discussed for different scenarios (e.g. bunch spacing, beta*). In particular it will be shown which are the key parameters to reach the nominal luminosity and it is also shown that peak luminosities two times larger than nominal (or higher) are possible. Possible test in 2012 are discussed

  18. The D0 Run IIb luminosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the recorded integrated luminosity is presented for data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider from June 2006 to September 2011 (Run IIb). In addition, a measurement of the effective cross-section for inelastic interactions, also referred to as the luminosity constant, is reported. This measurement incorporates new features that lead to a substantial improvement in the precision of the result. A luminosity constant of ?LM=48.3±1.9±0.6mb is obtained, where the first uncertainty is due to the accuracy of the inelastic cross-section used by both CDF and D0, and the second uncertainty is due to D0 sources. The recorded luminosity for the highest ET jet trigger is Lrec=9.2±0.4fb?1, with a relative uncertainty of 4.3%.

  19. Simulations of luminosity monitor for PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panda experiment at the future GSI facility FAIR (Facility of Antiprotons Research) is designed to address broad physics programs in hadron physics using the antiproton beam. The physics program includes, among other things, the study of charmonium spectrum and open charm states with high precision and search of exotic hybrids and glueballs in the charmonium mass region. While in some measurements, such as, the resonance scans to determine the resonance widths and mass, only a relative measurement of luminosity may be sufficient, the measurement of the time integrated luminosity at the interaction point is essential in most of the cases to determine the cross section for physical processes. A luminosity monitor based on Si-strip detectors is planned for the PANDA experiment. In the present work, initial simulation studies that have been started at NPD, BARC on the design and optimization of the Si-strip based luminosity monitor for the PANDA experiment have been reported

  20. A survey of Low Luminosity Compact sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Based on the FIRST and SDSS catalogues a flux density limited sample of weak Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources with radio luminosity below 10^26 [W/Hz] at 1.4 GHz has been constructed. Our previous multifrequency observations of CSS sources have shown that low luminosity small-scale objects can be strong candidates for compact faders. This finding supports the idea that some small-size radio sources are short-lived phenomena because of a lack of significant fuelling. They never 'grow up' to become FRI or FRII objects. This new sample marks the start of a systematical study of the radio properties and morphologies of the population of low luminosity compact (LLC) objects. An investigation of this new sample should also lead to a better understanding of compact faders. In this paper, the results of the first stage of the new project - the L-band MERLIN observations of 44 low luminosity CSS sources are presented.

  1. The D0 Run IIb Luminosity Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, B C K; DeVaughan, K; Enari, Y; Gallas, E; Katsanos, I; Linnemann, J; Orduna, J; Partridge, R; Prewitt, M; Schellman, H; Snow, G R; Verzocchi, M

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of the recorded integrated luminosity is presented for data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider from June 2006 to September 2011 (Run IIb). In addition, a measurement of the effective cross section for inelastic interactions, also referred to as the luminosity constant, is reported. This measurement incorporates new features that lead to a substantial improvement in the precision of the result. A luminosity constant of \\sigma_{LM} = 48.3\\pm1.9\\pm0.6 mb is obtained, where the first uncertainty is due to the accuracy of the inelastic cross section used by both CDF and D0, and the second uncertainty is due to D0 sources. The recorded luminosity for the highest E_T jet trigger is L_rec = 9.2 \\pm 0.4 fb^{-1}, with a relative uncertainty of 4.3%.

  2. BDS tuning and Luminosity Monitoring in CLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dalena, B; Barranco, J.(Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, León 37150, Mexico); Latina, A.; Marin, E; Pfingstner, J.; Schulte, D.; Snuverink, J.; R. Tomas; Zamudio, G.

    2012-01-01

    The emittance preservation in the Beam Delivery System (BDS) is one of the major challenges in CLIC. The fast detuning of the final focus optics requires an on-line tuning procedure in order to keep luminosity close to the maximum. Different tuning techniques have been applied to the CLIC BDS and in particular to the Final Focus System (FFS) in order to mitigate static and dynamic imperfections. Some of them require a fast luminosity measurement. Here we study the possibilit...

  3. The luminosity of Population III star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Alexander L.; Basu, Shantanu

    2015-06-01

    We analyse the time evolution of the luminosity of a cluster of Population III protostars formed in the early Universe. We argue from the Jeans criterion that primordial gas can collapse to form a cluster of first stars that evolve relatively independently of one another (i.e. with negligible gravitational interaction). We model the collapse of individual protostellar clumps using non-axisymmetric numerical hydrodynamics simulations. Each collapse produces a protostar surrounded by a massive disc (i.e. Mdisc /M* ≳ 0.1), whose evolution we follow for a further 30-40 kyr. Gravitational instabilities result in the fragmentation and the formation of gravitationally bound clumps within the disc. The accretion of these fragments by the host protostar produces accretion and luminosity bursts on the order of 106 L?. Within the cluster, we show that a simultaneity of such events across several protostellar cluster members can elevate the cluster luminosity to 5-10 times greater than expected, and that the cluster spends ˜15 per cent of its star-forming history at these levels. This enhanced luminosity effect is particularly enabled in clusters of modest size with ?10-20 members. In one such instance, we identify a confluence of burst events that raise the luminosity to nearly 1000 times greater than the cluster mean luminosity, resulting in L > 108 L?. This phenomenon arises solely through the gravitational-instability-driven episodic fragmentation and accretion that characterizes this early stage of protostellar evolution.

  4. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE LUMINOSITY--SIZE RELATION FOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the luminosity-size relationship as a function of environment for 12,150 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies with precise visual classifications from the catalog of Nair and Abraham. Our analysis is subdivided into investigations of early-type galaxies and late-type galaxies. Early-type galaxies reveal a surprisingly tight luminosity-size relation. The dispersion in luminosity about the fiducial relation is only ?0.14 dex (0.35 mag), even though the sample contains galaxies that differ by a factor of almost 100 in luminosity. The dispersion about the luminosity-size relation is comparable to the dispersion about the fundamental plane, even though the luminosity-size relation is fundamentally simpler and computed using purely photometric parameters. We attribute this to using a clean sample of elliptical galaxies and a large Petrosian size measure, implying that the fundamental plane may closely resemble a fundamental line, provided a different (and arguably better) size measurement is adopted. The key contributors to the dispersion about the luminosity-size relation are found to be color and central concentration expanding our analysis to the full range of morphological types, we show that the slope, zero point, and scatter about the luminosity-size relation are independent of environmental density. Our study thus indicates that whatever process is building galaxies is doing so in a way that preserves fundamental scaling laws even as the typical luminl scaling laws even as the typical luminosity of galaxies changes with environment. However, the distribution of galaxies along the luminosity-size relation is found to be strongly dependent on galaxy environment. This variation is in the sense that, at a given morphology, larger and more luminous galaxies are rarer in sparser environments. Our analysis of late-type galaxy morphologies reveals that scatter increases toward later Hubble types. Taken together, these results place strong constraints on conventional hierarchical models in which galaxies are built up in an essentially stochastic way.

  5. Operational results from the LHC luminosity monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminosity monitors for the high luminosity regions in the LHC have been operating to monitor and optimize the luminosity since 2009. The device is a gas ionization chamber inside the neutral particle absorber 140 m from the interaction point and monitors showers produced by high energy neutral particles from the collisions. It has the ability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation in the nominal LHC operation. We present operational results of the device during proton and lead ion operations in 2010 and make comparisons with measurements of experiments. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN can accelerate proton and lead ion beams to 7 TeV and 547 TeV and produce collisions of these particles. Luminosity measures performance of the LHC and is particularly important for experiments in high luminosity interaction points (IPs), ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5). To monitor and optimize the luminosities of these IPs, BRAN (Beam RAte Neutral) detectors (1, 2) have been installed and operating since the beginning of the 2009 operation (3). A neutral particle absorber (TAN) protects the D2 separation dipole from high energy forward neutral particles produced in the collisions (4). These neutral particles produce electromagnetic and hadronic showers inside the TAN and their energy flux is proportional to the collision rate and hence to the luminosity. The BRAN detector is an Argon gas ionization chamber installed inside thgas ionization chamber installed inside the TANs on both sides of the IP1 and IP5 and monitors the relative changes in the luminosity by detecting the ionization due to these showers. When the number of collisions per bunch crossing (multiplicity) is small, the shower rate inside the TAN is also proportional to the luminosity. Hence, the detector is designed to operate by measuring either the shower rate (counting mode for low and intermediate luminosities) or the average shower flux (pulse height mode for high luminosities). The detector is also designed (1) to survive the extreme level of radiation (?1 GGy in the nominal condition), (2) to resolve the shower from each bunch crossing (40 MHz in the nominal condition) and measure the bunch-by-bunch luminosities, and (3) to have four independent square shaped channels, each occupying a quadrant, making the detector sensitive to the crossing angle (1, 2). During the proton operation in 2010, the beam energy was 3.5 TeV and the multiplicity did not exceed four. Because the counting mode is still effective in such a condition (5), the BRAN were operated in the counting mode in 2010. This paper presents operational results of the BRANs during the operation in 2010 (mainly the proton operation) and makes comparisons with measurements of the experiments. The luminosity optimization is discussed in detail in (6) and so this paper focuses on measurements during the normal operation.

  6. EU supports the LHC high-luminosity study

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The design collision energy and luminosity of the LHC are already at record numbers, making the machine one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built. However, to extend its discovery potential even further, a major upgrade of the LHC will be required around 2020. This will increase its average luminosity by a factor of 5 to 10 beyond its design value. Fifteen worldwide institutions and the European Union are supporting the initial design phase of the project through the HiLumi LHC programme, whose kick-off meeting will take place on 16-18 November.   The CERN team that has successfully built and tested the Short Magnet Coil – a small 40 cm long magnet capable of producing a 12.5 T magnetic field. The upgrade of the LHC will require about 10 years of design, construction and implementation. The new machine configuration will be called “High Luminosity LHC” (HL-LHC). The similarly named “HiLumi LHC” is the EU programme that supports...

  7. Upgrade of the CMS Tracker for High Luminosity Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The CMS experiment is one of the four large experiments which are currently carried out at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The innermost detector system, the so-called tracker, is performing with high efficiency and delivers an important contribution to the reconstruction of the physics processes governing the collision of protons with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. An upgrade of the accelerator is planned around 2020, which will boost the luminosity by a factor of ten and will cause a significant increase of the interaction rate. In turn, this will also increase the number of background interactions which has significant impact on the performance of the system to select interesting events (the trigger) and the tracker. To cope with the larger number of particles per collision, the number of sensor elements in the tracker has to be increased while reducing the overall material budget of the detector system. Furthermore, the lifetime of the current tracker is already limited by the harsh radiation environment in the center of the detector to 10 years of operation at the current design luminosity. For the subsequent operation of a new tracker at high luminosity, entirely new sensor materials are needed, which are able to withstand the tenfold increase in irradiation. The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) is significantly involved in the research and development of the new CMS tracker for high luminosity operation. This talk will give a shoosity operation. This talk will give a short introduction on the main challenges for the new detector, followed by a presentation of the newest developments on silicon strip sensors which are designed and investigated at HEPHY. (author)

  8. The investigations of pulsar integrated radio luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malov, I. F.; Malov, O. I.; Malofeev, V. M.

    We have calculated and analyzed integrated radio luminosities L for 232 pulsars. The hypothesis on two types of pulsars (i) with P 1s and ii) P 1s is tested on the base of these new data. It was found that luminosities of objects from the first group are higher but transformation coefficients are much less than for sources from the second group. Moreover there exists a strong correlation (k = 0.87 ± 0.20) between L and magnetic field near the light cylinder for the first group and no L(B) correlation for the second one. This fact confirms the idea on two classes of pulsars and two mechanisms of radiation. The luminosity function is constructed for 544 pulsars. It is found that there are no pulsars with L < 1026 erg/s in our Galaxy. The birth rate of pulsars is equal to one object per 40 years.

  9. CLIC Post-Collision Line Luminosity Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Deacon, L; Geschwendtner, E

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC post collision line is designed to transport the un-collided beams and the products of the collided beams with a total power of 14MW to the main beam dump. Full Monte Carlo simulation has been done for the description of the CLIC luminosity monitoring in the post collision line. One method of the luminosity diagnostic is based on the detection of high energy muons produced by beamstrahlung photons in the main beam dump. The disrupted beam and the beamstrahlung photons produce at the order of 106 muons per bunch crossing per cm2, with energies higher than 10 GeV. Threshold Cherenkov counters are considered after the beam dump for the detection of these high energy muons. Another method for luminosity monitoring is presented using the direct detection of the beamstrahlung photons.

  10. Luminosity levelling techniques for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, B

    2014-01-01

    We present the possibilities for doing luminosity levelling at the LHC. We explore the merits and drawbacks of each option and briefly discuss the operational implications. The simplest option is levelling with an offset between the two beams. Crab cavities may also be used for levelling, as may a squeezing of the beam. There is also the possibility of using the crossing angle in order to do luminosity levelling. All of these options are explored, for the LHC and other possible new projects, together with their benefits and drawbacks.

  11. Offline Software for the PANDA Luminosity Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavdina, A.; Denig, A.; Feldbauer, F.; Jasinski, P.; Leithoff, H.; Michel, M.; Motzko, C.; Pflüger, S.; Weber, T.; Fritsch, M.

    2014-06-01

    In 2018 data taking for hadronphysics facility PANDA is planned to commence. It will be build at the antiproton accelerator HESR, which itself is a part of the FAIR complex (GSI, Darmstadt, Germany). The luminosity at PANDA will be measured by a dedicated sub-detector, which will register scattered antiproton tracks from pp elastic scattering. From a software point of view, the Luminosity Detector is a tracking system. Therefore the most of its offline software parts are typical for a track reconstruction. The basic concept and Monte Carlo based performance studies of each reconstruction step is presented in this paper.

  12. A survey of Low Luminosity Compact sources

    OpenAIRE

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Thomasson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Based on the FIRST and SDSS catalogues a flux density limited sample of weak Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources with radio luminosity below 10^26 [W/Hz] at 1.4 GHz has been constructed. Our previous multifrequency observations of CSS sources have shown that low luminosity small-scale objects can be strong candidates for compact faders. This finding supports the idea that some small-size radio sources are short-lived phenomena because of a lack of significant fuelling. They...

  13. X-ray Spectral State is not Correlated with Luminosity in Holmberg II X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé, F.; Kaaret, P.; Feng, H.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Farrell, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1 has been observed over four months in 2009/2010 by the Swift observatory. The source luminosity varied by a factor of up to 14, reaching a maximum 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ~3.0 × 1040 erg s-1. The spectral properties do not vary much over these four months, with only a slight monotonic increase of the hardness ratio with the count rate. This means that the erratic flaring activity of the source is not associated with spectral changes, as seen in other ULXs. Conversely, comparison with data obtained by Swift in 2006 shows a completely different picture: while at a luminosity also seen in the 2009/2010 data, the source appears with a hard spectrum. Thus, it appears that, as in Galactic black hole binaries, spectral states in this ULX are not determined only by the X-ray luminosity.

  14. X-ray spectral state is not correlated with luminosity in Holmberg II X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Grisé, Fabien; Feng, Hua; Kajava, Jari; Farrell, Sean; 10.1088/2041-8205/724/2/L148

    2010-01-01

    The ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1 has been observed over 4 months in 2009/2010 by the Swift observatory. The source luminosity varied by a factor of up to 14, reaching a maximum 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ~3.0E40 erg/s. The spectral properties do not vary much over these 4 months, with only a slight monotonic increase of the hardness ratio with the count rate. This means that the erratic flaring activity of the source is not associated with spectral changes, as seen in other ULXs. Conversely, comparison with data obtained by Swift in 2006 shows a completely different picture: while at a luminosity also seen in the 2009/2010 data, the source appears with a hard spectrum. Thus, it appears that, as in Galactic black hole binaries, spectral states in this ULX are not determined only by the X-ray luminosity.

  15. X-RAY SPECTRAL STATE IS NOT CORRELATED WITH LUMINOSITY IN HOLMBERG II X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1 has been observed over four months in 2009/2010 by the Swift observatory. The source luminosity varied by a factor of up to 14, reaching a maximum 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ?3.0 x 1040 erg s-1. The spectral properties do not vary much over these four months, with only a slight monotonic increase of the hardness ratio with the count rate. This means that the erratic flaring activity of the source is not associated with spectral changes, as seen in other ULXs. Conversely, comparison with data obtained by Swift in 2006 shows a completely different picture: while at a luminosity also seen in the 2009/2010 data, the source appears with a hard spectrum. Thus, it appears that, as in Galactic black hole binaries, spectral states in this ULX are not determined only by the X-ray luminosity.

  16. Physics as a function of energy and luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new physics in the range of mass up to TeV region is discussed. Most of the discussion concern hadron-hadron (hh) colliders, and also electron-positron colliders are discussed. The cross-sections for new particle production in hh colliders have the general Drell-Yan form, in which the differential luminosity for the collision of partons is included. The formulas with the parton distribution scaled up from present energy using the Altarelli-Parisi equations may be approximately correct within a factor of 2 for the production of particles. Some typical parton-parton luminosity functions for proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions are presented. From the consideration of luminosity, it can be said that the pp colliders are to be preferred. The case studies of some of the possible new physics discussed by Zakharov, mainly on Higgs bosons and supersymmetric particles, but also a few remarks about technicolor are presented. It seems possible to detect technicolor at a large hh collider. The physics reaches of different possible hh colliders are summarized in tables. In the tables, the observable production of Higgses up to 1 TeV in mass, the observable masses for gluinos (squarks) and the technicolor observability are shown. The cleanliness of electron-positron colliders compared to hadron-hadron colliders is pled, a guess is given as to the appropriate conversion factors between the energy in the electron-positron and hh collisions, the complementarity of electron-positron and hh colliders is urged, and it is argued that a rational mix of world accelerators would include both. (Kato, T.)

  17. Academic Training - LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, March, from 11:00 to 12:00 - 16 March from 10:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges A. De Roeck / CERN-PH, D. Bortoletto / Purdue Univ. USA, R. Wigmans / Texas, Tech Univ. USA, W. Riegler / CERN-PH, W. Smith / Wisconsin Univ. USA The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm-2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector ...

  18. Black Hole Jets at the Lowest Luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Richard; Gallo, Elena; Jonker, Peter G; Markoff, Sera; Homan, Jeroen; Miler-Jones, James; Russell, David M; Drappeau, Samia

    2014-08-01

    Both transient stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) spend the majority of their lives accreting at very low rates relative to their Eddington luminosities, in the so-called quiescent regime (Eddington ratios lxlearn about highly sub-Eddington black holes across the entire black hole mass scale.

  19. KEKB B-Factory, the luminosity frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment at the KEKB B-Factory, as well as PEP-II, brought the final blow on the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory. A few key issues will be described on the design and performance of KEKB to make the world's highest luminosity possible. (author)

  20. RHIC Proton Luminosity and Polarization Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-01-17

    The RHIC proton beam polarization can be improved by raising the Booster scraping, which also helps to reduce the RHIC transverse emittance, and therefore to improve the luminosity. By doing this, the beam-beam effect would be enhanced. Currently, the RHIC working point is constrained between 2/3 and 7/10, the 2/3 resonance would affect intensity and luminosity lifetime, and the working point close to 7/10 would enhance polarization decay in store. Run 2013 shows that average polarization decay is merely 1.8% in 8 hours, and most fills have the luminosity lifetime better than 14 hours, which is not a problem. Therefore, even without beam-beam correction, there is room to improve for RHIC polarization and luminosity. The key to push the Booster scraping is to raise the Booster input intensity, for that two approaches can be used. The first is to extend the LINAC tank 9 pulse width, which has been successfully applied in run 2006. The second is to raise the source temperature, which has been successfully applied in run 2006 and run 2012.

  1. Luminosity Measurement at the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Rina; Levy, Aharon

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a proposed high energy accelera- tor, planned to collide electrons with positrons at a maximal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV, and a peak luminosity of 5.9·1034 cm?2s?1. Complementary to the large hadron collider, CLIC is to provide high precision measurements of both known and new physics processes. The required relative precision of luminosity measurement at the CLIC is 10?2. The measurement will be done by the luminosity calorimeter (Lumi- Cal), designed to measure the rate of low angles Bhabha scattering events, a process with well-known cross-section from electroweak theory. Beam-beam effects, which are of unprecedented intensity at the CLIC, influence the lumi- nosity spectrum shape and create a significant amount of background charge deposits in the LumiCal, thus setting a challenge on the requirement for precision. The ability of the LumiCal to provide accurate luminosity mea- surement depends on its ability to perform accurate energy reconstruction of Bhab...

  2. Absolute luminosity determination for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Gabriel; Pauly, Thilo

    ATLAS is one of the four big experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In order to accurately measure cross sections, the precise knowledge of the integrated luminosity is a prerequisite. The relative luminosity is measured with various detectors and algorithms. The purpose of the algorithms is to convert raw rates measured by a detector into a quantity which is proportional to the luminosity. In this work, three algorithms linked to the two main ATLAS luminosity detectors are absolutely calibrated: BCMH_EventOR, BCMV_EventOR, and LUCID_EventOR. The determination of the calibration constants is based on Van der Meer (VdM) scans, which were carried out in July and November 2012. The statistical errors of this method are negligible and the precision is limited by systematic uncertainties. The different uncertainty sources are quantitatively estimated. The overall uncertainty on the calibration constants is estimated to be 5.40% for the July VdM scans and 2.50% for the November VdM scans. The November cali...

  3. How covariant is the galaxy luminosity function?

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the error properties of certain galaxy luminosity function (GLF) estimators. Using a cluster expansion of the density field, we show how, for both volume and flux limited samples, the GLF estimates are covariant. The covariance matrix can be decomposed into three pieces: a diagonal term arising from Poisson noise; a sample variance term arising from large-scale structure in the survey volume; an occupancy covariance term arising due to galaxies of different luminosities inhabiting the same cluster. To evaluate the theory one needs: the mass function and bias of clusters, and the conditional luminosity function (CLF). We use a semi-analytic model (SAM) galaxy catalogue from the Millennium run N-body simulation and the CLF of Yang et al. (2003) to explore these effects. The GLF estimates from the SAM and the CLF qualitatively reproduce results from the 2dFGRS. We also measure the luminosity dependence of clustering in the SAM and find reasonable agreement with 2dFGRS results for bright galaxies. ...

  4. Luminosity of initial breakdown in lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, M.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathna, N.; Vickers, L. E.; Warner, T. A.; Orville, R. E.; Betz, H.-D.

    2013-04-01

    Time correlated high-speed video and electromagnetic data for 15 cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning flashes reveal bursts of light, bright enough to be seen through intervening cloud, during the initial breakdown (IB) stage and within the first 3 ms after flash initiation. Each sudden increase in luminosity is coincident with a CG type (12 cases) or an IC type (3 cases) IB pulse in fast electric field change records. The E-change data for 217 flashes indicate that all CG and IC flashes have IB pulses. The luminosity bursts of 14 negative CG flashes occur 11-340 ms before the first return stroke, at altitudes of 4-8 km, and at 4-41 km range from the camera. In seven cases, linear segments visibly advance away from the first light burst for 55-200 µs, then the entire length dims, then the luminosity sequence repeats along the same path. These visible initial leaders or streamers lengthen intermittently to about 300-1500 m. Their estimated 2-D speeds are 4-18 × 105 m s-1 over the first few hundred microseconds and decrease by about 50% over the first 2 ms. In other cases, only a bright spot or a broad area of diffuse light, presumably scattered by intervening cloud, is visible. The bright area grows larger over 20-60 µs before the luminosity fades in about 100 µs, then this sequence may repeat several times. In several flashes, a 1-2 ms period of little or no luminosity and small E-change is observed following the IB stage prior to stepped leader development.

  5. The luminosity function of the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, R. O.; Huchra, J. P.; Geller, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    We use the CfA Reshift Survey of galaxies with m(sub z) less than or equal to 15.5 to calculate the galaxy luminosity function over the range -13 less than or equal to M(sub z) less than or equal to -22. The sample includes 9063 galaxies distributed over 2.1 sr. For galaxies with velocities cz greater or equal to 2500 km per sec, where the effects of peculiar velocities are small, the luminosity function is well represented by a Schechter function with parameters phi(sub star) = 0.04 +/- 0.01 per cu Mpc, M(sub star) = -18.8 +/- 0.3, and alpha = -1.0 +/- 0.2. When we include all galaxies with cz greater or equal to 500 km per sec, the number of galaxies in the range -16 less than or equal to M(sub z) less than or equal to -13 exceeds the extrapolation of the Schechter function by a factor of 3.1 +/- 0.5. This faint-end excess is not caused by the local peculiar velocity field but may be partially explained by small scale errors in the Zwicky magnitudes. Even with a scale error as large as 0.2 mag per mag, which is unlikely, the excess is still a factor of 1.8 +/- 0.3. If real, this excess affects the interpretation of deep counts of field galaxies.

  6. The high luminosity interaction region for a ring–ring Large Hadron Electron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project is a proposal for high luminosity TeV-scale electron–proton (ep) collisions at the LHC. The LHeC Conceptual Design Report presented an early overview of the machine, including an electron linac solution and a solution involving a 60 GeV electron storage ring. Here we present a new complete solution for the collision insertion of this electron ring, incorporating all constraints including those imposed by the LHC and, for the first time, proving the feasibility of ep collisions at a luminosity of ?1033 cm?2s?1 in the LHC era. The solution presented offers high luminosity while maintaining the large detector coverage required by the particle physics programme. This negates the earlier need for two separate interaction region designs, one optimized for high luminosity at the cost of detector coverage, and the other for lower luminosity but higher coverage. Synchrotron radiation emission is also a major factor in electron accelerator design, and studies are presented showing the feasibility of the design in this regard. The design is found to be technically viable, solving the problem of TeV-scale, high luminosity and high coverage ep collisions at a ring–ring LHeC. (paper)

  7. Probing the Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of the Earliest Galaxies with the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Shea, Brian W.; Wise, John H.; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of extremely high-resolution and physics-rich AMR calculations of high-redshift galaxy formation performed on the Blue Waters supercomputer. These simulations contain hundreds of well-resolved galaxies at z? 25-8, and make several novel, testable predictions. Most critically, we show that the ultraviolet luminosity function of our simulated galaxies is consistent with observations of high-z galaxy populations at the bright end of the luminosity function ({M}1600?slant -17), but at lower luminosities is essentially flat rather than rising steeply, as has been inferred by Schechter function fits to high-z observations, and has a clearly defined lower limit in UV luminosity. This behavior of the luminosity function is due to two factors: (i) the strong dependence of the star formation rate (SFR) on halo virial mass in our simulated galaxy population, with lower-mass halos having systematically lower SFRs and thus lower UV luminosities; and (ii) the fact that halos with virial masses below ? 2× {10}8 {M}? do not universally contain stars, with the fraction of halos containing stars dropping to zero at ? 7× {10}6 {M}? . Finally, we show that the brightest of our simulated galaxies may be visible to current and future ultra-deep space-based surveys, particularly if lensed regions are chosen for observation.

  8. Intrinsic $\\gamma$-ray luminosity, black hole mass, jet and accretion in Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Dingrong

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed a large sample of clean blazars detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Using literature and calculation, we obtained intrinsic $\\gamma$-ray luminosity excluding beaming effect, black hole mass, broad-line luminosity (used as a proxy for disk luminosity), jet kinetic power from "cavity" power and bulk Lorentz factor for parsec-scale radio emission, and studied the distributions of these parameters and relations between them. Our main results are as follows. (i) After excluding beaming effect and redshift effect, intrinsic $\\gamma$-ray luminosity with broad line luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio have significant correlations. Our results confirm the physical distinction between BL Lacs and FSRQs. (ii) The correlation between broad line luminosity and jet power is significant which supports that jet power has a close link with accretion. Jet power depends on both the Eddington ratio and black hole mass. We also obtain $LogL_{\\rm BLR}\\sim(0.98\\pm0.07)Log P_{\\rm jet}$ for all ...

  9. Solar gravitational energy and luminosity variations

    CERN Document Server

    Fazel, Z; Lefebvre, S; Ajabshirizadeh, A; Pireaux, S; 10.1016/j.newst.2007.05.003

    2009-01-01

    Due to non-homogeneous mass distribution and non-uniform velocity rate inside the Sun, the solar outer shape is distorted in latitude. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of a temporal change in this figure on the luminosity. To do so, we use the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) as an indicator of luminosity. Considering that most of the authors have explained the largest part of the TSI modulation with magnetic network (spots and faculae) but not the whole, we could set constraints on radius and effective temperature variations (dR, dT). However computations show that the amplitude of solar irradiance modulation is very sensitive to photospheric temperature variations. In order to understand discrepancies between our best fit and recent observations of Livingston et al. (2005), showing no effective surface temperature variation during the solar cycle, we investigated small effective temperature variation in irradiance modeling. We emphasized a phase-shift (correlated or anticorrelated radius and irradianc...

  10. High luminosity muon scattering at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge of this group was to evaluate the physics that can be done with a high luminosity ? scattering experiment at FNAL using the upgraded Tevatron muon beam, and consider the apparatus required. In this report, the physics that can be accomplished with a high luminosity ? scattering experiment is evaluated. The CERN and FNAL ? beams are compared in the context of such an experiment. The expected muon flux with the upgraded machine is estimated. Two possible detectors are compared: the air-core toroid experiment proposed by Guyot et al., and an upgraded version of the E665 double-diode apparatus now in place at FNAL. The relative costs of the detectors are considered. A list of detailed questions that need to be answered regarding the double-diode experiment has be compiled. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  11. LIGHT and LUMINOSITY, from Einstein to LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. ROSSI, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    After an introduction on the concept of light in physics, this talk will focus on CERN’s High Luminosity LHC project, aiming at extending the discovery potential of CERN’s flagship accelerator by increasing its “luminosity” (ie the number of particles that can be squeezed inside the accelerator to maximize the number of collisions). To achieve this objective, many new technologies are being developed at CERN and many collaborating institutes worldwide, especially in the field of superconductivity. Lucio Rossi, the main speaker, is the head of the HL-LHC project, based at CERN. Giorgio Apollinari, Director for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) will speak through a videoconference from Fermilab (USA). The event is webcast live and will be followed by Fermilab and other institutes in the USA.

  12. The Red Giant Branch Luminosity Function Bump

    OpenAIRE

    Riello, M.; Cassisi, S.; Piotto, G; Recio-Blanco, A.; De Angeli, F.; Salaris, M.; Pietrinferni, A.; Bono, G; Zoccali, M.

    2003-01-01

    We present observational estimates of the magnitude difference between the luminosity function RGB bump and the HB (Delta(bump-zahb)), and of star counts in the bump region (R_bump), for a sample of 54 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) observed by the HST. The large sample of stars resolved in each cluster, and the high photometric accuracy of the data allowed us to detect the bump also in a number of metal poor clusters. To reduce the photometric uncertainties, empirical val...

  13. Low EUV Luminosities Impinging on Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Pascucci, I.; Ricci, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.; Hendler, N. P.; Brooks, K. J.; Contreras, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of high-energy stellar radiation reaching the surface of protoplanetary disks is essential to determine their chemistry and physical evolution. Here, we use millimetric and centimetric radio data to constrain the EUV luminosity impinging on 14 disks around young (~2-10Myr) sun-like stars. For each object we identify the long-wavelength emission in excess to the dust thermal emission, attribute that to free-free disk emission, and thereby compute an upper limit to ...

  14. Prospects for indirect luminosity measurements at LHCb

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J.

    2011-01-01

    We summarise the prospects for indirect luminosity measurements at LHCb. Two candidate processes have been identified for such measurements: electroweak boson production and elastic dimuon production via two photon fusion. The cross-section for W and Z production at LHCb has been calculated at NNLO with an uncertainty of ? 4\\%, where the dominant theoretical error is due to the uncertainty on the parton distribution functions (PDFs). Using the first 16.5 pb?1 of data, a very clean sample ...

  15. IMPROVED PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS WITH SURFACE LUMINOSITY PRIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply Bayesian statistics with prior probabilities of galaxy surface luminosity (SL) to improve photometric redshifts. We apply the method to a sample of 1266 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the GOODS North and South fields at 0.1 ?0.2 is reduced from 15.0% to 10.4%, while the rms scatter of the fractional redshift error does not change much.

  16. Jet Cleansing: Pileup Removal at High Luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, David(Department of Physics, Harvard University, Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, U.S.A.); Low, Matthew; Schwartz, Matthew D; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest impediments to extracting useful information from high luminosity hadron-collider data is radiation from secondary collisions (i.e. pileup) which can overlap with that of the primary interaction. In this paper we introduce a simple jet-substructure technique termed cleansing which can consistently correct for large amounts of pileup in an observable independent way. Cleansing works at the subjet level, combining tracker and calorimeter-based data to recon...

  17. Luminosity polarization correlation in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the correlation between low luminosity and low polarization for off-energy particles in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). In the arcs of the SLC the spin of the polarized electrons has a net horizontal precession of about 25 turns. For example, a particle off energy by 1% deviates by 0.25 spin turns or a 90 degrees rotation from the core. It reduces the average polarization measured by a Compton polarimeter near the interaction point (IP)Since the energy acceptance or bandwidth of the final focus optics is limited to a certain range (? ± 0.5%), these off-energy particles are not focussed as well at the IP and thus contribute less to luminosity. Therefore, the effective polarization at the IP weighted by the luminosity is higher than the measured polarization. Relative corrections of this measured value by +0.5 to 1% for the core and another +1 to 2% for low energy beam tails seems to be necessary for the 1993 run. In 1994, beam shaping with over-compression producing lower energy spreads and smaller tails together with a new arc setup with fewer effective spin turns promise to reduce this effect by an order of magnitude

  18. The Luminosity Dependence of the Galaxy Merger Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, D R

    2008-01-01

    We measure the number of companions per galaxy (Nc) as a function of r-band absolute magnitude for both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Croton et al. (2006) semi-analytic catalog applied to the Millennium Run simulation. For close pairs with projected separations of 5-20 h^{-1} kpc, velocity differences less than 500 km/s, and luminosity ratios between 1:2 and 2:1, we find good agreement between the observations and simulations, with Nc consistently close to 0.02 over the range -22 < M_r < -18. For larger pair separations, Nc(M_r) instead becomes increasingly steep towards the faint end, implying that luminosity-dependent clustering plays an important role on small scales. Using the simulations to assess and correct for projection effects, we infer that the real-space Nc(M_r) for close pairs peaks at about M*, and declines by at least a factor of two as M_r becomes fainter. Conversely, by measuring the number density of close companions, we estimate that at least 90% of all major mergers occur betw...

  19. Online and offline monitoring of the relative luminosity at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, H

    2008-01-01

    This notes presents a proposal for the monitoring of the relative luminosity based on "minimum bias" interaction triggers, as well as some ideas about the possible use of the relative integrated luminosity in the offline environment.

  20. NLC Luminosity as a Function of Beam Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Nosochkov, Yu M; Raubenheimer, T O; Seryi, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Realistic calculation of NLC luminosity has been performed using particle tracking in DIMAD and beam-beam simulations in GUINEA-PIG code for various values of beam emittance, energy and beta functions at the Interaction Point (IP). Results of the simulations are compared with analytic luminosity calculations. The optimum range of IP beta functions for high luminosity was identified.

  1. X-ray spectral state is not correlated with luminosity in Holmberg II X-1

    OpenAIRE

    Grise?, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip; Feng, Hua; Kajava, Jari; Farrell, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1 has been observed over 4 months in 2009/2010 by the Swift observatory. The source luminosity varied by a factor of up to 14, reaching a maximum 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ~3.0E40 erg/s. The spectral properties do not vary much over these 4 months, with only a slight monotonic increase of the hardness ratio with the count rate. This means that the erratic flaring activity of the source is not associated with spectral changes,...

  2. Upgrade of RHIC Vacuum Systems for High Luminosity Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Smart, Loralie; Todd, Robert J; Weiss, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at most room temperature sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping, anti-grazing ridges and beam tube solenoids have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and interlock were enhanced to reduce premature beam aborts. Preliminary measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed...

  3. Implementation of Dynamic Misalignments and Luminosity Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fully characterize the luminosity performance of a linear collider, it is important to simulate the effects of ground motion as well as the beam-beam feedback and other stabilization systems planned to compensate for that motion. The linear collider simulation codes have recently been extended to include both ground motion models and stabilization systems to support the work of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (TRC) [1]. This paper discusses the implementation details and the optimization strategies for interpulse beam-beam feedback

  4. ECAL Barrel Intercalibration at Low Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Franck

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to give the order of magnitude of the time necessary to intercalibrate barrel crystals when LHC starts with a very low luminosity ( 10E-32 cm-2s-1). In this note, we will examine the use of isolated electromagnetic clusters from pi0 or eta or other photon and electron sources. This study does not use the mass reconstruction of the particle ( pi0, eta, ...). It is based on the intercalibration of crystals which belong to a same pseudorapidity interval, assuming that the crystal deposited energy distributions are independent of the azimuth phi.

  5. The Evolving Luminosity Function of Red Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brand, Kate; Benson, Andrew J.; Brodwin, Mark; Croton, Darren J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    We trace the assembly history of red galaxies since z=1, by measuring their evolving space density with the B-band luminosity function. Our sample of 39599 red galaxies, selected from 6.96 square degrees of imaging from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field and Spitzer IRAC Shallow surveys, is an order of magnitude larger, in size and volume, than comparable samples in the literature. We measure a higher space density of z=0.9 red galaxies than some of the recent literature, in part beca...

  6. Galaxy luminosity function: a new analytic expression

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. S., Alcaniz; J. A. S., Lima.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new analytic approximation for the luminosity function of galaxies. The suggested expression behaves like the Schechter function at the faint end (f ~ La) but departs considerably at the bright end (L >> L*). We argue here that such a behavior may provide a better fit for the current ob [...] servational data than does the Schechter function. Its practical interest is stressed by considering roughly the data set provided by the Stromlo-APM redshift survey. Implications on the estimates of the matter density parameter from mass-to-light ratio are also briefly discussed.

  7. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 ?m silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log ?L?(7.8 ?m)/L(X) = –0.31 ± 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log ?L?(7.8 ?m) = (37.2 ± 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s–1 and BHM in M?. The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in ?L?(7.8 ?m) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 ?m from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 ?m using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 IR = 1014.4 L?. Comparing with ub>. Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities Lbol estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to LIR. For the local AGN, the median log LIR/Lbol = –0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log LIR/Lbol = 0.1, with extremes indicating that ultraviolet-derived Lbol can be seriously underestimated even for type 1 quasars.

  8. Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype for the ISR high luminosity (low beta) insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    In colliders, smaller beam cross-section means higher luminosity. Beam-size being proportional to the square-root of the "beta function" value, a small beta means small beam size, hence high luminosity. In 1973 a study was launched on low-beta insertions using superconducting quadrupole magnets, which focus beams to very small sizes at the beam crossing points . In 1976 the first prototype of a superconducting quadrupole was tested. Here we see Theodor Tortschanoff with the prototype of 1.25 m magnetic length. Manufacture of 8 quadrupoles (4 of L=1.15 m, 4 of L=0.65 m) began at Alsthom in 1978. They were installed at intersection I8 of the ISR, enhancing luminosity there by a factor 7 until final low-beta operation in December 1983. For details see "Yellow Report" CERN 76-16. See also pictures 7702307, 7702308, 7702182,7510214X,7510217X.

  9. Key to the Mystery of Dark Energy: Corrected Relationship between Luminosity Distance and Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new possible explanation to the luminosity distance (DL and redshift (Z measurements of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa is developed. Instead of modifying the theory of general relativity or the Friedmann equation of cosmology with an extra scalar ?eld or unknown energy component (e.g., dark energy, we re-examine the relationship between the luminosity distance and the cosmological redshift (DL Z. It is found that the DL Z relation previously applied to connect the cosmological model with the measured SNeIa data is only valid for nearby objects with Z ? 1. The luminosity distances of all distant SNela with Z ? 1 had been underestimated. The newly derived DL Z relation has an extra factor p 1 + Z, with which the cosmological model exactly explains all the SNeIa measurements without dark energy. This result indicates that our universe has not accelerated and does not need dark energy at all.

  10. LHC Report: A new luminosity record

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    After about one month of operation, the LHC has already accumulated an integrated luminosity of 28 pb-1, which corresponds to over 50% of the total delivered to the experiments in 2010. This impressive start to the LHC run in 2011 bodes well for the rest of year.   Following careful collimator set-up and validation, the first phase of beam commissioning 2011 has come to an end. The first stable beams were declared on Sunday 13 March with a moderate 3 bunches per beam and an initial luminosity of 1.6 × 1030 cm-2s-1. Machine protection tests continued during the following week as the commissioning team made absolutely sure that all critical systems (beam dumps, beam interlock system, etc.) were functioning properly. When these tests had finished, the way was opened to increased intensity and the LHC quickly moved through the first part of its planned, staged intensity increase. Fills with increasing numbers of bunches were delivered to the experiments, culminating in a fill with 200...

  11. Selected issues for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider started its operations on September 10. 2008. In a realistic forecast it is supposed to demonstrate (or confute) the existence of the Higgs boson for the year 2014. After this date the physics of rare events will be explored more in details and an upgrade of the luminosity can make an important difference in the program of experiments at CERN. This thesis proposes several ideas to increase the luminosity of ATLAS and CMS experiments and the acceptance of TOTEM experiment. The main object of study is the Interaction Region, that consists in the set of magnets in charge to provide the final beam focalization for the collisions. The Interaction Region is studied with the methods of beam optics and beam dynamics to design new layouts for the upgrade. These layouts are also explored from the point of view of integrability in the existing experiments developing the analysis of energy deposition and misalignment tolerances. This study was performed with the use of analytical methods for the general considerations and numerical methods for the parameters optimization. (author)

  12. Tracking Triggers for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The planned High Luminosity Phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will increase the collision rate in the ATLAS and CMS detectors by nearly an order of magnitude beyond the maximum luminosity for which the detectors have been designed. In that scenario, the number of proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing is expected to be about 140, on average. This very high pileup environment represents a major challenge for the L1 trigger of the experiments. The inclusion of the high granularity information coming from the Silicon Tracking detectors increases the performance of traditional triggers, based on Muon and Calorimeter information only. This poses new challenges in the design and integration of the novel inner tracking detectors in both ATLAS and CMS. On one hand, this is accomplished by modules capable of transverse momentum (p T ) discrimination, to only readout hits from relatively high p T particles. A second stage performs pattern recognition and tracking at the first level trigger in a few m s, then combined wi...

  13. Galaxy Luminosity Functions in WINGS clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Poggianti, B M; Fasano, G; Varela, J; D'Onofrio, M; Vulcani, B; Cava, A; Fritz, J; Couch, W J; Moles, M; Kjærgaard, P

    2015-01-01

    Using V band photometry of the WINGS survey, we derive galaxy luminosity functions (LF) in nearby clusters. This sample is complete down to Mv=-15.15, and it is homogeneous, thus allowing the study of an unbiased sample of clusters with different characteristics. We constructed the photometric LF for 72 out of the original 76 WINGS clusters, excluding only those without a velocity dispersion estimate. For each cluster we obtained the LF for galaxies in a region of radius=0.5 x r200, and fitted them with single and double Schechter's functions. We also derive the composite LF for the entire sample, and those pertaining to different morphological classes. Finally we derive the spectroscopic cumulative LF for 2009 galaxies that are cluster members. The double Schechter fit parameters are neither correlated with the cluster velocity dispersion, nor with the X-ray luminosity. Our median values of the Schechter's fit slope are, on average, in agreement with measurements of nearby clusters, but are less steep that t...

  14. Prospects for indirect luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We summarise the prospects for indirect luminosity measurements at LHCb. Two candidate processes have been identified for such measurements: electroweak boson production and elastic dimuon production via two photon fusion. The cross-section for W and Z production at LHCb has been calculated at NNLO with an uncertainty of $\\sim$ 4\\%, where the dominant theoretical error is due to the uncertainty on the parton distribution functions (PDFs). Using the first 16.5 pb$^{-1}$ of data, a very clean sample of 833 Z bosons and a larger, but less clean, sample of W bosons have been recorded at LHCb. Using the currently available sample of W$^{+}$ (Z) events an integrated luminosity measurement with an uncertainty of $\\sim$5\\% ($\\sim$6\\%) could be made. Once 150 pb$^{-1}$ of data has been collected a measurement using a high purity Z sample could be performed that would have an uncertainty of 4\\%. Cross-section predictions for elastic dimuon production via two photon fusion have been performed...

  15. The Evolving Luminosity Function of Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M J I; Jannuzi, B T; Brand, K; Benson, A J; Brodwin, M; Croton, D J; Eisenhardt, P R M; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brand, Kate; Benson, Andrew J.; Brodwin, Mark; Croton, Darren J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    We trace the assembly history of red galaxies since z=1, by measuring their evolving space density with the B-band luminosity function. Our sample of 39599 red galaxies, selected from 6.96 square degrees of imaging from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field and Spitzer IRAC Shallow surveys, is an order of magnitude larger, in size and volume, than comparable samples in the literature. We measure a higher space density of z=0.9 red galaxies than some of the recent literature, in part because we account for the faint yet significant galaxy flux which falls outside of our photometric aperture. The B-band luminosity density of red galaxies, which effectively measures the evolution of ~L* galaxies, increases by only 36 percent from z=0 to z=1. If red galaxy stellar populations have faded by 1.24 B-band magnitudes since z=1, the stellar mass contained within the red galaxy population has roughly doubled over the past 8 Gyr. This is consistent with star-forming galaxies being transformed into ~L* red galaxies after a decline in ...

  16. Jet Cleansing: Pileup Removal at High Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David; Schwartz, Matthew D; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest impediments to extracting useful information from high luminosity hadron-collider data is radiation from secondary collisions (i.e. pileup) which can overlap with that of the primary interaction. In this paper we introduce a simple jet-substructure technique termed cleansing which can consistently correct for large amounts of pileup in an observable independent way. Cleansing works at the subjet level, combining tracker and calorimeter-based data to reconstruct the pileup-free primary interaction. The technique can be used on its own, with various degrees of sophistication, or in concert with jet grooming. We apply cleansing to both kinematic and jet shape reconstruction, finding in all cases a marked improvement over previous methods both in the correlation of the cleansed data with uncontaminated results and in measures like S/rt(B). Cleansing should improve the sensitivity of new-physics searches at high luminosity and could also aid in the comparison of precision QCD calculations to co...

  17. Low EUV Luminosities Impinging on Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pascucci, I; Gorti, U; Hollenbach, D; Hendler, N P; Brooks, K J; Contreras, Y

    2014-01-01

    The amount of high-energy stellar radiation reaching the surface of protoplanetary disks is essential to determine their chemistry and physical evolution. Here, we use millimetric and centimetric radio data to constrain the EUV luminosity impinging on 14 disks around young (~2-10Myr) sun-like stars. For each object we identify the long-wavelength emission in excess to the dust thermal emission, attribute that to free-free disk emission, and thereby compute an upper limit to the EUV reaching the disk. We find upper limits lower than 10$^{42}$ photons/s for all sources without jets and lower than $5 \\times 10^{40}$ photons/s for the three older sources in our sample. These latter values are low for EUV-driven photoevaporation alone to clear out protoplanetary material in the timescale inferred by observations. In addition, our EUV upper limits are too low to reproduce the [NeII] 12.81 micron luminosities from three disks with slow [NeII]-detected winds. This indicates that the [NeII] line in these sources prima...

  18. The GRB luminosity function in the internal shock model confronted to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Zitouni, H; Mochkovitch, R; Zerguini, T H

    2010-01-01

    We compute the expected luminosity function of GRBs in the context of the internal shock model. We assume that GRB central engines generate relativistic outflows characterized by the respective distributions of injected kinetic power Edot and contrast in Lorentz factor Kappa = Gamma_max/Gamma_min. We find that if the distribution of contrast extends down to values close to unity (i.e. if both highly variable and smooth outflows can exist) the luminosity function has two branches. At high luminosity it follows the distribution of Edot while at low luminosity it is close to a power law of slope -0.5. We then examine if existing data can constrain the luminosity function. Using the log N - log P curve, the Ep distribution of bright BATSE bursts and the XRF/GRB ratio obtained by HETE2 we show that single and broken power-laws can provide equally good fits of these data. Present observations are therefore unable to favor one form of the other. However when a broken power-law is adopted they clearly indicate a low ...

  19. THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF FERMI-DETECTED FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of ?-ray-selected blazars to date. In this work we use a complete sample of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected during the first year of operation to determine the luminosity function (LF) and its evolution with cosmic time. The number density of FSRQs grows dramatically up to redshift ?0.5-2.0 and declines thereafter. The redshift of the peak in the density is luminosity dependent, with more luminous sources peaking at earlier times; thus the LF of ?-ray FSRQs follows a luminosity-dependent density evolution similar to that of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. Also, using data from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope we derive the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs in the 10 keV-300 GeV band and show that there is no correlation between the luminosity at the peak of the ?-ray emission component and its peak frequency. Using this luminosity-independent SED with the derived LF allows us to predict that the contribution of FSRQs to the Fermi isotropic ?-ray background is 9.3+1.6–1.0% (±3% systematic uncertainty) in the 0.1-100 GeV band. Finally we determine the LF of unbeamed FSRQs, finding that FSRQs have an average Lorentz factor of ? = 11.7+3.3–2.2, that most are seen within 5° of the jet axis, and that they represent only ?0.1% of the parent population.

  20. The Low-Luminosity End of the Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Grier, Catherine J; Barth, Aaron J; Peterson, Bradley M; Vestergaard, Marianne; Bennert, Vardha N; Canalizo, Gabriela; De Rosa, Gisella; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Pogge, Richard W; Stern, Daniel; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hbeta broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of 9 new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create "AGN-free" images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the Hbeta time lag, which is assumed to yield the average Hbeta BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of alpha = 0.533 (+0.035/-0.033), consistent ...

  1. The Galaxy Luminosity Function and Luminosity Density at Redshift z=0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, M R; Brinkmann, J; Connolly, A J; Csabai, I; Bahcall, Neta A; Fukugita, M; Loveday, J; Meiksin, A; Munn, J A; Nichol, R C; Okamura, S; Quinn, T; Schneider, D P; Shimasaku, K; Strauss, M A; Tegmark, M; Vogeley, M S; Weinberg, D H; Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, Istvan; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Okamura, Sadanori; Quinn, Thomas; Schneider, Donald P.; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Strauss, Michael A.; Tegmark, Max; Vogeley, Michael S.; Weinberg, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Using a catalog of 147,986 galaxy redshifts and fluxes from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) we measure the galaxy luminosity density at z=0.1 in five optical bandpasses corresponding to the SDSS bandpasses shifted to match their restframe shape at z=0.1. We denote the bands {0.1}{u}, {0.1}{g}, {0.1}{r}, {0.1}{i}, {0.1}{z}, with \\lambda_{eff} = [3216, 4240, 5595, 6792, 8111] Angstroms respectively. We use a maximum likelihood method which allows for a general form for the shape of the luminosity function, simple luminosity and number evolution, incorporates flux uncertainties, and accounts for the flux limits of the survey. We find luminosity densities at z=0.1 in absolute AB magnitudes in a Mpc^3 of [-14.10 \\pm 0.15, -15.18 \\pm 0.03, -15.90 \\pm 0.03, -16.24 \\pm 0.03, -16.56 \\pm 0.02] in [{0.1}{u}, {0.1}{g}, {0.1}{r}, {0.1}{i}, {0.1}{z}], respectively, using \\Omega_0 =0.3, \\Omega_\\Lambda=0.7, and h=1, and using Petrosian magnitudes. Similar results are obtained using Sersic model magnitudes, suggesting tha...

  2. On the nature of high luminosity ULIRGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    2003-04-01

    We present the preliminary results for a sample of 21 high luminosity ULIRGs (LIR > 1012.3 L?), selected from the 1Jy sample. Based on R band imaging we have performed an analysis of their morphologies. The main result obtained is that about half of the host galaxies are represented by spheroids and in the other half an exponential disk has been detected or they show still trace of a merging process going on. Regarding the relation between morphology and nuclear activity it seems that more advanced mergers appear in the most active galaxies. Hence the data support the evolutionary scheme proposed by Sanders 15 years ago that ULIRGs can be the earliest precursors of optical QSOs.

  3. A New Analytic Galactic Luminosity Profile Function

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Daniel; Lenthall, Matthew; Merousis, Alex; Sundaramurthy, Navin; Kim, Jeongki

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 Spergel introduced an alternative to the traditional Sersic form for galactic luminosity profiles based on modified Bessel functions of the second kind. His motivation was the desire for an accurate one-parameter profile form with a simple Fourier transform (in contrast to the Fourier transform of the Sersic profile which can't be written in closed form), but we have found that the Spergel profile almost universally makes integrals easier when it replaces the Sersic profile in the integrand. In the original paper on the subject Spergel noted that his profile seems to fit galaxies on average just as well as Sersic's. Here we make this observation quantitative by comparing the residuals from fitting Sersic and Spergel forms to data. We find that the Spergel profile actually fits better than the Sersic for a random sample of 16 galaxies.

  4. Constraining Physical Properties of Type IIn Supernovae through Rise Times and Peak Luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energies of Type IIn supernovae need to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta masses are similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind densities vary by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, except for the case of superluminous supernovae, and we analyze the observational data both with and without assuming that the shock breakout occurs in the dense wind of Type IIn supernovae.

  5. Constraining Physical Properties of Type IIn Supernovae through Rise Times and Peak Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energy of Type IIn supernovae needs to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta mass is similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind density varies by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that the shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, exce...

  6. First measurements of HERA luminosity by ZEUS lumi monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first measurement of the HERA collider luminosity by the ZEUS luminosity monitor is reported. The measurement was performed for collisions of 26.6 GeV electrons with 480 GeV protons. Over 4 weeks of HERA operation in November 1991 the measured luminosity has increased from ? 7 x 1026 cm-2 x s-1 to ? 2 x 1028 cm-2 x s-1 as a result of increasing beam currents and improved machine tuning. (orig.)

  7. Standardization of CDF and D OE reported luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FNAL collider store 5094, CDF- and D OE modified the computation of their reported luminosities to utilize a standardized world average inelastic cross-section. The changes made at each experiment and in the Accelerator Division are detailed below. A net decrease was expected and was observed for the reported instantaneous luminosity from each experiment. These changes affect the estimates of instantaneous and integrated luminosities reported to the Accelerator Division for the purposes of operational coordination

  8. The HerMES SPIRE submillimeter local luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Franceschini, A.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-rodriguez, N.

    2010-01-01

    Local luminosity functions are fundamental benchmarks for high-redshift galaxy formation and evolution studies as well as for models describing these processes. Determining the local luminosity function in the submillimeter range can help to better constrain in particular the bolometric luminosity density in the local Universe, and Herschel offers the first opportunity to do so in an unbiased way by imaging large sky areas at several submillimeter wavelengths. We present t...

  9. A statistical study of the luminosity gap in galaxy groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tavasoli, Saeed; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Koohpaee, Ali; Rahmani, Hadi; Ghanbari, Jamshid

    2010-01-01

    The luminosity gap between the two brightest members of galaxy groups and clusters is thought to offer a strong test for the models of galaxy formation and evolution. This study focuses on the statistics of the luminosity gap in galaxy groups, in particular fossil groups, e.g. large luminosity gap, in an analogy with the same in a cosmological simulation. We use spectroscopic legacy data of seventh data release (DR7) of SDSS, to extract a volume limited sample of galaxy grou...

  10. The radio luminosity function of cluster radio halos

    OpenAIRE

    Enßlin, T.A.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A significant fraction of galaxy clusters exhibits cluster wide radio halos. We give a simple prediction of the local and higher redshift radio halo luminosity function (RHLF) on the basis of (i) an observed and a theoretical X-ray cluster luminosity function (XCLF) (ii) the observed radio--X-ray luminosity correlation (RXLC) of galaxy clusters with radio halos (iii) an assumed fraction of 1/3 galaxy clusters to have radio halos as supported by observations. We then find 300...

  11. Does nest luminosity play a role in recognition of parasitic eggs in domed nests? A case study of the red bishop.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Cherry, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 101, ?. 12 (2014), s. 1009-1015. ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Domed nest * Egg discrimination * Light conditions * Nest luminosity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.971, year: 2013

  12. THE LOW-LUMINOSITY END OF THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the H? broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create ''AGN-free'' images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the H? time lag, which is assumed to yield the average H? BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the RBLR-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of ?= 0.533+0.035-0.033, consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 ± 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the reon of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the RBLR-L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts.

  13. The low-luminosity end of the radius-luminosity relationship for active galactic nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, M.C.; Denney, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hß broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create "AGN-free" images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the Hß time lag, which is assumed to yield the average Hß BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R BLR-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of , consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 ± 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the R-L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a new LHC Interaction Region design for a luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J; Limon, P; Mokhov, N V; Sen, T; Zlobin, A V; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Ostojic, R; Rossi, L; Ruggiero, F; Taylor, T; ten Kate, H; Devred, A; Gupta, R; Harrison, M; Peggs, S; Pilat, F; Caspi, S; Gourlay, S; Sabbi, G

    2003-01-01

    After the LHC operates for several years at nominal parameters, it will be necessary to upgrade it for higher luminosity. Replacing the low-beta insertions with a higher performance design based on advanced superconducting magnets is one of the most straightforward steps in this direction. Preliminary studies show that, with magnet technology that is expected to be developed by early in the next decade, a factor of 2 to 5 reduction in beta* could be achieved with new insertions, as part of an upgrade aimed at a factor of 10 luminosity increase. In this paper we survey several possible second generation LHC interaction regions designs, which address the expected limitations on LHC performance imposed by the baseline insertions.

  15. The Red Giant Branch Luminosity Function Bump

    CERN Document Server

    Riello, M; Piotto, G; Recio-Blanco, A; De Angeli, F; Salaris, M; Pietrinferni, A; Bono, G; Zoccali, M

    2003-01-01

    We present observational estimates of the magnitude difference between the luminosity function RGB bump and the HB (Delta(bump-zahb)), and of star counts in the bump region (R_bump), for a sample of 54 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) observed by the HST. The large sample of stars resolved in each cluster, and the high photometric accuracy of the data allowed us to detect the bump also in a number of metal poor clusters. To reduce the photometric uncertainties, empirical values are compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a set of updated canonical stellar evolution models which have been transformed directly into the HST flight system. We found an overall qualitative agreement between theory and observations. Quantitative estimates of the confidence level are hampered by current uncertainties on the GCs metallicity scale, and by the strong dependence of Delta(bump-zahb) on the cluster metallicity. In case of the R_bump parameter, which is only weakly affected by the metallicity, we find a very goo...

  16. ATLAS gets its own luminosity detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    During the winter shutdown, the ATLAS collaboration has completed the installation of ALFA, the detector system that aims at the LHC absolute luminosity at Point 1 analysing the elastic scattering of protons at small angles.   Upper and lower ALFA Roman Pots as installed in sector 8-1 of the LHC tunnel, 240 metres from the ATLAS Interaction Point. The detectors of the ALFA system are installed at ± 240 meters from the interaction point 1, on either side of the ATLAS detector. The whole system consists of four stations, two on each side of the interaction point. Each station is equipped with two Roman Pots; each pot – that is separated from the vacuum of the accelerator by a thin window but is connected with bellows to the beam-pipe – can be moved very close to the beam. “The Roman Pot technique has been used successfully in the past for the measurement of elastic scattering very close to the circulating beam,” says Patrick Fassn...

  17. The IR Luminosity Functions of Rich Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lei; Rieke, Marcia J; Christlein, Daniel; Zabludoff, Ann I

    2008-01-01

    We present MIPS observations of the cluster A3266. About 100 spectroscopic cluster members have been detected at 24 micron. The IR luminosity function in A3266 is very similar to that in the Coma cluster down to the detection limit L_IR~10^43 ergs/s, suggesting a universal form of the bright end IR LF for local rich clusters with M~10^15 M_sun. The shape of the bright end of the A3266-Coma composite IR LF is not significantly different from that of nearby field galaxies, but the fraction of IR-bright galaxies (SFR > 0.2M_sun/yr) in both clusters increases with cluster-centric radius. The decrease of the blue galaxy fraction toward the high density cores only accounts for part of the trend; the fraction of red galaxies with moderate SFRs (0.2 < SFR < 1 M_sun/yr) also decreases with increasing galaxy density. These results suggest that for the IR bright galaxies, nearby rich clusters are distinguished from the field by a lower star-forming galaxy fraction, but not by a change in L*_IR. The composite IR LF...

  18. Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Luminosity Functions and Density Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Ellingson, E.; /Colorado U., CASA; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We present K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters. The extensive spectroscopic dataset available for these clusters allows us to determine the cluster K-band luminosity function and density profile without the need for statistical background subtraction. The luminosity density and number density profiles can be described by NFW models with concentration parameters of c{sub l} = 4.28 {+-} 0.70 and c{sub g} = 4.13 {+-} 0.57 respectively. Comparing these to the dynamical mass analysis of the same clusters shows that the galaxy luminosity and number density profiles are similar to the dark matter profile, and are not less concentrated like in local clusters. The luminosity functions show that the evolution of K. over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.5 is consistent with a scenario where the majority of stars in cluster galaxies form at high-redshift (z{sub f} > 1.5) and evolve passively thereafter. The best-fit for the faint-end slope of the luminosity function is {alpha} = -0.84 {+-} 0.08, which indicates that it does not evolve between z = 0 and z = 0.3. Using Principal Component Analysis of the spectra we classify cluster galaxies as either star-forming/recently-star-forming (EM+BAL) or non-star forming (ELL) and compute their respective luminosity functions. The faint-end slope of the ELL luminosity function is much shallower than for the EM+BAL galaxies at z = 0.3, and suggests the number of faint ELL galaxies in clusters decreases by a factor of {approx} 3 from z = 0 to z = 0.3. The redshift evolution of K* for both EM+BAL and ELL types is consistent with a passively evolving stellar population formed at high-redshift. Passive evolution in both classes, as well as the total cluster luminosity function, demonstrates that the bulk of the stellar population in all bright cluster galaxies is formed at high-redshift and subsequent transformations in morphology/color/spectral-type have little effect on the total stellar mass.

  19. GALAXY CLUSTERING IN THE COMPLETED SDSS REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE DEPENDENCE ON COLOR AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence of galaxy clustering in the largest-ever galaxy redshift survey, the main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Seventh Data Release. We focus on the projected correlation function wp (rp ) of volume-limited samples, extracted from the parent sample of ?700,000 galaxies over 8000 deg2, extending up to redshift of 0.25. We interpret our measurements using halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling assuming a ?CDM cosmology (inflationary cold dark matter with a cosmological constant). The amplitude of wp (rp ) grows slowly with luminosity for L * and increases sharply at higher luminosities, with a large-scale bias factor b(> L) x (?8/0.8) = 1.06 + 0.21(L/L*)1.12, where L is the sample luminosity threshold. At fixed luminosity, redder galaxies exhibit a higher amplitude and steeper correlation function, a steady trend that runs through the 'blue cloud' and 'green valley' and continues across the 'red sequence'. The cross-correlation of red and blue galaxies is close to the geometric mean of their autocorrelations, dropping slightly below at rp -1 Mpc. The luminosity trends for the red and blue galaxy populations separately are strikingly different. Blue galaxies show a slow but steady increase of clustering strength with luminosity, with nearly constant shape of wp (rpnstant shape of wp (rp ). The large-scale clustering of red galaxies shows little luminosity dependence until a sharp increase at L > 4 L*, but the lowest luminosity red galaxies (0.04-0.25 L*) show very strong clustering on small scales (rp -1 Mpc). Most of the observed trends can be naturally understood within the ?CDM+HOD framework. The growth of wp (rp ) for higher luminosity galaxies reflects an overall shift in the mass scale of their host dark matter halos, in particular an increase in the minimum host halo mass Mmin. The mass at which a halo has, on average, one satellite galaxy brighter than L is M1 ? 17 Mmin(L) over most of the luminosity range, with a smaller ratio above L*. The growth and steepening of wp (rp ) for redder galaxies reflects the increasing fraction of galaxies that are satellite systems in high-mass halos instead of central systems in low-mass halos, a trend that is especially marked at low luminosities. Our extensive measurements, provided in tabular form, will allow detailed tests of theoretical models of galaxy formation, a firm grounding of semiempirical models of the galaxy population, and new constraints on cosmological parameters from combining real-space galaxy clustering with mass-sensitive statistics such as redshift-space distortions, cluster mass-to-light ratios, and galaxy-galaxy lensing.

  20. Measuring luminosity at LHCb using elastic diphoton dimuon production

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect method being used to measure luminosity at LHCb. It involves recording the event rate of elastic diphoton dimuon production. Preliminary MC studies suggest that with 1 fb^{-1} of data this method could provide a luminosity measurement with a precision of better than 2%

  1. ISOTROPIC LUMINOSITY INDICATORS IN A COMPLETE AGN SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [O IV] ?25.89 ?m line has been shown to be an accurate indicator of active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity in that it correlates well with hard (10-200 keV) X-ray emission. We present measurements of [O IV] for 89 Seyfert galaxies from the unbiased revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) sample. The [O IV] luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured Seyferts are indistinguishable, indicating that their intrinsic AGN luminosities are quite similar and that the RSA sample is well suited for tests of the unified model. In addition, we analyze several commonly used proxies for AGN luminosity, including [O III] ?5007 A, 6 cm radio, and 2-10 keV X-ray emission. We find that the radio luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured AGNs show no significant difference, indicating that radio luminosity is a useful isotropic luminosity indicator. However, the observed [O III] and 2-10 keV luminosities are systematically smaller for obscured Seyferts, indicating that they are not emitted isotropically.

  2. Luminosities for collisions of intermediate bosons and other partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parton-parton luminosities (l/s) dpounds/d tau are presented for WW, WZ, ZZ, ?W, ?Z, ??, Wg, Wq, Zg, and Zq collisions. A comparison between the exact calculation and the calculation using our luminosities for Higgs boson production from WW fusion is also presented

  3. An improved method of constructing binned luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J

    1999-01-01

    We show that binned differential luminosity functions constructed using the 1/Va method have a significant systematic error for objects close to their parent sample's flux limit(s). This is particularly noticeable when luminosity functions are produced for a number of different redshift ranges as is common in the study of AGN or galaxy evolution. We present a simple method of constructing a binned luminosity function which overcomes this problem and has a number of other advantages over the traditional 1/Va method. We also describe a practical method for comparing binned and model luminosity functions, by calculating the expectation values of the binned luminosity function from the model. Binned luminosity functions produced by the two methods are compared for simulated data and for the Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS). It is shown that the 1/Va method produces a very misleading picture of evolution in the LBQS. The binned luminosity function of the LBQS is then compared to a model two power law luminosity func...

  4. Bivariate luminosity function of E and SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A function which describes the joint distribution of luminosity and radius of galaxies - the bivariate luminosity function (BLF) is defined. A simple analytical formula for the shape of BLF is proposed and fitted to the data for E and SO galaxies from the sample of a previous author. (author)

  5. Precision Electro-Weak and Hadronic Luminosity Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Scott A.; Glosser, Chris; Ward, B. F. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have used YFS Monte Carlo techniques to obtain per-mil level accuracy for the Bhabha scattering cross section used in the luminosity monitor in electro-weak scattering experiments. We will describe techniques for extending these methods for use in the W production luminosity cross section for hadron colliders.

  6. The Luminosity Function of Fermi-detected Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; Shaw, M.S.; Romani, R.W.; Dermer, C.D.; Costamante, L.; King, O.G.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Richards, J.L.; Stevenson, M.

    2012-04-16

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of {gamma}-ray selected blazars to date. In this work we use a complete sample of FSRQs detected during the first year of operation to determine the luminosity function (LF) and its evolution with cosmic time. The number density of FSRQs grows dramatically up to redshift {approx}0.5-2.0 and declines thereafter. The redshift of the peak in the density is luminosity dependent, with more luminous sources peaking at earlier times; thus the LF of {gamma}-ray FSRQs follows a luminosity-dependent density evolution similarly to that of radio-quiet AGN. Also using data from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope we derive the average spectral energy distribution of FSRQs in the 10 keV-100GeV band and show that there is no correlation of the peak {gamma}-ray luminosity with {gamma}-ray peak frequency. The coupling of the SED and LF allows us to predict that the contribution of FSRQs to the Fermi isotropic {gamma}-ray background is 9.3{sub -1.0}{sup +1.6}% ({+-}3% systematic uncertainty) in the 0.1-100GeV band. Finally we determine the LF of unbeamed FSRQs, finding that FSRQs have an average Lorentz factor of {gamma} = 11.7{sub -2.2}{sup +3.3}, that most are seen within 5{sup o} of the jet axis, and that they represent only {approx}0.1% of the parent population.

  7. GEM luminosity monitors for the OLYMPUS experiment to determine the effect of two-photon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozgur

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY acquired its data in two distinct periods between 2012-2013 to measure the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. In light of those measurements, OLYMPUS will be able to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the sub-percent level, the luminosities were monitored redundantly and with high precision. This was done by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber technology. A total of nine GEM detectors were constructed for the OLYMPUS experiment. Within the scope of this thesis, every single step of construction, testing and installation of the GEM OLYMPUS luminosity monitors are explained in the hardware part of this thesis. Moreover, based on the analysis of the data taken with the GEM luminosity monitors at the OLYMPUS experiment, individual GEM detector performance and preliminary results on the positron/electron luminosity ratio measured with elastic scattering at forward angles are discussed in the analysis part of the thesis.

  8. Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program for the Luminosity Increasing at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with approximately 10,000 channels and is operating successfully (data quality efficiency above 99%) in ATLAS, since the start of the LHC collisions. The LHC is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade, in 2022, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), where the luminosity will be increased by a factor of 10 above the original design value. The ATLAS upgrade program for high luminosity is split into three phases: Phase 0 occurred during 2013-2014 (Long Shutdown 1), and prepared the LHC for run 2; Phase 1, foreseen for 2019 (Long Shutdown 2), will prepare the LHC for run 3, whereafter the peak luminosity reaches 2-3 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}; finally, Phase 2, which is foreseen for 2023 (Long Shutdown 3), will prepare the collider for the HL-LHC operation (5-7 x 10^{34} cm^{2}s^{-1}). The TileCal main activities for Phase 0 were the installation of the new low v...

  9. Luminosity and Beam Spot Determination Using the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, D W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    We present the algorithms and results of the reconstruction of the luminous region (also known as beam spot) and measurement of the luminosity in the ATLAS experiment during the first LHC run at energies between sqrt(s) = 900 GeV (in 2009) and sqrt(s) = 7 TeV (in 2010). The LHC luminosity is determined in real time approximately once per second using a number of detectors and algorithms, each having different acceptances, systematic uncertainties and sensitivity to background. These results are displayed in the ATLAS control room and archived every two minutes; a single "preferred" measurement is reported to the LHC. During offline analysis, additional luminosity algorithms are studied and are compared to online results to further constrain systematic uncertainties on the measurement. Relative luminosities between detectors and methods agree to within a few per cent. Determination of the absolute luminosity using Monte Carlo calibrations is limited by a ~20% systematic uncertainty from the modeling of diffrac...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeters for Higher LHC Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Tile Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC will bring instantaneous and total luminosities which are a factor 5-7 beyond the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) and Tile Calorimeters and their read-out systems. Due to radiation requirements and a new two-level hardware trigger concept the read-out electronics will be improved in two phases. In Phase-I, a dedicated read-out of the LAr Calorimeters will provide higher granularity input to the trigger, in order to mitigate pile-up effects and to reduce the background rates. In Phase-II, completely new read-out electronics will allow a digital processing of all LAr and Tile Calorimeter channels at full 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency and a transfer of calibrated energy inputs to the trigger. Results from system design and performance of the developed read-out components, including fully functioning demonstrator systems already operated on the detector, will be reported. Furthermore, the current Forward Calorimeter (FCal) may suffer from signal degradation and argon bubbl...

  11. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity Function Using Photometric Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, B H F; Benoist, C; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; de Simoni, F; Mesquita, A A

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end we compare LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ~4800 galaxies. We find that for z<2, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of CFHTLS comprising ~386000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and estimate directly the error in the parameters based on field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ~0.7mag from z~1.8 to z~0.3, while the characteristic density phi* increases by a factor of ~4 in the same redshift bin. We use the galaxy classification provided by the templ...

  12. STAR FORMATION RATES FOR STARBURST GALAXIES FROM ULTRAVIOLET, INFRARED, AND RADIO LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comparison of star formation rates (SFR) determined from mid-infrared 7.7 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminosity [SFR(PAH)], from 1.4 GHz radio luminosity [SFR(radio)], and from far-ultraviolet luminosity [SFR(UV)] for a sample of 287 starburst galaxies with z ?(7.7 ?m)] - 42.57 ± 0.2, for SFR in Msun yr-1 and ?L ?(7.7 ?m) the luminosity at the peak of the 7.7 ?m PAH feature in erg s-1, is found to agree with SFR(radio). Comparing with SFR(UV) determined independently from ultraviolet observations of the same sources with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission (not corrected for dust extinction), the median log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = 1.67, indicating that only 2% of the ultraviolet continuum typically escapes extinction by dust within a starburst. This ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) depends on infrared luminosity, with the form log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = (0.53 ± 0.05)log [?L?(7.7 ?m)] - 21.5 ± 0.18, indicating that more luminous starbursts are also dustier. Using our adopted relation between ?L?(7.7 ?m) and L ir, this becomes log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)]= (0.53 ± 0.05)log Lir - 4.11 ± 0.18, for Lir in Lsun. Only blue compact dwarf galaxies show comparable or greater SFR(UV) compared to SFR(PAH). We also find that the ratio SFR(PAd that the ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) is similar to that in infrared-selected starbursts for a sample of Markarian starburst galaxies originally selected using optical classification, which implies that there is no significant selection effect in SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) using starburst galaxies discovered by Spitzer. These results indicate that SFRs determined with ultraviolet luminosities require dust corrections by a factor of ?10 for typical local starbursts but this factor increases to >700 for the most luminous starbursts at z ? 2.5. Application of this factor explains why the most luminous starbursts discovered by Spitzer at z ? 2.5 are optically faint; with this amount of extinction, the optical magnitude of a starburst having f?(7.7 ?m) of 1 mJy should be V? 25.6.

  13. A Calibration of the Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krockenberger, Martin

    1997-08-01

    We observed 11 Cepheids with the Advanced Fiber Optics Echelle (AFOE) spectrograph. We measured the effective temperatures of Cepheids using spectral line depth ratios and Kurucz's model atmospheres. For the Cepheids we used the fact that the reddening is constant as a function of phase as an additional constraint. We found uncertainties in the mean temperature as small as 10 K for the best sampled Cepheids. Our temperatures and surface brightnesses disagree with the results of the Barnes-Evans method. We showed that the velocity is best measured from the line centroid because the centroid is insensitive to the turbulent broadening of the line. We demonstrated that the projection factor for the centroid velocity is 1.36 with an uncertainty of about 1% due to the limb darkening. We measured the pulsational velocities, line asymmetries and line level effects for 11 Cepheids and RRLyr. The line level effects are small for ?Cep and lead to an error in the Baade-Wesselink radius of 1%. Line level effects are more prominent in SVVul and RRLyr. For these stars the uncertainty in the Baade-Wesselink radius due to these effects is at least 5%. We developed a new formulation of the Baade-Wesselink method which uses the Fourier coefficients of the observables. We derived an explicit, analytic expression to determine the mean radius from each Fourier order. The simplicity of this method allowed us to derive the uncertainty in the mean radius due to measurement errors. Using simulations and a recent dataset we demonstrated that the precision of the radius measurement with optical magnitudes is in most cases limited by the accuracy of the measurement of the phase difference between the light and the color index curve. In this case it is advantageous to determine the inverse radius, because it has normal errors. We used the Baade-Wesselink radii and temperatures from model atmospheres to calibrate the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation with 10 well studied Galactic Cepheids ranging in period from 2.5 to 45 days. We found radii and distances that are smaller than previous Baade-Wesselink measurements. Unlike previous Galactic calibrations, the slope of our Period-Luminosity relation is in good agreement with the slope found for Cepheids in the LMC and the SMC. We found M[V] = (-3.98 ± 0.07)-(2.79 ± 0.20)[&log P-1]. Without a metallicity correction we found a distance to the LMC of 46 ± 2 kpc. With the best available metallicity correction the LMC distance becomes 4±2-1+1 kpc.

  14. The Luminosity Function of the Milky Way Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koposov, S.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Hewett, P. C.; Irwin, M. J.; Gilmore, G.; Zucker, D. B.; Rix, H.-W.; Fellhauer, M.; Bell, E. F.; Glushkova, E. V.

    2008-10-01

    We quantify the detectability of stellar Milky Way satellites in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5. We show that the effective search volumes for the recently discovered SDSS satellites depend strongly on their luminosity, with their maximum distance, Dmax, substantially smaller than the Milky Way halo's virial radius. Calculating the maximum accessible volume, Vmax, for all faint detected satellites allows the calculation of the luminosity function for Milky Way satellite galaxies, accounting quantitatively for their detectability. We find that the number density of satellite galaxies continues to rise toward low luminosities, but may flatten at MV~-5 within the uncertainties, the luminosity function can be described by a single power law dN/dMV=10×100.1(MV+5), spanning luminosities from MV=-2 all the way to the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. In comparing these results to several semianalytic galaxy formation models, we find that their predictions differ significantly from the data: either the shape of the luminosity function or the model's surface brightness distribution does not match.

  15. GALACTIC ULTRACOMPACT X-RAY BINARIES: EMPIRICAL LUMINOSITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, T. F.; Engel, M. C.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Berger, J. J.; Gladstone, J. C.; Ivanova, N., E-mail: heinke@ualberta.ca [Physics Department, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2013-05-10

    Ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) are thought to have relatively simple binary evolution post-contact, leading to clear predictions of their luminosity function. We test these predictions by studying the long-term behavior of known UCXBs in our Galaxy, principally using data from the MAXI All-Sky Survey and the Galactic bulge scans with RXTE's Proportional Counter Array instrument. Strong luminosity variations are common (and well documented) among persistent UCXBs, which requires an explanation other than the disk instability mechanism. We measure the luminosity function of known UCXBs in the Milky Way, which extends to lower luminosities than some proposed theoretical luminosity functions of UCXBs. The difference between field and globular cluster (GC) X-ray luminosity functions in other galaxies cannot be explained by an increased fraction of UCXBs in GCs. Instead, our measured luminosity function suggests that UCXBs only make up a small fraction of the X-ray binaries above a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} in both old field populations and GCs.

  16. GALACTIC ULTRACOMPACT X-RAY BINARIES: EMPIRICAL LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) are thought to have relatively simple binary evolution post-contact, leading to clear predictions of their luminosity function. We test these predictions by studying the long-term behavior of known UCXBs in our Galaxy, principally using data from the MAXI All-Sky Survey and the Galactic bulge scans with RXTE's Proportional Counter Array instrument. Strong luminosity variations are common (and well documented) among persistent UCXBs, which requires an explanation other than the disk instability mechanism. We measure the luminosity function of known UCXBs in the Milky Way, which extends to lower luminosities than some proposed theoretical luminosity functions of UCXBs. The difference between field and globular cluster (GC) X-ray luminosity functions in other galaxies cannot be explained by an increased fraction of UCXBs in GCs. Instead, our measured luminosity function suggests that UCXBs only make up a small fraction of the X-ray binaries above a few × 1036 erg s–1 in both old field populations and GCs.

  17. Upgrade plans for the Hadronic-Endcap Calorimeter of ATLAS for the high luminosity stage of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadov, Faig; The ATLAS collaboration; Cadabeschi, Mircea; Cheplakov, Alexander; Dominguez, Ruben; Fischer, Alexander; Habring, Jörg; Hambarzumjan, Armen; Javadov, Namig; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Langstaff, Roy; Lenckowski, Mark; Menke, Sven; Molinas Conde, Ignacio; Nagel, Martin; Oberlack, Horst; Raymond, Michel; Reimann, Olaf; Schacht, Peter; Strizenec, Pavol; Vogt, Sven; Wichmann, Giselher

    2015-01-01

    The expected increase of the instantaneous luminosity of a factor seven and of the total integrated luminosity by a factor 3-5 at the second phase of the upgraded high luminosity LHC compared to the design goals for LHC makes it necessary to re-evaluate the radiation hardness of the read-out electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter. The current cold electronics made of GaAs ASICs have been tested with neutron and proton beams to study their degradation under irradiation and the effect it would have on the ATLAS physics programme. New, more radiation hard technologies which could replace the current amplifiers have been studied as well: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the high luminosity LHC. The performance measurements of the current read-out electronics and potential future technologies and expected performance degradations under high luminosity ...

  18. The ATLAS RPC detector as a Luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS RPC Detector Control System has been mainly used to monitor and safely operate the RPC detector during 2010 and 2011 LHC run. The large number (~3600) of gap currents, individually monitored with nA accuracy, allowed us to study the detector behavior with a growing luminosity and beam currents. A clear linear correlation between the average gap current and the luminosity has been observed over more than four orders of magnitude. This publication will demonstrate how this method has a good potential for improving the accuracy and the stability of the standard luminosity measurements on a long time basis.

  19. Rad-hard Luminosity Monitoring for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosity measurements at the high luminosity points of the LHC are very challenging due to the extremely high radiation levels in the order of 180 MGy/yr. They have designed an ionization chamber that uses a flowing inorganic gas mixture and a combination of metals and ceramics. With such a choice, an additional challenge is achieving the necessary speed to be able to resolve bunch-by-bunch luminosity data. They present the design, analysis and experimental results of the early demonstration tests of this device

  20. Comparing Symbiotic Nebulae and Planetary Nebulae Luminosity Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Frankowski, Adam; Soker, Noam

    2009-01-01

    We compare the observed symbiotic nebulae (SyN) luminosity function (SyNLF) in the [O III] 5007A line to the planetary nebulae (PN) luminosity function (PNLF) and find that the intrinsic SyNLF (ISyNLF) of galactic SyNs has - within its uncertainty of 0.5-0.8mag - very similar cutoff luminosity and general shape to those of the PNLF. The [O III]/(Halpha+[N II]) line ratios of SyNs and PNs are shown to be also related. Possible implications of these results for the universalit...

  1. High precision measurements of the luminosity at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The art of the luminosity measurements at LEP is presented. First generation LEP detectors have measured the absolute luminosity with the precision of 0.3-0.5%. The most precise present detectors have reached the 0.07% precision and the 0.05% is not excluded in future. Center-of-mass energy dependent relative precision of the luminosity detectors and the use of the theoretical cross-section in the LEP experiments are also discussed. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Tools for Computing the AGN Feedback: Radio-loudness Distribution and the Kinetic Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Franca, F.; Melini, G.; Fiore, F.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the active galactic nucleus (AGN) radio emission from a compilation of hard X-ray-selected samples, all observed in the 1.4 GHz band. A total of more than 1600 AGNs with 2-10 keV de-absorbed luminosities higher than 1042 erg s-1 cm-2 were used. For a sub-sample of about fifty z 1022 cm-2) and un-absorbed AGNs. Measurement of the probability distribution function of RX allowed us to compute the kinetic luminosity function and the kinetic energy density which, at variance with that assumed in many galaxy evolution models, is observed to decrease by about a factor of 5 at redshift below 0.5. About half of the kinetic energy density results in being produced by the more radio quiet (RX kin\\dot{m} c^2) is, on average, epsilonkin ~= 5 × 10-3. The data suggest a possible increase of epsilonkin at low redshifts.

  3. A novel method for an absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barschel, Colin [RWTH Aachen, III. Physikalisches Institut A (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam-Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used *van der Meer scan* method (VDM). The technique has been used in 10 LHC fills during 2012 including and also provided a first luminosity measurement for proton-lead collisions. This talk presents the principles of the gas injection and the improvements reached with the increased pressure. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch. Those uncertainties are becoming the dominating factor because the uncertainty on the total beam current have been reduced.

  4. Improvement to the D0 luminosity monitor constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D0 experiment has previously calculated its luminosity using the visible cross section (luminosity monitor constant) for its Level 0 trigger, ?L0 = 48.2 mb, based on the world average pp inelastic cross sections at ?s = 1.8 TeV. The error on luminosity had been set at 12%. Recent studies using the MBR and DTUJET Monte Carlo event generators and unbiased D0 data samples have resulted in a more precise determination of the D0 luminosity monitor constant. The result, ?L0 = 46.7 ± 2.5 mb, lowers the central value by 3.1% and reduces the error to 5.4%. 12 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Collider physics at high energies and low luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While very high acceleration gradients are expected in novel accelerating schemes such as those discussed by IZEST, generating high luminosities will be extremely challenging and will likely require a separate technology revolution. It is important to determine if a low-luminosity but high energy collider would have serious interest from a particle physics perspective. We consider a process involving physics beyond the Standard Model that would be detectable at high energies without requiring the types of luminosities normally quoted for future colliders. In this example, scattering cross sections grow with a power of the center-of-mass energy, thereby reducing the luminosity requirement at high energies. Another process discussed is deep-inelastic-scattering of electrons on protons, where a precision measurement of the energy dependence of the scattering cross section could yield information about physics processes at much higher scales. (author)

  6. Implementation and experience with luminosity levelling with offset beam

    CERN Document Server

    Follin, F

    2014-01-01

    The practice of luminosity levelling with an offset beam has been used as a routine operation in the LHC since 2011. This paper will describe how it has been implemented and what has been the operational experience with the system.

  7. Estimating the Prompt Electromagnetic Luminosity of a Black Hole Merger

    CERN Document Server

    Krolik, Julian H

    2009-01-01

    Although recent work in numerical relativity has made tremendous strides in quantifying the gravitational wave luminosity of black hole mergers, very little is known about the electromagnetic luminosity that might occur in immediate conjunction with these events. We show that whenever the heat deposited in the gas near a pair of merging black holes is proportional to its total mass, and the surface density of the gas in the immediate vicinity is greater than the (quite small) amount necessary to make it optically thick, the characteristic scale of the luminosity emitted in direct association with the merger is the Eddington luminosity independent of the gas mass. The duration of the photon signal is proportional to the gas mass, and is generally rather longer than the merger event. At somewhat larger distances, dissipation associated with realigning the gas orbits to the new spin orientation of the black hole can supplement dissipation of the energy gained from orbital adjustment to the mass lost in gravitati...

  8. Luminosity function of old globular clusters in the SMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosity Functions (LFs) provide useful information on the stellar content of a star cluster. LFs of 10 SMC star clusters have been derived using photographic plates taken with the 1.2 m U.K. Schmidt telescope. (Auth.)

  9. The Intrinsic Quasar Luminosity Function: Accounting for Accretion Disk Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    DiPompeo, M A; Brotherton, M S; Runnoe, J C; Green, R F

    2014-01-01

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic --- in part due to its disk-like structure --- but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic l...

  10. Layered convection as the origin of Saturn's luminosity anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Leconte, Jérémy; 10.1038/ngeo1791

    2013-01-01

    As they keep cooling and contracting, Solar System giant planets radiate more energy than they receive from the Sun. Applying the first and second principles of thermodynamics, one can determine their cooling rate, luminosity, and temperature at a given age. Measurements of Saturn's infrared intrinsic luminosity, however, reveal that this planet is significantly brighter than predicted for its age. This excess luminosity is usually attributed to the immiscibility of helium in the hydrogen-rich envelope, leading to "rains" of helium-rich droplets. Existing evolution calculations, however, suggest that the energy released by this sedimentation process may not be sufficient to resolve the puzzle. Here, we demonstrate using planetary evolution models that the presence of layered convection in Saturn's interior, generated, like in some parts of Earth oceans, by the presence of a compositional gradient, significantly reduces its cooling. It can explain the planet's present luminosity for a wide range of configurati...

  11. On the luminosity class of late-type spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlations between the luminosity class in the DDO system and several observational quantities are investigated for late-type spiral galaxies. The luminosity class is found to be well correlated with maximum rotational velocity log V sub(m) (correlation coefficient -0.83), Holmberg's (1958) photometric radius log R sub(H)(-0.80), and absolute B luminosity log L sub(B)(-0.62). The present statistical study suggests the presence of a minor but distinct extraordinary (tidal) group of galaxies; they show peculiarities in the form of their spiral arms (two strong arms for ScI's), in the ratio of the radius of maximum rotational velocity to the Holmberg (1958) radius (Rm/R sub(H)0 and/or of the scale surface density mu 0. The distance-independent quantity V sub(m) is found to be the best directly observable quantitative parameter characterizing the luminosity class (auth.)

  12. Practical and foreseeable limitations in usable luminosity for the collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation and possible short-term improvements of the panti p collider are discussed. A long-term plan, aiming at an increase in luminosity by an order of magnitude is then described. (orig.)

  13. A Luminosity Spectrometer for the Zeus Experiment at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Paganis, S D

    2000-01-01

    The HERA luminosity upgrade is expected to generate two major problems in the current method of luminosity determination which is based on counting brehmsstrahlung photons: damage of the calorimeter monitor due to high primary synchrotron radiation and large multiple event (pile-up) corrections. The luminosity spectrometer presented in this talk, is a novel method that reduces the impact of these problems in the luminosity measurement and is expected to yield a total systematic uncertainty of 1.4%. The spectrometer counts brehmsstrahlung photon conversions in the beam pipe exit window using two small calorimeters (former ZEUS beam pipe calorimeters) symmetrically placed away from the synchrotron radiation plane. The photon conversion rate is measured by counting electron-positron (ep) coincidences in the calorimeters. The ep acceptance is measured using a third calorimeter (6 meter tagger) which tags the brehmsstrahlung electrons. The electron-positron pair is separated by a small dipole magnet.

  14. COMPARING ULTRAVIOLET- AND INFRARED-SELECTED STARBURST GALAXIES IN DUST OBSCURATION AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present samples of starburst galaxies that represent the extremes discovered with infrared and ultraviolet observations, including 25 Markarian galaxies, 23 ultraviolet-luminous galaxies discovered with GALEX, and the 50 starburst galaxies having the largest infrared/ultraviolet ratios. These sources have z 4. Comparisons between infrared luminosities determined with the 7.7 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature and ultraviolet luminosities from the stellar continuum at 153 nm are used to determine obscuration in starbursts and dependence of this obscuration on infrared or ultraviolet luminosity. A strong selection effect arises for the ultraviolet-selected samples: the brightest sources appear bright because they have the least obscuration. Obscuration correction for the ultraviolet-selected Markarian+GALEX sample has the form log[UV(intrinsic)/UV(observed)] = 0.07(±0.04)M(UV) + 2.09 ± 0.69 but for the full infrared-selected Spitzer sample is log[UV(intrinsic)/UV(observed)] = 0.17(±0.02)M(UV) + 4.55 ± 0.4. The relation of total bolometric luminosity L ir to M(UV) is also determined for infrared-selected and ultraviolet-selected samples. For ultraviolet-selected galaxies, log L ir = -(0.33 ± 0.04)M(UV) + 4.52 ± 0.69. For the full infrared-selected sample, log L ir = -(0.23 ± 0.02)M(UV) + 6.99 ± 0.41, all for L ir in Lsun and M(UV) the AB magnitn and M(UV) the AB magnitude at rest frame 153 nm. These results imply that obscuration corrections by factors of 2-3 determined from reddening of the ultraviolet continuum for Lyman break galaxies with z>2 are insufficient, and should be at least a factor of 10 for M(UV) ? -17, with decreasing correction for more luminous sources.

  15. The Luminosity Function of the Milky Way Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Koposov, S.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Hewett, P. C.; Irwin, M. J.; Gilmore, G.; Zucker, D. B.; Rix, H. -w; Fellhauer, M.; Bell, E. F.; Glushkova, E. V.

    2007-01-01

    We quantify the detectability of stellar Milky Way satellites in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5. We show that the effective search volumes for the recently discovered SDSS--satellites depend strongly on their luminosity, with their maximum distance, $D_{max}$, substantially smaller than the Milky Way halo's virial radius. Calculating the maximum accessible volume, $V_{max}$, for all faint detected satellites, allows the calculation of the luminosity funct...

  16. Radio Luminosities and Classificatory Criteria of BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, D C; Jiang, Z J; Dai, B Z

    2002-01-01

    Using the sample of radio selected BL Lacertae objects (RBLs) and X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XBLs) presented by Sambruna et al. (1996), we calculated the luminosities of radio, optical and X-ray of each source and made the statistical analysis among the luminosities at different wave-bands, broad-band spectral indices from radio to X-ray ($\\alpha_{\\rm rx}$) and peak frequencies ($\

  17. Using luminosity data as a proxy for economic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi; Nordhaus, William D.

    2011-01-01

    A pervasive issue in social and environmental research has been how to improve the quality of socioeconomic data in developing countries. Given the shortcomings of standard sources, the present study examines luminosity (measures of nighttime lights visible from space) as a proxy for standard measures of output (gross domestic product). We compare output and luminosity at the country level and at the 1° latitude × 1° longitude grid-cell level for the period 1992–2008. We find that lumino...

  18. Performance of the new high precision luminosity monitor of DELPHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvsvaag, S. J.; Maeland, O. A.; Klovning, A.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Giordano, V.; Guerzoni, M.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Camporesi, T.; Obraztsov, V.; Paganoni, M.; Vallazza, E.; Bozzo, M.; Cereseto, R.; Barreira, G.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Maio, A.; Onofre, A.; Peralta, L.; Pimenta, M.; Tomé, B.; Carling, H.; Falk, E.; Hedberg, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Kronkvist, I.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Ferrari, P.; Gumenyuk, S.; Leoni, R.; Mazza, R.; Negri, P.; Petrovykh, L.; Terranova, F.; Dharmasiri, D. R.; Nossum, B.; Read, A. L.; Skaali, B.; Rohne, O.; Castellani, L.; Pegoraro, M.; Fenyuk, A.; Ivanyushenkov, I.; Karyukhin, A.; Konopliannikov, A.; Shalanda, N.; Sen'ko, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zaitsev, A.; Bigi, M.; Cassio, V.; Gamba, D.; Gouz, I.; Migliore, E.; Romero, A.; Simonetti, L.; Trapani, P. P.; Bari, M.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.

    1997-03-01

    The STIC calorimeter was installed in the DELPHI detector in 1994. The main goal is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The calorimeter was built using the "Shashlik" technique. The light is collected by wavelength shifting fibers and readout by phototetrodes that can operate inside the magnetic field. The detector performance during the 1994-1995 data taking is presented. The different contributions to the systematic error on the luminosity measurement are discussed.

  19. Performance of the new high precision luminosity monitor of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The STIC calorimeter was installed in the DELPHI detector in 1994. The main goal is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The calorimeter was built using the ''Shashlik'' technique. The light is collected by wavelength shifting fibers and readout by phototetrodes that can operate inside the magnetic field. The detector performance during the 1994-1995 data taking is presented. The different contributions to the systematic error on the luminosity measurement are discussed. (orig.)

  20. On the Luminosity Distance and the Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Heymann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By differentiating luminosity distance with respect to time using its standard formula we ?nd that the peculiar velocity is a time varying velocity of light. Therefore, a new de?nition of the luminosity distance is provided such that the peculiar velocity is equal to c. Using this de?nition a Hubble constant H0 = 67.3 km s?1 Mpc?1 is obtained from supernovae data.

  1. On the Theoretical Period-Luminosity Relation of Cepheids

    OpenAIRE

    Saio, H.; Gautschy, A.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical period-luminosity relation for Cepheids was deduced from stellar evolution and pulsation computations. Questions concerning the metallicity dependence of the relation as well as the constancy of the pulsation `constant' Q in the instablility strip were addressed. We found no significant metallicity dependence of either the slope or of the zero-point of the period-luminosity relation. The Q-value, however, varies across the instability strip, in effective temp...

  2. Luminosity and Variability of Collimated Gamma-ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Ryde, Felix; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the internal shock model, we study the luminosity and the variability in gamma-ray bursts from collimated fireballs. In particular we pay attention to the role of the photosphere due to $e^\\pm$ pairs produced by internal shock synchrotron photons. It is shown that the observed Cepheid-like relationship between the luminosity and the variability can be interpreted as a correlation between the opening angle of the fireball jet and the mass included at t...

  3. On estimating redshift and luminosity distributions in photometric redshift surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Ravi K.

    2007-01-01

    The luminosity functions of galaxies and quasars provide invaluable information about galaxy and quasar formation. Estimating the luminosity function from magnitude limited samples is relatively straightforward, provided that the distances to the objects in the sample are known accurately; techniques for doing this have been available for about thirty years. However, distances are usually known accurately for only a small subset of the sample. This is true of the objects in ...

  4. Impact of Detector Solenoid on the CLIC Luminosity Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Dalena, Barbara; Tomas, Rogelio; Schulte, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain the necessary luminosity with a reasonable amount of beam power, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design includes an unprecedented collision beam size of {\\sigma} = 1 nm vertically and {\\sigma} = 45 nm horizontally. Given the small and very flat beams, the luminosity can be significantly degraded from the impact of the experimental solenoid field in combination with a large crossing angle. Main effects include y-x'-coupling and increase of vertical dispe...

  5. On the Luminosity Distance and the Hubble Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Heymann

    2013-01-01

    By differentiating luminosity distance with respect to time using its standard formula we ?nd that the peculiar velocity is a time varying velocity of light. Therefore, a new de?nition of the luminosity distance is provided such that the peculiar velocity is equal to c. Using this de?nition a Hubble constant H0 = 67.3 km s?1 Mpc?1 is obtained from supernovae data.

  6. Evolution of the cluster X-ray luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullis, C.R.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the cluster X-ray luminosity function out to z = 0.8 based on the final sample of 201 galaxy systems from the 160 Square Degree ROSAT Cluster Survey. There is little evidence for any measurable change in cluster abundance out to z similar to 0.6 at luminosities of less than a few times 10(44) h(50)(-2) ergs s(-1) (0.5 - 2.0 keV). However, for 0.6 luminosities above 10(44) h(50)(-2) ergs s(-1), the observed volume densities are significantly lower than those of the present-day population. We quantify this cluster deficit using integrated number counts and a maximum likelihood analysis of the observed luminosity-redshift distribution fit with a model luminosity function. The negative evolution signal is more than 3 sigma regardless of the adopted local luminosity function or cosmological framework. Our results and those from several other surveys independently confirm the presence of evolution. Whereas the bulk of the cluster population does not evolve, the most luminousand presumably most massive structures evolve appreciably between z = 0.8 and the present. Interpreted in the context of hierarchical structure formation, we are probing sufficiently large mass aggregations at sufficiently early times in cosmological history, when the universe has yet to assemble these clusters to present-day volume densities.

  7. The luminosity function of diverse satellite galaxy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, S; Couchman, H M P; Bailin, J; Wadsley, J

    2012-01-01

    The high-resolution, SPH galaxies of the McMaster Unbiased Galaxy Survey (MUGS) are used to examine the satellite systems of sixteen model host galaxies. Each galaxy has a different mass, angular momentum and merger history that yield a rich set of satellite luminosity functions. With new observations of distant satellite systems, we can compare these luminosity functions to satellite systems beyond the Local Group. We find that the luminosity functions of our simulations compare well to observations when the luminosity functions are scaled according to host mass. We use the recently-found relationship between dwarf satellites and host mass in distant satellite systems (Trentham & Tully 2009) to normalize a theoretical, complete luminosity function for the Milky Way (Koposov et al. 2008). The luminosity function of satellites, expressed as a function of the host mass, is given by dN/dM_V= 3.5 x M_host^(0.91) x 10^(0.1 x M_V-10.2), where host mass is given in M_sun. The mass of a host galaxy can be used to...

  8. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei : The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained high resolution images of the central regions of 14 reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Camera to account for host-galaxy starlight contamination of measured AGN luminosities. We measure the host-galaxy starlight contribution to the continuum luminosity at 5100 A through the typical ground-based slit position and geometry used in the reverberation-mapping campaigns. We find that removing the starlight contribution results in a significant correction to the luminosity of each AGN, both for lower luminosity sources, as expected, but also for the higher luminosity sources such as the PG quasars. After accounting for the host galaxy starlight, we revisit the well-known broad-line region radius--luminosity relationship for nearby AGN. We find the power-law slope of the relationship for the H beta line to be 0.518 +/- 0.039, shallower than previously reported and consistent with the slope of 0.5 expected fromthe naive theoretical assumption that all AGN have, on average, the same ionizing spectrum and the same ionization parameter and gas density in the H beta line-emitting region.

  9. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.)

  10. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  11. The X-Ray Luminosity-Mass Relation for Local Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, R.; Evrard, A. E.; Böhringer, H.; Schuecker, P.; Nord, B.

    2006-09-01

    We investigate the relationship between soft X-ray luminosity and mass for low-redshift clusters of galaxies by comparing observed number counts and scaling laws to halo-based expectations of ?CDM cosmologies. We model the conditional likelihood of halo luminosity as a lognormal distribution of fixed width, centered on a scaling relation, L~Mp?sc(z), and consider two values for s, appropriate for self-similar evolution or no evolution. Convolving with the halo mass function, we compute expected counts in redshift and flux that, after appropriate survey effects are included, we compare to REFLEX survey data. Counts alone provide only an upper limit on the scatter in mass at fixed luminosity, ?lnMpower spectrum normalization, L15,0~?-48, and the slope is weakly sensitive to the matter density, p~?1/2m. We find a substantially (factor 2) dimmer intercept and slightly steeper slope than the values published using hydrostatic mass estimates of the HIFLUGCS sample and show that a Malmquist bias of the X-ray flux-limited sample accounts for this effect. In light of new WMAP constraints, we discuss the interplay between parameters and sources of systematic error and offer a compromise model with ?m=0.24, ?8=0.85, and somewhat lower scatter ?lnM=0.25, in which hydrostatic mass estimates remain accurate to ~15%. We stress the need for independent calibration of the L-M relation via weak gravitational lensing.

  12. Simulation Studies for a new ATLAS Inner Detector for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Styles, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    To maintain scientific progress, the LHC will require a major upgrade after 2020. The current plans include increasing the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 5 (utilising luminosity levelling) beyond the original design value. This project is referred to as the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC), and its aim is to provide 3000 fb^{-1} of sqrt(s)=14 TeV proton-proton collisions in 10 to 12 years. The HL-LHC will be an extremely challenging experimental environment, with significantly higher particle fluxes, radiation doses and detector occupancies than experienced currently by the LHC experiments. The present ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will not be suitable for operation in such conditions and will be completely replaced by a new, all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk must satisfy the following criteria, with respect to the current ID, in order to achieve the desired levels of physics performance: higher granularity, improved material budget and increased radiation hardness of the readout components. Currently...

  13. Gamma-ray Luminosity and Death Lines of Pulsars with Outer Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L; Jiang, Z J; Leung, P

    2004-01-01

    We re-examine the outer gap size by taking the geometry of the dipole magnetic field into account. Furthermore, we also consider that instead of taking the gap size at half of the light cylinder radius to represent the entire outer gap it is more appropriate to average the entire outer gap size over the distance. When these two factors are considered, the derived outer gap size f is not only the function of period P and magnetic field B of the neutron star, but also the function of the average radial distance to the neutron star . We use this new outer gap model to study $\\gamma$-ray luminosity of pulsars, and to study the death lines of $\\gamma$-ray emission of the pulsars. Our model can predict the $\\gamma$-ray luminosity of individual pulsar if its $P, B$ and $\\alpha$ are known. Since different pulsars have different $\\alpha$, this explains why some $\\gamma$-ray pulsars have very similar $P$ and $B$ but have very different $\\gamma$-ray luminosities. In determining the death line of $\\gamma$-ray pulsars, we...

  14. The Dependence of Type Ia Supernova Luminosities on their Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Howell, D A; Neill, J D; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perrett, K M; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Baumont, S; Hsiao, E; Kronborg, T; Lidman, C; Perlmutter, S; Walker, E S

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) Precision cosmology with Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) makes use of the fact that SN Ia luminosities depend on their light-curve shapes and colours. Using Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and other data, we show that there is an additional dependence on the global characteristics of their host galaxies: events of the same light-curve shape and colour are, on average, 0.08mag (~4.0sigma) brighter in massive host galaxies (presumably metal-rich) and galaxies with low specific star-formation rates (sSFR). SNe Ia in galaxies with a low sSFR also have a smaller slope ("beta") between their luminosities and colours with ~2.7sigma significance, and a smaller scatter on SN Ia Hubble diagrams (at 95% confidence), though the significance of these effects is dependent on the reddest SNe. SN Ia colours are similar between low-mass and high-mass hosts, leading us to interpret their luminosity differences as an intrinsic property of the SNe and not of some external factor such as dust. If the host stellar mass is in...

  15. The impact of dust in host galaxies on quasar luminosity functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Okamoto, Takashi; Enoki, Motohiro; Nagashima, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Makiya, Ryu

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated effects of dust attenuation on quasar luminosity functions at z ˜ 2 using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model combined with a large cosmological N-body simulation. We estimate the dust attenuation of quasars self-consistently with that of galaxies by considering the dust in their host bulges. We find that the luminosity of the bright quasars is strongly dimmed by the dust attenuation, ˜2 mag in the B-band. Assuming the empirical bolometric corrections for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by Marconi et al., we find that this dust attenuation is too strong to explain the B-band and X-ray quasar luminosity functions simultaneously. We consider two possible mechanisms that weaken the dust attenuation. As such a mechanism, we introduce a time delay for AGN activity, that is, gas fuelling to a central black hole starts sometime after the beginning of the starburst induced by a major merger. The other is the anisotropy in the dust distribution. We find that in order to make the dust attenuation of the quasars negligible, either the gas accretion into the black holes has to be delayed at least three times the dynamical time-scale of their host bulges or the dust covering factor is as small as ˜0.1.

  16. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  17. Performance evaluation and optimization of the luminosity detector ALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Grafström, P; Joram, C

    2010-01-01

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC will test the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. Therefore ATLAS plans to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux relates directly and with good precision to the absolute luminosity. This will be done by the ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) detector. The detectors will be positioned about 240 m from the interac...

  18. The Luminosity Function of Galaxies in SDSS Commissioning Data

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, M R; Eisenstein, D J; Loveday, J; Strauss, M A; Subba-Rao, M; Weinberg, D H; Anderson, J E; Annis, J; Bahcall, Neta A; Bernardi, M; Brinkmann, J; Brunner, R J; Burles, S M; Carey, L D; Castander, F J; Connolly, A J; Csabai, I; Doi, M; Finkbeiner, D; Friedman, S; Frieman, Joshua A; Fukugita, M; Gunn, J E; Hennessy, G S; Hindsley, R B; Ichikawa, T; Ivezic, Z; Kent, S; Knapp, G R; Lamb, D Q; French-Leger, R; Long, D C; Lupton, R H; McKay, T A; Meiksin, A; Merelli, A; Munn, J A; Narayanan, V K; Newcomb, M; Nichol, R C; Okamura, S; Owen, R; Pier, J R; Pope, A C; Postman, M; Quinn, M; Rockosi, C M; Schlegel, D J; Schneider, D P; Shimasaku, K; Siegmund, W A; Smee, S; Snir, Y; Stoughton, C; Stubbs, C; Szalay, A S; Szokoly, G P; Thakar, A R; Tremonti, C A; Tucker, D L; Uomoto, A; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Vogeley, M S; Waddell, P; Yanny, B; Yasuda, N; York, D G

    2001-01-01

    During commissioning observations, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has produced one of the largest existing galaxy redshift samples selected from CCD images. Using 11,275 galaxies complete to r^* = 17.6 over 140 square degrees, we compute the luminosity function of galaxies in the r^* band over a range -23 < M < -16 (for h=1). The result is well-described by a Schechter function with parameters phi_* = 0.0146 +/- 0.0012 h^3 Mpc^{-3}, M_* = -20.83 +/- 0.03, and alpha = -1.20 +/- 0.03. The implied luminosity density in r^* is j = (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10^8 h L_sun Mpc^{-3}. The surface brightness selection threshold has a negligible impact for M < -18. We measure the luminosity function in the u^*, g^*, i^*, and z^* bands as well; the slope at low luminosities ranges from alpha=-1.35 to alpha=-1.2. We measure the bivariate distribution of r^* luminosity with half-light surface brightness, intrinsic color, and morphology. High surface brightness, red, highly concentrated galaxies are on average more lumin...

  19. The rate and luminosity function of long Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Pescalli, A; Salvaterra, R; Ghisellini, G; Vergani, S D; Nappo, F; Salafia, O S; Melandri, A; Covino, S; Götz, D

    2015-01-01

    We derive, adopting a direct method, the luminosity function and the formation rate of long Gamma Ray Bursts through a complete, flux-limited, sample of Swift bursts which has a high level of completeness in redshift z (~82%). We parametrise the redshift evolution of the GRB luminosity as L = L_0(1+ z)^k and we derive k = 2.5, consistently with recent estimates. The de-evolved luminosity function of GRBs can be represented by a broken power law with slopes a = -1.32 +- 0.21 and b = -1.84 +- 0.24 below and above, respectively, a characteristic break luminosity L_0,b = 10^51.45+-0.15 erg/s. Under the hypothesis of luminosity evolution we find that the GRB formation rate increases with redshift up to z~2, where it peaks, and then decreases in agreement with the shape of the cosmic star formation rate. We test the direct method through numerical simulations and we show that if it is applied to incomplete (both in redshift and/or flux) GRB samples it can misleadingly result in an excess of the GRB formation rate a...

  20. An early separation scheme for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sterbini, G

    2010-01-01

    The present document is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter the framework of the study is described, developing the motivations, the goals and the requirements for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade. We analyze the need for the crossing angle and its impact on the peak luminosity of the collider. After having introduced the Early Separation Scheme, we explain how it may overcome some limitations of the present machine. We compare the nominal LHC crossing scheme with the proposed one underlining its potential in terms of performance and its issues with respect to the integration in the detectors. An analysis of the integrated magnetic field required is given. In the second chapter we introduce one of the most powerful aspect of the scheme: the luminosity leveling. After the description of the physical model adopted, we compare the results of its analytical and numerical solutions. All the potential improvement due to the Early Separation Scheme are shown on the luminosity plane (peak luminosity versus int...

  1. LHCb: LHCb Muon System Performance at High Luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    Pinci, D

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector was conceived to operate with an average Luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. During the last year of LHC run, the whole apparatus has shown to be able to perfectly acquire and manage data produced at a Luminosity as high as $4 \\times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. In these conditions, all sub-detectors operated at average particle rates higher than the design ones and in particular the Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers equipping the Muon System had to sustain a particle rate as high as 250 kHz/cm$^{2}$. In order to study the possibility of increasing the Luminosity of operation of the whole experiment several tests were performed. The effective beam Luminosity at the interaction point of LHCb was increased in several steps up to $10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and in each step the behavior of all the detectors in the Muon System was recorded. The data analysis has allowed to study the performance of the Muon System as a function of the LHC Luminosity and the results are r...

  2. Truncation of the Inner Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole at Low Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Yamoka, Kazutaka; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Migliari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Most black hole binaries show large changes in X-ray luminosity caused primarily by variations in mass accretion rate. An important question for understanding black hole accretion and jet production is whether the inner edge of the accretion disk recedes at low accretion rate. Measurements of the location of the inner edge (R(sub in)) can be made using iron emission lines that arise due to fluorescence of iron in the disk, and these indicate that R(sub in) is very close to the black hole at high and moderate luminosities (greater than or equal to 1% of the Eddington luminosity, L(sub Edd). Here, we report on X-ray observations of the black hole GX 339-4 in the hard state by Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer that extend iron line studies to 0.14% L(sub Edd) and show that R(sub in) increases by a factor of greater than 27 over the value found when GX 339-4 was bright. The exact value of R(sub in) depends on the inclination of the inner disk (i), and we derive 90% confidence limits of R(sub in) greater than 35 R(sub g) at i = 0 degrees and R(sub in) greater than 175 R(sub g) at i = 30 degrees. This provides direct evidence that the inner portion of the disk is not present at low luminosity, allowing for the possibility that the inner disk is replaced by advection- or magnetically dominated accretion flows.

  3. Luminosity functions for two-photon processes in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is given of the QED factors relating the cross section for e e ? e e X to the virtual 2-photon collision ?*?* ? X. Only transverse photons are considered, but no kinematical approximations are made. The cases where none, one or both of the scattered electrons are detected at angles >> msub(e)/E (E = beam energy) are separately considered. A full discussion is given of the kinematical restrictions necessary to arrive at factorisible Equivalent Photon Approximation formulae, and quantitative comparisons are given. Also discussed are the rapidity distribution of the produced system X and restrictions on the effective two-photon luminosity due to angular cuts on produced particles. (orig.)

  4. Transient 42 second X-ray pulsar EXO 2030+375. II. The luminosity dependence of the pulse profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During an outburst from the transient, 42 s, X-ray pulsar EXO 2030+375, marked luminosity-dependent changes in pulsar profile were observed. At high luminosities the pulse profile consisted of a smooth asymmetric main pulse separated by about 180 deg in phase from a small interpulse. As the luminosity decreased by a factor of about 100, the relative strength of the two pulses reversed. During a second outburst, the phase-averaged X-ray light curve was punctuated by a series of flares that repeated about every four hours and involved a factor of six increase in intensity. The observed pulse profile is modeled using a simple geometric model where axially symmetric fan and pencil-beams of emission are emitted from two magnetic poles on a rotating neutron star. The profile shows a marked asymmetry which is modeled by offsetting the magnetic dipole axis from the rotation axis of the neutron star. The modeling indicates that, as the luminosity decreased, the dominant beam changed from a fan beam to a pencil-beam configuration. 27 refs

  5. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hils, Maximilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2} \\text{s}^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of $3000~\\text{fb}^{-1}$. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate by a factor 10 to 1 MHz and the trigger latency by a factor of 20 which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new front-end and a high bandwidth back-end system for receiving data from all 186.000 channels at 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency and for off-detector buffering...

  6. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  7. Variability of the Galactic X-ray binary luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, H.-J.; Zezas, A.; Fabbiano, G.

    2004-08-01

    We investigate the effects of variability of Galactic X-ray binaries on the shape of their luminosity function, based on 8-year long monitoring of Galactic X-ray binaries with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor. From these data we construct luminosity functions for timescales from days to weeks, taking into account completeness effects as discussed in Grimm et al. 2002. We study the effects of variability on the shape of the Galactic XRB luminosity function for the whole sample and separately for high-mass and low-mass X-ray binaries. Finally, we discuss the application of these results to Chandra observations of X-ray binaries in other galaxies. We acknowledge support by NASA grant GO2-3135X and NASA LTSA grant NAG5-13056.

  8. Report of the Working Group on High Luminosities at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of an order-of-magnitude increase in the luminosity of LEP (CERN's Large Electron-Positron Collider) can dramatically increase its physics output. With the help of a pretzel scheme, it should be possible to increase the peak luminosity beyond 1032 cm-2 s-1 at the Z energy and to significantly increase the luminosity around the W-pari threshold. This report spells out the physics possibilities opened up by the availability of several 107Z events. The three domains of physics that benefit mostly from this abundance are very accurate measurements of Standard Model parameters, rare decays of the Z, and the physics of fermion-antifermion states such as B physics. The possibilities and implications for the machine and the experiments are presented. The physics possibilities are explored and compared with those at other accelerators. (orig.)

  9. ATLAS Future Plans: Upgrade and the Physics with High Luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS experiment is planning a series of detector upgrades to cope with the planned increases in instantaneous luminosity and multiple interactions per crossing to maintain its physics capabilities. During the coming decade, the Large Hadron Collider will collide protons on protons at a center of mass energy up to 14 TeV with luminosities steadily increasing in a phased approach to over 5 × 1034 cm?2s?1. The resulting large data sets will significantly enhance the physics reach of the ATLAS detector building on the recent discovery of the Higgs-like boson. The planned detector upgrades being designed to cope with the increasing luminosity and its impact on the ATLAS physics program will be discussed.

  10. High luminosity interaction region design for collisions with detector solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, C; Raimondi, P; Sensolini, G; Sgamma, F

    2010-01-01

    An innovatory interaction region has been recently conceived and realized on the Frascati DA{\\Phi}NE lepton collider. The concept of tight focusing and small crossing angle adopted until now to achieve high luminosity in multibunch collisions has evolved towards enhanced beam focusing at the interaction point with large horizontal crossing angle, thanks to a new compensation mechanism for the beam-beam resonances. The novel configuration has been tested with a small detector without solenoidal field yielding a remarkable improvement in terms of peak as well as integrated luminosity. The high luminosity interaction region has now been modified to host a large detector with a strong solenoidal field which significantly perturbs the beam optics introducing new design challenges in terms of interaction region optics design, beam transverse coupling control and beam stay clear requirements

  11. The UV luminosity function of nearby clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cortese, L; Boselli, A; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Donas, J; Milliard, B

    2003-01-01

    We present the UV composite luminosity function for galaxies in the Virgo, Coma and Abell 1367 clusters. The luminosity function (LF) is well fitted by a Schechter function with M*(UV} - 5*log h(75) = -20.75 +/- 0.40 and alpha = -1.50 +/- 0.10 and does not differ significantly from the local UV luminosity function of the field. This result is in agreement with recent studies carried out in the Halpha and B-bands which find no difference between the LFs of star forming galaxies in clusters and in the field. This indicates that, whatever mechanisms are responsible for quenching the star formation in clusters, they influence similarly the giant and the dwarf populations, leaving the shape of the LF unchanged and only modifying its normalization.

  12. MODELING THE RED SEQUENCE: HIERARCHICAL GROWTH YET SLOW LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, Rosalind E. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S., E-mail: ros.skelton@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We explore the effects of mergers on the evolution of massive early-type galaxies by modeling the evolution of their stellar populations in a hierarchical context. We investigate how a realistic red sequence population set up by z {approx} 1 evolves under different assumptions for the merger and star formation histories, comparing changes in color, luminosity, and mass. The purely passive fading of existing red sequence galaxies, with no further mergers or star formation, results in dramatic changes at the bright end of the luminosity function and color-magnitude relation. Without mergers there is too much evolution in luminosity at a fixed space density compared to observations. The change in color and magnitude at a fixed mass resembles that of a passively evolving population that formed relatively recently, at z {approx} 2. Mergers among the red sequence population ('dry mergers') occurring after z = 1 build up mass, counteracting the fading of the existing stellar populations to give smaller changes in both color and luminosity for massive galaxies. By allowing some galaxies to migrate from the blue cloud onto the red sequence after z = 1 through gas-rich mergers, younger stellar populations are added to the red sequence. This manifestation of the progenitor bias increases the scatter in age and results in even smaller changes in color and luminosity between z = 1 and z = 0 at a fixed mass. The resultant evolution appears much slower, resembling the passive evolution of a population that formed at high redshift (z {approx} 3-5), and is in closer agreement with observations. We conclude that measurements of the luminosity and color evolution alone are not sufficient to distinguish between the purely passive evolution of an old population and cosmologically motivated hierarchical growth, although these scenarios have very different implications for the mass growth of early-type galaxies over the last half of cosmic history.

  13. MODELING THE RED SEQUENCE: HIERARCHICAL GROWTH YET SLOW LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the effects of mergers on the evolution of massive early-type galaxies by modeling the evolution of their stellar populations in a hierarchical context. We investigate how a realistic red sequence population set up by z ? 1 evolves under different assumptions for the merger and star formation histories, comparing changes in color, luminosity, and mass. The purely passive fading of existing red sequence galaxies, with no further mergers or star formation, results in dramatic changes at the bright end of the luminosity function and color-magnitude relation. Without mergers there is too much evolution in luminosity at a fixed space density compared to observations. The change in color and magnitude at a fixed mass resembles that of a passively evolving population that formed relatively recently, at z ? 2. Mergers among the red sequence population ('dry mergers') occurring after z = 1 build up mass, counteracting the fading of the existing stellar populations to give smaller changes in both color and luminosity for massive galaxies. By allowing some galaxies to migrate from the blue cloud onto the red sequence after z = 1 through gas-rich mergers, younger stellar populations are added to the red sequence. This manifestation of the progenitor bias increases the scatter in age and results in even smaller changes in color and luminosity between z = 1 and z = 0 at a fixed mass. The resultant evolution appears much slower, resembling the passive evolution of a pesembling the passive evolution of a population that formed at high redshift (z ? 3-5), and is in closer agreement with observations. We conclude that measurements of the luminosity and color evolution alone are not sufficient to distinguish between the purely passive evolution of an old population and cosmologically motivated hierarchical growth, although these scenarios have very different implications for the mass growth of early-type galaxies over the last half of cosmic history.

  14. Modeling the Red Sequence: Hierarchical Growth yet Slow Luminosity Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2012-07-01

    We explore the effects of mergers on the evolution of massive early-type galaxies by modeling the evolution of their stellar populations in a hierarchical context. We investigate how a realistic red sequence population set up by z ~ 1 evolves under different assumptions for the merger and star formation histories, comparing changes in color, luminosity, and mass. The purely passive fading of existing red sequence galaxies, with no further mergers or star formation, results in dramatic changes at the bright end of the luminosity function and color-magnitude relation. Without mergers there is too much evolution in luminosity at a fixed space density compared to observations. The change in color and magnitude at a fixed mass resembles that of a passively evolving population that formed relatively recently, at z ~ 2. Mergers among the red sequence population ("dry mergers") occurring after z = 1 build up mass, counteracting the fading of the existing stellar populations to give smaller changes in both color and luminosity for massive galaxies. By allowing some galaxies to migrate from the blue cloud onto the red sequence after z = 1 through gas-rich mergers, younger stellar populations are added to the red sequence. This manifestation of the progenitor bias increases the scatter in age and results in even smaller changes in color and luminosity between z = 1 and z = 0 at a fixed mass. The resultant evolution appears much slower, resembling the passive evolution of a population that formed at high redshift (z ~ 3-5), and is in closer agreement with observations. We conclude that measurements of the luminosity and color evolution alone are not sufficient to distinguish between the purely passive evolution of an old population and cosmologically motivated hierarchical growth, although these scenarios have very different implications for the mass growth of early-type galaxies over the last half of cosmic history.

  15. Luminosity Coincident with Initial Breakdown Pulses in Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, M.; Marshall, T.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathna, N.; Vickers, L.; Warner, T. A.; Orville, R. E.; Betz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Time correlated high-speed video and electromagnetic data for 15 cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning flashes reveal bursts of light, bright enough to be seen through intervening cloud, during the initial breakdown (IB) stage and within the first 3 ms after flash initiation. Each sudden increase in luminosity is coincident with a CG-type (12 cases) or IC-type (3 cases) IB pulse in fast electric field change records. Some of these IB pulses have a coincident VLF/LF (LINET) or a VHF (LDAR2) radiation source. The luminosity bursts of 14 CG flashes occur 11-340 ms before the first return stroke, at altitudes of 4-8 km, and at 4-41 km range from the camera. In seven cases, streamer-type linear segments visibly advance away from the first light burst for 55-200 ?s, then the entire length dims, then the luminosity sequence repeats along the same path. These visible initial streamers lengthen intermittently to about 300-1500 m. Their estimated 2-D speeds are 4 to 18 x 10^5 m/s over the first few hundred microseconds and decrease by about 50% over the first 2 ms. In other cases, only a bright spot or a broad area of diffuse light, presumably scattered by intervening cloud, is visible. The bright area grows larger over 20-60 ?s before the luminosity fades in about 100 ?s, then this sequence may repeat several times. In several of the flashes a 1-2 ms period of little or no luminosity and small E-change is observed following the IB stage prior to stepped leader development. In this presentation we will show examples of the IB luminosity and coincident electromagnetic data.

  16. On the origin of the correlations between the accretion luminosity and emission line luminosities in pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mendigutía, I; Rigliaco, E; Fairlamb, J R; Calvet, N; Muzerolle, J; Cunningham, N; Lumsden, S L

    2015-01-01

    Correlations between the accretion luminosity and emission line luminosities (L_acc and L_line) of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars have been published for many different spectral lines, which are used to estimate accretion rates. Despite the origin of those correlations is unknown, this could be attributed to direct or indirect physical relations between the emission line formation and the accretion mechanism. This work shows that all (near-UV/optical/near-IR) L_acc-L_line correlations are the result of the fact that the accretion luminosity and the stellar luminosity (L_star) are correlated, and are not necessarily related with the physical origin of the line. Synthetic and observational data are used to illustrate how the L_acc-L_line correlations depend on the L_acc-L_star relationship. We conclude that because PMS stars show the L_acc-L_star correlation immediately implies that L_acc also correlates with the luminosity of all emission lines, for which the L_acc-L_line correlations alone do not prove any phy...

  17. Luminosities and Space Densities of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Using the Euclidean value of as a cosmological distance indicator, we derive the isotropic-equivalent characteristic peak luminosity of gamma-ray bursts both longer and shorter than 2 s. The short bursts have essentially the same characteristic peak luminosity of 0.6 x 10^51 erg (0.064s)^-1 as do the long bursts. This may apply also to bursts with durations less than 0.25 s. The local space density of short bursts is around three times lower than that of long bursts.

  18. The luminosities of type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables

    OpenAIRE

    Feast, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on the luminosities of type II Cepheids (CephIIs) and RR Lyrae variables is reviewed.In the near infrared (JHKs) the CephIIs in globular clusters show a narrow, linear, period-luminosity relation over their whole period range (about 1 to 100 days). The CephIIs in the general field of the LMC follow this relation for periods shorter than about 20 days. At longer period (the region of the RV Tau stars), the LMC field stars have a significant scatter and in the mean...

  19. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Ajaltouni, Z; Alkhazov, G.; Archilli, F; Bauer, T.; Belous, K.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benson, S.; Van Beuzekom, M.; Blusk, S.; Bondar, N.; Brett, D; Burducea, I; Buytaert, J(European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland); CHARPENTIER, P; Clemencic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ''van ...

  20. Modified use of Van de Meer method for luminosity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications are suggested which should improve the accuracy of the Van de Meer method of determining beam luminosity at the CERN ISR. Four bending magnets would be inserted between the quadrupoles of a given experimental straight section, connected in series, and shimmed so that the machine parameters are not affected. The magnets would be driven with a zigzag current power supply with a uniform rate of current change. Experiments requiring accurate luminosity determination would be run while the deflection magnets are being driven with the oscillatory current pattern. (U.S.)

  1. Attaining high luminosity in linear e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attainment of high luminosity in linear colliders is a complex problem because of the interdependence of the critical parameters. For instance, changing the number of particles per bunch affects the damping ring design and thus the emittance; it affects the wakefields in the linac and thus the momentum spread; the momentum spread affects the final focus design and thus the final ?*; but the emittance change also affects the final focus design; and all these come together to determine the luminosity, disruption and beamstrahlung at the intersection. Changing the bunch length, or almost any other parameter, has a similar chain reaction. Dealing with this problem by simple scaling laws is very difficult because one does not know which parameter is going to be critical, and thus which should be held constant. One can only maximize the luminosity by a process of search and iteration. The process can be facilitated with the aid of a computer program. Examples can then be optimized for maximum luminosity, and compared to the optimized solutions with different approaches. This paper discusses these approaches

  2. Upgrading Luminosity from the Tevatron Through the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Very soon the LHC will push the high energy frontier from 1 TeV to 7 TeV, well beyond present operating experience with the Tevatron. The LHC (with 2 rings) is also expected to raise proton luminosities by about two orders of magnitude, to about 10^34 cm-2sec-1 in its initial configuration. This extrapolation leads to a new regime of Accelerator Physics and Technology challenges. The stored energy in the nominal LHC beam is almost 3 orders of magnitude larger than in the Tevatron. Efficient acceleration up the energy ramp is more difficult and more important. Long range beam-beam collisions become more severe. Luminosity debris power becomes a significant constraint. The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is a collaboration of BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, working with CERN to address these frontier issues. LARP is also working with CERN on an LHC Interaction Region upgrade, through which the luminosity may be increased even further, to about 10^35cm-2sec-1. This paper discusses the technical issues in extrapolating the energy and luminosity from the Tevatron to the LHC, and describes the programs in place to address them.

  3. Potential for luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a physics program, motivated by the search of the QCD phase transition critical point, requires operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with heavy ions at very low beam energies corresponding to 2.5-20 GeV/n. Several physics runs were already successfully performed at these low energies. However, the luminosity is very low at lowest energies of interest (< 10 GeV/n) limited by the intra-beam scattering and space-charge, as well as by machine nonlinearities. At these low energies, electron cooling could be very effective in counteracting luminosity degradation due to the IBS, while it is less effective against other limitations. Overall potential luminosity improvement for low-energy RHIC operation from cooling is summarized for various energies, taking into account all these limitations as well as beam lifetime measured during the low-energy RHIC runs. We also explore a possibility of further luminosity improvement under the space-charge limitation.

  4. Milne Quantum-Universe Redshift-Luminosity Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Milne`s classical homogeneous-universe cosmology predicts a product of Hubble constant with luminosity distance that equals z + z2/2, where z is redshift. Supernova-data are consistent with this relation, supporting quantum-theoretic considerations that reveal Milne`s universe as "non-empty".

  5. A bivariate luminosity model for GRB pulses and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fitted the complete Swift BAT and XRT light curves of 88 GRBs for which we have a redshift with a total of 331 pulses. For each GRB we also include an afterglow component to fit the plateau phase and the late decay seen in the XRT data. The combination of pulses and afterglow model all the emission detected, prompt plus afterglow, including late X-ray flares detected only in the XRT. Each pulse is described by a simple physical model which includes the spectrum at peak and the temporal characteristics of the pulse. We find that the pulse peak luminosity is correlated with both the mean photon energy in the bolometric band of the pulse spectrum at the peak, referred to as Ezbol, and the temporal parameter Tzf which is a measure of the pulse width. An empirical bivariate luminosity model set up with these parameters provides a good fit to the pulse luminosity. The analysis indicates that prompt pulses and X-ray flares are one and the same and arise from the same physical process and this physical process is responsible for the bivariate nature of the luminosity.

  6. A Single Bremsstrahlung Monitor to Measure Luminosity at LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The luminosity, the beam divergence and the longitudinal polarization can be measured at an interaction point of LEP by dectecting the energy, the angular distribution and the circular polarization of the single bremsstrahlung photons (SB) emitted at very forward angle. The luminosity can be measured by this met than by the conventional method of detecting small angle Bhabha scattering. The bunch to bunch relative luminosity can be monitored at a few per mil level in few minutes. Absolute values of the luminosity and of the polarization can be measured with a precision of the order of 1\\%. \\\\ \\\\ The apparatus to detect SB photons consists of a low Z absorber and of an EM calorimeter made of lead and scintillating fibres. Both the total energy and the space distribution of the SB photons are measured. This apparatus has been designed and built at the Department of Physics and INFN Section of the University of Rome ``La Sapienza''. Later on, together with suitable monocrystal converters, it may be used also for...

  7. Cosmic downsizing of powerful radio galaxies to low radio luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Rigby, E E; Best, P N; Rosario, D; Röttgering, H J A

    2015-01-01

    At bright radio powers ($P_{\\rm 1.4 GHz} > 10^{25}$ W/Hz) the space density of the most powerful sources peaks at higher redshift than that of their weaker counterparts. This paper establishes whether this luminosity-dependent evolution persists for sources an order of magnitude fainter than those previously studied, by measuring the steep--spectrum radio luminosity function (RLF) across the range $10^{24} 10^{26}$ W/Hz the redshift of the peak space density increases with luminosity, whilst at lower radio luminosities the position of the peak remains constant within the uncertainties. This `cosmic downsizing' behaviour is found to be similar to that seen at optical wavelengths for quasars, and is interpreted as representing the transition from radiatively efficient to inefficient accretion modes in the steep-spectrum population. This conclusion is supported by constructing simple models for the space density evolution of these two different radio galaxy classes; these are able to successfully reproduce the ...

  8. Rotation Velocities of Two Low Luminosity Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pizagno, J; Weinberg, D H; Bahcall, Neta A; Brinkmann, J; Pizagno, James; Blanton, Michael R.; Weinberg, David H.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkmann, Jon

    2004-01-01

    We present H-alpha rotation curves of two low luminosity field galaxies with r-band absolute magnitudes M_r=-13.9^{+0.8}_{-0.5} and M_r=-14.7^{+0.3}_{-0.2} (for h=0.7; the large error bars reflect distance uncertainties). Most previously studied galaxies in this luminosity range are members of groups defined by brighter galaxies, but these two systems, selected from Blanton et al.'s (2004) sample of low luminosity galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), appear to have no bright companions. The measured rotation speeds at the outer extent of the H-alpha rotation curves, 34.8+/-3.8 km/s and 30.9+/-7.2 km/s, are larger than the values of 16.0^{+6.1}_{-5.4} km/s and 20.9^{+6.2}_{-5.2} km/s predicted by extrapolating the inverse Tully-Fisher relation of luminous SDSS galaxies to these faint luminosities. However, a previous HI measurement of the first galaxy shows that it has a gas mass similar to its stellar mass, and the total baryonic mass is consistent with that predicted by McGaugh et al.'s (2000) "b...

  9. Her X-1: the positive cyclotron line energy / luminosity correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Vasco, D; Staubert, R

    2011-01-01

    Studies of some bright, super-Eddington transient pulsars show a negative correlation between the energy of the cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF) and the bolometric luminosity. For Her X-1, using repeated RXTE observations during 1996-2005, the inverse dependence was found: the energy of the cyclotron line increases as the luminosity increases. The X-ray flux measured by the RXTE/ASM (2-10 keV) has been assumed to represent the luminosity - more precisely: the maximum X-ray flux reached during the respective 35 d Main-On. Here, we question whether the ASM flux is really an accurate measure of the bolometric luminosity of the source. We redetermined the energy of the cyclotron line and performed spectral fits using the combined data from the PCA (3.5-60 keV) and HEXTE (20-75 keV) instruments on RXTE of the same 35 d cycles as used in the original work to determine the bolometric flux from those spectra. We confirm the result of the original analysis that the cyclotron line energy changes by ~7% for...

  10. Testing Black Hole Jet Scaling Relations in Low Luminosity AGN

    CERN Document Server

    de Gasperin, F; Sell, P; Best, P; Heinz, S; Kauffmann, G

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of a sample of 17 low-luminosity (L_x < 1e42 erg/s), radio loud AGNs in massive galaxies. The sample is extracted from the SDSS database and it spans uniformly a wide range in optical [OIII] emission line and radio luminosity, but within a narrow redshift range (0.05 < z < 0.11) and a narrow super massive black hole mass range (~ 1e8 M_sun). For these sources we measured core X-ray emission with the Chandra X-ray telescope and radio emission with the VLA. Our main goal is to establish which emission component, if any, can be regarded as the most reliable accretion/jet-power estimator at these regimes. In order to do so, we studied the correlation between emission line properties, radio luminosity, radio spectral slopes and X-ray luminosity, as well as more complex multi-variate relations involving black hole mass, such as the fundamental plane of black hole activity. We find that 15 out of 17 sources of our sample can be classified as Low-Excitation Galaxies (LE...

  11. The Nuclear Infrared Emission of Low-Luminosity AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) imaging, nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and archival Spitzer spectra for 22 low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN; Lbol 42 erg s-1). Infrared (IR) observations may advance our understanding of the accretion ows in LLAGN, the fate of the obscuring torus at low accretion rates, and, perhaps, the star formation histories of these objects. However, while comprehensively studied in higher-luminosity Seyferts and quasars, the nuclear IR properties of LLAGN have not yet been well-determined. In these proceedings we summarise the results for the LLAGN at the relatively high-luminosity, high-Eddington ratio end of the sample. Strong, compact nuclear sources are visible in the MIR images of these objects, with luminosities consistent with or slightly in execss of that predicted by the standard MIR/X-ray relation. Their broadband nuclear SEDs are diverse; some resemble typical Seyfert nuclei, while others possess less of a well-defined MIR 'dust bump'. Strong silicate emission is present in many of these objects. We speculate that this, together with high ratios of silicate strength to hydrogen column density, could suggest optically thin dust and low dust-to-gas ratios, in accordance with model predictions that LLAGN do not host a Seyfert-like obscuring torus.

  12. Optimization of Integrated Luminosity of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Convery, M E

    2009-01-01

    We present the strategy which has been used recently to optimize integrated luminosity at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. We use a relatively simple model where we keep the proton intensity fixed, use parameters from fits to the luminosity decay of recent stores as a function of initial antiproton intensity (stash size), and vary the stash size to optimize the integrated luminosity per week. The model assumes a fixed rate of antiproton production, that a store is terminated as soon as the target stash size for the next store is reached, and that the only downtime is due to store turn-around time. An optimal range of stash sizes is predicted. Since the start of Tevatron operations based on this procedure, we have seen an improvement of approximately 35% in integrated luminosity. Other recent operational improvements have been achieved by decreasing the shot-setup time and by reducing beam-beam effects by making the proton and antiproton brightnesses more compatible, for example by scraping pr...

  13. Direct Oxygen Abundances for Low Luminosity LVL Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Marble, Andrew R; van Zee, Liese; Engelbracht, Charles W; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Jr.,; Calzetti, Daniela; Dale, Daniel A; Johnson, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    We present MMT spectroscopic observations of HII regions in 42 low luminosity galaxies in the LVL. For 31 galaxies, we measured the temperature sensitive [O III] line at a strength of 4 sigma or greater, and thus determine direct oxygen abundances. Our results provide the first direct estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 galaxies. Oxygen abundances were compared to B-band and 4.5 micron luminosities and stellar masses in order to characterize the luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) and mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationships at low-luminosity. We present and analyze a "Combined Select" sample composed of 38 objects (drawn from our parent sample and the literature) with direct oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (TRGB or Ceph). Consistent with previous studies, the B-band and 4.5 micron L-Z relationships were found to be 12+log(O/H)=(6.27+/-0.21)+(-0.11+/-0.01)M_B and 12+log(O/H)=(6.10+/-0.21)+(-0.10+/-0.01)M_[4.5] (sigma=0.15 and 0.14). For this sample, we derive a M-Z relationship of 12+log(O/H)=(5....

  14. A high luminosity spectrometer for deep inelastic muon scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 50 m long magnetized iron torus enclosing a 40 m long target provides the luminosity and acceptance necessary for the study of deep inelastic muon scattering at high Q2. The construction and performance of this spectrometer and the associated trigger are described. Details of the data acquisition system and data analysis are also given. (orig.)

  15. A new record peak luminosity for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Two weeks of dedicated machine development paid off last weekend when the LHC ran for physics with three nominal intensity (?1011 protons) bunches in each beam.   This brought a new record peak luminosity of around 8×1029 cm-2 s-1, and allowed the LHC to double the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments since 30 March from 16 to 32 inverse nanobarns over the weekend. After a few more fills in this configuration, the number of bunches will be raised to six per beam, which will in turn allow the peak luminosity to break the 1030 cm-2 s-1 barrier for the first time, well on the way to achieving the 2010 objective of 1032 cm-2 s-1. This peak luminosity goal requires 800 nominal bunches per beam squeezed to a beta of 3.5 metres. The plan for 2011 is to run the LHC in this configuration over about 10 months, thus achieving the objective of recording one inverse femtobarn of data in total. The machine development period also allowed the TOTEM detectors to be set up with 45...

  16. Upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor for CMS online luminosity measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Karacheban, Olena; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Novgorodova, Olga; Penno, Marek; Walsh, Roberval; Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz; Loos, R; Ryjov, Vladimir; Burtowy, Piotr; Lokhovitskiy, Arkady; Odell, Nathaniel; Przyborowski, Dominik; Stickland, David P; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The CMS beam condition monitoring subsystem BCM1F during LHC Run I consisted of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the tracker detector volume, for the purpose of fast monitoring of beam background and collision products. Effort is ongoing to develop the use of BCM1F as an online bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. To prepare for the expected increase in the LHC luminosity and the change from 50 ns to 25 ns bunch separation, several changes to the system are required, including a higher number of sensors and upgraded electronics. In particular, a new real-time digitizer with large memory was developed and is being integrated into a multi-subsystem framework for luminosity measurement. Current results from Run II preparation will be discussed, including results from the January 201...

  17. Absorbers for the high luminosity insertions of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At design luminosity and inelastic cross section ?pp = 80mb there are 8 x 108 inelastic collisions per second at the high luminosity interaction points IP1 and IP5 of the LHC. These interactions give rise to ? 0.9 kW of power in collision products leaving an IP in each direction. The inelastic collision power carried off by neutrals, mostly neutrons and photons, in each direction and intercepted by neutral absorbers (TAN) has been estimated with the MARS13 code to be 210W. Similarly the collision power escaping the beam tube and incident on the front face of the inner triplet quadrupole absorber (TAS) has been estimated to be ? 270W, mostly carried by charged pions and photons. Special purpose absorbers must intercept this power to prevent quenching the inner triplet quadrupoles (Q1 to Q3) and the twin aperture magnets outside the second beam separation dipole D2. Because of the high incident flux of collision products near zero degrees the absorbers are natural places to consider for the location of radiation hard gas ionization detectors which could be used for: (1) measurement of luminosity, (2) measurement of the beam transverse dimensions at the IP and (3) feedback control of the colliding beam centers at the IP's to maximize luminosity. The following sections describe: (1) the conceptual design of the absorbers, (2) the radiation deposition and activation calculations and (3) the possibilities for instrumentation

  18. Finding and characterising WHIM structures using the luminosity density method

    CERN Document Server

    Nevalainen, J; Tempel, E; Branchini, E; Roncarelli, M; Giocoli, C; Heinamaki, P; Saar, E; Bonamente, M; Einasto, M; Finoguenov, A; Kaastra, J; Lindfors, E; Nurmi, P; Ueda, Y

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new method to approach the missing baryons problem. We assume that the missing baryons reside in a form of Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium, i.e. the WHIM. Our method consists of (a) detecting the coherent large scale structure in the spatial distribution of galaxies that traces the Cosmic Web and that in hydrodynamical simulations is associated to the WHIM, (b) map its luminosity into a galaxy luminosity density field, (c) use numerical simulations to relate the luminosity density to the density of the WHIM, (d) apply this relation to real data to trace the WHIM using the observed galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF redshift surveys. In our application we find evidence for the WHIM along the line of sight to the Sculptor Wall, at redshifts consistent with the recently reported X-ray absorption line detections. Our indirect WHIM detection technique complements the standard method based on the detection of characteristic X-ray absorption lines, showing that the galaxy l...

  19. LHC Report: Boost in bunches brings record luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Having hit a luminosity of around 8.4x1032 cm-2 s-1 with 768 bunches per beam, the LHC went into a 5-day machine development (MD) program on Wednesday 4 May. Operators are now working on increasing the number of particle bunches in the machine towards a 2011 maximum of around 1380 bunches. The team is already hitting major milestones, recording another record-breaking peak luminosity on Monday 23 May.   Former LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans (to the right) and Laurette Ponce, the engineer-in-charge when the recent luminosity record was achieved. The MD periods improve our understanding of the machine, with the aim of increasing its short- and long-term performance. This one also included tests of the machine’s configurations for special physics runs and a future high luminosity LHC. It was an intense program and overall it went very well, with most measurements carried out successfully. Highlights included: commissioning a dedicated machine setup for TOTEM and ALFA; succe...

  20. Far-infrared and accretion luminosities of the present-day active galactic nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Kenta; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation (SF) and black hole accretion luminosities, using a sample of 492 type-2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z < 0.22, which are detected in the far-infrared (FIR) surveys with AKARI and Herschel. We adopt FIR luminosities at 90 and 100 um as SF luminosities, assuming the proposed linear proportionality of star formation rate with FIR luminosities. By estimating AGN luminosities from [OIII]5007 and [OI]6300 emission lines, we f...

  1. Determination of the absolute luminosity at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this thesis significantly contributed to LHC (Large Hadron Collider) start-up. A first luminosity calibration using the Van Der Meer scan method was provided to the particle physics experiments. The anticipated sources of uncertainty were estimated by simulations and analytical approach Measurements confirmed that most of them were small and could be well determined. The main contribution to the overall uncertainty comes from the knowledge of the beam intensities. A resolution of 11% was reached at the very first try. The first observations and a detailed study and characterization of systematic uncertainties indicate that under well controlled and optimized beam conditions a precision of 5% could be reached in future absolute luminosity measurements. Chapter 1 of this thesis is intended as an introduction to general accelerators physics concepts and definitions that will be used in the following chapters. General expressions of the luminosity are derived including complications such as the presence of a crossing angle or the hourglass effect. Chapter 2 focuses on the Van Der Meer method. The principle of the method and implications of the effects introduced in Chapter 1 are discussed. Chapter 3 and 4 give an overview of the CERN accelerator complex focusing on the LHC and its instrumentation. Beam dynamics and optics studies related to the optimization of the collisions and more generally of the interaction regions are shown as well as tracking simulations for the LHC luminosity monitors. Chapter 5 and 6 present the results obtained at the LHC and RHIC during luminosity calibration measurements. A detailed analysis of the systematics uncertainties associated to the measurement and proposals for future improvements are discussed. Chapter 6 also describes more specifically the procedure and implementation of the tools for luminosity optimization and calibration at the LHC as well as the first experience with operation in collision. Finally, in Chapter 7, an alternative method for luminosity calibration is introduced. Dedicated optics are required for this measurement. An overview of the study and performance of these optics is presented

  2. Precision luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barschel, Colin

    2014-03-05

    The luminosity is the physical quantity which relates the cross-section to the production rate in collider experiments. The cross-section being the particle physics observable of interest, a precise determination of the luminosity is required. This work presents the absolute luminosity calibration results performed at the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment at CERN using a novel method based on beam-gas interactions with data acquired at a center of mass energy ?(s)=8 TeV and ?(s)=2.76 TeV. Reconstructed beam-gas interaction vertices in LHCb are used to measure the beam profiles, thus making it possible to determine the beams overlap integral. An important element of this work was to install and use a neon gas injection system to increase the beam-gas interaction rate. The precision reached with the beam-gas imaging method relies on the two-dimensional beam shape determination developed in this work. For such precision, the interaction vertex resolution is an important ingredient. Therefore, a new method has been developed using all reconstructed vertices in order to improve the understanding of the vertex resolution. In addition to the overlap integral, the knowledge of the colliding bunch populations is required to measure the luminosity. The determination of the bunch populations relies on LHC instruments to measure the bunch population fractions and the total beam intensity. Studies performed as part of this work resulted in a reduction of the bunch current normalization uncertainty from ±2.7% to ±0.2% and making it possible to achieve precision luminosity measurements at all LHC experiments. Furthermore, information on beam-gas interactions not originating from nominally filled bunches was analyzed to determine the charge fraction not participating in bunch collisions. The knowledge of this fraction is required to correct the total beam intensity. The reference cross-section of pp interactions with at least two tracks in the vertex detector was measured with the beam-gas imaging method. The result is ?{sub Track}=60.6±0.9 mb at a center-of-mass energy of ?(s)=8 TeV. The same measurement performed at ?(s)=2.76 TeV results in a cross-section of ?{sub Track}=52.7±1.2 mb. The luminosity measurement at ?(s)=8 TeV presented here, with an uncertainty of 1.4%, is to date the most precise luminosity calibration performed at the LHC and at any other bunched-beam proton collider.

  3. Precision luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminosity is the physical quantity which relates the cross-section to the production rate in collider experiments. The cross-section being the particle physics observable of interest, a precise determination of the luminosity is required. This work presents the absolute luminosity calibration results performed at the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment at CERN using a novel method based on beam-gas interactions with data acquired at a center of mass energy ?(s)=8 TeV and ?(s)=2.76 TeV. Reconstructed beam-gas interaction vertices in LHCb are used to measure the beam profiles, thus making it possible to determine the beams overlap integral. An important element of this work was to install and use a neon gas injection system to increase the beam-gas interaction rate. The precision reached with the beam-gas imaging method relies on the two-dimensional beam shape determination developed in this work. For such precision, the interaction vertex resolution is an important ingredient. Therefore, a new method has been developed using all reconstructed vertices in order to improve the understanding of the vertex resolution. In addition to the overlap integral, the knowledge of the colliding bunch populations is required to measure the luminosity. The determination of the bunch populations relies on LHC instruments to measure the bunch population fractions and the total beam intensity. Studies performed as part of this work resulted in a reduction of the bunch current normalization uncertainty from ±2.7% to ±0.2% and making it possible to achieve precision luminosity measurements at all LHC experiments. Furthermore, information on beam-gas interactions not originating from nominally filled bunches was analyzed to determine the charge fraction not participating in bunch collisions. The knowledge of this fraction is required to correct the total beam intensity. The reference cross-section of pp interactions with at least two tracks in the vertex detector was measured with the beam-gas imaging method. The result is ?Track=60.6±0.9 mb at a center-of-mass energy of ?(s)=8 TeV. The same measurement performed at ?(s)=2.76 TeV results in a cross-section of ?Track=52.7±1.2 mb. The luminosity measurement at ?(s)=8 TeV presented here, with an uncertainty of 1.4%, is to date the most precise luminosity calibration performed at the LHC and at any other bunched-beam proton collider.

  4. DISK GALAXIES WITH BROKEN LUMINOSITY PROFILES FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics cosmological simulations of the formation of three disk galaxies with a detailed treatment of chemical evolution and cooling. The resulting galaxies have properties compatible with observations: relatively high disk-to-total ratios, thin stellar disks, and good agreement with the Tully-Fisher and the luminosity-size relations. They present a break in the luminosity profile at 3.0 ± 0.5 disk scale lengths while showing an exponential mass profile without any apparent breaks, which is in line with recent observational results. Since the stellar mass profile is exponential, only differences in the stellar populations can be the cause of the luminosity break. Although we find a cutoff for the star formation rate (SFR) imposed by a density threshold in our star formation model, it does not coincide with the luminosity break and is located at 4.3 ± 0.4 disk scale lengths, with star formation going on between both radii. The color profiles and the age profiles are 'U-shaped', with the minimum for both profiles located approximately at the break radius. The SFR to stellar mass ratio increases until the break, explaining the coincidence of the break with the minimum of the age profile. Beyond the break, we find a steep decline in the gas density and, consequently, a decline in the SFR and redder colors. We show that most stars (64%-78%) in the outer disk originate in the inner disk and afterward migrate there. Such stellar migrationrd migrate there. Such stellar migrations are likely the main origin of the U-shaped age profile and, therefore, of the luminosity break.

  5. AGN BLR structure, luminosity and mass from combined Reverberation Mapping and Optical Interferometry observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the structure of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of AGN is critical to understand the quasar phenomenon. Detail study of the geometry and kinematic of these objects can answer the basic questions about the central BH mass, accretion mechanism and rate, growth and evolution history. Observing the response of the BLR clouds to continuum variations, Reverberation Mapping (RM) provides size vs luminosity and mass vs luminosity relations for QSOs and Sy1 AGNs with the goal to use these objects as standard candles and mass tags. However, the RM size can receive different interpretations depending on the assumed geometry and the corresponding mass depends on an unknown geometrical factor as well on the possible confusion between local and global velocity dispersion. From RM alone, the scatter around the mean mass is as large as a factor 3. Though BLRs are expected to be much smaller than the current spatial resolution of large optical interferometers (OI), we show that differential interferometry with AMBER, G...

  6. Spin-up of low luminosity low mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, I

    1998-01-01

    We examine the spin-up of low luminosity, low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In the conventional spin-up model of the Ghosh & Lamb type, where the stellar magnetic field interacts with the Keplerian accretion disk, MSPs could be produced from LMXBs if their magnetic field B < 10^{8}({\\dot M}/10^{16}g/s)^{1/2}G, where {\\dot M} is the mass accretion rate. However, for {\\dot M} < {\\dot M}_c ~ 10^{16}g/s accretion is likely to occur via a quasi-spherical flow with a sub-Keplerian rotation. The sub-Keplerian rotation rate is smaller than the Keplerian rate by a factor ~2-10. As a consequence, the spin-up of LMXBs produces pulsars with spin periods longer by a factor ~2-10 than those with a Keplerian accretion disk. The observed MSPs could be produced only for B < 10^7G even when {\\dot M}\\sim {\\dot M}_c ~ 10^{16}g/s. This suggests that the low luminosity LMXBs with {\\dot M} < {\\dot M}_c would not be able to spin-up to the observed MSPs. This rules out any undetected popul...

  7. The European Large Area ISO Survey IX: the 90 micron luminosity function from the Final Analysis sample

    OpenAIRE

    Serjeant, S.; Carraminana, A.; Gonzales-solares, E.; Heraudeau, P.; Mujica, R.; Perez-fournon, I.; Sedgwick, N.; Rowan-robinson, M.; Franceschini, A.; Babbedge, T.; Del Burgo, C.; Ciliegi, P.; Efstathiou, A.; La Franca, F.; Gruppioni, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present the 90 micron luminosity function of the Final Analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending the sample size of our previous analysis (paper IV) by about a factor of 4. Our sample extends to z=1.1, around 50 times the comoving volume of paper IV, and 10^{7.7} 70mJy), we obtained redshifts for 61% of the samp...

  8. Offline software for the luminosity detector at PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavdina, Anastasia [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Denig, Achim; Feldbauer, Florian; Fritsch, Miriam; Jasinski, Prometeusz; Leithoff, Heinrich; Michel, Mathias; Pflueger, Stefan; Weber, Tobias [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The precise determination of the luminosity is crucial for the PANDA experiment which will be built at the new antiproton accelerator HESR (FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany). For this measurement elastic antiproton-proton scattering can be used. In the range of very small momentum transfer this process can be calculated exactly from QED. Therefore we are going to perform measurements at very small momentum transfer (and thus very small scattering angle). The current design for the detector has four planes (10/20 cm in between). It is located outside the magnetic field, 11 m behind the interaction point. Our reconstruction software includes standard parts as hit reconstruction, track finding and track fitting and specific procedures for luminosity extraction and background treatment. Beside these algorithms we developed a software alignment procedure based on reconstructed tracks by using the Millipede algorithm. In this talk an overview of the basic concept and Monte Carlo based performance studies is presented.

  9. Fast Polycrystalline-CdTe Detectors for LHC Luminosity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rossa, E; Placidi, Massimo; Schmickler, Hermann; Brambilla, A; Mongellaz, F; Verger, L; Cindro, V; Mikuz, M; Moritz, P

    2002-01-01

    Beam diagnostics in future high-energy accelerators will require long lived instrumentation in highly hostile radiation environments. A research program aiming at individuating new solutions and testing them under extreme operational conditions has been launched at CERN in the framework of developments for the LHC instrumentation. Its outcome might be used in future accelerator projects, in industry or in physics applications. The detectors which will be adopted for the LHC luminosity monitoring and optimization will be installed close to or inside copper absorbers specifically designed for radiation protection of the accelerator magnetic elements in the interaction regions. These detectors will have to withstand extreme radiation levels and their long-term operation has to be assured without requiring human intervention. Polycrystalline-CdTe detectors have demonstrated their radiation hardness against extreme doses of X-ray exposure in the LEP collider and are considered as good candidates for LHC luminosity...

  10. Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge ...

  11. Offline software for the luminosity detector at PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise determination of the luminosity is crucial for the PANDA experiment which will be built at the new antiproton accelerator HESR (FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany). For this measurement elastic antiproton-proton scattering can be used. In the range of very small momentum transfer this process can be calculated exactly from QED. Therefore we are going to perform measurements at very small momentum transfer (and thus very small scattering angle). The current design for the detector has four planes (10/20 cm in between). It is located outside the magnetic field, 11 m behind the interaction point. Our reconstruction software includes standard parts as hit reconstruction, track finding and track fitting and specific procedures for luminosity extraction and background treatment. Beside these algorithms we developed a software alignment procedure based on reconstructed tracks by using the Millipede algorithm. In this talk an overview of the basic concept and Monte Carlo based performance studies is presented.

  12. Luminosity Monitoring at the OLYMPUS Two-Photon Exchange Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Colton; Olympus Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    OLYMPUS collected data mainly in 2012 with beams of positrons or electrons incident on a gaseous hydrogen target. Since several models of two-photon exchange in the literature predict similar cross section ratios at many values of Q2, OLYMPUS seeks results with less than 1% uncertainty in order to select among them. Estimates from beam and target parameters indicate that approximately 4.5 fb-1 were collected, providing sufficient statistics. But the relative luminosity obtained with each beam species must be known more precisely, and to that end multiple independent detector systems were used to monitor the luminosity in real time. This talk will detail our methods and show comparisons between detector systems. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-94ER40818.

  13. Luminosity measurements with the LUCID detector in the ATLAS experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinetti, Sara

    2011-01-01

    La misura della luminosità è un obiettivo importante per tutta la fisica del modello standard e per la scoperta di nuova fisica, poiché è legata alla sezione d'urto (?) e al rate di produzione (R) di un determinato processo dalla relazione L = R*?. Nell'eserimento ATLAS a LHC è installato un monitor di luminosità dedicato chiamato LUCID (Luminosity measurements Using Cherenkov Integrating Detector). Grazie ai dati acquisiti durante il 2010 la valutazione off-line delle performa...

  14. HI in Low-Luminosity Early-Type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Sadler, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the properties of the HI in low-luminosity early-type galaxies. The morphology of the HI is more regular than that of the HI in many more-luminous early-type galaxies. The HI is always distributed in a disk and is more centrally concentrated. The central HI surface densities are higher than in luminous early-type galaxies and are high enough for star formation to occur.

  15. The optical alignment system for luminosity detector at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Banas, E; Kielar, E; Kotula, J; Krupa, B; Moszczynski, A; Oliwa, K; Pawlik, B; Wierba, W; Zawiejski, L

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to use semi-transparent silicon detectors to measure the displacement detector luminosity LumiCal, planned for the future linear accelerator ILC / CLIC, was studied using an optical laser system based on these detectors. Preliminary results of measurements were achieved using the prototype of this system provided in the displacement measurement values of the X and Y directions with an accuracy of a few microns.

  16. Massive black holes in stellar systems: 'quiescent' accretion and luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta; Dotti, Massimo; Campbell, Duncan; Mateo, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of di...

  17. LHC abort gap cleaning studies during luminosity operation

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jeff, A; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Roncarolo, F; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  18. Discriminating different models of luminosity-redshift distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Cosmai, L; Gasperini, M; Tedesco, L

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of the cosmological phase bearing the direct kinematic imprints of supernovae dimming may significantly vary within different models of late-time cosmology, even if such models are able to fit present SNe data at a comparable level of statistical accuracy. This effect -- useful in principle to discriminate among different physical interpretations of the luminosity-redshift relation -- is illustrated here with a pedagogical example based on the LTB geometry.

  19. A new CMS pixel detector for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS inner pixel detector system is planned to be replaced during the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The plans foresee an ultra low mass system with four barrel layers and three disks on either end. With the expected increase in particle rates, the electronic readout chain will be changed for fast digital signals. An overview of the envisaged design options for the upgraded CMS pixel detector is given, as well as estimates of the tracking and vertexing performance.

  20. Physics potential and experimental challenges of the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the physics potential and the experimental challenges of an upgraded LHC running at an instantaneous luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1. The detector R and D needed to operate ATLAS and CMS in a very high radiation environment and the expected detector performance are discussed. A few examples of the increased physics potential are given, ranging from precise measurements within the Standard Model (in particular in the Higgs sector) to the discovery reach for several New Physics processes. (orig.)

  1. High luminosity interaction region design for collisions with detector solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Milardi, C.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sensolini, G.; Sgamma, F.

    2010-01-01

    An innovatory interaction region has been recently conceived and realized on the Frascati DA{\\Phi}NE lepton collider. The concept of tight focusing and small crossing angle adopted until now to achieve high luminosity in multibunch collisions has evolved towards enhanced beam focusing at the interaction point with large horizontal crossing angle, thanks to a new compensation mechanism for the beam-beam resonances. The novel configuration has been tested with a small detector...

  2. Optimization of the Luminosity Spectrum in the NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectrum of electrons at the interaction point of a linear collider is determined largely by the beamstrahlung spectrum. The beamstrahlung spectrum in turn is sensitive to the design parameters at the interaction point. In this paper we examine the optimization of the luminosity spectrum for discovery and detailed exploration of various physics processes of interest in the NLC, in particular, top and stop pair production, and a class of processes occurring via W-W scattering

  3. Cosmological simulations of black hole growth: AGN luminosities and downsizing

    CERN Document Server

    Michaela, Hirschmann; Alexandro, Saro; Stefano, Borgani; Andreas, Burkert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a detailed, statistical analysis of black hole (BH) growth and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations run down to z=0. The simulations self-consistently follow radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment, BH growth and associated feedback processes from both supernovae typeII/Ia and AGN. We consider two simulation runs, one with a large co-moving volume of (128 Mpc/h)^3 and one with a smaller volume of (48 Mpc/h)^3 but with a higher mass resolution. Consistently with previous results, our simulations are in reasonably good agreement with BH properties of the local Universe. Furthermore, they can successfully reproduce the evolution of the bolometric AGN luminosity function for both the low- and the high-luminosity end up to z=2.5. The smaller but higher resolution run can match the observational data of the low bolometric luminosity end even up to z=4-5. We also perform a direct comparison with the observed soft and hard X-ra...

  4. Precision luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Barschel, Colin

    The luminosity is the physical quantity which relates the cross-section to the production rate in collider experiments. The cross-section being the particle physics observable of interest, a precise determination of the luminosity is required. This work presents the absolute luminosity calibration results performed at the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment at CERN using a novel method based on beam-gas interactions with data acquired at a center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV. Reconstructed beam-gas interaction vertices in LHCb are used to measure the beam profiles, thus making it possible to determine the beams overlap integral. An important element of this work was to install and use a neon gas injection system to increase the beam-gas interaction rate. The precision reached with the beam-gas imaging method relies on the two-dimensional beam shape determination developed in this work. For such precision, the interaction vertex resolution is an important ingredient. There...

  5. Beam dynamics studies to develop LHC luminosity model

    CERN Document Server

    Campogiani, Giovanna; Papaphilippou, Ioannis

    The thesis project aims at studying the different physical processes that are impacting luminosity, one of the key figures of merit of a collider operation. In particular the project focuses on extracting the most relevant parameters for the high-energy part of the model, which is mostly dominated by the beam-beam effect. LHC luminosity is degraded by parasitic collisions that reduce the beam lifetime and the particles stability in the collider. This instability is due to the non-linear effects of one beam electromagnetic field on another in the interaction region. Such parasitic encounters can be as many as 16 per interaction region, piling up to around 180 000 per second. Our goal is to study the evolution of charge density distribution in the beam, by tracking particles through a symplectic integrator that includes the beam-beam effect. In particular we want to obtain data on the halo particles, which are more sensible to instability, to better characterise the beam lifetime and monitor the luminosity evol...

  6. Shapley Optical Survey. I: Luminosity Functions in the Supercluster Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Mercurio, A; Haines, C P; Gargiulo, A; Krusanova, N; Busarello, G; La Barbera, F; Capaccioli, M; Covone, G

    2006-01-01

    We present the Shapley Optical Survey, a photometric study covering a 2 deg^2 region of the Shapley Supercluster core at z ~ 0.05 in two bands (B and R). The galaxy sample is complete to B=22.5 (>M^*+6, N_{gal}=16588), and R=22.0 (>M^*+7, N_{gal}=28008). The galaxy luminosity function cannot be described by a single Schechter function due to dips apparent at B ~ 17.5 (M_B ~ -19.3) and R ~ 17.0 (M_R ~ -19.8) and the clear upturn in the counts for galaxies fainter than B and R ~18 mag. We find, instead, that the sum of a Gaussian and a Schechter function, for bright and faint galaxies respectively, is a suitable representation of the data. We study the effects of the environment on the photometric properties of galaxies, deriving the galaxy luminosity functions in three regions selected according to the local galaxy density, and find a marked luminosity segregation, in the sense that the LF faint-end is different at more than 3sigma confidence level in regions with different densities. In addition, the luminosi...

  7. Luminosity Functions of Young Clusters: Modeling the Substellar Mass Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, P R; Körner, D W; Reid, I N

    2003-01-01

    We predict near-infrared luminosity functions of young (5 Myr to 1 Gyr) star clusters by combining evolutionary models of very low-mass ($1 M_J$ to $0.15 M_{odot}$) dwarfs with empirical bolometric corrections. We identify several characteristic features in our results. These can be attributed to three causes: (1) deuterium burning in the most massive substellar objects; (2) methane absorption in bodies with $T_{eff}$ less than 1300 K, the temperature of the L/T transition; and (3) the formation of dust clouds and the rainout of dust at roughly the same effective temperature as methane formation. Accurate reconstruction of the substellar mass function from luminosity function observations requires that these phenomena are taken into account. At present, few observational studies extend to sufficient sensitivities to allow detection of these effects. However, the luminosity function of the young open cluster IC 2391 shows a clear peak at $M_I sim 14$ which we attribute to the result of deuterium burning in sub...

  8. Luminosities of Barred and Unbarred S0 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2012-01-01

    Lenticular galaxies with M_B < -21.5 are almost exclusively unbarred, whereas both barred and unbarred objects occur at fainter luminosity levels. This effect is observed both for objects classified in blue light, and for those that were classified in the infrared. This result suggests that the most luminous (massive) S0 galaxies find it difficult to form bars. As a result the mean luminosity of unbarred lenticular galaxies in both B and IR light is observed to be ~0.4 mag brighter than than that of barred lenticulars. A small contribution to the observed luminosity difference that is found between SA0 and SB0 galaxies may also be due to the fact that there is an asymmetry between the effects of small classification errors on SA0 and SB0 galaxies. An E galaxy might be misclassified as an S0, or an S0 as an E. However, an E will never be misclassified an SB0, nor will an SB0 ever be called an E. This asymmetry is important because elliptical (E) galaxies are typically twice as luminous as lenticular (S0) ga...

  9. Modeling the red sequence: Hierarchical growth yet slow luminosity evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, Rosalind E; Somerville, Rachel S

    2011-01-01

    We explore the effects of mergers on the evolution of massive early-type galaxies by modeling the evolution of their stellar populations in a hierarchical context. We investigate how a realistic red sequence population set up by z~1 evolves under different assumptions for the merger and star formation histories, comparing changes in color, luminosity and mass. The purely passive fading of existing red sequence galaxies, with no further mergers or star formation, results in dramatic changes at the bright end of the luminosity function and color-magnitude relation. Without mergers there is too much evolution in luminosity at a fixed space density compared to observations. The change in color and magnitude at a fixed mass resemble that of a passively evolving population that formed relatively recently, at z~2. Mergers amongst the red sequence population ("dry mergers") occurring after z=1 build up mass, counteracting the fading of the existing stellar populations to give smaller changes in both color and luminos...

  10. Status of the luminosity monitor for the PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good luminosity monitoring is crucial for the PANDA experiment at the planned antiproton accelerator HESR (FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany). For the measurement of the luminosity one can use the elastic antiproton-proton scattering at extreme forward angles. This exploits the fact that the elastic scattering in the range of very small momentum transfer (and thus very small scattering angle) can be calculated exactly from QED. At larger scattering angles the hadronic component of the elastic scattering dominates and this has to be taken from measurements. Unfortunately there are no or only a few data with large uncertainties available in the momentum range we need for PANDA. The current design for the luminosity monitor are four planes of eight double-sided silicon microstrip detectors with trapezoidal shape. The detector itself has an angular acceptance from 3 to 8 mrad and good spatial resolution due to using sensors with high resolution (50 ?m pitch). An overview of the basic concept and Monte Carlo based performance studies within the PANDARoot framework are presented.

  11. Infrared Luminosity Functions of AKARI-SDSS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Malkan, Matthew; Takagi, Toshinobu; Inami, Hanae; Pearson, Chris; Wada, Takehiko; Matsuhara, Hideo; Yamauchi, Chisato; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Nakagawa, Takao; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Sanders, David B; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Lee, Hyung Mok; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Serjeant, Stephen; Sedgwick, Chris

    2011-01-01

    By cross-correlating AKARI infrared (IR) sources with the SDSS galaxies, we identified 2357 infrared galaxies with a spectroscopic redshift. This is not just one of the largest samples of local IR galaxies, but AKARI provides crucial FIR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160um) in accurately measuring galaxy SED across the peak of the dust emission at ~100um. By fitting modern IR SED models to the AKARI photometry, we measured the total infrared luminosity (L_IR) of individual galaxies more accurately. Using this L_IR, we constructed luminosity functions of infrared galaxies at a median redshift of z=0.031, with 4 times larger sample than previous work. The LF agrees well with that at z=0.0082 (RBGS), showing smooth and continuous evolution toward higher redshift LFs measured in the AKARI NEP deep field. The derived local cosmic IR luminosity density is Omega_IR=3.8x10^8 LsunMpc^-3. We separate galaxies into AGN, star-forming, and composite by using the [NII]/Ha vs [OIII]/Hb line ratios. The fraction of AGN show...

  12. Disk galaxies with broken luminosity profiles from cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Serrano, Francisco J; Doménech-Moral, Mariola; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the cosmological formation of three disk galaxies using the zoom-in technique and including a detailed treatment of chemical evolution and cooling. The resulting galaxies have a rather high disk-to-total ratio for a cosmological simulation and thin stellar disks. They present a break in the luminosity profile at 3.0 +- 0.5 disk scale lengths, while showing an exponential mass profile without any apparent breaks, in line with recent observational results. Since the stellar mass profile is exponential, only differences in the stellar populations can be the cause of the luminosity break. Although we find a cutoff for the star formation rate imposed by a density threshold in our star formation model, it does not coincide with the luminosity break and is located at 4.3 +- 0.4 disk scale lengths, with star formation going on between both radii. The color profiles and the age profiles are "U-shaped", with the minimum for both profiles located approximately at the break radius. The SFR to stellar mass rat...

  13. Infrared Luminosities and Dust Properties of z ~ 2 Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Borys, C; Desai, V; Jannuzi, B T; Le Floc'h, E; Melbourne, J; Sheth, K; Soifer, B T

    2009-01-01

    We present SHARC-II 350um imaging of twelve 24um-bright (F_24um > 0.8 mJy) Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) and CARMA 1mm imaging of a subset of 2 DOGs, all selected from the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Detections of 4 DOGs at 350um imply IR luminosities which are consistent within a factor of 2 of expectations based on a warm dust spectral energy distribution (SED) scaled to the observed 24um flux density. The 350um upper limits for the 8 non-detected DOGs are consistent with both Mrk231 and M82 (warm dust SEDs), but exclude cold dust (Arp220) SEDs. The two DOGs targeted at 1mm were not detected in our CARMA observations, placing strong constraints on the dust temperature: T_dust > 35-60 K. Assuming these dust properties apply to the entire sample, we find dust masses of ~3x10^8 M_sun. In comparison to other dusty z ~ 2 galaxy populations such as sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and other Spitzer-selected high-redshift sources, this sample of DOGs has higher IR luminosities (2x10^13 L_sun vs....

  14. The Space Density of Moderate Luminosity Active Galaxies at z=3

    CERN Document Server

    Nandra, K; Steidel, C C

    2005-01-01

    We present an estimate of the space density of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at z=3. Combining deep X-ray data with Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) colour-selection in the rest-frame UV makes for highly efficient identification of AGN in a narrow redshift range (z~2.5-3.5). Using Chandra data from the Groth-Westphal Strip and the Hubble Deep Field North, we find a total of 15 X-ray detected LBGs at z~3, the majority of which are unlikely to have been identified in blanket followup surveys of X-ray detected objects. We find the comoving space density of moderate luminosity AGN at z=3 to be a factor ~10 higher than the most powerful objects. The available data are consistent with a roughly constant space density of MLAGN from z=0.5-3, and they are also consistent with a mild decline in the space density above z=1 as predicted by the luminosity-dependent density evolution models of Ueda et al. (2003). This strong AGN activity at z=3 argues against previous suggestions that the majority of black hole accretion occurs at ...

  15. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  16. A proposal to upgrade the ATLAS RPC system for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of the present trigger system in the ATLAS Muon Barrel was designed according to a reference luminosity of 10^34 cm-2 s-1 with a safety factor of 5, with respect to the simulated background rates, now confirmed by LHC Run-1 data. HL-LHC will provide a luminosity 5 times higher and an order of magnitude higher background. As a result, the performance demand increases, while the detector being susceptible to ageing effects. Moreover, the present muon trigger acceptance in the barrel is just above 70%, due to the presence of the barrel toroid structures. This scenario induced the ATLAS muon Collaboration to propose an appropriate upgrade plan, involving both detector and trigger-readout electronics, to guarantee the performance required by the physics program for the 20 years scheduled. This consists in installing a layer of new generation RPCs in the inner barrel, to increase the redundancy, the selectivity, and provide almost full acceptance. The first 10% of the system, corresponding to the e...

  17. Looking below the floor: constraints on the AGN radio luminosity functions at low power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capetti, Alessandro; Raiteri, Claudia M.

    2015-04-01

    We constrain the behaviour of the radio luminosity function (RLF) of two classes of active galactic nuclei (AGN) namely AGN of low radio power (LRP) and BL Lac objects. The extrapolation of the observed steep RLFs to low power predicts a space density of such objects that exceeds that of the sources that can harbour them and this requires a break to a shallower slope. For LRP AGN, we obtain Pbr, LRP ? 1020.5 W Hz- 1 at 1.4 GHz to limit their density to be smaller than that of elliptical galaxies with black hole masses MBH > 107.5 M?. By combining this value with the limit derived by the observations the break must occur at Pbr, LRP ˜ 1020.5-1021.5 W Hz- 1. For BL Lacs, we find Pbr, BLLAC ? 1023.3 W Hz- 1 otherwise they would outnumber the density of weak-lined and compact radio sources, while the observations indicate Pbr, BLLAC ? 1024.5 W Hz- 1. In the framework of the AGN unified model, a low luminosity break in the RLF of LRP AGN must correspond to a break in the RLF of BL Lacs. The ratio between Pbr, LRP and Pbr, BLLAC is ˜103, as expected for a jet Doppler factor of ˜10.

  18. Luminosity-Distance Standards from Gaia and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Adam

    2010-09-01

    The ESA astrometric space mission, Gaia, is poised to measure parallaxes of a billion Milky Way stars, revolutionizing our knowledge of the luminosity and distance scales of every stellar type. Twenty-five of these billion sources are invaluable; nearby, long period classical Cepheids whose 1% to 3% parallax measurements from Gaia can solidify the distance scale beyond the Milky Way and the Hubble constant to better than 1% precision. The missing component to achieving this goal is a precise photometric cross-calibration between these bright Milky Way Cepheids with 4GOs and inform planning of their future use with JWST.

  19. The deep luminosity function of the globular cluster M30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotto, G.; King, I.R.; Capaccioli, M.; Ortolani, S.; Djorgovski, S. (Padova Universita, Padua (Italy) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) Osservatorio Astronomico, Padua (Italy) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1990-02-01

    An effort is made to determine the mass function in low-metallicity, postcore-collapse globular cluster M30, as well as to analyze its radial trend, using new deep CCD photometry. It is confirmed that oxygen-enhanced isochrones yield a good representation of the color-magnitude diagrams. Luminosity functions are constructed and corrected for for field-object contamination and incompleteness. The data presented agree with the power-law trend ascertained by Pryor et al. (1986) for a multimass King-Michie model, yielding a global slope of 0.7. 29 refs.

  20. The deep luminosity function of the globular cluster M30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotto, Giampaolo; King, Ivan R.; Capaccioli, Massimo; Ortolani, Sergio; Djorgovski, S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort is made to determine the mass function in low-metallicity, postcore-collapse globular cluster M30, as well as to analyze its radial trend, using new deep CCD photometry. It is confirmed that oxygen-enhanced isochrones yield a good representation of the color-magnitude diagrams. Luminosity functions are constructed and corrected for for field-object contamination and incompleteness. The data presented agree with the power-law trend ascertained by Pryor et al. (1986) for a multimass King-Michie model, yielding a global slope of 0.7.

  1. The deep luminosity function of the globular cluster M30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort is made to determine the mass function in low-metallicity, postcore-collapse globular cluster M30, as well as to analyze its radial trend, using new deep CCD photometry. It is confirmed that oxygen-enhanced isochrones yield a good representation of the color-magnitude diagrams. Luminosity functions are constructed and corrected for for field-object contamination and incompleteness. The data presented agree with the power-law trend ascertained by Pryor et al. (1986) for a multimass King-Michie model, yielding a global slope of 0.7. 29 refs

  2. TOTEM: Prospects for Total Cross-Section and Luminosity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, Mario

    2011-01-01

    With the installation of the T1 telescope and the Roman Pot stations at 147 m from IP5, the detector apparatus of the TOTEM experiment has been completed during the technical stop in winter 2010/2011. After the commissioning of the dedicated beam optics with beta* = 90 m, a first measurement of the total pp cross-section sigma_tot and -- simultaneously -- the luminosity L will be possible in the upcoming running season 2011. The precision envisaged is 3 % and 4 % for sigma_tot and L, respectively. An ultimate beam optics configuration with beta* ~ 1 km will later reduce the uncertainty to the 1 % level.

  3. The X-Ray Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, M; Hasinger, G; Trümper, J E; Zamorani, G

    1999-01-01

    We derive an X-ray luminosity function for active galactic nuclei (AGN) that accounts for the X-ray source counts in the 0.5-2.0 and 2-10 keV energy ranges, the redshift distribution of AGNs in the ROSAT Deep Survey (RDS), as well as the X-ray background (XRB) from 1-10 keV. We emphasize the role of X-ray absorption, which has a large effect on the faint end of the 2-10 keV source counts, as well as on the integrated X-ray background.

  4. The field luminosity function and nearby groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalog of radial velocities and magnitudes on a homogeneous system (the corrected Harvard, B(o) magnitudes of de Vaucouleurs) has been assembled for over 4000 galaxies. Using this catalog, a magnitude limited sample of approximately 1000 galaxies with nearly complete radial velocity data was compiled. The magnitude limit is 13.0 and the galaxies are primarily from the Shapley-Ames catalog plus a few low and high surface brightness objects properly included in a magnitude limited sample. A new determination of the field luminosity function and density plus initial experiments with the use of a redshift catalog to select groups of galaxies, are briefly described. (Auth.)

  5. Shapley Optical Survey. I: Luminosity Functions in the Supercluster Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Haines, C. P.; Gargiulo, A.; Krusanova, N.; Busarello, G.; La Barbera, F; Capaccioli, M.; Covone, G.

    2005-01-01

    We present the Shapley Optical Survey, a photometric study covering a 2 deg^2 region of the Shapley Supercluster core at z ~ 0.05 in two bands (B and R). The galaxy sample is complete to B=22.5 (>M^*+6, N_{gal}=16588), and R=22.0 (>M^*+7, N_{gal}=28008). The galaxy luminosity function cannot be described by a single Schechter function due to dips apparent at B ~ 17.5 (M_B ~ -19.3) and R ~ 17.0 (M_R ~ -19.8) and the clear upturn in the counts for galaxies fainter than B and R...

  6. Spectral-Luminosity relation within individual Fermi GRBs

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, G; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectra of all long Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite. Their fluxes and fluences are large enough to allow a time dependent study of their spectral characteristics in the 8 keV-1 MeV energy range. We find that the peak energy Ep of their EL(E) spectrum correlates with the luminosity in a remarkable tight way within individual bursts. This time resolved Ep-Liso correlation is very similar for all the considered bursts, and ...

  7. Luminosity Functions of Young Clusters: Modeling the Substellar Mass Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, P. R.; Trilling, D. E.; Koerner, D. W.; Reid, I. N.

    2003-01-01

    We predict near-infrared luminosity functions of young (5 Myr to 1 Gyr) star clusters by combining evolutionary models of very low-mass ($1 M_J$ to $0.15 M_{\\odot}$) dwarfs with empirical bolometric corrections. We identify several characteristic features in our results. These can be attributed to three causes: (1) deuterium burning in the most massive substellar objects; (2) methane absorption in bodies with $T_{eff}$ less than 1300 K, the temperature of the L/T transition;...

  8. The Luminosity Dependence of the Galaxy Merger Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, D. R.; Atfield, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    We measure the number of companions per galaxy (Nc) as a function of r-band absolute magnitude for both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Croton et al. (2006) semi-analytic catalog applied to the Millennium Run simulation. For close pairs with projected separations of 5-20 h^{-1} kpc, velocity differences less than 500 km/s, and luminosity ratios between 1:2 and 2:1, we find good agreement between the observations and simulations, with Nc consistently close to 0.02 over t...

  9. The K Band Luminosity Function of High Redshift Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, S. C.; L.R. Jones

    2003-01-01

    K band observations of the galaxy populations of three high redshift (z=0.8-1.0), X-ray selected, massive clusters are presented. The observations reach a depth of K = 21.5, corresponding to K*+3.5 mag. The evolution of the galaxy properties are discussed in terms of their K band luminosity functions and the K band Hubble diagram of brightest cluster galaxies. The bulk of the galaxies, as characterised by the parameter K* from the Schechter (1976) function, are found to be...

  10. Prospects for physics at high luminosity with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela João

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The precision measurements of the properties of the recently discovered Higgs-like boson will be central to the future LHC physics program. In parallel the search for New Physics beyond the SM will continue. Higher luminosity will extend the mass reach and allow sensitive searches for possible subtle signatures for new physics. In this paper we review the potential sensitivity of CMS to a selection of relevant future physics scenarios accessible with the LHC upgrades and a correspondingly upgraded CMS detector.

  11. Physics potential and experimental challenges of the LHC luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, F.; Ball, A.; Bloch, P.; Casagrande, L.; Cittolin, S.; Roeck, A. de; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Hansen, J.-B. [CERN, Experimental Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Mangano, M.L. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Virdee, T. [CERN, Experimental Physics Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Abdullin, S. [University of Maryland (United States); Azuelos, G. [University of Montreal, Group of Particle Physics, Montreal (Canada); Barberis, D. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN (Italy); Belyaev, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Bosman, M. [IFAE, Barcelona (Spain); Cavalli, D. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Chumney, P.; Dasu, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fournier, D. [LAL, Orsay (France); Hinchliffe, I.; Hohlfeld, M.; Huhtinen, M.; Jakobs, K.; Joram, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mikenberg, G.; Miagkov, A.; Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikitenko, A.; Nisati, A.; Paige, F.; Palestini, S.; Papadopoulos, C.G.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Polesello, G.; Richter-Was, E.; Sharp, P.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Smith, W.H.; Stapnes, S.; Tonelli, G.; Tsesmelis, E.; Usubov, Z.; Vacavant, L.; Bij, J. van der; Watson, A.; Wielers, M.

    2004-02-01

    We discuss the physics potential and the experimental challenges of an upgraded LHC running at an instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The detector R and D needed to operate ATLAS and CMS in a very high radiation environment and the expected detector performance are discussed. A few examples of the increased physics potential are given, ranging from precise measurements within the Standard Model (in particular in the Higgs sector) to the discovery reach for several New Physics processes. (orig.)

  12. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, R; Althaus, L G; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for such purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, like the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spher...

  13. A two-mode planetary nebula luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-González, A; Esquivel, A; Raga, A C; Stasi?ska, G; Peña, M; Mayya, D

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF) that includes two populations in the distribution. Our PNLF is a direct extension of the canonical function proposed by Jacoby et al. (1987), in order to avoid problems related with the histogram construction, it is cast in terms of cumulative functions. We are interested in recovering the shape of the faint part of the PNLF in a consistent manner, for galaxies with and without a dip in their PN luminosity functions. The parameters for the two mode PNLF are obtained with a genetic algorithm, which obtains a best fit to the PNLF varying all of the parameters simultaneously in a broad parameter space. We explore a sample of 9 galaxies with various Hubble types and construct their PNLF. All of the irregular galaxies, except one, are found to be consistent with a two-mode population, while the situation is less clear for ellipticals and spirals.For the case of NGC\\, 6822, we show that the two-mode PNLF is consistent with previous studies of the star for...

  14. The CLASS BL Lac sample: The Radio Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Marcha, M J M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30 mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey, henceforth CBS). The sample is one of the largest well defined samples in the low power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the 'classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the Radio Luminosity Function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the LF which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers ~10^22 W/Hz, ie, two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process we confirm the importa...

  15. Properties of the Molecular Cores of Low Luminosity Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Hung, Chao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    We present a survey toward 16 Low Luminosity Objects (LLOs with an internal luminosity, Lint, lower than 0.2 Lsun) with N2H+ (1-0), N2H+ (3-2), N2D+ (3-2), HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2) using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12m Telescope and Submillimeter Telescope. Our goal is to probe the nature of these faint protostars which are believed to be either very low mass or extremely young protostars. We find that the N2D+/N2H+ column density ratios of LLOs are similar to those of typical starless cores and Class 0 objects. The N2D+/N2H+ column density ratios are relatively high (> 0.05) for LLOs with kinetic temperatures less than 10 K in our sample. The distribution of N2H+ (1-0) line widths spreads between that of starless cores and young Class 0 objects. If we use the line width as a dynamic evolutionary indicator, LLOs are likely young Class 0 protostellar sources. We further use the optically thick tracers, HCO+ (3-2) and HCN (3-2), to probe the infall signatures of our targets. We derive the asymmetry ...

  16. High luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Aschenauer, E.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M..; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; He, P.; Hao, Y.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Skaritka, J.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Pozdeyev, E.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2011-03-28

    We present the design of a future high-energy high-luminosity electron-hadron collider at RHIC called eRHIC. We plan on adding 20 (potentially 30) GeV energy recovery linacs to accelerate and to collide polarized and unpolarized electrons with hadrons in RHIC. The center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV. The luminosity exceeding 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be achieved in eRHIC using the low-beta interaction region with a 10 mrad crab crossing. We report on the progress of important eRHIC R&D such as the high-current polarized electron source, the coherent electron cooling, ERL test facility and the compact magnets for recirculation passes. A natural staging scenario of step-by-step increases of the electron beam energy by building-up of eRHIC's SRF linacs is presented.

  17. The Luminosity Function of the Milky Way Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, S; Evans, N W; Hewett, P C; Irwin, M J; Gilmore, G; Zucker, D B; Rix, H -W; Fellhauer, M; Bell, E F; Glushkova, E V

    2007-01-01

    We quantify the algorithmic detectability of stellar Milky Way satellites in data release 5 (DR5) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and use this to estimate the luminosity function of faint satellite galaxies in our halo. We develop a satellite detection algorithm based on the convolution of the DR5 star catalog with a kernel of zero net flux that is the difference of a narrow positive Gaussian and a much wider negative Gaussian, which removes the background star-count level. This permits us to assess the significance of any (positive) detection in terms of deviations of this map. The efficiency of this algorithm is tested by computing the recovery rate of a large set of mock objects added to SDSS DR5 as a function of their luminosity, size and distance from the Sun. Most of the recent Milky Way satellite discoveries, made by SDSS, are shown to lie very close to the survey's detection limits. Calculating the maximum accessible volume $V_{max}$ for all faint detected objects makes it possible for the fir...

  18. Spectral-Luminosity relation within individual Fermi GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectra of all long Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite. Their fluxes and fluences are large enough to allow a time dependent study of their spectral characteristics in the 8 keV-1 MeV energy range. We find that the peak energy Ep of their EL(E) spectrum correlates with the luminosity in a remarkable tight way within individual bursts. This time resolved Ep-Liso correlation is very similar for all the considered bursts, and has a slope and normalisation similar to the analogous Ep-Liso correlation defined by the time integrated spectra of different bursts detected by several different satellites. For a few of the considered GRBs, we could also study the behaviour of the Ep-Liso correlation during the rising and decaying phases of individual pulses within each burst, finding no differences. Our results indicate the presence of a similar physical mechanism, operating for the duration of different GRBs, linking tightly the burst luminosity with the peak energy o...

  19. The z=5 Quasar Luminosity Function from SDSS Stripe 82

    CERN Document Server

    McGreer, Ian D; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T; Strauss, Michael A; Ross, Nicholas P; White, Martin; Shen, Yue; Schneider, Donald P; Myers, Adam D; Brandt, W Niel; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge, Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z=5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M_1450<-26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering ~6000 deg^2, then extend to lower luminosities (M_1450<-24) with newly discovered, faint z~5 quasars selected from 235 deg^2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7

  20. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  1. Luminosity and tune shift in e+e- storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosity and tune shift have been the subject of numerous papers and talks since the invention of electron-positron storage rings. This paper derives an equation for luminosity and one for the linear tune shift based upon two simple assumptions. The first assumption is that the storage ring be designed such that the linear tune shifts in the two transverse planes, x and y, are equal; i.e., that ?nu/sub x/ = ?nu/sub y/. The second assumption is that the maximum acceptable disruption angle, ?/sub D/, of the colliding beams is approximately equal to the ''natural'' beam spread, ?/sub B/, of the stored colliding beams at the interaction point. First derived is the results for round beams having transverse gaussian distribution functions and then extend the derivation to beams having elliptical cross sections. Then compared are theoretical results with the observed results in several operating machines and with the ''design'' parameters of three new machines; namely KEK, BEPC, and LEP

  2. Disk accretion onto a black hole at subcritical luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of radiation pressure on the structure of an accretion disk is considered when the total luminosity L approaches the Eddington limit Lsub(c). The motion of particles in the disk radiation field and gravitational field of a nonrotating black hole is investigated. It is shown that the disk accretion is destroyed when L approximately equal to (0.6 / 1.0) Lsub(c). Matter outflow from the central parts of the disk to infinity then sets in. We conclude that the luminosity cannot significantly exceed the Eddington limit. We show that for L > approximately 0.1 Lsub(c) the plasma in the upper layers of the central region of the disk is heated up to temperatures T approximately 109K and the disk becomes thicker as compared with the standard theory. It is shown that the radiative force can generate magnetic fields B approximately 100 G. We find that convection is the main energy transfer mechanism along z-coordinate in the central parts of the disk. The convection generates an acoustic flux which dissipates in the upper, optically thin layers of the disk and heats them. The comptonization of soft photons going from layers to the hot upper layers and variable accretion rate may explain the spectrum and variations of X-ray emission of the CygX-1. (orig.)

  3. Radio Variability Survey of Very Low Luminosity Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju

    2014-01-01

    Ten very low luminosity objects were observed multiple times in the 8.5 GHz continuum in search of protostellar magnetic activities. A radio outburst of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS was detected, and the variability timescale was about 20 days or shorter. The results of this survey and archival observations suggest that IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is in active states about half the time. Archival data show that L1014 IRS and L1148 IRS were detectable previously and suggest that at least 20%-30% of very low luminosity protostars are radio variables. Considering the variability timescale and flux level of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS and the previous detection of the circular polarization of L1014 IRS, the radio outbursts of these protostars are probably caused by magnetic flares. However, IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is too young and small to develop an internal convective dynamo. If the detected radio emission is indeed coming from magnetic flares, the discovery implies that the flares may be caused by the fossil magnetic fields of interstella...

  4. High Luminosity Electron-Hadron Collider eRHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos

    2011-10-01

    The design of future high-energy high-luminosity electron-hadron collider at RHIC called eRHIC is presented. The design employs two energy recovery linacs (ERL's) to accelerate the electron beam bunches to 20 (potentially 30) GeV and to collide these electron bunches with the circulating hadrons bunches in RHIC. After the collision the electron bunches will be decelerated by the two ERL linacs down to 10 MeV and dumped to a target. The center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV. The luminosity exceeding 1034 cm-2 s-1 can be achieved in eRHIC using the low-beta interaction region (IR) with a 10 mrad beam crossing. The (IR) will utilize 5 mrad crab cavities for both the hadrons and the electron bunches. The important eRHIC R&D items include: a) the high-current polarized electron source, b) the coherent electron cooling and c) the compact magnets for recirculating passes. We will present a staging scenario of step-by-step, increase of the electron beam energy to the top energy of 30 GeV, by building-up the eRHIC's SRF linacs. US Department of Energy.

  5. The Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function: Pieces of the Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Extragalactic surveys in the emission line of [O III] 5007 have provided us with the absolute line strengths of large, homogeneous sets of planetary nebulae. These data have been used to address a host of problems, from the measurement of the extragalactic distance scale, to the study of stellar populations. I review our current understanding of the [O III] planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF), and discuss some of the physical processes that effect its structure. I also describe the features of the H-alpha PNLF, a function that, upon first glance, looks similar to the [O III] PNLF, but which includes a very different set of objects. Finally, I discuss recent measurements of alpha, the number of PNe found in a stellar population, normalized to that population's bolometric luminosity. I show that, contrary to expectations, the values of alpha found in actively star-forming spirals is essentially the same as those measured in late-type elliptical and lenticular systems. I discuss how this result sheds lig...

  6. The dynamical state of galaxy groups and their luminosity content

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the dependence of the luminosity function of galaxies in groups (LF) on group dynamical state. We use the Gaussianity of the velocity distribution of galaxy members as a measurement of the dynamical equilibrium of groups identified in the SDSS Data Release 7 by Zandivarez & Martinez. We apply the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test to distinguish between groups according to whether they have Gaussian or Non-Gaussian velocity distributions, i.e., whether they are relaxed or not. For these two subsamples, we compute the $^{0.1}r-$band LF as a function of group virial mass and group total luminosity. For massive groups, ${\\mathcal M}>5 \\times 10^{13} \\ M_{\\odot} \\ h^{-1}$, we find statistically significant differences between the LF of the two subsamples: the LF of groups that have Gaussian velocity distributions have a brighter characteristic absolute magnitude ($\\sim0.3$ mag) and a steeper faint end slope ($\\sim0.25$). We detect a similar effect when comparing the LF of bright ($M^{group}_{^{0...

  7. Autofib Redshift survey; 1, evolution of the galaxy luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S; Broadhurst, T J; Heyl, J S; Ellis, Richard S; Colless, Matthew; Broadhurst, Tom; Heyl, Jeremy

    1995-01-01

    We present a detailed determination of the restframe B-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) as a function of redshift and star formation activity from z=0 to z=0.75. The dataset used for this purpose is a combined sample of over 1700 redshifts spanning a wide range in apparent magnitude, 11.5luminosity galaxies. Furthermore, surface brig...

  8. The metric of the cosmos from luminosity and age data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the algorithm for determining the Lemaître-Tolman model that best fits given datasets for maximum stellar ages, and SNIa luminosities, both as functions of redshift. It then applies it to current cosmological data. Special attention must be given to the handling of the origin, and the region of the maximum diameter distances. As with a previous combination of datasets (galaxy number counts and luminosity distances versus redshift), there are relationships that must hold at the region of the maximum diameter distance, which are unlikely to be obeyed exactly by real data. We show how to make corrections that enable a self-consistent solution to be found. We address the questions of the best way to approximate discrete data with smooth functions, and how to estimate the uncertainties of the output — the 3 free functions that determine a specific Lemaître-Tolman metric. While current data does not permit any confidence in our results, we show that the method works well, and reasonable Lemaître-Tolman models do fit with or without a cosmological constant

  9. Optical variability properties of high luminosity AGN classes

    CERN Document Server

    Stalin, C S; Wiita, P J; Sagar, Ram; Wiita, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of the intra-night optical variability (INOV) characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, which involves a systematic intra-night optical monitoring of seven sets of high luminosity AGNs covering the redshift range {it z} $simeq 0.2$ to {it z} $simeq 2.2$. The sample, matched in the optical luminosity -- redshift (M$_B$ -- z) plane, consists of seven radio-quiet quasars (RQQs), eight radio lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs), six radio core-dominated quasars (CDQs) and five BL Lac objects (BLs). Systematic CCD observations, aided by a careful data analysis procedure, have allowed us to detect INOV with amplitudes as low as 1%. Present observations cover a total of 113 nights (720 hours) with only a single quasar monitored as continuously as possible on a night. Considering cases of only unambiguous detections of INOV we have estimated duty cycles (DCs) of 17%, 12%, 20% and 72% respectively for RQQs, LDQs, CDQs, and BLs. The low amplitude and low DC of INOV sh...

  10. LHC Report: spring cleaning over, bunches of luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Scrubbing was completed on Wednesday 13 April. The run had seen over 1000 bunches per beam successfully circulating at 450 GeV. Measurements showed that electron cloud activity in the cold regions had been suppressed. A decrease of vacuum activity in the warm regions demonstrated that the cleaning had also achieved the required results there. As discussed in the last Bulletin, the scrubbing was performed with high intensity bunches with 50 nanosecond spacing. Given the potential luminosity performance with this spacing (more bunches, higher bunch intensity from the injectors) and in the light of the results of the scrubbing run, the decision was taken to continue the 2011 physics run with this bunch spacing.   A few issues with 50 nanosecond spacing had to be resolved when standard operations for luminosity production resumed. Once things had been tidied up, stable beams were provided for the experiments, firstly with 228 bunches per beam and then with 336 bunches per beam. The 336 bunch fill that w...

  11. Differential Density Statistics of Galaxy Distribution and the Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Albani, V V L; Ribeiro, M B; Stöger, W R; Albani, Vinicius V. L.; Iribarrem, Alvaro S.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data obtained from the galaxy luminosity function (LF) to calculate two types of radial number densities statistics of the galaxy distribution as discussed in Ribeiro (2005), namely the differential density $\\gamma$ and the integral differential density $\\gamma^\\ast$. By applying the theory advanced by Ribeiro and Stoeger (2003), which connects the relativistic cosmology number counts with the astronomically derived LF, the differential number counts $dN/dz$ are extracted from the LF and used to calculate both $\\gamma$ and $\\gamma^\\ast$ with various cosmological distance definitions, namely the area distance, luminosity distance, galaxy area distance and redshift distance. LF data are taken from the CNOC2 galaxy redshift survey and $\\gamma$ and $\\gamma^\\ast$ are calculated for two cosmological models: Einstein-de Sitter and an $\\Omega_{m_0}=0.3$, $\\Omega_{\\Lambda_0}=0.7$ standard cosmology. The results confirm the strong dependency of both statistics on the distance definition, as predicted in...

  12. Relativistic Cosmology Number Densities and the Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarrem, Alvaro S; Ribeiro, Marcelo B; Stoeger, William R

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the connection between the relativistic number density of galaxies down the past light cone in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime with non-vanishing cosmological constant and the galaxy luminosity function (LF) data. It extends the redshift range of previous results presented in Albani et al. (2007, arXiv:astro-ph/0611032) where the galaxy distribution was studied out to z=1. Observational inhomogeneities were detected at this range. This research also searches for LF evolution in the context of the framework advanced by Ribeiro and Stoeger (2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0304094), further developing the theory linking relativistic cosmology theory and LF data. Selection functions are obtained using the Schechter parameters and redshift parametrization of the galaxy luminosity functions obtained from an I-band selected dataset of the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey in the redshift range 0.5

  13. L1Track: a Fast Level 1 Track Trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cerri, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increased by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC design. Due to this the pile-up collisions will increase by a similar factor. The earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide an higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment. The Level 1 trigger architecture needs therefore to be improved. A new Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which, in addition of the “regions of interest” identified by the calorimetry and the muon chambers, also includes the possibility of extracting tracking information and use it for the decision taking process. The expected trigger rates at HL-LHC and the available latency are the key ingredients that will drive the new design. A low-latency and accurate tracking trigger system is being developed in the context of this additional trigger refinement. The design results in a substantial modification of the A...

  14. Field Tolerances for the Triplet Quadrupoles of the LHC High Luminosity Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochkov, Yuri; Cai, Y.; Jiao, Y.; Wang, M-H.; /SLAC; Fartoukh, S.; Giovannozzi, M.; Maria, R.de; McIntosh, E.

    2012-06-25

    It has been proposed to implement the so-called Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme in the LHC high luminosity (HL) lattice to reduce beta functions at the Interaction Points (IP) up to a factor of 8. As a result, the nominal 4.5 km peak beta functions reached in the Inner Triplets (IT) at collision will be increased by the same factor. This, therefore, justifies the installation of new, larger aperture, superconducting IT quadrupoles. The higher beta functions will enhance the effects of the triplet quadrupole field errors leading to smaller beam dynamic aperture (DA). To maintain the acceptable DA, the effects of the triplet field errors must be re-evaluated, thus specifying new tolerances. Such a study has been performed for the so-called '4444' collision option of the HL-LHC layout version SLHCV3.01, where the IP beta functions are reduced by a factor of 4 in both planes with respect to a pre-squeezed value of 60 cm at two collision points. The dynamic aperture calculations were performed using SixTrack. The impact on the triplet field quality is presented.

  15. CdTe Photoconductors for LHC Luminosity Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Rossa, E; Meier, D; Schmickler, Hermann; Verger, L; Mongellaz, F; Rumen, G

    2002-01-01

    Detectors using CdTe photoconductors are being used with great success in LEP to monitor the vertical beam emittance. They can withstand tremendous irradiation, of up to 10^13 Gy, from hard X-rays. For the LHC, monitors measuring the relative luminosity will be placed inside absorbers located 142 m from the interaction points, where they will receive about 10^8 Gy per year due to gamma radiation and neutrons. Thick-polycristalline-CdTe detectors were recently tested for speed, sensitivity and radiation resistance before and after receiving up to 10^15 neutrons per cm^2. The test results are presented here, along with a comparison of the calculated charge deposition in Silicon, Diamond and GaAs detectors.

  16. Stellar luminosities and radii from uvby-beta photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, T.

    1985-12-01

    A linear relation is found to exist between the Barnes-Evans visual surface brightness parameter Fv and the (b-y)0 colour index of uvby? photometry for spectral types later than G0. Using this relation, and a previously determined relation for spectral types B0 - G0, tables of intrinsic colours and indices, absolute magnitude and stellar radius are given for the ZAMS and luminosity classes Ia - V over a wide range of spectral types. Comparison of absolute magnitudes and radii calculated from uvby? photometry with values obtained using the visual magnitude, parallax and angular diameter indicates that uvby? photometry can be used to determine Mv to ±0m.2 and log(R/R_sun;) to ±0.05.

  17. Recent developments in gas tracking detectors for high luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    With the high luminosities of upcoming colliders, the frontiers of present generation gas tracking detectors have been pushed, resulting in a large number of innovations in their design, technology and readout systems of which I will discuss some examples. The ATLAS muon spectrometer despite comprising 'simple' proportional tubes, has been extensively studied to better understand and optimize its performance inclusive of the front-end electronics. The MicroStrip Gas Chambers have come long way since their introduction, their spin-offs being Micro-Gap Chambers and the MICRODOT chambers which are described. The introduction of a novel device called the Gas Electron Multiplier GEM, seems promising, and is being considered by HERA-B for improved reliability.

  18. The z˜3 QSO Luminosity Function with SWIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siana, B.; Polletta, M.; Smith, H. E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Farrah, D.; Babbedge, T. S. R.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Surace, J.; Shupe, D.; Fang, F.

    2008-03-01

    We use a simple optical/infrared photometric selection of high redshift QSOs which identifies a Lyman Break in the optical and requires a red IRAC color to distinguish QSOs from common interlopers. We find 100 U-dropout (z˜3) QSO candidates with r'ELAIS-N1 & ELAIS-N2 fields in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy Survey. Spectroscopy of 10 candidates shows that they are all QSOs with 2.83luminosity function is two magnitudes fainter than SDSS and, when combined with those data, gives a faint end slope ?=1.62±0.18, consistent with measurements at z<2 and steeper than initial measurements at the same redshift.

  19. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey: I. Luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J I; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bomans, D J; Boselli, A; Clemens, M; Corbelli, E; Cortese, L; Dariush, A; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Giovanardi, C; Grossi, M; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L K; Jones, A P; Madden, S; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Sabatini, S; Smith, M W L; Verstappen, J; Vlahakis, C; Xilouris, E M; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) and the first data obtained as part of the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP). The data cover a central 4x4 sq deg region of the cluster. We use SPIRE and PACS photometry data to produce 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron luminosity functions (LFs) for optically bright galaxies that are selected at 500 micron and detected in all bands. We compare these LFs with those previously derived using IRAS, BLAST and Herschel-ATLAS data. The Virgo Cluster LFs do not have the large numbers of faint galaxies or examples of very luminous galaxies seen previously in surveys covering less dense environments.

  20. Kinematic corrections to the averaged luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    The redshift surfaces within inhomogeneous universes are shifted by the matter peculiar velocities. The arising average corrections to the luminosity distance are calculated relativistically in several Swiss-cheese models with mass compensated Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi voids. These kinematic corrections are different from weak lensing effects and can be much bigger close to the observer. The statistical averaging over all directions is performed by tracing numerically light rays propagating through a random void lattice. The probability of a supernova emision from a comoving volume is assumed proportional to the rest mass in it. The average corrections to the distance modulus can be significant for redshifts smaller than 0.02 for small voids (radius 30 Mpc) and redshifts smaller than 0.1 for big voids (radius 300 Mpc), yet not large enough to substitute for dark energy. The corrections decay inversely proportional to the distance from the observer. In addition, there is a random cancelation of corrections between...

  1. Luminosity distance and redshift in the Szekeres inhomogeneous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Szekeres inhomogeneous models can be used to model the true lumpy universe that we observe. This family of exact solutions to Einstein's equations was originally derived with a general metric that has no symmetries. In this work, we develop and use a framework to integrate the angular diameter and luminosity distances in the general Szekeres models. We use the affine null geodesic equations in order to derive a set of first-order ordinary differential equations that can be integrated numerically to calculate the partial derivatives of the null vector components. These equations allow the integration in all generality of the distances in the Szekeres models and some examples are given. The redshift is determined from simultaneous integration of the null geodesic equations. This work does not assume spherical or axial symmetry, and the results will be useful for comparisons of the general Szekeres inhomogeneous models to current and future cosmological data

  2. Luminosity Bias (II): The Cosmic Web of the First Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barkana, Rennan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of the first stars and galaxies represents one of the most exciting frontiers in astronomy. Since the universe was filled with neutral hydrogen at early times, the most promising method for observing the epoch of the first stars is using the prominent 21-cm spectral line of the hydrogen atom. Current observational efforts are focused on the reionization era (cosmic age t ~ 500 Myr), with earlier times considered much more challenging. However, the next frontier of even earlier galaxy formation (t ~ 200 Myr) is emerging as a promising observational target. This is made possible by a recently noticed effect of a significant relative velocity between the baryons and dark matter at early times. The velocity difference suppresses star formation, causing a unique form of early luminosity bias. The spatial variation of this suppression enhances large-scale clustering and produces a prominent cosmic web on 100 comoving Mpc scales in the 21-cm intensity distribution. This stru...

  3. EGS4 calculations for a PEP-II luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asymmetric B-Factory currently being built at SLAC consists of a 9 GeV electron storage ring and a 3 GeV positron storage ring, known as PEP-II, and a large detector called BABAR. Because the commissioning of PEP-II starts approximately one year ahead of the installation of BABAR, it is desirable to have a dedicated system in place beforehand for measuring and optimizing the luminosity of the colliding beams. Accordingly, the EGS4 Code System has been used in the design of a quartz-glass Cherenkov hodoscope that monitors high-energy showers, initiated by photons emanating from radiative-Bhabba interactions at the Interaction Point located 8.5 meters upbeam. In this paper the authors present the results of a series of EGS4 calculations to determine the spatial resolution of such a detector, as well as to determine if there will be any serious limitations caused by radiation damage

  4. Fast Frontend Electronics for high luminosity particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinali, M; Bondy, M I Ferretti; Hoek, M; Lauth, W; Rosner, C; Sfienti, C; Thiel, M

    2015-01-01

    Future experiments of nuclear and particle physics are moving towards the high luminosity regime, in order to access suppressed processes like rare B decays or exotic charmonium resonances. In this scenario, high rate capability is a key requirement for electronics instrumentation, together with excellent timing resolution for precise event reconstruction. The development of dedicated FrontEnd Electronics (FEE) for detectors has become increasingly challenging. A current trend in R&D is towards multipurpose FEE which can be easily adapted to a great variety of detectors, without impairing the required high performance. We report on high-precision timing solutions which utilise high-bandwidth preamplifiers and fast discriminators providing Time-over-Threshold information, which can be used for charge measurements or walk corrections thus improving the obtainable timing resolution. The output signal are LVDS and can be directly fed into a multi-hit TDC readout. The performance of the electronics was investi...

  5. Present and past neutrino luminosity of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutrino radiation from the sun can give direct information on the basic nuclear fusion processes that provide the solar energy. Results are reported which have been obtained over the last seven years with the Brookhaven solar neutrino detector that depends upon the neutrino capture reaction, 37Cl(?,e-)37 Ar. These results do not agree with the predictions of the standard solar model. It is of great interest to know whether the lack of agreement between the measurements and theoretical expectation could possibly be explained by a secular variation in the rate of the fusion process. Two radiochemical neutrino detection techniques have been proposed previously that could in principle record the neutrino flux of the past. An analysis of the expected background processes for these experiments is given. These and other possible methods of recording the past solar neutrino luminosity are discussed in relation to variations expected from theoretical solar models. 2 figures, 6 tables, 36 references

  6. Deriving an X-ray luminosity function of dwarf novae based on parallax measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Byckling, Kristiina; Thorstensen, John; Osborne, Julian

    2010-01-01

    We have derived an X-ray luminosity function using parallax-based distance measurements of a set of 12 dwarf novae, consisting of Suzaku, XMM-Newton and ASCA observations. The shape of the X-ray luminosity function obtained is the most accurate to date, and the luminosities of our sample are concentrated between ~10^{30}-10^{31} erg s^{-1}, lower than previous measurements of X-ray luminosity functions of dwarf novae. Based on the integrated X-ray luminosity function, the sample becomes more incomplete below ~3 x 10^{30} erg s^{-1} than it is above this luminosity limit, and the sample is dominated by X-ray bright dwarf novae. The total integrated luminosity within a radius of 200 pc is 1.48 x 10^{32} erg s^{-1} over the luminosity range of 1 x 10^{28} erg s^{-1} and the maximum luminosity of the sample (1.50 x 10^{32} erg s^{-1}). The total absolute lower limit for the normalised luminosity per solar mass is 1.81 x 10^{26} erg s^{-1} M^{-1}_{solar} which accounts for ~16 per cent of the total X-ray emissivit...

  7. Shapley Optical Survey - I. Luminosity functions in the supercluster environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Haines, C. P.; Gargiulo, A.; Krusanova, N.; Busarello, G.; Barbera, F. La; Capaccioli, M.; Covone, G.

    2006-05-01

    We present the Shapley Optical Survey, a photometric study covering a ~2-deg2 region of the Shapley supercluster core at z~ 0.05 in two bands (B and R). The galaxy sample is complete to B= 22.5 (>M*+ 6, Ngal= 16588) and R= 22.0 (>M*+ 7, Ngal= 28008). The galaxy luminosity function (LF) cannot be described by a single Schechter function due to dips apparent at B~ 17.5 (MB~-19.3) and R~ 17.0 (MR~-19.8) and the clear upturn in the counts for galaxies fainter than B and R~ 18mag. We find, instead, that the sum of a Gaussian and a Schechter function, for bright and faint galaxies, respectively, is a suitable representation of the data. We study the effects of the environment on the photometric properties of galaxies, deriving the galaxy LFs in three regions selected according to the local galaxy density, and find a marked luminosity segregation, in the sense that the LF faint end is different at more than 3? confidence level in regions with different densities. In addition, the LFs of red and blue galaxy populations show very different behaviours: while red sequence counts are very similar to those obtained for the global galaxy population, the blue galaxy LFs are well described by a single Schechter function and do not vary with the density. Such large environmentally dependent deviations from a single Schechter function are difficult to produce solely within galaxy merging or suffocation scenarios. Instead the data support the idea that mechanisms related to the cluster environment, such as galaxy harassment or ram-pressure stripping, shape the galaxy LFs by terminating star formation and producing mass-loss in galaxies at ~M*+ 2, a magnitude range where blue late-type spirals used to dominate cluster populations, but are now absent.

  8. TURBULENT CELLS IN STARS: FLUCTUATIONS IN KINETIC ENERGY AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations of shell oxygen burning exhibit bursty, recurrent fluctuations in turbulent kinetic energy. These are shown to be due to a general instability of the convective cell, requiring only a localized source of heating or cooling. Such fluctuations are shown to be suppressed in simulations of stellar evolution which use the mixing-length theory. Quantitatively similar behavior occurs in the model of a convective roll (cell) of Lorenz, which is known to have a strange attractor that gives rise to chaotic fluctuations in time of velocity and, as we show, luminosity. Study of simulations suggests that the behavior of a Lorenz convective roll may resemble that of a cell in convective flow. We examine some implications of this simplest approximation and suggest paths for improvement. Using the Lorenz model as representative of a convective cell, a multiple-cell model of a convective layer gives total luminosity fluctuations which are suggestive of irregular variables (red giants and supergiants), and of the long secondary period feature in semiregular asymptotic giant branch variables. This '?-mechanism' is a new source for stellar variability, which is inherently nonlinear (unseen in linear stability analysis), and one closely related to intermittency in turbulence. It was already implicit in the 3D global simulations of Woodward et al. This fluctuating behavior is seen in extended two-dimensional simulations of CNeOSi burning shensional simulations of CNeOSi burning shells, and may cause instability which leads to eruptions in progenitors of core-collapse supernovae prior to collapse.

  9. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-05-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures. We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Finally, EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE OF BLAZARS is discussed.

  10. Measurement of the luminosity in the ZEUS experiment at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Andruszkow, J. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Bold, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Borzemski, P. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Buettner, C.; Caldwell, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, München (Germany); Chwastowski, J.; Daniluk, W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Drugakov, V. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Helbich, M. [Columbia University, New York (United States); Januschek, F. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Jurkiewicz, P. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Kisielewska, D. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Klein, U. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Kotarba, A. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Lohmann, W., E-mail: wolfgang.lohmann@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Cottbus (Germany); and others

    2014-04-21

    The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung off protons. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported.

  11. Measurement of the luminosity in the ZEUS experiment at HERA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung off protons. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported

  12. Measurement of the luminosity in the ZEUS experiment at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T. [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Andruszkow, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics] [and others

    2013-06-15

    The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported.

  13. The HST view of the nuclear emission line region in low luminosity radio-galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Capetti, A; Chiaberge, M; Capetti, Alessandro; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Chiaberge, Marco

    2005-01-01

    We study the properties of the emission line regions in two samples of low luminosity radio-galaxies (LLRG), focusing on the compact emission line region (CELR) revealed to be a characteristic feature of these objects by HST narrow-band imaging. We find a strong correlation between line and optical continuum nuclear emission, suggesting that the optical cores (most likely of non thermal origin) can be directly associated to the source of ionizing photons, i.e. that we are seeing a jet-ionized narrow line region. A photon budget argument indicates that the optical nuclear sources produce a sufficient photon flux provided that the covering factor of the circum-nuclear gas is rather large, on average ~ 0.3. Analysis of HST images and spectra suggests that the CELR may take the form of a pc-scale, high filling factor, structure, possibly an optically thin torus. Estimates of the CELR mass lead to values as small as 10 - 1000 solar masses and photon counting sets a limit to the BLR mass of 0.01 solar masses. When ...

  14. L1Track: a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide an higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and hight accuracy tracking information on time for the decision taking process. The expected trigger rates at HL-LHC and the available latency are the key ingredients that will drive the new design. The Level 1 track trigger (L1Track) design requires substantial modification of the ATLAS silicon detector readout philosophy: a precursor of the potential merging of detector and trigger architectures in the future silicon detectors at particle colliders. We will discuss potential approaches that are being actively considered to fulfil the demanding HL-LHC constrain...

  15. The Quasar Mass-Luminosity Plane III: Smaller Errors on Virial Mass Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    We use 62,185 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR5 sample to explore the quasar mass-luminosity plane view of virial mass estimation. Previous work shows deviations of ~0.4 dex between virial and reverberation masses. The decline in quasar number density for the highest-Eddington ratio quasars at each redshift provides an upper bound of between 0.13 and 0.29 dex for virial mass estimates. Across different redshift bins, the maximum possible Mg II mass uncertainties average 0.15 dex, while H beta uncertainties average 0.21 dex and C IV uncertainties average 0.27 dex. Any physical spread near the high-Eddington-ratio boundary will produce a more restrictive bound. A comparison of the sub-Eddington boundary slope using H beta and Mg II masses finds better agreement with uncorrected Mg II masses than with recently proposed corrections. The best agreement for these bright objects is produced by a multiplicative correction by a factor of 1.19, smaller than the factor of 1.8 previously reported as producing...

  16. Comparing Ultraviolet and Infrared-Selected Starburst Galaxies in Dust Obscuration and Luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Weedman, Daniel W.; Houck, James R.

    2010-01-01

    We present samples of starburst galaxies that represent the extremes discovered with infrared and ultraviolet observations, including 25 Markarian galaxies, 23 ultraviolet luminous galaxies discovered with GALEX, and the 50 starburst galaxies having the largest infrared/ultraviolet ratios. These sources have z < 0.5 and cover a luminosity range of ~ 10^4. Comparisons between infrared luminosities determined with the 7.7 um PAH feature and ultraviolet luminosities from the st...

  17. Constraining Physical Properties of Type IIn Supernovae through Rise Times and Peak Luminosities

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energy of Type...

  18. Photon-Photon Luminosities in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Effective photon-photon luminosities are calculated for various realistic hadron collider scenarios. The main characteristics of photon-photon processes at relativistic heavy-ion colliders are established and compared to the corresponding photon-photon luminosities at electron-positron and future Photon Linear Colliders (PLC). Higher order corrections as well as inelastic processes are discussed. It is concluded that feasible high luminosity Ca-Ca collisions at the Large Had...

  19. Size dependence of the radio luminosity - mechanical power correlation in radio galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Shabala, Stanislav; Godfrey, Leith

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between source radio luminosity and kinetic power in Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jets. We show that neglecting various loss processes can introduce a systematic bias in the jet powers inferred from radio luminosities for a sample of radio galaxies. This bias can be corrected for by considering source size as well as radio luminosity; effectively the source size acts as a proxy for source age. Based on a sample of FR-II radio sources with jet pow...

  20. Star Formation Rates for Starburst Galaxies from Ultraviolet, Infrared, and Radio Luminosities

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Weedman, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Star formation rates (SFR) are compared as determined from mid-infrared 7.7 um PAH luminosity [SFR(PAH)], from 1.4 GHz radio luminosity [SFR(radio)], and from far ultraviolet luminosity [SFR(UV)] for a sample of 287 starburst galaxies with z < 0.5 having Spitzer IRS observations. The previously adopted relation log [SFR(PAH)] = log [vLv(7.7 um)] - 42.57+-0.2, for SFR in solar masses per year and vLv(7.7 um) the luminosity at the peak of the 7.7 um PAH feature in ergs per s, ...

  1. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures.We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of $\\rm{LogL_{BLR}\\sim(0.81\\pm0.06)LogL_{R}^{C}}$ which is consistant with theoretical pre...

  2. Energy and Beam-Offset dependence of the Luminosity weighted depolarization for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, Jakob; Uggerhoj, Ulrik; Dalena, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We report on simulations of e+e- depolarization due to beam-beam effects. These effects are studied for CLIC at 3 TeV, using GUINEA PIG++. We find a strong energy dependence of the luminosity weighted depolarization. In the luminosity peak at CLIC the total luminosity weighted depolarization remains below the one per-mil level. The effect of a vertical offset on the energy dependent depolarization is investigated. The depolarization in the luminosity peak remains below per-cent level even for 5sy offsets.

  3. Estimating active region luminosity using EVE/SDO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, Maria D.; Hudson, H. S.; Fisher, G. H.; Canfield, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    Do solar active regions typically radiate more coronal energy during flares than the quiescent periods between them? This is a fundamental question for storage and release models of flares and active regions, yet it is presently poorly answered by observations. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides spectrally resolved observations of the Sun in the "Sun-as-a-point source" mode. It covers a wide range of temperatures and thus allows a detailed study of thermal emissions. Here we present two approaches for computing the active region luminosity, using EVE observations of fourteen Fe lines (FeIX-FeXXIV). In the first approach, we analyze EVE data in a time-series sense, when only one active region is present on the disk; this allows us to subtract the background due to the quiet sun and get the contribution from the active region alone. In the second approach, we analyze correlations of the radiative signatures with proxy indices (total solar magnetic and Poynting fluxes) during several months of data, when multiple active regions are present on the solar disk. We discuss capabilities of the two approaches, and what we can learn from them.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Do solar active regions typically radiate more coronal energy during flares than the quiescent periods between them? This is a fundamental question for storage and release models of flares and active regions, yet it is presently poorly answered by observations. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides spectrally resolved observations of the Sun in the "Sun-as-a-point source" mode. It covers a wide range of temperatures and thus allows a detailed study of thermal emissions. Here we present two approaches for computing the active region luminosity, using EVE observations of fourteen Fe lines (FeIX-FeXXIV). In the first approach, we analyze EVE data in a time-series sense, when only one active region is present on the disk; this allows us to subtract the background due to the quiet sun and get the contribution from the active region alone. In the second approach, we analyze correlations of the radiative signatures with proxy indices (total solar magnetic and Poynting fluxes) during several months of data, when multiple active regions are present on the solar disk. We discuss capabilities of the two approaches, and what we can learn from them.

  4. THE LUMINOSITY PROFILE AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed an extended composite luminosity profile for the Andromeda galaxy, M31, and have decomposed it into three basic luminous structural components: a bulge, a disk, and a halo. The dust-free Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) imaging and extended spatial coverage of ground-based optical imaging and deep star counts allow us to map M31's structure from its center to 22 kpc along the major axis. We apply, and address the limitations of, different decomposition methods for the one-dimensional luminosity profiles and two-dimensional images. These methods include nonlinear least-squares and Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain analyses. The basic photometric model for M31 has a Sersic bulge with shape index n ? 2.2 ± .3 and effective radius Re = 1.0 ± 0.2 kpc, and a dust-free exponential disk of scale length Rd = 5.3 ± .5 kpc; the parameter errors reflect the range between different decomposition methods. Despite model covariances, the convergence of solutions based on different methods and current data suggests a stable set of structural parameters. The ellipticities (? = 1 - b/a) of the bulge and the disk from the IRAC image are 0.37 ± 0.03 and 0.73 ± 0.03, respectively. The bulge parameter n is rather insensitive to bandpass effects and its value (2.2) suggests a first rapid formation via mergers followed by secular growth from the disk. The M31 halo has a two-dimensional power-law index ? - 2.5 ± 0.2 (or -3.5 in three-dim2.5 ± 0.2 (or -3.5 in three-dimensional), comparable to that of the Milky Way. We find that the M31 bulge light is mostly dominant over the range Rmin ?min ?min ?> 9 kpc. The stellar nucleus, bulge, disk, and halo components each contribute roughly 0.05%, 23%, 73%, and 4% of the total light of M31 out to 200 kpc along the minor axis. Nominal errors for the structural parameters of the M31 bulge, disk, and halo amount to 20%. If M31 and the Milky Way are at all typical, faint stellar halos should be routinely detected in galaxy surveys reaching below ?i ? 27 mag arcsec-2. We stress that our results rely on this photometric analysis alone. Structural parameters may change when other fundamental constraints, such as those provided by abundance gradients and stellar kinematics, are considered simultaneously.

  5. The HELLAS2XMM Survey. VII. The Hard X-Ray Luminosity Function of AGNs up to z = 4: More Absorbed AGNs at Low Luminosities and High Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Franca, F.; Fiore, F.; Comastri, A.; Perola, G. C.; Sacchi, N.; Brusa, M.; Cocchia, F.; Feruglio, C.; Matt, G.; Vignali, C.; Carangelo, N.; Ciliegi, P.; Lamastra, A.; Maiolino, R.; Mignoli, M.; Molendi, S.; Puccetti, S.

    2005-12-01

    We have determined the cosmological evolution of the density of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and of their NH distribution as a function of the unabsorbed 2-10 keV luminosity up to redshift 4. We used the HELLAS2XMM sample combined with other published catalogs, yielding a total of 508 AGNs. Our best fit is obtained with a luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE) model where low-luminosity (LX~1043 ergs s-1) AGNs peak at z~0.7, while high-luminosity AGNs (LX>1045 ergs s-1) peak at z~2.0. A pure luminosity evolution model (PLE) can instead be rejected. There is evidence that the fraction of absorbed (NH>1022 cm-2) AGNs decreases with the intrinsic X-ray luminosity and increases with the redshift. Our best-fit solution provides a good fit to the observed counts, the cosmic X-ray background, and to the observed fraction of absorbed AGNs as a function of the flux in the 10-15 ergs cm-2 s-11044 ergs s-1) AGNs have a density of 267 deg-2 at fluxes S2-10>10-15 ergs cm-2 s-1. Using these results, we estimate a density of supermassive black holes in the local universe of ?BH=3.2 h270×105 Msolar Mpc-3, which is consistent with the recent measurements of the black hole mass function in the local galaxies.

  6. The HELLAS2XMM survey. VII. The hard X-ray luminosity function of AGN up to z=4: more absorbed AGN at low luminosities and high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, F; Comastri, A; Perola, G C; Sacchi, N; Brusa, M; Cocchia, F; Feruglio, C; Matt, G; Vignali, C; Carangelo, N; Ciliegi, P; Lamastra, A; Maiolino, R; Mignoli, M; Molendi, S; Puccetti, S

    2005-01-01

    We have determined the cosmological evolution of the density of AGN and of their Nh distribution as a function of the un-absorbed 2-10 keV luminosity up to redshift 4. We used the HELLAS2XMM sample combined with other published catalogs, yielding a total of 508 AGN. Our best fit is obtained with a luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE) model where low luminosity (Lx~10^43 erg s^-1) AGN peak at z~0.7, while high luminosity AGN (Lx>10^45 erg s^-1) peak at z~2.0. A pure luminosity evolution model (PLE) can instead be rejected. There is evidence that the fraction of absorbed (Nh>10^22 cm^-2) AGN decreases with the intrinsic X-ray luminosity, and increases with the redshift. Our best fit solution provides a good fit to the observed counts, the cosmic X-ray background, and to the observed fraction of absorbed AGN as a function of the flux in the 10^-1510^44 erg s^-1) AGN have a density of 267 deg^-2 at fluxes S(2-10)>10^-15 erg s^-1 cm^-2. Using these results, we estimate a density of supermassive black hole...

  7. ESTIMATING LUMINOSITY FUNCTION CONSTRAINTS FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will revolutionize the study of high-redshift galaxy populations. Initial observations of the HST Ultra Deep Field (UDF) have yielded multiple z ?> 7 dropout candidates. Supplemented by the GOODS Early Release Science (ERS) and further UDF pointings, these data will provide crucial information about the most distant known galaxies. However, achieving tight constraints on the z ? 7 galaxy luminosity function (LF) will require even more ambitious photometric surveys. Using a Fisher matrix approach to fully account for Poisson and cosmic sample variance, as well as covariances in the data, we estimate the uncertainties on LF parameters achieved by surveys of a given area and depth. Applying this method to WFC3 z ? 7 dropout galaxy samples, we forecast the LF parameter uncertainties for a variety of model surveys. We demonstrate that performing a wide area (?1 deg2) survey to HAB ? 27 depth or increasing the UDF depth to HAB ? 30 provides excellent constraints on the high-z LF when combined with the existing Ultradeep Field Guest Observation and GOODS ERS data. We also show that the shape of the matter power spectrum may limit the possible gain of splitting wide area (?>0.5 deg2) high-redshift surveys into multiple fields to probe statistically independent regions; the increased rms density fluctuations in smaller volumes mostly s in smaller volumes mostly offset the improved variance gained from independent samples.

  8. The z=3 QSO Luminosity Function with SWIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Siana, B; Smith, H E; Lonsdale, C J; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Farrah, D; Babbedge, T S R; Rowan-Robinson, M; Surace, J; Shupe, D; Fang, F

    2006-01-01

    We use a simple optical/infrared photometric selection of high redshift QSOs which identifies a Lyman Break in the optical and requires a red IRAC color to distinguish QSOs from common interlopers. We find 100 U-dropout (z=3) QSO candidates with r'<22 within 11.2 deg^2 in the ELAIS-N1 & ELAIS-N2 fields in the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy Survey. Spectroscopy of 10 candidates shows that they are all QSOs with 2.83luminosity function is two magnitudes fainter than SDSS and, when combined with those data, gives a faint end slop \\beta = 1.62 \\pm 0.18, consistent with measurements at z<2 and steeper than initial measurements at the same redshift.

  9. On the luminosity distance and the epoch of acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Will; Rothnie, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Standard cosmological models based on general relativity (GR) with dark energy predict that the Universe underwent a transition from decelerating to accelerating expansion at a moderate redshift zacc ˜ 0.7. Clearly, it is of great interest to directly measure this transition in a model-independent way, without the assumption that GR is the correct theory of gravity. We explore to what extent supernova (SN) luminosity distance measurements provide evidence for such a transition: we show that, contrary to intuition, the well-known `turnover' in the SN distance residuals ?? relative to an empty (Milne) model does not give firm evidence for such a transition within the redshift range spanned by SN data. The observed turnover in that diagram is predominantly due to the negative curvature in the Milne model, not the deceleration predicted by ? cold dark matter and relatives. We show that there are several advantages in plotting distance residuals against a flat, non-accelerating model (w = -1/3), and also remapping the z-axis to u = ln (1 + z); we outline a number of useful and intuitive properties of this presentation. We conclude that there are significant complementarities between SNe and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs): SNe offer high precision at low redshifts and give good constraints on the net amount of acceleration since z ˜ 0.7, but are weak at constraining zacc; while radial BAO measurements are probably superior for placing direct constraints on zacc.

  10. Two-Dimensional Accretion Disks at Subcritical Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Mitsutaka; Okuda, Toru

    1998-12-01

    To examine subcritical accretion disks, we performed two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations by solving a set of fully non-linear hydrodynamic equations coupled with radiation transport. Focusing on the accretion disks of neutron stars near to the Eddington luminosity L_E, we obtained thermally stable accretion disks where the radiation pressure and electron scattering are dominant. The thermally stable disks are interpreted in terms of the slim accretion-disk theory. While the accretion disks are unstable to convection and convective cells generally stretch from the disk mid-plane to the disk surface in the inner disk. It has been found that convection is an important energy-transfer mechanism along the vertical direction of the disk. A very rarefied, hot, and optically thin region is formed along the rotational axis of the disk. The relativistic jet with a collimation angle of less than 10(deg) is generated in the rarefied optically thin region, mainly due to the dominant radiation-pressure force. The results of subcritical accretion onto a neutron star are discussed in relation to SS 433.

  11. Challenges on the high luminosity frontier of e+ e-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For phi factories, tau-charm factories, and B factories to meet their respective luminosity goals, the circulating currents that typify e+e- colliders must be raised an order of magnitude. At the same time the beam size at the interaction point must be decreased. The approaches to realizing these conditions include increasing the charge per bunch, increasing the number of bunches in the collider, increasing the crossing angle for rapid bunch separation, tilting the bunch with respect to the direction of motion at the interaction point (''crab-crossing''), and minimizing the ? function at the interaction point. The technological challenges implied by such strategies include the development of (1) novel rf-cavity designs to suppress higher order modes and to provide large rf-voltages for longitudinal focusing, (2) a new generation of powerful feedback electronics to control multi-bunch instabilities, and (3) vacuum chambers and pumping schemes suitable for operation with very high levels of synchrotron radiation. In high current colliders the design of the interaction region poses special problems of allowing rapid beam separation and avoiding excessive scattering of background radiation into the detector

  12. Galaxies with a Central Minimum in Stellar Luminosity Density

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, T R; Richstone, D O; Tremaine, S; Bender, R; Bower, G; Dressler, A; Faber, S M; Filippenko, A V; Green, R; Grillmair, C J; Ho, L C; Kormendy, J; Magorrian, J; Pinkney, J C; Laine, S; Postman, M; Van der Marel, R P; Lauer, Tod R.; Gebhardt, Karl; Richstone, Douglas; Tremaine, Scott; Bender, Ralf; Bower, Gary; Dressler, Alan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Green, Richard; Grillmair, Carl J.; Ho, Luis C.; Kormendy, John; Magorrian, John; Pinkney, Jason; Postman, Marc; Marel, Roeland P. van der

    2002-01-01

    We used HST WFPC2 images to identify six early-type galaxies with surface- brightness profiles that decrease inward over a limited range of radii near their centers. The implied luminosity density profiles of these galaxies have local minima interior to their core break radii. NGC 3706 harbors a high surface brightness ring of starlight with radius ~20 pc. Its central structure may be related to that in the double-nucleus galaxies M31 and NGC 4486B. NGC 4406 and NGC 6876 have nearly flat cores that on close inspection are centrally depressed. Colors for both galaxies imply that this is not due to dust absorption. The surface brightness distributions of both galaxies are consistent with stellar tori that are more diffuse than the sharply defined system in NGC 3706. The remaining three galaxies are the brightest cluster galaxies in A260, A347, and A3574. Color information is not available for these objects, but they strongly resemble NGC 4406 and NGC 6876 in their cores. The thin ring in NGC 3706 may have forme...

  13. ATLAS ALFA—measuring absolute luminosity with scintillating fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, S

    2009-01-01

    ALFA is a high-precision scintillating fibre tracking detector under construction for the absolute determination of the LHC luminosity at the ATLAS interaction point. This detector, mounted in so-called Roman Pots, will track protons elastically scattered under ?rad angles at IP1.In total there are four pairs of vertically arranged detector modules which approach the LHC beam axis to mm distance. Each detector module consists of ten layers of two times 64 scintillating fibres each (U and V planes). The fibres are coupled to 64 channels Multi-Anodes PhotoMultipliers Tubes read out by compact front-end electronics. Each detector module is complemented by so-called overlap detectors: Three layers of two times 30 scintillating fibres which will be used to measure the relative positioning of two vertically arranged main detectors. The total number of channels is about 15000. Conventional plastic scintillator tiles are mounted in front of the fibre detectors and will serve as trigger counter. The extremely restric...

  14. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): ugriz galaxy luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Loveday, J; Baldry, I K; Driver, S P; Hopkins, A M; Peacock, J A; Bamford, S P; Liske, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Cameron, E; Conselice, C J; Croom, S M; Frenk, C S; Gunawardhana, M; Hill, D T; Jones, D H; Kelvin, L S; Kuijken, K; Nichol, R C; Parkinson, H R; Phillipps, S; Pimbblet, K A; Popescu, C C; Prescott, M; Robotham, A S G; Sharp, R G; Sutherland, W J; Taylor, E N; Thomas, D; Tuffs, R J; van Kampen, E; Wijesinghe, D

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) is a project to study galaxy formation and evolution, combining imaging data from ultraviolet to radio with spectroscopic data from the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Using data from phase 1 of GAMA, taken over three observing seasons, and correcting for various minor sources of incompleteness, we calculate galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) and their evolution in the ugriz passbands. At low redshift, z < 0.1, we find that blue galaxies, defined according to a magnitude-dependent but non-evolving colour cut, are reasonably well fit over a range of more than ten magnitudes by simple Schechter functions in all bands. Red galaxies, and the combined blue-plus-red sample, require double power-law Schechter functions to fit a dip in their LF faintward of the characteristic magnitude M* before a steepening faint end. This upturn is at least partly due to dust-reddened disk galaxies. We measure evolution of the galaxy LF over the redshift range 0.002 < z &...

  15. On the luminosity distance and the epoch of acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Will

    2015-01-01

    Standard cosmological models based on general relativity (GR) with dark energy predict that the Universe underwent a transition from decelerating to accelerating expansion at a moderate redshift $z_{acc} \\sim 0.7$. Clearly, it is of great interest to directly measure this transition in a model-independent way, without the assumption that GR is the correct theory of gravity. We explore to what extent supernova (SN) luminosity distance measurements provide evidence for such a transition: we show that, contrary to intuition, the well-known "turnover" in the SN distance residuals $\\Delta\\mu$ relative to an empty (Milne) model does not give firm evidence for such a transition within the redshift range spanned by SN data. The observed turnover in that diagram is predominantly due to the negative curvature in the Milne model, {\\em not} the deceleration predicted by $\\Lambda$CDM and relatives. We show that there are several advantages in plotting distance residuals against a flat, non-accelerating model $(w = -1/3)$,...

  16. Distances to dense cores that contain Very Low Luminosity Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Maheswar, G; Dib, Sami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to estimate distances to dense molecular cores that harbour Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLO) detected by Spitzer Space Telescope and to confirm their VeLLO nature. The cloud distances are estimated using near-IR photometric method. We use a technique that provides spectral classification of stars lying towards the fields containing the clouds into main sequence and giants. In this technique, the observed (J-H) and (H-Ks) colours are dereddened simultaneously using trial values of A_V and a normal interstellar extinction law. The best fit of the dereddened colours to the intrinsic colours giving a minimum value of chi^{2} then yields the corresponding spectral type and A_V for the star. The main sequence stars, thus classified, are then utilized in an A_V versus distance plot to bracket the cloud distances. The typical error in the estimation of distances to the clouds are found to be ~18%.We estimated distances to seven cloud cores, IRAM04191, L1521F, BHR111, L328, L673-7, L1014, an...

  17. Isochrones and Luminosity Functions for Old White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A; Straniero, O; Fahlman, G G; Richer, Harvey B.; Hansen, Brad; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, Alessandro; Straniero, Oscar; Fahlman, Gregory G.

    1999-01-01

    Using a new grid of models of cooling white dwarfs, we calculate isochrones and luminosity functions in the Johnson-Kron/Cousins and HST filter sets for systems containing old white dwarfs. These new models incorporate a non-grey atmosphere which is necessary to properly describe the effects of molecular opacity at the cool temperatures of old white dwarfs. The various functions calculated and extensively tabulated and plotted are meant to be as utilitarian as possible for observers so all results are listed in quantities that observers will obtain. The tables and plots developed should eventually prove critical in interpreting the results of HST's Advanced Camera observations of the oldest white dwarfs in nearby globular clusters, in understanding the results of searches for old white dwarfs in the Galactic halo, and in determining ages for star clusters of all ages using white dwarfs. As a practical application we demonstrate the use of these results by deriving the white dwarf cooling age of the old Galact...

  18. Jet and disk luminosities in tidal disruption events

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Tsvi; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDE) in which a star is devoured by a massive black hole at a galac- tic center pose a challenge to our understanding of accretion processes. Within a month the accretion rate reaches super-Eddington levels. It then drops gradually over a time scale of a year to sub-Eddington regimes. The initially geometrically thick disk becomes a thin one and eventually an ADAF at very low accretion rates. As such, TDEs explore the whole range of accretion rates and configurations. A challenging question is what the corresponding light curves of these events are. We explore numerically the disk luminosity and the conditions within the inner region of the disk using a fully general relativistic slim disk model. Those conditions determine the magnitude of the magnetic field that engulfs the black hole and this, in turn, determines the Blandford-Znajek jet power. We estimate this power in two different ways and show that they are self-consistent. We find, as expected earlier from analytic argu- ments ...

  19. Period-Luminosity Relation for Type II Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Menzies, John W

    2009-01-01

    We have estimated JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity for LMC type II Cepheids found in the OGLE-III survey. Period-luminosity relations (PLRs) are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. The BL Her stars (P<4d) and the W Vir stars (P=4 to 20d) are co-linear in these PLRs. The slopes of the infrared relations agree with those found previously for type II Cepheids in globular clusters within the uncertainties. Using the pulsation parallaxes of V553 Cen and SW Tau, the data lead to an LMC modulus of 18.46+-0.10 mag, uncorrected for any metallicity effects. We have now established the PLR of type II Cepheids as a distance indicator by confirming that (almost) the same PLR satisfies the distributions in the PL diagram of type II Cepheids in (at least) two different systems, i.e. the LMC and Galactic globular clusters, and by calibrating the zero point of the PLR. RV Tau stars in the LMC, as a group, are not co-linear with the shorter-period type II Cepheids in the infrared PLRs in ...

  20. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity functions to those predicted by models and find that our observed luminosity functions are best matched by models that invoke competitive accretion, although we do not find strong agreement between the high-mass SF clouds and any of the models.

  1. GEMS: which galaxies dominate the z~0.7 ultraviolet luminosity density?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, C.; Bell, EF; McIntosh, DH; Rix, HW; Barden, M; Beckwith, SVW; Borch, A.; Caldwell, JAR; Haeussler, B.; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K.; S. Jogee; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, CY; Sanchez, SF

    2004-01-01

    We combine high-resolution images from GEMS with redshifts and spectral energy distributions from COMBO-17 to explore the morphological types of galaxies that dominate the z~0.7 UV luminosity density. We analysed rest-frame 280 nm and V-band luminosities of 1483 galaxies with 0.65

  2. Performance of the BGO luminosity monitor of the CMD-2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminosity monitor of the VEPP-2M collider at the CMD-2 detector is described. The monitor consists of two identical total absorption counters based on 9 X0 BGO crystal with phototriode readout. Double bremsstrahlung events are used for luminosity measurement. (orig.)

  3. Electron-electron luminosity in the Next Linear Collider -- a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors discuss some operational aspects of electron-electron collisions at the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and estimate the luminosity attainable in such a machine. They also consider the use of two future technologies which could simplify the operation and improve the luminosity in an e-e- collider: polarized rf guns and plasma lenses

  4. State Transitions in Bright Galactic X-ray Binaries: Luminosities Span by Two Orders of Magnitude

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    Using X-ray monitoring observations with the ASM on board the RXTE and the BAT on board the Swift, we are able to study the spectral state transitions occurred in about 20 bright persistent and transient black hole and neutron star binaries. We have confirmed that there is a correlation between the X-ray luminosity corresponding to the hard-to-soft transition and the X-ray luminosity of the following soft state. This correlation holds over a luminosity range spanning by two orders of magnitude, with no indication of a flux saturation or cut-off. We have also found that the transition luminosity correlates with the rate of increase in the X-ray luminosity during the rising phase of an outburst or flare, implying that the origin of the variation of the transition luminosity is associated with non-stationary accretion in both transient sources and persistent sources. The correlation between the luminosity corresponding to the end of the soft-to-hard transition and the peak luminosity of the preceding soft state ...

  5. Calculation of integrated luminosity for beams stored in the Tevatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for calculating the integrated luminosity of beams stored in the Tevatron collider will be presented. The model determines the instantaneous luminosity by calculating the overlap integral of bunched beams passing through the interaction region. The calculation accounts for the variation in beam size due to the beta functions and also for effects due to finite longitudinal emittance and non-zero dispersion in the interaction region. The integrated luminosity is calculated for the beams as they evolve due to processes including collisions and intrabeam scattering. The model has been applied to both the extant and upgraded Tevatron collider, but is not limited to them. The original motivation for developing the computer model was to determine the reduction in luminosity due to beams with non-zero longitudinal emittances. There are two effects: the transverse beam size is increased where the dispersion is non-zero; the finite length of the beam bunch combined with an increasing ? function results in an increased transverse beam size at the ends of the bunch. The derivation of a sufficiently useful analytic expression for the luminosity proved to be intractable. Instead, a numerical integration computer program was developed to calculate the luminosity in the presence of a finite longitudinal emittance. The program was then expanded into a model which allows the luminosity to vary due to changes in emittances and reduction in bunch intensities. At that point, it was not difficult to calculate the integrated luminosity. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Far-infrared and accretion luminosities of the present-day active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation (SF) and black hole accretion luminosities, using a sample of 492 type-2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z < 0.22, which are detected in the far-infrared (FIR) surveys with AKARI and Herschel. We adopt FIR luminosities at 90 and 100 um as SF luminosities, assuming the proposed linear proportionality of star formation rate with FIR luminosities. By estimating AGN luminosities from [OIII]5007 and [OI]6300 emission lines, we find a positive linear trend between FIR and AGN luminosities over a wide dynamical range. This result appears to be inconsistent with the recent reports that low-luminosity AGNs show essentially no correlation between FIR and X-ray luminosities, while the discrepancy is likely due to the Malmquist and sample selection biases. By analyzing the spectral energy distribution, we find that pure-AGN candidates, of which FIR radiation is thought to be AGN-dominated, show significantly low-SF activities. These AGNs hosted by low-SF galaxies are...

  7. Size dependence of the radio-luminosity-mechanical-power correlation in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the relationship between source radio luminosity and kinetic power in active galactic nucleus jets. We show that neglecting various loss processes can introduce a systematic bias in the jet powers inferred from radio luminosities for a sample of radio galaxies. This bias can be corrected for by considering source size as well as radio luminosity; effectively the source size acts as a proxy for source age. Based on a sample of Fanaroff-Riley Type II radio sources with jet powers derived from the measured hotspot parameters, we empirically determine a new expression for jet power that accounts for the source size, (Qjet/1036 W)=1.5?0.8+1.8(L151/1027 W Hz?1)0.8(1+z)1.0(D/kpc)0.58±0.17, where D is source size and L 151 the 151 MHz radio luminosity. By comparing a flux-limited and volume-limited sample, we show that any derived radio-luminosity-jet-power relation depends sensitively on sample properties, in particular the source size distribution and the size-luminosity correlation inherent in the sample. Such bias will affect the accuracy of the kinetic luminosity function derived from lobe radio luminosities and should be treated with caution.

  8. Modification of redshift and luminosity by voids in the expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propagation of light in a clumpy universe is examined for redshift and luminosity. Taking a spherical void model and Swiss Chesse model, the modification is found to be the third order of (Hrsub(b)/c) for the redshift and the first order of it for the luminosity, rsub(b) being the radius of a void or a Swiss Cheese hole. (author)

  9. Luminosity excesses in low-mass young stellar objects - a statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a statistical study in which the observed total luminosity is compared quantitatively with an estimate of the stellar luminosity for a sample of 59 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Taurus-Auriga complex. In 13 of the analyzed YSOs, luminosity excesses greater than 0.20 are observed together with greater than 0.6 IR excesses, which typically contribute the bulk of the observed excess luminosity and are characterized by spectral energy distributions which are flat or rise toward long wavelengths. The analysis suggests that YSOs showing the largest luminosity excesses typically power optical jets and/or molecular outflows or have strong winds, as evidenced by the presence of O I emission, indicating a possible correlation between accretion and mass-outflow properties. 38 references

  10. Optimisation of average luminosity in pp and /SUP p/ p colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algorithms are presented for the optimisation of the luminosity in pp and /SUP p/ p colliders. Their average luminosity is lower than the peak luminosity because the transverse dimensions of the beams increase due to intra-beam scattering, and the beam currents decay due to the collisions with the rest gas and the opposite beam. Assuming that the /SUP p/ are produced during the collision time links the /SUP p/ production rate to the maximum /SUP p/ current. Either the average luminosity or the average number of collisions with exactly one beam-beam event are optimised. The free parameters are the collision time, the initial luminosity, and the density of the beams. Numerical solutions are based on the parameters of the /SUP p/ p option of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the /SUP p/ production rate of the /SUP p/ source (ACOL) at CERN. Approximate analytical solutions are also presented

  11. Galaxy luminosity function and Tully-Fisher relation: reconciled through rotation-curve studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between galaxy luminosity L and halo virial velocity v vir required to fit the galaxy luminosity function differs from the observed Tully-Fisher relation between L and disk speed v rot. Because of this, the problem of reproducing the galaxy luminosity function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously has plagued semianalytic models since their inception. Here we study the relation between v rot and v vir by fitting observational average rotation curves of disk galaxies binned in luminosity. We show that the v rot-v vir relation that we obtain in this way can fully account for this seeming inconsistency. Therefore, the reconciliation of the luminosity function with the Tully-Fisher relation rests on the complex dependence of v rot on v vir, which arises because the ratio of stellar mass to dark matter mass is a strong function of halo mass.

  12. Study on high rate MRPC for high luminosity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, X.; Lv, P.; Zhu, W.; Shi, L.; Xie, B.; Cheng, J.; Li, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) has been used to construct time-of-flight system in the field of nuclear and particle physics, due to their high-precision timing properties, high efficiency, reliability and coverage of large area. With the increase of accelerator luminosity, MRPCs have to withstand particle fluxes up to several tens of kHz/cm2 in view of the next generation physics experiments, such as the SIS-100/300 at FAIR-CBM, SoLID at JLab and NICA at JINR. But the MRPC assembled with float glass has very low rate capability not exceeding some hundreds of Hz/cm2. Two possible solutions for increasing rate capability, one is to reduce the bulk resistivity of glass and the other is to reduce the electrode thickness. Tsinghua University has done R&D on high rate MRPC for many years. A special low resistive glass with bulk resistivity around 1010?.cm was developed. We also studied the rate capability changes with glass thickness. In this paper we describe the performance of low resistive glass and two kinds of high rate MRPC (Pad readout and Strip readout) tested by deuterium beams. The results show that the tolerable particle flux can reach 70 kHz/cm2. In the mean time, MRPCs assembled with three thickness (0.7 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.35 mm) of float glass were also tested with deuteron beams, the results show that the three detectors can afford particle rate up to 500 Hz/cm2, 0.75 kHz/cm2 and 3 kHz/cm2, respectively.

  13. Galaxies with a Central Minimum in Stellar Luminosity Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Gebhardt, Karl; Richstone, Douglas; Tremaine, Scott; Bender, Ralf; Bower, Gary; Dressler, Alan; Faber, S. M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Green, Richard; Grillmair, Carl J.; Ho, Luis C.; Kormendy, John; Magorrian, John; Pinkney, Jason; Laine, S.; Postman, Marc; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2002-10-01

    We used Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images to identify six early-type galaxies with surface brightness profiles that decrease inward over a limited range of radii near their centers. The inferred luminosity density profiles of these galaxies have local minima interior to their core break radii. NGC 3706 harbors a high surface brightness ring of starlight with radius ~20 pc. Its central structure may be related to that in the double-nucleus galaxies M31 and NGC 4486B. NGC 4406 and NGC 6876 have nearly flat cores that, on close inspection, are centrally depressed. Colors for both galaxies imply that this is not due to dust absorption. The surface brightness distributions of both galaxies are consistent with stellar tori that are more diffuse than the sharply defined system in NGC 3706. The remaining three galaxies are the brightest cluster galaxies in A260, A347, and A3574. Color information is not available for these objects, but they strongly resemble NGC 4406 and NGC 6876 in their cores. The thin ring in NGC 3706 may have formed dissipatively. The five other galaxies resemble the endpoints of some simulations of the merging of two gas-free stellar systems, each harboring a massive nuclear black hole. In one version of this scenario, diffuse stellar tori are produced when stars initially bound to one black hole are tidally stripped away by the second black hole. Alternatively, some inward-decreasing surface brightness profiles may reflect the ejection of stars from a core during the hardening of the binary black hole created during the merger. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with GO proposals 5454, 5512, 6099, 6587, and 8683.

  14. On the perturbation of the luminosity distance by peculiar motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Nick; Hudson, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    We consider some aspects of the perturbation to the luminosity distance d(z) that are of relevance for SN1a cosmology and for future peculiar velocity surveys at non-negligible redshifts. (1) Previous work has shown that the correction to the lowest order perturbation ?d/d = -?v/cz has the peculiar characteristic that it appears to depend on the absolute state of motion of sources, rather than on their motion relative to that of the observer. The resolution of this apparent violation of the equivalence principle is that it is necessary to allow for evolution of the velocities with time, and also, when considering perturbations on the scale of the observer-source separation, to include the gravitational redshift effect. We provide an expression for ?d/d that provides a physically consistent way to measure peculiar velocities and determine their impact for SN1a cosmology. (2) We then calculate the perturbation to the redshift as a function of source flux density, which has been proposed as an alternative probe of large-scale motions. We show how the inclusion of surface brightness modulation modifies the relation between ?z(m) and the peculiar velocity, and that, while the noise properties of this method might appear promising, the velocity signal is swamped by the effect of galaxy clustering for most scales of interest. (3) We show how, in linear theory, peculiar velocity measurements are biased downwards by the effect of smaller scale motions or by measurement errors (such as in photometric redshifts). Our results nicely explain the effects seen in simulations by Koda et al. We critically examine the prospects for extending peculiar velocity studies to larger scales with near-term future surveys.

  15. The Bright End of the UV Luminosity Function at z~8: New Constraints from CANDELS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Oesch, P A; Illingworth, G D; Gonzalez, V; Trenti, M; van Dokkum, P G; Franx, M; Labbe, I; Carollo, C M; Magee, D

    2012-01-01

    We present new z~8 galaxy candidates from a search over ~95 arcmin^2 of WFC3/IR data. These are used to determine the bright end of the UV luminosity function (LF) of star-forming galaxies at z~8. Our analysis is based on newly acquired WFC3/IR imaging data obtained as part of the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury program over the GOODS South field, which allows us to triple the search area for bright z~8 galaxies in the GOODS South. These new data are combined with existing deep optical ACS imaging to search for relatively bright (M_UV<-19.5 mag) z~8 galaxy candidates using the Lyman Break technique. To minimize contamination from lower redshift galaxies, we make full use of all optical data and impose strict non-detection criteria based on an optical chi^2_opt flux measurement. In the whole search area we identify 11 candidate z~8 galaxies, spanning a magnitude range H_160,AB =25.8-27.5 mag. The new data show that the UV LF is a factor ~2 lower at M_UV < -19.5 mag than previously determined. Combining this...

  16. HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY AFTERGLOWS FROM LOW-LUMINOSITY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) such as 980425, 031203 and 060218, with luminosities much lower than those of other classic bursts, lead to the definition of a new class of GRBs-LL-GRBs. The nature of the outflow responsible for them is not yet clear. Two scenarios have been suggested: one is the conventional relativistic outflow with initial Lorentz factor of order of ?0 ?> 10 and the other is a trans-relativistic outflow with ?0 ? 1-2. Here, we compare the high-energy gamma-ray afterglow emission from these two different models, taking into account both synchrotron self-inverse Compton (SSC) scattering and the external inverse Compton scattering due to photons from the cooling supernova or hypernova envelope (SNIC). We find that the conventional relativistic outflow model predicts a relatively high gamma-ray flux from SSC at early times (4 s for typical parameters) with a rapidly decaying light curve, while in the trans-relativistic outflow model, one would expect a much flatter light curve of high-energy gamma-ray emission at early times, which could be dominated by both the SSC emission and the SNIC emission, depending on the properties of the underlying supernova and the shock parameter ?e and ?B. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope should be able to distinguish between the two models in the future.

  17. BoRG: Luminosity Function and Spectroscopic Follow-Up of Galaxies at 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Trenti, M.; Bradley, L. D.; Kelly, B. C.; Treu, T.; Oesch, P.; BoRG Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We present the largest search to date for candidate 8 galaxies, based on the Brightest-of-Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey's 350 square arcminutes of pure parallel HST data. The search yields ~40 bright Y-band dropouts which we combine with the faint HUDF sample from Bouwens et al. (2011) to study the Luminosity function (LF) of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at 8. We infer the parameters of the LF by developing and applying a rigorous Bayesian formalism including a likelihood function based on the correct binomial distribution. This improves on the 'standard practice' in the high redshift LF literature, where data is binned, photometric errors are not accounted for, and likelihoods are assumed to follow a poisson distribution. Our inferred credible intervals on the LF parameters include previous best-fit estimates, but the inferred uncertainties on the normalization are significantly larger than those from approximate methods. We investigate the consequences the obtained steep faint-end slope and the revised uncertainties on the normalization of the LF have on the neutral fraction of hydrogen and limits on the escape fraction and clumpiness of the IGM at 8. We discuss this in the context of the results of our recent MOSFIRE follow-up spectroscopy of a subsample of the BoRG LBGs, which suggest that the Lyman alpha optical depth increases by at least a factor of three between 6 and 8 (Treu, Schmidt et al. 2013).

  18. A First Baseline for the Magnets in the High Luminosity LHC Insertion Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; Ambrosio, G; Arduini, G; Cerutti, F; De Maria, R; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Ferracin, P; Felice, H; Gupta, R; Kersevan, R; Mokhov, N; Nakamoto, T; Rakno, I; Rifflet, J M; Rossi, L; Sabbi, G L; Segreti, M; Toral, F; Xu, Q; Wanderer, P; van Weelderen, R; 10.1109/TASC.2013.2288603

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project aims at accumulating 3000 fb-1 in the years 2023-2035, i.e. ten times more w.r.t. the nominal LHC performance expected for 2010- 2021. One key element to reach this challenging performance is a new insertion region to reduce the beam size in the interaction point by approximately a factor two. This requires larger aperture magnets in the region spanning from the interaction point to the matching section quadrupoles. This aperture has been fixed to 150 mm for the inner triplet quadrupoles in 2012. In this paper we give a first baseline of the interaction region. We discuss the main motivations that lead us to choose the technology, the combination of fields/gradients and lengths, the apertures, the quantity of superconductor, and the operational margin. Key elements are also the constraints given by the energy deposition in terms of heat load and radiation damage; we present the main features related to shielding and heat removal.

  19. Short versus Long Gamma-Ray Bursts: spectra, energetics, and luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Celotti, A; Firmani, C

    2009-01-01

    We compare the spectral properties of 79 short and 79 long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by BATSE and selected with the same limiting peak flux. Short GRBs have a low-energy spectral component harder and a peak energy slightly higher than long GRBs, but no difference is found when comparing short GRB spectra with those of the first 1-2 sec emission of long GRBs. These results confirm earlier findings for brighter GRBs. The bolometric peak flux of short GRBs correlates with their peak energy in a similar way to long bursts. Short and long GRBs populate different regions of the bolometric fluence-peak energy plane, short bursts being less energetic by a factor similar to the ratio of their durations. If short and long GRBs had similar redshift distributions, they would have similar luminosities yet different energies, which correlate with the peak energy E_peak for the population of long GRBs. We also test whether short GRBs are consistent with the E_peak-E_iso and E_peak-L_iso correlations for the available...

  20. Bolometric luminosity black-hole growth time and slim accretion discs in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Netzer, Hagai

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the accretion rate, bolometric luminosity, black hole (BH) growth time and BH spin in a large AGN sample under the assumption that all such objects are powered via thin or slim accretion discs (ADs). We use direct estimates of the mass accretion rate, Mdot, to show that many currently used values of Lbol and Ledd are either under estimated or over estimated because they are based on bolometric correction factors that are adjusted to the properties of moderately accreting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and do not take into account the correct combination of BH mass, spin and accretion rate. The consistent application of AD physics to our sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) AGN leads to the following findings: 1. Even the most conservative assumption about the radiative efficiency of fast accreting BHs shows that many of these sources must contain slim ADs. We illustrate this by estimating the fraction of such objects at various redshifts. 2. Many previously estimated BH growth times are inco...

  1. Evolution and the period-luminosity relation for red supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyev, Yuri A

    2013-01-01

    Excitation of radial pulsations in red supergiants of Magellanic Clouds is investigated using the stellar evolution calculations and the self-consistent solution of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection. The stars with initial masses 6M_odot<=M_zams<=28 M_odot and the initial chemical composition X=0.7, 0.004<=Z<=0.008 are shown to be unstable against fundamental mode oscillations with periods from 17 to 1200 days as they become helium burning red supergiants. The period-luminosity relation slightly depends on the mass loss rate varying with a factor of three, whereas its dependence on the metal abundance is delta M_bol=0.89 delta log Z. In comparison with galactic red supergiants (Z=0.02) the low metal abundances in red supergiants of Magellanic Clouds are responsible for their higher effective temperatures and substantially narrower ranges of evolutionary stellar radius change during helium burning. Therefore on the period-mass diagram the red supergiants of Magellani...

  2. Characterization of new ATLAS pixel Front-End prototype for upgraded luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the year 2012, a first upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is scheduled which should enhance the luminosity by a factor 2-3. To cope with the increased hit rate, the Front-End of the ATLAS innermost pixel detector layer needs to be replaced. A new Front-End chip, called FE-I4, is presently under development in several laboratories around the world. FE-I4 is designed to cope with the higher hit rate and has an enhanced radiation tolerance. In the process of developing FE-I4, an intermediate test chip (FEI4-proto1) has been designed and produced in a 130 nm technology. Several independent blocks are implemented on this chip. The main block is an array of 61 by 14 pixel cells with associated configuration logic, bias circuits and DACs as needed for the new ATLAS pixel FE. To test this chip, a test setup consisting of two PCBs has been developed. The first PCB carries the FEI4-proto1 and routes the designated signals and supply voltages to the chip. The second PCB is a master FPGA board to control the FE, with a USB interface to connect to a PC and provide a user friendly interface. The hardware, software and firmware were developed in Bonn. Using this setup, the behavior and the characteristics of the new blocks were tested to feedback the designers of the FE-I4 and optimize the new chip

  3. Evolution of cluster X-ray luminosities and radii: Results from the 160 square degree rosat survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; McNamara, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    We searched for cluster X-ray luminosity and radius evolution using our sample of 203 galaxy clusters detected in the 160 deg(2) survey with the ROSAT PSPC (Vikhlinin et al.). With such a large area survey, it is possible, for the first time with ROSAT, to test the evolution of luminous clusters, L-X > 3 x 10(44) ergs s(-1) in the 0.5-2 keV band. We detect a factor of 3-4 deficit of such luminous clusters at z > 0.3 compared with the present. The evolution is much weaker or absent at modestly lower luminosities, (1-3) x 10(44) ergs s(-1). At still lower luminosities, we find no evolution from the analysis of the log N-log S relation. The results in the two upper L, bins are in agreement with the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey evolution result (Gioia et al.; Henry ct al.), which was obtained using a completely independent cluster sample. The low-L-X results are in agreement with other ROSAT surveys (e.g., Rosati et al.; Jones et al.). We also compare the distribution of core radii of nearby and distant (z > 0.4) luminous (with equivalent temperatures of 4-7 keV) clusters and detect no evolution. The ratio of average core radius for z similar to 0.5 and z <0.1 clusters is 0.9 +/- 0.1, and the core radius distributions are remarkably similar. A decrease of cluster sizes incompatible with our data is predicted by self-similar evolution models for a high-Omega universe.

  4. Characterizing Quasar Outflows III: SEDs, and Bolometric Luminosity Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Joseph; Robbins, J. M.; Ganguly, R.; Stark, M. A.; Christenson, D. H.; Derseweh, J. A.; Townsend, S. L.

    2012-05-01

    Galaxy evolution models have shown that quasars are a crucial ingredient in the evolution of massive galaxies. Outflows play a key role in the story of quasars and their host galaxies, by helping regulate the accretion process, the star-formation rate and mass of the host galaxy (i.e., feedback). The prescription for modeling outflows as a contributor to feedback requires knowledge of the outflow velocity, geometry, and column density. In particular, we need to understand how these depend on physical parameters and how much is determined stochastically (and with what distribution). For this purpose, we are examining a sample of 11000 z=1.7-2.0 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This redshift range permits the following from the SDSS spectra: (1) separation of objects that do and do not exhibit outflows; (2) classification/measurement of outflow properties (ionization, velocity, velocity width); and (3) measurements of UV emission line and continuum parameters. In this poster, we add photometry from both the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). 2MASS photometry covers the rest-frame optical regime of these qusars, while the WISE W1, W2, and W3 bands cover the rest-frame wavelength ranges 0.9-1.27 micron, 1.35-1.75 micron, and 2.52-5.51 micron, respectively. The preliminary release of WISE data cover 3800 of our quasars. In an accompnying poster, we have subjectively divided these quasars into four categories: broad absorption-line quasars (2700 objects), associated absorption-line quasars (1700 objects), reddened quasars (160 objects), and unabsorbed/unreddened quasars (6300 objects). Here, we present average SEDs for these subsamples, estimates of bolometric luminosity, and explore changes in SED based on both outflow properties and quasar physical properties. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. 09-ADP09-0016 issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  5. RE-ANALYSIS OF THE RADIO LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF GALACTIC H II REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have re-analyzed continuum and recombination lines radio data available in the literature in order to derive the luminosity function (LF) of Galactic H II regions. The study is performed by considering the first and fourth Galactic quadrants independently. We estimate the completeness level of the sample in the fourth quadrant at 5 Jy, and the one in the first quadrant at 2 Jy. We show that the two samples (fourth or first quadrant) include, as well as giant and supergiant H II regions, a significant number of subgiant sources. The LF is obtained, in each Galactic quadrant, with a generalized Schmidt's estimator using an effective volume derived from the observed spatial distribution of the considered H II regions. The re-analysis also takes advantage of recently published ancillary absorption data allowing to solve the distance ambiguity for several objects. A single power-law fit to the LFs retrieves a slope equal to -2.23 ± 0.07 (fourth quadrant) and to -1.85 ± 0.11 (first quadrant). We also find marginal evidence of a luminosity break at Lknee = 1023.45 erg s-1 Hz-1 for the LF in the fourth quadrant. We convert radio luminosities into equivalent H? and Lyman continuum luminosities to facilitate comparisons with extragalactic studies. We obtain an average total H II regions Lyman continuum luminosity of 0.89 ± 0.23 x 1053 s-1, corresponding to 30% of the total ionizing luminosity of the Galaxyotal ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy.

  6. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9) luminosity function assuming that (i) our spectroscopic subset is an unbiased sparse sample, and (ii) there are no galaxies that would not be represented in our spectroscopic sample at any redshift. We argue that we can be confident of both assumptions. We find that the luminosity function is well described by the local 100-mum luminosity function of Rowan-Robinson, Helou & Walker. Assuming this local normalization, we derive luminosity evolution of (1 +z)(2.45 + .0.85) (95 per cent confidence). We argue that star formation dominates the bolometric luminosities of these galaxies, and we derive comoving star formation rates in broad agreement with the Flores et al. and Rowan-Robinson et al. mid-infrared-based estimates.

  7. Is the dependence of spectral index on luminosity real in optically selected AGN samples?

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Sumin; Hopkins, Philip F; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11589.x

    2008-01-01

    We critically examine the dependence of spectral index on luminosity in optically selected AGN samples. An analysis of optically selected high-redshift quasars showed an anti-correlation of $\\alpha_{OX}$, the spectral index between the rest-frame 2500 A and 2 keV, with optical luminosity (Miyaji et al. 2006). We examine this relationship by means of Monte Carlo simulations and conclude that a constant spectral index independent of optical luminosity is still consistent with this high-z sample. We further find that that contributions of large dispersions and narrow range of optical luminosity are most important for the apparent, yet artificial, $\\alpha_{OX} - l_o$ correlation reported. We also examine another, but more complete low-z optical selected AGN sub-sample from Steffen et al. (2006), and our analysis shows that a constant spectral index independent of optical luminosity is also consistent with the data. By comparing X-ray and optical luminosity functions, we find that a luminosity independent spectral...

  8. A Proposed Fast Luminosity Feedback for the Super-B Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a possible design for a fast luminosity feedback for the SuperB Interaction Point (IP). The design is an extension of the fast luminosity feedback installed on the PEP-II accelerator. During the last two runs of PEP-II and BaBar (2007-2008), we had an improved luminosity feedback system that was able to maintain peak luminosity with faster correction speed than the previous system. The new system utilized fast dither coils on the High-Energy Beam (HEB) to independently dither the x position, the y position and the y angle at the IP, at roughly 100 Hz. The luminosity signal was then read out with three independent lock-in amplifiers. An overall correction was computed based on the lock-in signal strengths and beam corrections for position in x and y and in the y angle at the IP were simultaneously applied to the HEB. With the 100 times increase in luminosity for the SuperB design, we propose using a similar fast luminosity feedback that can operate at frequencies between DC and 1 kHz, high enough to follow any beam motion from the final focusing magnets

  9. Variations of cyclotron line energy with luminosity in accreting X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I develop a new model for changes of cyclotron line energy with luminosity based on changes in polar cap dimensions and the direction of photon propagation as well as a shock height. In X0115+63 and V0332+53, the fundamental cyclotron line energy has been observed to decrease with increasing luminosity. This phenomenon has been interpreted as a change of a shock height with luminosity. However, the rates of the observed changes are quite different, in which the line energy in V0332+53 varies slowly with luminosity compared with that in X0115+63. I demonstrate that a new model successfully reproduces the changes of the fundamental cyclotron line energies with luminosity in both X0115+63 and V0332+53. On the other hand, the cyclotron line energies in Her X–1, GX301–2, and GX304–1 were reported to increase with increasing luminosity. I discuss the positive correlation between the cyclotron line energy and luminosity based on changes in a beam pattern for Her X–1, GX301–2, and GX304–1. In addition, I discuss how a switch of the predominant, observed emission region from pole1 to pole2 influences cyclotron line energy for GX304–1 and A0535+26.

  10. Gamma-ray luminosity function of gamma-ray bright AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of ?-ray emissions from a class of active galactic nuclei (viz blazars), has been one of the important findings from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). However, their ?-ray luminosity function has not been well determined. Few attempts have been made in earlier works, where BL Lacs and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) have been considered as a single source class. In this paper, we investigated the evolution and ?-ray luminosity function of FSRQs and BL Lacs separately. Our investigation indicates no evolution for BL Lacs, however FSRQs show significant evolution. Pure luminosity evolution is assumed for FSRQs and exponential and power law evolution models are examined. Due to the small number of sources, the low luminosity end index of the luminosity function for FSRQs is constrained with an upper limit. BL Lac luminosity function shows no signature of break. As a consistency check, the model source distributions derived from these luminosity functions show no significant departure from the observed source distributions. (research papers)

  11. THE WYOMING SURVEY FOR H?. II. H? LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z? 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, AND 0.40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wyoming Survey for H?, or WySH, is a large-area, ground-based imaging survey for H?-emitting galaxies at redshifts of z ? 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40. The survey spans up to 4 deg2 in a set of fields of low Galactic cirrus emission, using twin narrowband filters at each epoch for improved stellar continuum subtraction. H? luminosity functions are presented for each ?z ? 0.02 epoch based on a total of nearly 1200 galaxies. These data clearly show an evolution with look-back time in the volume-averaged cosmic star formation rate. Integrals of Schechter fits to the incompleteness- and extinction-corrected H? luminosity functions indicate star formation rates per comoving volume of 0.010, 0.013, 0.020, 0.022 h 70 M sun yr-1 Mpc-3 at z ? 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40, respectively. Combined statistical and systematic measurement uncertainties are on the order of 25%, while the effects of cosmic variance are at the 20% level. The bulk of this evolution is driven by changes in the characteristic luminosity L * of the H? luminosity functions, with L * for the earlier two epochs being a factor of 2 larger than L * at the latter two epochs; it is more difficult with this data set to decipher systematic evolutionary differences in the luminosity function amplitude and faint-end slope. Coupling these results with a comprehensive compilation of results from the literature on emissiofrom the literature on emission line surveys, the evolution in the cosmic star formation rate density over 0 ?< z ?< 1.5 is measured.

  12. Variability Selected Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Young, M; Xue, Y Q; Paolillo, M; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Lehmer, B D; Luo, B; Shemmer, O; Schneider, D P; Vignali, C

    2012-01-01

    The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X-ray variability (~month-years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts z~0.08-1.02 that do not meet other AGN selection criteria. We show that the observed variability cannot be explained by X-ray binary populations or ultraluminous X-ray sources, so the variability is most likely caused by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The variable galaxies are not heavily obscured in general, with a stacked effective power-law photon index of Gamma_stack~1.93+/-0.13, and are therefore likely LLAGN. The LLAGN tend to lie a factor of ~6-80 below the extrapolated linear variability-luminosity relation measured for luminous AGN. This may be explained by their lower accretion rates. Va...

  13. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall scaling factor that brings the AGN M BH-ssstarf relationship into agreement with that of quiescent galaxies. We discuss biases that may be inherent to the AGN and quiescent galaxy samples and could cause the apparent inconsistency in the forms of their M BH-L bulge relationships. Recent work by Graham, however, presents a similar slope of ~0.8 for the quiescent galaxies and may bring the relationship for AGNs and quiescent galaxies into agreement.

  14. Galaxy Pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I: Star Formation, AGN Fraction, and the Luminosity/Mass-Metallicity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Simard, Luc; McConnachie, Alan W

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged). We present a sample of 1716 galaxies with companions within Delta v < 500 km/s, r_p < 80 kpc and stellar mass ratio 0.1 < M_1/M_2 < 10 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4 (DR4). In agreement with previous studies, we find an enhancement in the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxy pairs at projected separations < 30--40 kpc. In addition, we find that this enhancement is highest (and extends to the greatest separations) for galaxies of approximately equal mass, the so-called `major' pairs. However, SFR enhancement can still be detected for a sample of galaxy pairs whose masses are within a factor of 10 of each other. In agreement with the one previous study of the luminosity-metallicity (LZ) relation in paired galaxies, we find an offset to lower metallicities (by ~ 0.1 dex) for a given luminosity for galaxies in pairs compared to the control sample. We also present the first mass-metallicity (MZ) relation comparison between paired galaxies and the field, and again ...

  15. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-BULGE LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ?0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH ? L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall scaling factor that brings the AGN M BH-?* relationship into agreement with that of quiescent galaxies. We discuss biases that may be inherent to the AGN and quiescent galaxy samples and could cause the apparent inconsistency in the forms of their M BH-L bulge relationships. Recent work by Graham, however, presents a similar slope of ?0.8 for the quiescent galaxies and may bring the relationship for AGNs and quiescent galaxies into agreement.

  16. Star Formation Rates for Starburst Galaxies from Ultraviolet, Infrared, and Radio Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, Lusine A

    2009-01-01

    Star formation rates (SFR) are compared as determined from mid-infrared 7.7 um PAH luminosity [SFR(PAH)], from 1.4 GHz radio luminosity [SFR(radio)], and from far ultraviolet luminosity [SFR(UV)] for a sample of 287 starburst galaxies with z 700 for the most luminous starbursts at z ~ 2.5. With this amount of extinction, the optical magnitude of a starburst having fv(7.7 um) of 1 mJy should be V ~ 25.6.

  17. Estimating the kinetic luminosity function of jets from Galactic X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, S.; Grimm, H. -J.

    2005-01-01

    By combining the recently derived X-ray luminosity function for Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) by Grimm et al. (2002) and the radio-X-ray-mass relation of accreting black holes found by Merloni et al. (2003), we derive predictions for the radio luminosity function and radio flux distribution (logN/logS) for XRBs. Based on the interpretation that the radio-X-ray-mass relation is an expression of an underlying relation between jet power and nuclear radio luminosity, we derive ...

  18. Limits on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel Miller

    2014-01-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs, where neutrino processes are dominant. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the value of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment ($\\mu_\

  19. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ?banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  20. A TENTATIVE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATION FOR THE IRON EMISSION-LINE REGION IN QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New reverberation mapping measurements of the size of the optical iron emission-line region in quasars are provided, and a tentative size-luminosity relation for this component is reported. Combined with lag measurements in low-luminosity sources, the results imply an emission-region size that is comparable to and at most twice that of the H? line, and is characterized by a similar luminosity dependence. This suggests that the physics underlying the formation of the optical iron blends in quasars may be similar to that of other broad emission lines

  1. Galaxies at z~6: The UV Luminosity Function and Luminosity Density from 506 UDF, UDF-Ps, and GOODS i-dropouts

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G.D.; Blakeslee, J. P; Franx, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have detected 506 i-dropouts (z~6 galaxies) in deep, wide-area HST ACS fields: HUDF, enhanced GOODS, and HUDF-Parallel ACS fields (HUDF-Ps). The contamination levels are =92% are at z~6). With these samples, we present the most comprehensive, quantitative analyses of z~6 galaxies yet and provide optimal measures of the UV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity density at z~6, and their evolution to z~3. We redetermine the size and color evolution from z~6 to z~3. Field-t...

  2. Mass loss of massive stars near the Eddington luminosity by core neutrino emission shortly before their explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel mechanism to enhance the mass-loss rates of massive stars shortly before their explosion. The neutrino luminosities of the stellar core of massive stars become larger as they get closer to the time of the core collapse. As emitted neutrinos escape freely from the core, the core mass is significantly reduced when the neutrino luminosity is large. If a star is near the Eddington luminosity when the neutrino luminosity is large, the star can exceed the Edding...

  3. Evidence for a fast evolution of the UV luminosity function beyond redshift 6 from a deep HAWK-I survey of the GOODS-S field

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, M; Boutsia, K; Grazian, A; Pentericci, L; Bouwens, R; Dickinson, M; Giavalisco, M; Santini, P; Cristiani, S; Fiore, F; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Maiolino, R; Mannucci, F; Menci, N; Moorwood, A; Nonino, M; Paris, D; Renzini, A; Rosati, P; Salimbeni, S; Vanzella, E

    2009-01-01

    We perform a deep search for galaxies in the redshift range 6.51, Y-J6 (M_1500 ~- 19.5 to -21.5). After accounting for the expected incompleteness, we rule out at a 99% confidence level a Luminosity Function constant from z=6 to z=7, even including the effects of cosmic variance. For galaxies brighter than M_1500=-19.0 we derive a luminosity density rho_UV=1.5^{+2.0}_{-0.9} 10^25 erg/s/Hz/Mpc3, implying a decrease by a factor 3.5 from z=6 to z~6.8. On the basis of our findings, we make predictions for the surface densities expected in future surveys, either based on ULTRA-VISTA or on HST-WFC3, evaluating the best observational strategy to maximise their impact.

  4. RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS: IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN LUMINOSITY AND CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the first results from the Chandra ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN) Large Project, characterizing the cluster environments of a sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ? 0.5 that covers three decades of radio luminosity. This is the first systematic X-ray environmental study at a single epoch, and has allowed us to examine the relationship between radio luminosity and cluster environment without the problems of Malmquist bias. We have found a weak correlation between radio luminosity and host cluster X-ray luminosity, as well as tentative evidence that this correlation is driven by the subpopulation of low-excitation radio galaxies, with high-excitation radio galaxies showing no significant correlation. The considerable scatter in the environments may be indicative of complex relationships not currently included in feedback models.

  5. Semi-empirical model for optimising future heavy-ion luminosity of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, M

    2014-01-01

    The wide spectrum of intensities and emittances imprinted on the LHC Pb bunches during the accumulation of bunch trains in the injector chain result in a significant spread in the single bunch luminosities and lifetimes in collision. Based on the data collected in the 2011 Pb-Pb run, an empirical model is derived to predict the single-bunch peak luminosity depending on the bunch’s position within the beam. In combination with this model, simulations of representative bunches are used to estimate the luminosity evolution for the complete ensemble of bunches. Several options are being considered to improve the injector performance and to increase the number of bunches in the LHC, leading to several potential injection scenarios, resulting in different peak and integrated luminosities. The most important options for after the long shutdown (LS) 1 and 2 are evaluated and compared.

  6. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, S

    2015-01-01

    Three methods for handling beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC are tested and evaluated in this work. The first method represents an optimization of the LEPtype asymmetric selection cuts that reduce the counting biases. The second method uses the experimentally reconstructed shape of the ? s ? spectrum to determine the Beamstrahlung component of the bias. The last, recently proposed, collision-frame method relies on the reconstruction of the collision-frame velocity to define the selection function in the collision frame both in experiment and in theory. Thus the luminosity expression is insensitive to the difference between the CM frame of the collision and the lab frame. The collision-frame method is independent of the knowledge of the beam parameters, and it allows an accurate reconstruction of the luminosity spectrum above 80% of the nominal CM energy. However, it gives no precise infromation about luminosity below 80% of the nominal CM energy. The compatibility of diverse selection cut...

  7. Testing Fundamental Particle Physics with the Galactic White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Melendez, B. E.; Althaus, L. G.; Isern, J.

    2015-06-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to test the possible properties and existence of fundamental weakly interacting subelectronvolt particles. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the values of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (??) and the axion-electron coupling constant (gae) of DFSZ-axions.

  8. The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A; Sbarrato, T

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models for the production of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei predict that jet power arises from the spin and mass of the central black hole, as well as the magnetic field near the event horizon. The physical mechanism mechanism underlying the contribution from the magnetic field is the torque exerted on the rotating black hole by the field amplified by the accreting material. If the squared magnetic field is proportional to the accretion rate, then there will be a correlation between jet power and accretion luminosity. There is evidence for such a correlation, but inadequate knowledge of the accretion luminosity of the limited and inhomogeneous used samples prevented a firm conclusion. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars (quasars whose jets point towards Earth) that overcomes previous limitations. We find a clear correlation between jet power as measured through the gamma-ray luminosity, and accretion luminosity as measured by the broad emission...

  9. Luminosity measurement at LEP using the very small angle tagger of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the analysis of the luminosity measurement from Bhabha scattering within the polar angular region (5 to 7 mrad) covered by the Very Small Angle Tagger (VSAT) in the DELPHI experiment at LEP, is presented. Both by analytical integration and using Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that the acceptance corrections to the detector can be reliably calculated, obtaining a relative luminosity measurement at the precision level of 0.1%. The absolute experimental error on the luminosity measurement is estimated to be 0.8%. Furthermore, measurement of the beam spot using the VSAT detector are described. The application of the relative luminosity measurement in the extraction of the hadronic lineshape parameters of the Z-particle is also presented

  10. Testing Fundamental Particle Physics with the Galactic White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Recent determinations of the white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) from very large surveys have extended our knowledge of the WDLF to very high luminosities. It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to test the possible properties and existence of fundamental weakly interacting subelectronvolt particles. This, together with the availability of new full evolutionary white dwarf models that are reliable at high luminosities, have opened the possibility of testing particle emission in the core of very hot white dwarfs. We use the available WDLFs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey to constrain the values of the neutrino magnetic dipole moment ($\\mu_\

  11. High luminosity interaction region design for collisions inside high field detector solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, Catia; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Sgamma, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    An innovatory interaction region has been recently conceived and realized on the Frascati DA{\\Phi}NE lepton collider. The concept of tight focusing and small crossing angle adopted to achieve high luminosity in multibunch collisions has evolved towards enhanced beam focusing at the interaction point with large horizontal crossing angle, thanks to a new compensation mechanism for the beam-beam resonances. The novel configuration has been tested with a small detector without solenoidal field yielding a remarkable improvement in terms of peak as well as integrated luminosity. The high luminosity interaction region has now been modified to host a large detector with a strong solenoidal field which significantly perturbs the beam optics introducing new design challenges in terms of interaction region optics design, beam transverse coupling control and beam stay clear requirements. Interaction region design criteria as well as the luminosity results relevant to the structure test are presented and discussed.

  12. Evidence of different star formation histories for high- and low-luminosity radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Herbert, Peter D; Willott, Chris J; McLure, Ross J; Mitchell, Ewan; Rawlings, Steve; Hill, Gary J; Dunlop, James S

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of our investigation into the stellar populations of 24 radio galaxies at z~0.5 drawn from four complete, low-frequency selected radio surveys. We use the strength of the 4000A break as an indicator of recent star formation, and compare this with radio luminosity, optical spectral classification and morphological classification. We find evidence of different star formation histories for high- and low-luminosity radio sources; our group of low radio luminosity sources (typically FRI-type sources) has systematically older stellar populations than the higher radio luminosity group. Our sample is also fairly well divided by optical spectral classification. We find that galaxies classified as having low excitation spectra (LEGs) possess older stellar populations than high excitation line objects (HEGs), with the HEGs showing evidence for recent star formation. We also investigate the link between radio morphology, as used by Owen & Laing (1989), and the stellar populations. We find that ...

  13. The UV Galaxy Luminosity Function in the Local Universe from GALEX Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wyder, T K; Milliard, B; Schiminovich, D; Arnouts, S; Budavari, T; Barlow, T A; Bianchi, L; Byun, Y I; Donas, J; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Heckman, T M; Jelinsky, P N; Lee, Y W; Madore, B F; Malina, R F; Martin, D C; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S G; Rich, R M; Siegmund, O H W; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B Y; Wyder, Ted K.; Treyer, Marie A.; Milliard, Bruno; Schiminovich, David; Arnouts, St\\'ephane; Budav\\'ari, Tam\\'as; Barlow, Tom A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Byun, Yong-Ik; Donas, Jos\\'e; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Malina, Roger F.; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Small, Todd; Szalay, Alex S.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a determination of the galaxy luminosity function at ultraviolet wavelengths at redshifts of $z=0.0-0.1$ from GALEX data. We determined the luminosity function in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands from a sample of galaxies with UV magnitudes between 17 and 20 that are drawn from a total of 56.73 deg^2 of GALEX fields overlapping the b_j-selected 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. The resulting luminosity functions are fainter than previous UV estimates and result in total UV luminosity densities of 10^(25.55+/-0.12) ergs s^-1 Hz^-1 Mpc^-3 and 10^(25.72+/-0.12) ergs s^-1 Hz^-1 Mpc^-3 at 1530 Ang. and 2310 Ang., respectively. This corresponds to a local star formation rate density in agreement with previous estimates made with H-alpha-selected data for reasonable assumptions about the UV extinction.

  14. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation and LHC relative luminosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In order to do so, it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity determination. (author)

  15. High luminosity interaction region design for collisions inside high field detector solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milardi, C.; Preger, M. A.; Raimondi, P.; Sgamma, F.

    2012-03-01

    An innovative interaction region has been recently conceived and realized on the Frascati DA?NE lepton collider. The concept of tight focusing and small crossing angle adopted to achieve high luminosity in multibunch collisions has evolved towards enhanced beam focusing at the interaction point with large horizontal crossing angle, thanks to a new compensation mechanism for the beam-beam resonances. The novel configuration has been tested with a small detector without solenoidal field yielding a remarkable improvement in terms of peak as well as integrated luminosity. The high luminosity interaction region has now been modified to host a large detector with a strong solenoidal field which significantly perturbs the beam optics introducing new design challenges in terms of interaction region optics design, beam transverse coupling control and beam stay clear requirements. Interaction region design criteria as well as the first luminosity results obtained with the beams in collision are presented and discussed.

  16. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy {radical}(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L{sub Peak}=2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d{radical}(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c{sup 2} to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of {sigma}{sub E}=0.0014 for electrons and {sigma}{sub E}= 0.0010 for positrons with a precision of a few percent. The total error from the measured differential luminosity and beam energy spreads on the mass of a toy particle measured in a production threshold scan is found to be 7 MeV/c{sup 2} for a 250 GeV/c{sup 2} particle, with an integrated luminosity of 5fb{sup -1} per scanning point. (orig.)

  17. Modelling the number counts of early-type galaxies by pure luminosity evolution

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ping; Zhang, Yuan-zhong

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the plausible luminosity evolution of early-type galaxies in different cosmological models by constructing a set of pure luminosity evolution (PLE) models via the choices of the star formation rate (SFR) parameters and formation redshift $z_f$ of galaxies, with the observational constraints derived from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) morphological number counts for elliptical and S0 galaxies of the Medium Deep Survey (MDS) and the Hubble Deep Fiel...

  18. The Environments of Low and High Luminosity Radio Galaxies at Moderate Redshifts

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, M W; Becker, R.H.; Fassnacht, C D

    2008-01-01

    In the local Universe, high-power radio galaxies live in lower density environments than low-luminosity radio galaxies. If this trend continues to higher redshifts, powerful radio galaxies would serve as efficient probes of moderate redshift groups and poor clusters. Photometric studies of radio galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.5 suggest that the radio luminosity-environment correlation disappears at moderate redshifts, though this could be the result of foreground/background contami...

  19. Abort Gap Cleaning tests performed on 13 October 2011 during luminosity operation

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, A; Jeff, A; Roncarolo, F; Höfle, W; Valuch, D; Kain, V; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Uythoven, J; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Following the abort gap cleaning tests performed on 7 October 2011 [1] additional tests were carried out on 13 October 2011 to further investigate the effects of the cleaning on the luminosity production. The abort gap cleaning parameters (strength and duration of the beam excitation kick) were varied and the cleaning effectiveness measured together with the change in luminosity. The outcome is summarised in this note.

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy luminosity function within the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, E.; Peacock, J. A.; McNaught-Roberts, T.; Heymans, C.; Norberg, P.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M. E.; Driver, S. P.; Farrow, D. J.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Robotham, A. S. G.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dependence of the galaxy luminosity function on geometric environment within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The tidal tensor prescription, based on the Hessian of the pseudo-gravitational potential, is used to classify the cosmic web and define the geometric environments: for a given smoothing scale, we classify every position of the surveyed region, 0.04 web on the galaxy luminosity function.

  1. Virtual Corrections to Bremsstrahlung with Applications to Luminosity Processes and Radiative Return

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Yost; Majhi, S; Ward, B. F. L

    2005-01-01

    We will describe radiative corrections to bremsstrahlung, focusing on applications to luminosity, fermion pair production, and radiative return at high-energy e+ e- colliders. A precise calculation of the Bhabha luminosity process was essential at SLC and LEP, and will be equally important in ILC physics. We will review the exact results for two-photon radiative corrections to Bhabha scattering which led to the precision estimates for the BHLUMI MC. We will also compare the ...

  2. The Mid-IR luminosity function of galaxies in the ELAIS Southern fields

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzi, F.; Gruppioni, C.; Oliver, S.; Matute, I.; La Franca, F.; Lari, C.; Zamorani, G.; Franceschini, A.; Rowan-robinson, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first determination of the 15micron luminosity functio galaxies from the European Large Area ISO survey (ELAIS) southern fields. We have adopted a new criterion to separate the quiescent, non-evolving and the starburst, evolving populations based on the ratio of mid-infrared to optical luminosities. Strong evolution is suggested by our data for the starburst galaxy population, while normal spiral galaxies are consistent with no evolution. The starburst populat...

  3. The European Large Area ISO Survey IV: the preliminary 90 micron luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Surace, C.; Heraudeau, P.; Linden-vornle, M.; Gruppioni, C.; La Franca, F.; Rigopoulou, D.; Morel, T.; Crockett, H.; Sumner, T.; Rowan-robinson, M.; Graham, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90um selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z=0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10^9 = 100mJy database, we found optical, 15um or 1.4GHz identifications for 24 (65%). We have obtained 2dF and UK Schmidt FLAIR spectroscopy of 89% of...

  4. Luminosity And Abundance Correlations In A Carefully-studied Sample Of PNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Bruce; McKeever, J.; Lutz, J.; Braxton, K.; Gomez, T.

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for correlated trends in He/H, N/H, O/H, Ne/H, Ar/H, Cl/H, and S/H abundances with their luminosities, Peimbert types, galactocentric radius, emission-line luminosities, diameters, morphologies, surface brightnesses among Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) using a database of 119 PNe with well measured properties. The various major new results are presented.

  5. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-04-15

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep{yields}e{gamma}p. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  6. The Cause of the Increased Luminosity Distances of Supernovae Recorded in the Cosmological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousos E.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The law of selfvariations quantitatively determines a slight increase of the masses and charges as the common cause of quantum and cosmological phenomena. It predicts and explains the totality of the cosmological data. In this article we present the prediction of the law concerning the increased luminosity distances of distant astronomical objects. The prediction we make is in agreement with the cosmological data for the luminosity distances of type Ia supernovae.

  7. Determination of the integrated luminosity at HERA using elastic QED Compton events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the integrated luminosity at the ep collider HERA is presented, exploiting the elastic QED Compton process ep?e?p. The electron and the photon are detected in the backward calorimeter of the H1 experiment. The integrated luminosity of the data recorded in 2003 to 2007 is determined with a precision of 2.3%. The measurement is found to be compatible with the corresponding result obtained using the Bethe-Heitler process.

  8. Energy deposition studies for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider inner triplet magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhov, N. V.; Rakhno, I. L.; Tropin, I. S.; Cerutti, F.; Esposito, L. S.; Lechner, A.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed model of the High Luminosity LHC inner triplet region with new large-aperture Nb3Sn magnets, field maps, corrector packages, and segmented tungsten inner absorbers was built and implemented into the FLUKA and MARS15 codes. In the optimized configuration, the peak power density averaged over the magnet inner cable width is safely below the quench limit. For the integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, the peak dose in the innermost magnet insulator ranges from 20 to 35 ...

  9. Measuring the Beam Polarizations and the Luminosity at Photon-Photon Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Y.; Watanabe, I.; Kodaira, J.; Endo, I

    1992-01-01

    We present methods to measure the beam polarizations and the luminosity of $\\gamma \\gamma$ colliders at TeV energy scale. The beam polarizations of a $\\gamma \\gamma$ collider can easily be monitored by comparing the numbers of events of the processes $\\gamma \\gamma$ $\\rightarrow$ $\\ell^+ \\ell^-$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ $\\rightarrow$ $W^+ W^-$, where $\\ell$ means $e$ or $\\mu$. The luminosity of a $\\gamma \\gamma$ collider is also measurable by the event rate of $W$ boson pa...

  10. M Dwarfs from Hubble Space Telescope Star Counts. V. The I-band Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zheng; Flynn, Chris; Gould, Andrew; Bahcall, John N.; Salim, Samir

    2003-01-01

    We derive the disk I-band luminosity function from the Zheng et al. sample of \\~1400 disk M dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. We adopt a Galactic-height-dependent color-magnitude relation to account for the metallicity gradient above the Galactic plane. The resultant I-band luminosity function peaks at M_I~9.5 and drops sharply toward M_I~10.5.

  11. Spatial and temporal properties of luminosity horizontal cells in the turtle retina

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Luminosity horizontal cells in the turtle retina respond approximately linearly to visual stimuli with contrast levels spanning a large part of the physiological range. We characterized the response properties of these cells under conditions of low photopic background illumination by measuring their spatial and temporal frequency transfer functions. Our experimental results indicate in two ways that, under these conditions, feedback from luminosity horizontal cells to cones does not play a ma...

  12. The Star Formation History of the Solar Neighbourhood from the White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rowell, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The termination in the white dwarf luminosity function is a standard diagnostic tool for measuring the total age of nearby stellar populations. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for inverting the full white dwarf luminosity function to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the time varying star formation rate of the host stellar population. Tests with synthetic data demonstrate that the algorithm converges over a wide class of underlying star formation rate forms. T...

  13. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures.We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of $\\rm{LogL_{BLR}\\sim(0.81\\pm0.06)LogL_{R}^{C}}$ which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of $\\rm{{Log}\\frac{L_{in}}{L_{\\odot}}=(0.95\\pm0.26){Log}\\frac{M}{M_{\\odot}}+(3.53\\pm2.24)}$ which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Fina...

  14. Fast polycrystalline CdTe detectors for bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitoring in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, A; Jolliot, M; Bravin, E

    2008-01-01

    The luminosity at the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be continuously monitored in order to provide an adequate tool for the control and optimisation of beam parameters. Polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors have previously been tested, showing their high potential to fulfil the requirements of luminosity measurement in the severe environment of the LHC interaction regions. Further, the large signal yield and the fast response time should allow bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity at 40 MHz with high accuracy. Four luminosity monitors with two rows of five polycrystalline CdTe detectors each have been fabricated and will be installed at both sides of the low-luminosity interaction points ALICE and LHC-b. A detector housing was specially designed to meet the mechanical constraints in the LHC. A series of elementary CdTe detectors were fabricated and tested, of which 40 were selected for the luminosity monitors. A sensitivity of 104 electrons per minimum ioni...

  15. Luminosity functions of LMXBs in Centaurus A: globular clusters versus the field

    CERN Document Server

    Voss, R; Sivakoff, G R; Kraft, R P; Jordan, A; Raychaudhuri, S; Birkinshaw, M; Brassington, N J; Croston, J H; Evans, D A; Forman, W R; Hardcastle, M J; Harris, W E; Jones, C; Juett, A M; Murray, S S; Sarazin, C L; Woodley, K A; Worrall, D M

    2009-01-01

    We study the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) in the nearby early-type galaxy Centaurus A, concentrating primarily on two aspects of binary populations: the XLF behavior at the low luminosity limit and comparison between globular cluster and field sources. The 800 ksec exposure of the deep Chandra VLP program allows us to reach a limiting luminosity of 8e35 erg/s, about 2-3 times deeper than previous investigations. We confirm the presence of the low luminosity break in the overall LMXB XLF at log(L_X)=37.2-37.6 below which the luminosity distribution follows a constant dN/d(ln L). Separating globular cluster and field sources, we find a statistically significant difference between the two luminosity distributions with a relative underabundance of faint sources in the globular cluster population. This demonstrates that the samples are drawn from distinct parent populations and may disprove the hypothesis that the entire LMXB population in early type galaxies is created dynamic...

  16. Fossil group origins V. The dependence of the luminosity function on the magnitude gap

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Barrena, R; Boschin, W; del Burgo, C; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Corsini, E M; D'Onghia, E; Girardi, M; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Kundert, A; Mendez-Abreu, J; Vilchez, J M

    2015-01-01

    In nature we observe galaxy aggregations that span a wide range of magnitude gaps between the two first-ranked galaxies of a system ($\\Delta m_{12}$). There are systems with gaps close to zero (e.g., the Coma cluster), and at the other extreme of the distribution, the largest gaps are found among the so-called fossil systems. Fossil and non-fossil systems could have different galaxy populations that should be reflected in their luminosity functions. In this work we study, for the first time, the dependence of the luminosity function parameters on $\\Delta m_{12}$ using data obtained by the fossil group origins (FOGO) project. We constructed a hybrid luminosity function for 102 groups and clusters at $z \\le 0.25$. We stacked all the individual luminosity functions, dividing them into bins of $\\Delta m_{12}$, and studied their best-fit Schechter parameters. We additionally computed a relative luminosity function, expressed as a function of the central galaxy luminosity, which boosts our capacity to detect differ...

  17. Measuring the Fraction of Obscured Quasars by the Infrared Luminosity of Unobscured Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Treister, Ezequiel; Dullemond, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that the fraction of obscured AGN declines with increasing luminosity, but it has been difficult to quantify this trend. Here, we attempt to measure this fraction as a function of luminosity by studying the ratio of mid-infrared to intrinsic nuclear bolometric luminosity in unobscured AGN. Because the mid-infrared is created by dust reprocessing of shorter wavelength nuclear light, this ratio is a diagnostic of f_obsc, the fraction of solid angle around the nucleus covered by obscuring matter. In order to eliminate possible redshift-dependences while also achieving a large dynamic range in luminosity, we have collected archival 24 micron MIPS photometry from objects with z~1 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) and the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). To measure the bolometric luminosity for each object, we used archival optical data supplemented by GALEX data. We find that the mean ratio of 24 microns to bolometric luminosity d...

  18. The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey; 1, The Optical QSO Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, B J; Croom, S M; Smith, R J; Miller, L; Loaring, N S; Heymans, C

    2000-01-01

    We present a determination of the optical QSO luminosity function and its cosmological evolution with redshift for a sample of over 6000 QSOs identified primarily from the first observations of the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ). For QSOs with -26 < M_B < -23 and 0.35 < z < 2.3, we find that pure luminosity evolution (PLE) models provide an acceptable fit to the observed redshift dependence of the luminosity function. The luminosity function is best fit by a two-power-law function of the form. Exponential luminosity evolution models, both as a function of look-back time, and as a general second-order polynomial with redshift, were found to provide acceptable fits to the dataset comprising the 2QZ and the Large Bright Quasar Survey. Exponential evolution with look-back time is prefered for q_0=0.05, while the polynomial evolution model is prefered for q_0=0.5. The shape and evolution of the LF at low redshifts (z<0.5) and/or high luminosities, not currently well sampled by the 2dF QSO survey, may...

  19. Deep CCD survey - galaxy luminosity and color evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging and photometric observations of a statistically complete sample of galaxies in 12 high-latitude fields, obtained in the BJ (360-520 nm), R (580-720 nm) and I (780-1100 nm) bands using CCD detectors on the 4-m telescopes at CTIO and KPNO, are reported. The data are presented in extensive graphs and sample images and analyzed in detail with reference to theoretical models of galactic origin and evolution. The galaxy number-count slopes, d(log N)/dm, are found to be sub-Euclidean, varying from 0.34 in the I band to 0.45 in the BJ band, where the corrected counts appear to saturate at about 27 mag. The predictions of no-evolution models are shown to underpredict the counts at 25 mag (BJ) by a factor of 5-15 and the extragalactic background light from all galaxies (6.8 x 10 to the -6th erg/sq cm sec sr micron at 450 nm) by a factor greater than 2. 114 references

  20. THE MID-INFRARED LUMINOSITIES OF NORMAL GALAXIES OVER COSMIC TIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern population synthesis models estimate that 50% of the rest-frame K-band light is produced by thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars during the first Gyr of a stellar population, with a substantial fraction continuing to be produced by the TP-AGB over a Hubble time. Between 0.2 and 1.5 Gyr, intermediate-mass stars evolve into TP-AGB C stars which, due to significant amounts of circumstellar dust, emit half their energy in the mid-IR. We combine these results using published mid-IR colors of Galactic TP-AGB M and C stars to construct simple models for exploring the contribution of the TP-AGB to 24 ?m data as a function of stellar population age. We compare these empirical models with an ensemble of galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South from z = 0 to z = 2, and with high-quality imaging in M81. Within the uncertainties, the TP-AGB appears responsible for a substantial fraction of the mid-IR luminosities of galaxies from z = 0 to z = 2, the maximum redshift to which we can test our hypothesis, while, at the same time, our models reproduce much of the detailed structure observed in mid-IR imaging of M81. The mid-IR is a good diagnostic of star formation over timescales of ?1.5 Gyr, but this implies that ongoing star formation rates at z = 1 may be overestimated by factors of ?1.5-6, depending on the nature of star formation events. Our results, if confirmed through subsequent work, have strong implications for the star formation rate densitys for the star formation rate density of the universe and the growth of stellar mass over time.

  1. Virial and Jet-induced Velocities in Seyfert Galaxies. III. Galaxy Luminosity as Virial Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Mark

    1992-03-01

    This is the third paper in a series which aims to identify the acceleration mechanisms acting on the ionized gas in the narrow line region (NLR) of Seyfert galaxies. Using the sample and approach described in Papers I and II, galaxy luminosity, M_tot_, and bulge luminosity, M_bul_, are taken as the principal parameters describing nuclear virial speeds, while radio luminosity and morphology are used to track possible nuclear perturbations. The fundamental conclusions from Paper II are confirmed. Plots of [O III] FWHM versus M_tot_ or M_bul_ show strong correlations (R ~ 0.6, P_null_~10^-8^) indicating that gravity plays a key role in defining the NLR velocity field. However, Seyfert galaxies with linear radio morphology and high radio luminosity (L_1415_>=10^22.5^ W Hz^-1^) have systematically broader lines, suggesting that acceleration of NLR gas by outflowing jets is also important in some Seyferts. For Seyfert galaxies without linear radio sources, [O III] FWHM is more fundamentally related to M_bul_ than M_tot_. Indeed, the scatter in the M_tot_ versus [O III] FWHM relation has a Hubble-type dependence which is identical to the Hubble-type dependence of the bulge/total ratio used in the evaluation of M_bul_ from M_tot_. This agreement between photometrically defined bulge/total ratio for normal spirals and kinematically defined bulge/total ratio for Seyfert galaxies lends powerful support to the argument that M_bul_ is playing the fundamental role. A fit to the M_bul_ versus [O III] FWHM relation of the form L_bul_ is proportional to (FWHM)^n^ gives gradient n ~ 2.2, zero point FWHM_20_~ 250 km s^-1^ (where FWHM_20_ = FWHM at M_bul_ = -20), and ~1 mag scatter. This is compared to the Faber-Jackson relation for normal galaxies, L_bul_ is proportional to (FWHM_stars_)^n^, where n ~ 3.2 and FWHM_20_~360 km s^-1^. The overall similarity of these two relations supports the virial origin of [O III] FWHM. In detail, however, the Seyferts appear offset from the Faber-Jackson relation. The offset may be viewed in two ways. Either FWHM_[O III]~ 0.7 x FWHM_stars_, or Seyfert galaxies are ~1 mag more luminous than normal spirals for a given bulge (or total) mass. The possibility that Seyfert galaxies are overluminous is investigated using the Tully-Fisher relation, M_tot_ versus {DELTA}V^c^_rot_. There is some indication that Seyfert galaxies, particularly those of early type, are offset, although the effect is confused by the underlying Hubble-type dependence of the Tully-Fisher relation. The situation is clarified using a normalized Tully-Fisher plot in which this type dependence is removed. It seems that Seyfert galaxies are indeed offset relative to normal spirals (P_null_ ~ 10^-5^), implying M/L ratios lower by a factor ~1.5-2.0. Both the Faber-Jackson and Tully-Fisher offsets for Seyfert galaxies are compared to similar offsets found previously for peculiar radio galaxies and spirals in compact groups. It is possible that enhanced star formation causes lower M/L ratios in Seyfert galaxies, although the absence of a correlation between offset and galaxy color excess fails to support this possibility. Offsets on the M_bul_ versus [O III] FWHM plot are further analyzed by introducing additional variables. There is no dependence on Seyfert type, inclination, Hubble type, or redshift. Unbarred Seyfert galaxies show a tighter correlation than barred Seyfert galaxies (P_null_ ~ 0.04) suggesting that bars can modify the NLR velocity field. The strongest result, however, is that disturbed and interacting Seyfert galaxies have significantly broader lines (P_null_ ~ 10^-4^), showing that external perturbations can influence nuclear gas. A plot of Faber-Jackson offsets against perturbation class (a 1-6 ranking scale based on Dahari's IAC parameter) shows a positive correlation which converges on zero offset for maximally disturbed galaxies. If offsets reflect dissipational settling of gas into a soft nuclear potential, then external perturbations may act to reestablish overall virial equilibrium. The historically significant correl

  2. Luminosity measurement in H1; Mesure de la luminosite pour l'experience H1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisson, T

    2006-10-15

    At HERA, luminosity is determined on-line and bunch by bunch by measuring the Bremsstrahlung spectrum from e-p collisions. The Hl collaboration has built a completely new luminosity system in order to sustain the harsh running conditions after the fourfold luminosity increase. Namely, the higher synchrotron radiation doses and the increased event pile-up have governed the design of the two major components, a radiation resistant quartz-fibre electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a fast read-out electronic with on-line energy histogram loading at a rate of 500 kHz. The group was in charge of the electronic and the on-line data analysis of the new luminosity system. In this thesis, I present analysis tools and methods to improve the precision of the luminosity measurement. The energy scale and acceptance calculation methods set out in this thesis permit these values to be determined every four minutes, to an accuracy of 0.5 parts per thousand for the energy scale and 2 parts per thousand for the acceptance. From these results, the degree of accuracy obtained on the luminosity measurement is between 6.5 and 9.5 parts per thousand. These results are currently undergoing validation, with the aim of becoming the standard H1 method. I also studied quasi-elastic Compton events to cross-check the luminosity measurement using the 2003- 2004 and 2005 data. Indeed, this process has a well calculable cross section and a clear experimental signature. The leptonic final state consists of a coplanar e-gamma system, both observable in the central H1 detector. (author)

  3. Evolution and Luminosity Dependendence of the Hosts of Radio-quiet Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S. E.; Heckman, T.; Lacy, M.

    2004-12-01

    The discovery that the nearest galaxies may all contain supermassive black holes, and that the black hole mass and galactic spheroid mass are strongly correlated, implies that most bulge-dominated massive galaxies went through an early quasar phase. Therefore, quasar activity is probably a natural part of the evolution of typical early-type galaxies. To investigate these links between the formation and evolution of the AGN population and that of galaxies, we have been studying the relationship between these populations at moderate and high redshift, where the quasar luminosity function is reaching a maximum. At z ˜ 2 -- 3, we found that faint radio-quiet quasars seem to be associated with L* galaxies, as opposed to the many times L* galaxies associated with the radio-loud objects at similar redshifts. Although the radio-quiet hosts have luminosities and compactnesses similar to the Lyman-break galaxies, their rest-frame UV-optical colors indicate that they may be less actively forming stars. This is roughly consistent with hierarchical schemes of galaxy formation, with these high-redshift, low AGN-luminosity objects still in the process of formation. In contrast, at z ˜ 1, most high-luminosity quasars seem to have very massive hosts, more comparable to those of the radio-loud objects. To determine whether this difference is due to evolution or to the difference in AGN luminosity, we have obtained deep ACS imaging of a sample of lower-luminosity radio-quiet quasar hosts at z ˜ 1. This allows us to study the host galaxy mass as a function of AGN luminosity (and therefore black hole mass) and as a function of redshift. This work has been funded by NASA LTSA grant NAG5-10762 and NASA/STScI HST grant GO-09902.

  4. Evolution of Lya Emitters from z=3.1 to 5.7 in the 1 deg^2 SXDS Field: Luminosity Functions and AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ouchi, Masami; Akiyama, Masayuki; Simpson, Chris; Saito, Tomoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furusawa, Hisanori; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Toru; Kodama, Tadayuki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Okamura, Sadanori; Iye, Masanori; Takata, Tadafumi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Yoshida, Makiko

    2007-01-01

    We present luminosity functions (LFs) and photometric and spectroscopic properties of Lya emitters (LAEs) at three redshifts of z=3.1, 3.7, and 5.7 in a 1 deg^2 sky of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) Field. We obtain a photometric sample of 858 LAE candidates based on deep Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging data, and a spectroscopic sample of 84 confirmed LAEs based on Subaru/FOCAS and VLT/VIMOS spectroscopic data. We derive the LF of Lya emission for each redshift, taking into account the statistical error and the field-to-field variation, and find that the apparent luminosity function shows no significant evolution between z=3.1 and 5.7 within factors of 1.8 and 2.7 in L* and phi*, respectively. This implies that the intrinsic Lya luminosity of LAEs is higher at earlier epochs and that this brightening is just canceled out by the counter effect of increasing absorption by the intervening inter-galactic medium (IGM). We also derive the LF of UV continuum emission ~1500 A to find that the number density and/...

  5. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: modeling of the luminosity and colour dependence in the Data Release 10

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hong; Zehavi, Idit; Xu, Haojie; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Weinberg, David H; Bahcall, Neta A; Berlind, Andreas A; Comparat, Johan; McBride, Cameron K; Ross, Ashley J; Schneider, Donald P; Skibba, Ramin A; Swanson, Molly E C; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Wake, David A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the luminosity and colour dependence of clustering of CMASS galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Tenth Data Release. The halo occupation distribution framework is adopted to model the projected two-point correlation function measurements on small and intermediate scales (from $0.02$ to $60\\,h^{-1}{\\rm {Mpc}}$) and to interpret the observed trends and infer the connection of galaxies to dark matter halos. We find that luminous red galaxies reside in massive halos of mass $M{\\sim}10^{13}$--$10^{14}\\,h^{-1}{\\rm M_\\odot}$ and more luminous galaxies are more clustered and hosted by more massive halos. The strong small-scale clustering requires a fraction of these galaxies to be satellites in massive halos, with the fraction at the level of 5--8 per cent and decreasing with luminosity. The characteristic mass of a halo hosting on average one satellite galaxy above a luminosity threshold is about a factor $8.7$ larger than that of a halo hosting a centra...

  6. INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF THE SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the sample of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift-BAT before 2007 June, we measure the cumulative distribution of the peak photon fluxes (log N-log P) of the Swift bursts. Compared with the BATSE sample, we find that the two distributions are consistent after correcting the bandpass difference, suggesting that the two instruments sample the same population of bursts. We also compare the log N-log P distributions for subsamples of the Swift bursts and find evidence for a deficit (99.75% confident) of dark bursts without optical counterparts at high peak flux levels, suggesting different redshift or ?-ray luminosity distributions for these bursts. The consistency between the log N-log P distributions for the optically detected bursts with and without redshift measurements indicates that the current sample of the Swift bursts with redshift measurements, although selected heterogeneously, represents a fair sample of the nondark bursts. We calculate the luminosity functions of this sample in two redshift bins (z -1.27±0.06 for high luminosities (L peak > 5 x 1048 ergs-1) and dN/dL ? L -2.3±0.3 for low luminosities, confirming the results of several studies for a population of low-luminosity GRBs.

  7. X-ray luminosity functions of different morphological and X-ray type AGN populations

    CERN Document Server

    Povi?, M; Sánchez-Portal, M; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Lorenzo, M Fernández; Lara-López, M A; Gallego, J; Ederoclite, A; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Alfaro, E; Castañeda, H; González-Serrano, J I; González, J J; 10.1002/asna.201211840

    2013-01-01

    Luminosity functions are one of the most important observational clues when studying galaxy evolution over cosmic time. In this paper we present the X-ray luminosity functions of X-ray detected AGN in the SXDS and GWS fields. The limiting fluxes of our samples are 9.0x10^(-15) and 4.8x10^(-16) erg/cm^2/sec^(-1) in the 0.5 - 7.0 keV band in the two fields, respectively. We carried out analysis in three X-ray bands and in two redshift intervals up to z < 1.4. Moreover, we derive the luminosity functions for different optical morphologies and X-ray types. We confirm strong luminosity evolution in all three bands, finding the most luminous objects at higher redshift. However, no signs of density evolution are found in any tested X-ray band. We obtain similar results for compact and early-type objects. Finally, we observe the `Steffen effect', where X-ray type-1 sources are more numerous at higher luminosities in comparison with type-2 sources.

  8. X-ray luminosity functions of different morphological and X-ray type AGN populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povi?, M.; Pérez García, A. M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Alfaro, E.; Castañeda, H.; González-Serrano, J. I.; González, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Luminosity functions are one of the most important observational clues when studying galaxy evolution over cosmic time. In this paper we present the X-ray luminosity functions for X-ray detected AGN in the SXDS and GWS fields. The limiting fluxes of our samples are 9.0 ×10-15 and 4.8 ×10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-7.0 keV band in the two fields, respectively. We carried out analysis in three X-ray bands and in two redshift intervals up to z?1.4. Moreover, we derive the luminosity functions for different optical morphologies and X-ray types. We confirm strong luminosity evolution in all three bands, finding the most luminous objects at higher redshift. However, no signs of density evolution are found in any tested X-ray band. We obtain similar results for compact and early-type objects. Finally, we observe the ``Steffen effect'', where X-ray type-1 sources are more numerous at higher luminosities in comparison with type-2 sources.

  9. Intensity Distribution and Luminosity Function of the Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinyu

    2009-05-01

    Using the sample of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift-BAT before 2007 June, we measure the cumulative distribution of the peak photon fluxes (log N-log P) of the Swift bursts. Compared with the BATSE sample, we find that the two distributions are consistent after correcting the bandpass difference, suggesting that the two instruments sample the same population of bursts. We also compare the log N-log P distributions for subsamples of the Swift bursts and find evidence for a deficit (99.75% confident) of dark bursts without optical counterparts at high peak flux levels, suggesting different redshift or ?-ray luminosity distributions for these bursts. The consistency between the log N-log P distributions for the optically detected bursts with and without redshift measurements indicates that the current sample of the Swift bursts with redshift measurements, although selected heterogeneously, represents a fair sample of the nondark bursts. We calculate the luminosity functions of this sample in two redshift bins (z = 1), and find that a broken power law is needed to fit the low-redshift bin, where dN/dL vprop L -1.27±0.06 for high luminosities (L peak > 5 × 1048 ergs-1) and dN/dL vprop L -2.3±0.3 for low luminosities, confirming the results of several studies for a population of low-luminosity GRBs.

  10. The dependence of the estimated luminosities of ULX on spectral models

    CERN Document Server

    Devi, A Senorita; Agrawal, V K; Singh, K Y

    2007-01-01

    Data from {\\it Chandra} observations of thirty nearby galaxies were analyzed and 365 X-ray point sources were chosen whose spectra were not contaminated by excessive diffuse emission and not affected by photon pile up. The spectra of these sources were fitted using two spectral models (an absorbed power-law and a disk blackbody) to ascertain the dependence of estimated parameters on the spectral model used. It was found that the cumulative luminosity function depends on the choice of the spectral model, especially for luminosities $> 10^{40}$ ergs/s. In accordance with previous results, a large number ($\\sim 80$) of the sources have luminosities $> 10^{39}$ ergs/s (Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources) with indistinguishable average spectral parameters (inner disk temperature $\\sim 1$ keV and/or photon index $\\Gamma \\sim 2$) with those of the lower luminosities ones. After considering foreground stars and known background AGN,we identify four sources whose minimum luminosity exceed $10^{40}$ ergs/s, and call them Ext...

  11. CALIBRATION OF [O IV] 26 ?m AS A MEASURE OF INTRINSIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare [O IV] 25.89 ?m emission line luminosities with very hard (10-200 keV) X-rays from Swift, INTEGRAL, and BeppoSAX for a complete sample of 89 Seyferts from the Revised Shapley-Ames sample. Using Seyfert 1s, we calibrate [O IV] as a measure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity, for particular use in high-obscuration environments. With this calibration, we measure the average decrement in 14-195 keV X-ray to [O IV] luminosity ratio for Seyfert 2s compared to type 1s. We find a decrement of 3.1 ± 0.8 for Seyfert 2s, and a decrement of 5.0 ± 2.7 for known Compton-thick Seyfert 2s. These decrements imply column densities of approximately log NH = 24.6 cm-2 and 24.7 cm-2, respectively. Thus, we infer that the average Seyfert 2 is more highly obscured and intrinsically more luminous than would be inferred even from the very hard X-rays. We demonstrate two applications of the hard X-ray to [O IV] ratio. For the extremely obscured NGC 1068, we measure a column density of log NH = 25.3-25.4 cm-2. Finally, by comparing [O IV] luminosities to total infrared luminosities for 12 bright ultraluminous infrared galaxies, we find that four have substantial AGN contributions.

  12. The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, G; Tavecchio, F; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A; Sbarrato, T

    2014-11-20

    Theoretical models for the production of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei predict that jet power arises from the spin and mass of the central supermassive black hole, as well as from the magnetic field near the event horizon. The physical mechanism underlying the contribution from the magnetic field is the torque exerted on the rotating black hole by the field amplified by the accreting material. If the squared magnetic field is proportional to the accretion rate, then there will be a correlation between jet power and accretion luminosity. There is evidence for such a correlation, but inadequate knowledge of the accretion luminosity of the limited and inhomogeneous samples used prevented a firm conclusion. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars (quasars whose jets point towards Earth) that overcomes previous limitations. We find a clear correlation between jet power, as measured through the ?-ray luminosity, and accretion luminosity, as measured by the broad emission lines, with the jet power dominating the disk luminosity, in agreement with numerical simulations. This implies that the magnetic field threading the black hole horizon reaches the maximum value sustainable by the accreting matter. PMID:25409827

  13. PHAT XIII: The Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation in M31 Based on the PHAT Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner-Kaiser, R; Dalcanton, J J; Williams, B F; Dolphin, A

    2015-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT), we present new period-luminosity relations for Cepheid variables in M31. Cepheid from several ground-based studies are identified in the PHAT pho- tometry to derive new Period-Luminosity and Wesenheit Period-Luminosity relations in the NIR and visual filters. We derive a distance modulus to M31 of 24.51+/-0.08 in the IR bands and 24.32+/-0.09 in the visual bands, including the first PL relations in the F475W and F814W filters for M31. Our derived visual and IR distance moduli dis- agree at slightly more than a 1-{\\sigma} level. Differences in the Period-Luminosity relations between ground-based and HST observations are investigated for a subset of Cepheids. We find a significant discrepancy between ground-based and HST Period-Luminosity relations with the same Cepheids, suggesting adverse effects from photometric contam- ination in ground-based ...

  14. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Color and Luminosity Dependence of Galaxy Clustering at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Coil, Alison L; Croton, Darren; Cooper, Michael C; Davis, Marc; Faber, S M; Gerke, Brian F; Koo, David C; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Wechsler, Risa H; Weiner, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the color and luminosity dependence of galaxy clustering at z~1 in the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. Using volume-limited subsamples in bins of both color and luminosity, we find that: 1) The clustering dependence is much stronger with color than with luminosity and is as strong with color at z~1 as is found locally. We find no dependence of the clustering amplitude on color for galaxies on the red sequence, but a significant dependence on color for galaxies within the blue cloud. 2) For galaxies in the range L/L*~0.7-2, a stronger large-scale luminosity dependence is seen for all galaxies than for red and blue galaxies separately. The small-scale clustering amplitude depends significantly on luminosity for blue galaxies, with brighter samples having a stronger rise on scales r_p<0.5 Mpc/h. 3) Redder galaxies exhibit stronger small-scale redshift-space distortions ("fingers of god"), and both red and blue populations show large-scale distortions in xi(r_p,pi) due to coherent infa...

  15. The Galaxy Cluster Mid-Infrared Luminosity Function at 1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika; De Breuck, Carlos; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jarvis, Matt; Hatch, Nina; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, Spencer A

    2014-01-01

    We present 4.5 {\\mu}m luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m*+2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that {\\alpha} = -1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshifts bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation, gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts z_f ~ 3. We find a slight trend towards fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modelling shows that a contribu...

  16. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ? 4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B 435-dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  17. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 4-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: kuanghan@pha.jhu.edu [The Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-03-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B {sub 435}-dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  18. The bivariate K-band-submillimetre luminosity functions of the local HRS galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, P; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Cortese, L; Vio, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; De Looze, I

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the K-band and the sub-millimetre (submm) emissions of nearby galaxies by computing the bivariate K-band-submm luminosity function (BLF) of the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample observed in submm with Hersche/SPIRE. We derive the BLF from the K-band and submm cumulative distributions using a copula method. Using the BLF allows us to derive the relationship between the luminosities on more solid statistical ground. The analysis shows that over the whole HRS sample, no statistically meaningful conclusion can be derived for any relationship between the K-band and the submm luminosity. However, a very tight relationship between these luminosities is highlighted, by restricting our analysis to late-type galaxies. The luminosity function of late-type galaxies computed in the K-band and in the submm are dependent and the dependence is caused by the link, between the stellar mass and the cold dust mass, which has been already observed

  19. Luminosity Functions of Spitzer Identified Protostars in Nine Nearby Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kryukova, E; Gutermuth, R A; Pipher, J; Allen, T S; Allen, L E; Myers, P C; Muzerolle, J

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine photometry from 2MASS J, H, and Ks bands and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 micron bands to create 1 - 24 micron spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities (Lbol), we derive a relationship between Lbol, L_MIR (integrated from 1 - 24 microns), and SED slope. Estimations of Lbol for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high mass star forming clouds peak near 1 Lsun and show a tail extending ...

  20. Luminosity determination and simulation of the LUCID detector at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Groth-Jensen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe how the luminosity can be measured in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Luminosity is a fundamental quantity that is used in most physics studies at the LHC. For example in order to measure cross sections. Firstly, the detector description of LUCID which has been implemented in the global ATLAS software framework is described and validated. Secondly, algorithms to determine the luminosity are derived and the simulation of LUCID is used to test the precision of these. Thirdly, the feasibility of using Z0 production as a alternative way to measure the luminosity or to calibrate LUCID is studied. The performance of LUCID is addressed by comparing results from the early 2010 data-taking period with predictions from the simulations. Several techniques to calculate the eciency of LUCID are described and the results for each method is presented. Several classes of luminosity algorithms studied and applied to the signals from the LUCID detector. The rst class has...

  1. On the AGN radio luminosity distribution and the black hole fundamental plane

    CERN Document Server

    Bonchi, A; Melini, G; Bongiorno, A; Fiore, F

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the dependence of the AGN nuclear radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity on both the AGN 2-10 keV X-ray and the host-galaxy K-band luminosity. A complete sample of 1268 X-ray selected AGN (both type 1 and type 2) has been used, which is the largest catalogue of AGN belonging to statistically well defined samples where radio, X and K band information exists. At variance with previous studies, radio upper limits have been statistically taken into account using a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood fitting method. It resulted that a good fit is obtained assuming a plane in the 3D L_R-L_X-L_K space, namely logL_R= xi_X logL_X + xi_K logL_K + xi_0, having a ~1 dex wide (1 sigma) spread in radio luminosity. As already shown, no evidence of bimodality in the radio luminosity distribution was found and therefore any definition of radio loudness in AGN is arbitrary. Using scaling relations between the BH mass and the host galaxy K-band luminosity, we have also derived a new estimate of the BH fundamental plane (in the L_5...

  2. Impact of detector solenoid on the Compact Linear Collider luminosity performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inntjore Levinsen, Y.; Dalena, B.; Tomás, R.; Schulte, D.

    2014-05-01

    In order to obtain the necessary luminosity with a reasonable amount of beam power, the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) design includes an unprecedented collision beam size of ?y=1 nm vertically and ?x=45 nm horizontally. With exceptionally small and flat beams, the luminosity can be significantly degraded due to the combination of the experimental solenoid field and a large crossing angle. The two main effects reducing the luminosity are y-x'-coupling and an increase of vertical dispersion. Additionally, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) from the orbit deflection created by the solenoid field increases the beam emittance and results in unrecoverable luminosity degradation. A novel approach to evaluate the ISR effect from a realistic solenoid field without knowledge of the full compensation of the geometric aberrations is presented. This approach is confirmed by a detailed study of the correction techniques to compensate the beam optics distortions. The unrecoverable luminosity loss due to ISR for CLIC at 3 TeV has been evaluated, and found to be around 4% to 5% for the solenoid design under study.

  3. Cosmological Luminosity Evolution Of The QSO/Active Galactic Nucleus Population

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Y; Yi, I; Choi, Yunyoung; Yang, Jongmann; Yi, Insu

    1999-01-01

    We apply the observed optical/X-ray spectral states of the Galactic black hole candidates (GBHCs) to the cosmological QSO luminosity evolution under the assumptions that QSOs and GBHCs are powered by similar accretion processes and that their emission mechanisms are also similar. The QSO luminosity function (LF) evolution in various energy bands is strongly affected by the spectral evolution which is tightly correlated with the luminosity evolution. We generate a random sample of QSOs born nearly synchronously by allowing the QSOs to have redshifts in a narrow range around an initial high redshift, black hole masses according to a power-law, and mass accretion rates near Eddington rates. The QSOs evolve as a single long-lived population on the cosmological time scale. The pure luminosity evolution results in distinct luminosity evolution features due to the strong spectral evolution. Most notably, different energy bands (optical/UV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray) show different evolutionary trends and the hard X...

  4. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 Å. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hß R BLR-L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR-L relationship.

  5. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the H? R BLR-L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR-L relationship.

  6. Hot gaseous coronae of early-type galaxies and their radio luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously presented an analytical model for the propagation of relativistic beams from galactic nuclei, in which the beams' crossing of the pressure-matched interface between the IGM [intergalactic medium] and the gaseous halo, plays an important role. Here, we extend this model to include the propagation of somewhat weaker beams. We show that the observed flattening of the local radio luminosity function (LRLF) for radio luminosity P ? 1024 W Hz-1 at 1 GHz can be explained without invoking ad hoc a corresponding break in the beam power function ?(Lsub(b)). This is because the heads of the beams with Lsub(b) 25 W Hz-1 are decelerated to sonic velocity within the halo itself, which leads to a rapid decay of radio luminosity and a reduced contribution of these intrinsically weaker sources to the observed LRLF. (author)

  7. Jet Luminosity From Neutrino-Dominated Accretion Flows in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kawanaka, Norita; Krolik, Julian H

    2012-01-01

    A hyperaccretion disk formed around a stellar mass black hole is a plausible model for the central engine that powers gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If the central black hole rotates and a poloidal magnetic field threads its horizon, a powerful relativistic jet may be driven by a process resembling the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. We estimate the luminosity of such a jet assuming that the poloidal magnetic field strength is comparable to the inner accretion disk pressure. We show that the jet efficiency attains its maximal value when the accretion flow is cooled via optically-thin neutrino emission. The jet luminosity is much larger than the energy deposition through neutrino-antineutrino annihilation provided that the black hole is spinning rapidly enough. When the accretion rate onto a rapidly spinning black hole is large enough (> 0.003-0.01M_sun/sec), the predicted jet luminosity is sufficient to drive a GRB.

  8. Analisys of the Luminosity-Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, M E; Scannapieco, C; Rossi, Maria Emilia De; Tissera, Patricia Beatriz; Scannapieco, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    We study the Luminosity-Metallicity Relation and the Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation by performing chemo-dynamical simulations in a cosmological scenario. Our results predict a tight linear correlation between oxygen chemical abundance and luminosity for galactic systems up to z=3. The Luminosity-Metallicity Relation evolves with redshift in such a way that systems at a given oxygen abundance were ~3 dex brighter at z=3 compared to local ones, in good agreement with observations. We determin also a characteristic stellar mass M_c~10^(10.2) M_sun/h above which the Stellar Mass-Metallicity Relation starts to flatten. We encounter that this mass arises as a consequence of the hierarchical aggregation of structure in a LCDM universe and segregates two galactic populations with different astophysical properties.

  9. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): maximum likelihood determination of the luminosity function and its evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Loveday, J; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Kelvin, L S; Phillipps, S

    2015-01-01

    We describe modifications to the joint stepwise maximum likelihood method of Cole (2011) in order to simultaneously fit the GAMA-II galaxy luminosity function (LF), corrected for radial density variations, and its evolution with redshift. The whole sample is reasonably well-fit with luminosity (Qe) and density (Pe) evolution parameters Qe, Pe = 1.0, 1.0 but with significant degeneracies characterized by Qe = 1.4 - 0.4Pe. Blue galaxies exhibit larger luminosity density evolution than red galaxies, as expected. We present the evolution-corrected r-band LF for the whole sample and for blue and red sub-samples, using both Petrosian and Sersic magnitudes. Petrosian magnitudes miss a substantial fraction of the flux of de Vaucouleurs profile galaxies: the Sersic LF is substantially higher than the Petrosian LF at the bright end.

  10. A unified formalism for the core mass-luminosity relations of shell-burning stars

    CERN Document Server

    Marigo, P

    2000-01-01

    The luminosity evolution of stars with highly condensed cores surrounded by nuclear-burning shell(s) is analytically investigated with the aid of homology relations. With respect to earlier works using a similar approach (e.g. Refsdal & Weigert 1970; Kippenhahn 1981), the major improvement is that we derive all the basic dependences (i.e. on core mass, core radius, and chemical composition) in a completely generalised fashion, then accounting for a large range of possible physical properties characterising the burning shell(s). Parameterised formulas for the luminosity are given as a function of the (i) relative contribution of the gas to the total pressure (gas plus radiation), (ii) opacity source, and (iii) dominant nuclear reaction rates. In this way, the same formalism can be applied to shell-burning stars of various metallicities and in different evolutionary phases. In particular, we present some applications concerning the luminosity evolution of RGB and AGB stars with different chemical compositio...

  11. Using member galaxy luminosities as halo mass proxies of galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yi; Shen, Shiyin

    2015-01-01

    Reliable halo mass estimation for a given galaxy system plays an important role both in cosmology and galaxy formation studies. Here we set out to find the way that can improve the halo mass estimation for those galaxy systems with limited brightest member galaxies been observed. Using four mock galaxy samples constructed from semi-analytical formation models, the subhalo abundance matching method and the conditional luminosity functions, respectively, we find that the luminosity gap between the brightest and the subsequent brightest member galaxies in a halo (group) can be used to significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimation based on the luminosity of the brightest galaxy alone. Tests show that these corrections can significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimations by $\\sim 50\\%$ to $\\sim 70\\%$ in massive halos depending on which member galaxies are considered. Comparing to the traditional ranking method, we find that this method works better for groups with less than five members...

  12. Luminosity monitor topics for RHIC spin and AA, and pA interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a note to define topics to be studied in more depth for the Luminosity monitoring for Spin Asymmetries. My numerical examples here are to stimulate discussion and should be taken with a grain of salt. The RHIC Spin experiments will require a very high degree of coordination between the experiments and the accelerator. For example see AGS/RHIC/SN 035. In this note we list some of the issues to be considered in monitoring the relative luminosity between various beam-beam spin combinations and beam-gas combinations. We give simplified numerical examples of the problems encountered in doing the luminosity monitoring to the 10-4 level. It is hoped that this will provide a framework for serious study of these problems with simulations and other means. Many of the issues may also be relevant to pA and AA running where there may be sizable beam-gas backgrounds

  13. The Star Formation and AGN luminosity relation: Predictions from a semi-analytical model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutcke, Thales A; Maccio`, Andrea V; Lacey, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    In a Universe where AGN feedback regulates star formation in massive galaxies, a strong correlation between these two quantities is expected. If the gas causing star formation is also responsible for feeding the central black hole, then a positive correlation is expected. If powerful AGNs are responsible for the star formation quenching, then a negative correlation is expected. Observations so far have mainly found a mild correlation or no correlation at all (i.e. a flat relation between star formation rate (SFR) and AGN luminosity), raising questions about the whole paradigm of "AGN feedback". In this paper, we report the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical model, which has a very strong coupling between AGN activity and quenching of star formation. The predicted SFR-AGN luminosity correlation appears negative in the low AGN luminosity regime, where AGN feedback acts, but becomes strongly positive in the regime of the brightest AGN. Our predictions reproduce reasonably well recent observations by Rosa...

  14. Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati Black Strings and Braneworld-induced Quasars Luminosity Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    da Rocha, Roldao; Kuerten, A M; Coimbra-Araujo, C H

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to evince the corrections on the black string warped horizon in the braneworld paradigm, and their drastic physical consequences, as well as to provide subsequent applications in astrophysics. Our analysis concerning black holes on the brane departs from the Schwarzschild case, where the black string is unstable to large-scale perturbation. The cognizable measurability of the black string horizon corrections due to braneworld effects is investigated, as well as their applications in the variation of quasars luminosity. We delve into the case wherein two solutions of Einstein's equations proposed by Casadio, Fabbri, and Mazzacurati, regarding black hole metrics presenting a post-Newtonian parameter measured on the brane. In this scenario, it is possible to analyze purely the braneworld corrected variation in quasars luminosity, by an appropriate choice of the post-Newtonian parameter that precludes Hawking radiation on the brane: the variation in quasars luminosity is uniquely provided by pure ...

  15. Correlations Between Lag, Luminosity, and Duration in Gamma-ray Burst Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Hakkila, Jon; Norris, Jay P; Fragile, P Chris; Bonnell, Jerry T

    2008-01-01

    We derive a new peak lag vs. peak luminosity relation in gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses. We demonstrate conclusively that GRB spectral lags are pulse rather than burst properties and show how the lag vs. luminosity relation determined from CCF measurements of burst properties is essentially just a rough measure of this newly derived relation for individual pulses. We further show that most GRB pulses have correlated properties: short-lag pulses have shorter durations, are more luminous, and are harder within a burst than long-lag pulses. We also uncover a new pulse duration vs. pulse peak luminosity relation, and indicate that long-lag pulses often precede short-lag pulses. Although most pulse behaviors are supportive of internal shocks (including long-lag pulses), we identify some pulse shapes that could result from external shocks.

  16. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: -> Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. -> Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. -> Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  17. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement in the forward region at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, Strahinja

    2013-01-01

    Procedures for correcting the beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at CLIC at 3 TeV CM energy are described and tested using Monte Carlo simulations: - Correction of the angular counting loss due to the combined Beamstrahlung and initial-state radiation (ISR) effects, based on the reconstructed velocity of the collision frame of the Bhabha scattering. - Deconvolution of the luminosity spectrum distortion due to the ISR emission. - Correction of the counting bias due to the finite calorimeter energy resolution. All procedures were tested by simulation. Bhabha events were generated using BHLUMI, and used in Guinea-PIG to simulate the outgoing momenta of Bhabha particles in the bunch collisions at CLIC. Residual uncertainties after correction are listed in a table in the conclusions. The beam-beam related systematic counting uncertainty in the luminosity peak can be reduced to the order of permille.

  18. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to Increase ... Prevention Endometrial Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Prevention Environmental Risk Factors Being exposed to chemicals and other substances in ...

  19. Radio-loud AGN: is there a link between luminosity and cluster environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Ineson, J.; Croston, JH; Hardcastle, MJ; Kraft, RP; Evans, DA; Jarvis, M

    2013-01-01

    We present here the first results from the Chandra ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN) Large Project, characterizing the cluster environments of a sample of 26 radio-loud AGN at z ~ 0.5 that covers three decades of radio luminosity. This is the first systematic X-ray environmental study at a single epoch, and has allowed us to examine the relationship between radio luminosity and cluster environment without the problems of Malmquist bias. We have found a weak correlation be...

  20. Luminosity and beam parameter evoluation for lead ion beams in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, J M; Mertens, T

    2011-01-01

    Heavy ion beams in the LHC are subject to strong blow-up and debunching effects from intra-beam scattering and luminosity-driven beam losses. The large nuclear charge is at the origin of these effects, both in the cross sections for simple Coulomb scattering and the ultraperipheral interactions occurring in the collisions. We compare predictions from our models with data on luminosity, beam size and intensity evolution from the first heavy ion run of the LHC. This analysis has to take account of the varying capabilities of the LHC beam instrumentation between injection and collision energies.

  1. Beam Performance and Luminosity Limitations in the High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR)

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrach, A.; Boine-frankenheim, O.; Hinterberger, F.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.

    2005-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the future International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is planned as an antiproton synchrotron and storage ring in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. An important feature of this new facility is the combination of phase space cooled beams with dense internal targets (e.g. pellet targets), resulting in demanding beam parameter of two operation modes: high luminosity mode with peak luminosities ...

  2. A Comparison of Deep HST Luminosity Functions of Four Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Piotto, G; Cool, A. M.; King, I. R.

    1997-01-01

    From deep color-magnitude arrays made from V and I images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's WFPC2 camera we have determined luminosity functions (LFs) down to a level that corresponds to about 0.13 solar masses, for the low-metal-abundance globular clusters M15, M30, M92, and NGC 6397. Because of the similarity of the metallicities of these clusters, differences in their luminosity functions directly trace differences in their mass functions. The LFs of M15, M30, and M...

  3. X-ray luminosity functions of different morphological and X-ray type AGN populations

    OpenAIRE

    Povic?, M.; Garci?a, A. M. Pe?rez; Sa?nchez-portal, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Lorenzo, M. Ferna?ndez; Lara-lo?pez, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Ma?rquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Alfaro, E.; Castan?eda, H.; Gonza?lez-serrano, J. I.; Gonza?lez, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminosity functions are one of the most important observational clues when studying galaxy evolution over cosmic time. In this paper we present the X-ray luminosity functions of X-ray detected AGN in the SXDS and GWS fields. The limiting fluxes of our samples are 9.0x10^(-15) and 4.8x10^(-16) erg/cm^2/sec^(-1) in the 0.5 - 7.0 keV band in the two fields, respectively. We carried out analysis in three X-ray bands and in two redshift intervals up to z < 1.4. Moreover, we deri...

  4. Luminosity Measurement Method for LHC: The theoretical and the experimental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first of the series of papers which present a precision method of the day-by-day monitoring of the absolute LHC collider luminosity. This method is based on the measurement of the rate of coplanar lepton pairs produced in peripheral collisions of the beams particles. In the present paper we evaluate the modeling precision of the lepton pair production processes in proton-proton collisions, optimize the measurement region to achieve better than 1% accuracy of the predicted rates, and discuss the experimental challenges to filter out the luminosity monitoring lepton pairs at LHC. (author)

  5. The UV luminosity density of the local Universe from an HI-selected sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, O. I.; Meurer, G. R.; Hanish, D.; SUNGG Team

    2005-12-01

    We present the FUV and the NUV luminosity densities of the local Universe derived from GALEX observations of an HI-selected sample of galaxies based on data from the Survey of Ultraviolet emission in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SUNGG). The star formation rate density is derived and compared to other recent estimates. These include H-alpha and FIR estimates based on the same parent sample. The UV luminosity density as a function of various integrated galaxy properties are presented. This research was supported by a NASA GALEX Guest Investigator grant GALEXGI04-0105-0009 and NASA LTSA grant NAG5-13083 to G. R. Meurer.

  6. Physical limits to the validity of synthesis models: The Lowest Luminosity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Cervino, M.; V. Luridiana

    2003-01-01

    (abriged) In this paper we establish a Lowest Luminosity Limit (LLL) for the use of synthesis codes. The limit is defined by the following statement: The total luminosity of the cluster modeled must be larger than the individual contribution of any of the stars included in the assumed isochrones. This limit is independent of the assumptions on the IMF and almost independent on the star formation history. We have obtained the LLL for a wide range of ages (5 Myr to 20 Gyr) and...

  7. Dwarf Galaxies in the Leo I Group the Group Luminosity Function beyond the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Flint, K; De Oliveira, C M

    2001-01-01

    We present first results of a survey of the Leo I group at 10 Mpc for M_R < -10 dwarf galaxies. This is part of a larger program to measure the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in nearby poor groups. Our method is optimized to find Local-Group-like dwarfs down to dwarf spheroidal surface brightnesses, but we also find very large LSB dwarfs in Leo I with no Local Group counterpart. A preliminary measurement of the luminosity function yields a slope consistent with that measured in the Local Group.

  8. Luminosity Functions of Type Ia Supernovae and their Host Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, N.; Fukugita, M.

    2009-01-01

    The sample of 137 low-redshift type Ia supernovae with 0.05 < z < 0.3 obtained from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey for the southern equatorial stripe of 300 square degrees is used to derive the luminosity functions of type Ia supernovae and of their host galaxies in the gri passbands. We show that the luminosity function of type Ia supernova host galaxies matches well with that of galaxies in the general field, suggesting that the occurrence of type Ia supernovae does not favo...

  9. A summary of the joint discussion at Patras on solar luminosity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a summary of the Joint Discussion at Patras on Solar Luminosity Variations (based on presentations by H.S. Hudson; P. Foukal; J.A. Eddy; C. Froehlich; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; W. Livingston; S. Sofia; J.H. Parkinson; L.N. Mavridis, G. Asteriadis and F.M. Mahmoud; J. Xanthakis, B. Petropoulos and L.H. Mavromichalaki). Both short-term and long term variations in luminosity, spectral lines radius, sunspots, etc. are discussed. A comparison with solar-age main sequence stars is also made. (Auth.)

  10. Architecture of the upgraded BCM1F backend electronics for Beam Conditions and Luminosity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozdzinska, A. A.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J. L.; Pozniak, K. T.; Miraglia, M.; Walsh, R.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment consists of several beam monitoring systems and luminometers. The upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor is based on 24 single crystal diamond sensors with a two-pad metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to measure count rates on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products to be used to determine the luminosity and the machine induced background. The system architecture and the signal processing algorithms will be presented.

  11. Solar-like Oscillations in Low-luminosity Red Giants: First Results from Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured solar-like oscillations in red giants using time-series photometry from the first 34 days of science operations of the Kepler Mission. The light curves, obtained with 30 minute sampling, reveal clear oscillations in a large sample of G and K giants, extending in luminosity from the red clump down to the bottom of the giant branch. We confirm a strong correlation between the large separation of the oscillations (??) and the frequency of maximum power (?max). We focus on a sample of 50 low-luminosity stars (?max > 100 ?Hz, L

  12. The Faint End of the Luminosity Function in the Core of the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, M L; Poole, G B; Gwyn, S D J; Kavelaars, J J; Harris, W E; Hanes, D A; Kavelaars, JJ

    2006-01-01

    We present optical measurements of the faint end of the luminosity function in the core of the Coma cluster. Dwarf galaxies are detected down to a limiting magnitude of R approx. 25.75 in images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. This represents the faintest determination of the Coma luminosity function to date. With the assumption that errors due to cosmic variance are small, evidence is found for a steep faint end slope with alpha < -2. Such a value is expected in theories in which reionization and other feedback processes are dependent on density.

  13. Luminosity Distributions within Rich Clusters - III: A comparative study of seven Abell/ACO clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, Simon P.; Couch, Warrick J; Phillipps, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We recover the luminosity distributions over a wide range of absolute magnitude (-24.5 < M_{R} < -16.5) for a sample of seven rich southern galaxy clusters. We find a large variation in the ratio of dwarf to giant galaxies, DGR: 0.8\\le $ DGR $\\le 3.1. This variation is shown to be inconsistent with a ubiquitous cluster luminosity function. The DGR shows a smaller variation from cluster to cluster in the inner regions (r \\ls 0.56 Mpc). Outside these regions we find the DGR to...

  14. Measuring the Luminosity of a gamma gamma Collider with gamma gamma -> l+ l- gamma Events

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko, V; Moenig', K; Shishkina, T.

    2003-01-01

    The process gamma gamma -> l+ l- is highly suppressed when the total angular momentum of the two colliding photons is zero so that it cannot be used for luminosity determination. This configuration, however is needed for Higgs production at a photon collider. It will be shown that the process gamma gamma -> l+ l- gamma can be used in this case to measure the luminosity of a collider with a precision that is good enough not to limit the error on the partial decay width Gamma(...

  15. Architecture of the upgraded BCM1F backend electronics for Beam Conditions and Luminosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment consists of several beam monitoring systems and luminometers. The upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor is based on 24 single crystal diamond sensors with a two-pad metallization and a custom designed readout. Signals for real time monitoring are transmitted to the counting room, where they are received and processed by new back-end electronics designed to measure count rates on LHC collision, beam induced background and activation products to be used to determine the luminosity and the machine induced background. The system architecture and the signal processing algorithms will be presented

  16. Prospects for Higgs physics with an upgraded CMS detector at the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zenz, Seth

    2014-01-01

    A high-luminosity running period is planned for the LHC, in which up to 3000 fb\\textsuperscript{-1} of integrated luminosity to be collected, enabling many Higgs properties to be measured at high precision. Projections are given for the expected performance of an upgraded CMS detector for various Higgs property measurements, including modified couplings, rare decays, and spin-parity. Parameterized simulation is used to estimate CMS performance with an extended tracker and of the potential to observe Two Higgs Doublet Models.

  17. The K band galaxy luminosity functions of three massive high redshift clusters of galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, S. C.; L.R. Jones

    2003-01-01

    K band observations of the galaxy populations of three high redshift (z=0.8-1.0), X-ray selected, massive clusters are presented. The observations reach a depth of K=21.5, corresponding to K*+3.5 mag. The evolution of the galaxy properties are discussed in terms of their K band luminosity functions and the K band Hubble diagram of brightest cluster galaxies. The bulk of the galaxy luminosities, as characterised by the parameter K* from the Schechter (1976) function, are fo...

  18. Low-redshift formula for the luminosity distance in a LTB model with cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Antonio Enea [National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We calculate the low-redshift Taylor expansion for the luminosity distance for an observer at the center of a spherically symmetric matter inhomogeneity with a non-vanishing cosmological constant. We then test the accuracy of the formulas comparing them to the numerical calculation for different cases for both the luminosity distance and the radial coordinate. The formulas can be used as a starting point to understand the general non-linear effects of a local inhomogeneity in the presence of a cosmological constant, without making any special assumption as regards the inhomogeneity profile. (orig.)

  19. Dependence of far-infrared and radio continuum luminosities on Hubble type in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a complete sample of about 2000 galaxies surveyed in the radio continuum and in the far-infrared (FIR) shows that nonthermal radio and thermal FIR luminosities of spiral galaxies are closely correlated, suggesting that they have a common origin. Direct evidence is shown that the mean radio and FIR luminosities of spiral galaxies are a function of the Hubble type. This strengthens the hypothesis that star formation is the relevant process that provides the energy sources for both types of radiation. 23 references

  20. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters - Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies.